WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk avoidance domain

  1. Avoidance of collision risk

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrache Ramona; Dumitrache Cosmin; Popescu Corina; Varsami Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades there has been a continuous increase in the public concern about general risk issues. The consequence of this trend is that whenever a catastrophic accident occurs - and receives media coverage - there is an immediate political and public demand for actions to prevent the same type of catastrophe in the future. Many of the past improvements in safety of marine structure have been triggered by disasters but there is a change in this trend nowadays. The maritime society is...

  2. Preferred and avoided codon pairs in three domains of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenson Tanel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative synonymous codons are not used with equal frequencies. In addition, the contexts of codons – neighboring nucleotides and neighboring codons – can have certain patterns. The codon context can influence both translational accuracy and elongation rates. However, it is not known how strong or conserved the codon context preferences in different organisms are. We analyzed 138 organisms (bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes to find conserved patterns of codon pairs. Results After removing the effects of single codon usage and dipeptide biases we discovered a set of neighboring codons for which avoidances or preferences were conserved in all three domains of life. Such biased codon pairs could be divided into subtypes on the basis of the nucleotide patterns that influence the bias. The most frequently avoided type of codon pair was nnUAnn. We discovered that 95.7% of avoided nnUAnn type patterns contain out-frame UAA or UAG triplets on the sense and/or antisense strand. On average, nnUAnn codon pairs are more frequently avoided in ORFeomes than in genomes. Thus we assume that translational selection plays a major role in the avoidance of these codon pairs. Among the preferred codon pairs, nnGCnn was the major type. Conclusion Translational selection shapes codon pair usage in protein coding sequences by rules that are common to all three domains of life. The most frequently avoided codon pairs contain the patterns nnUAnn, nnGGnn, nnGnnC, nnCGCn, GUCCnn, CUCCnn, nnCnnA or UUCGnn. The most frequently preferred codon pairs contain the patterns nnGCnn, nnCAnn or nnUnCn.

  3. AVOIDING RISK IN WORKING CAPITAL CREDIT DISTRIBUTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Deno Hervino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes risk avoidance behaviour of banking institutions in distributing working capital loan in Indonesia. Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag Error Correction Model, this paper uncovers three findings. First, in the short run, risk avoidance in working capital loan distribution depends on inter-call banking money market and Sertifikat Bank Indonesia. Second, following banking regulation after 1997 crisis, banks have become more careful in distributing credits, with SBI as a substitution instrument and inter-call banking money market as a complement instrument to spread the risk. Third, all explanatory variables take an average of 6 days or 1 week to influence bank’s risk avoidance behaviour.Keywords:     Risk avoidance, working capital distribution, banking institutions JEL classification numbers: C32, C52, D81, E51

  4. Avoiding domain wall problem in SU(N) grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Zhiyong, Z.

    1982-08-01

    We look for the possibility of embedding the discrete sub-group of U(1)-Pecci-Quinn symmetry into the continuous one to avoid the domain wall problem. We find, within some restricted context, among various SU(N) models only one-family SU(5) and SU(6). (author)

  5. Risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuis, Femke; Cozzi, Gabriele; Valeix, Marion; McNutt, John W; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    1. Risks of predation or interference competition are major factors shaping the distribution of species. An animal's response to risk can either be reactive, to an immediate risk, or predictive, based on preceding risk or past experiences. The manner in which animals respond to risk is key in understanding avoidance, and hence coexistence, between interacting species. 2. We investigated whether cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), known to be affected by predation and competition by lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), respond reactively or predictively to the risks posed by these larger carnivores. 3. We used simultaneous spatial data from Global Positioning System (GPS) radiocollars deployed on all known social groups of cheetahs, lions and spotted hyaenas within a 2700 km(2) study area on the periphery of the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana. The response to risk of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas was explored on three levels: short-term or immediate risk, calculated as the distance to the nearest (contemporaneous) lion or spotted hyaena, long-term risk, calculated as the likelihood of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas based on their cumulative distributions over a 6-month period and habitat-associated risk, quantified by the habitat used by each of the three species. 4. We showed that space and habitat use by cheetahs was similar to that of lions and, to a lesser extent, spotted hyaenas. However, cheetahs avoided immediate risks by positioning themselves further from lions and spotted hyaenas than predicted by a random distribution. 5. Our results suggest that cheetah spatial distribution is a hierarchical process, first driven by resource acquisition and thereafter fine-tuned by predator avoidance; thus suggesting a reactive, rather than a predictive, response to risk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  6. Differences in risk experience between sensation avoiders and sensation seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S

    The prime purpose of our study was to find out whether the need for stimulation has a systematic influence on perceived risk. While driving on a motorway, 21 male sensation avoiders and 21 male sensation seekers had to follow another car, once at a free following distance chosen by the subject

  7. Avoiding Drought Risks and Social Conflict Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, E.; Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional drought research has mainly focused on physical drought risks and less on the cultural processes that also contribute to how drought risks are perceived and managed. However, as society becomes more vulnerable to drought and climate change threatens to increase water scarcity, it is clear that drought research would benefit from a more interdisciplinary approach. To assess avoided drought impacts from reduced climate change, drought risks need to be assessed in the context of both climate prediction as well as improved understanding of socio-cultural processes. To this end, this study explores a risk-based framework to combine physical drought likelihoods with perceived risks from stakeholder interviews. Results are presented from a case study on how stakeholders in south-central Oklahoma perceive drought risks given diverse cultural beliefs, water uses, and uncertainties in future drought prediction. Stakeholder interviews (n=38) were conducted in 2012 to understand drought risks to various uses of water, as well as to measure worldviews from the cultural theory of risk - a theory that explains why people perceive risks differently, potentially leading to conflict over management decisions. For physical drought risk, drought projections are derived from a large ensemble of future climates generated from two RCPs that represent higher and lower emissions trajectories (i.e., RCP8.5 and RCP4.5). These are used to develop a Combined Drought Risk Matrix (CDRM) that characterizes drought risks for different water uses as the products of both physical likelihood (from the climate ensemble) and risk perception (from the interviews). We use the CRDM to explore the avoided drought risks posed to various water uses, as well as to investigate the potential for reduction of conflict over water management.

  8. Brand relationships and risk: influence of risk avoidance and gender on brand consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hee; Workman, Jane E.; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    Recent brand relationship research has paid attention to brand love, brand credibility, and brand loyalty. In market and society, various collaborations and co-creations derived from brand relationships generate various social network markets and open business innovations. Brand relationships and collaborative forms heavily depend on risk taking or risk avoidance. However, few studies have examined how brand relationship is related to risk avoidance. The purpose of this study is to investigat...

  9. 2017 Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    REV-03.18.2016.0 2017 Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey Daniel Klinedinst Joel Land Kyle O’Meara October 2017 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI...Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is Unlimited. List of Tables Table 1: New and Emerging Technologies 2 Table 2: Security...Impact of New and Emerging Technologies 4 Table 3: Severity Classifications and Impact Scores 5 CMU/SEI-2017-TR-008 | SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

  10. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations

  11. HIV-Related Stigma, Shame, and Avoidant Coping: Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms Among Youth Living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Hersh, Jill; Herres, Joanna; Foster, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Youth living with HIV (YLH) are at elevated risk of internalizing symptoms, although there is substantial individual variability in adjustment. We examined perceived HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping as risk factors of internalizing symptoms among YLH. Participants (N = 88; ages 12-24) completed self-report measures of these potential risk factors and three domains of internalizing symptoms (depressive, anxiety, and PTSD) during a regularly scheduled HIV clinic visit. Hierarchical regressions were conducted for each internalizing symptoms domain, examining the effects of age, gender, and maternal education (step 1), HIV-related stigma (step 2), shame- and guilt-proneness (step 3), and avoidant coping (step 4). HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping were each correlated with greater depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Specificity was observed in that shame-proneness, but not guilt-proneness, was associated with greater internalizing symptoms. In multivariable analyses, HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness were each related to greater depressive and PTSD symptoms. Controlling for the effects of HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness, avoidant coping was associated with PTSD symptoms. The current findings highlight the potential importance of HIV-related stigma, shame, and avoidant coping on the adjustment of YLH, as interventions addressing these risk factors could lead to decreased internalizing symptoms among YLH.

  12. Risk avoidance versus risk reduction: a framework and segmentation profile for understanding adolescent sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D; Tanner, John F; Raymond, Mary Anne

    2004-01-01

    The teen birthrate in the United States is twice that of other industrialized nations. Adolescents in the U.S. are among high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, the Department of Health and Human Services changed its policy on the promotion of abstinence to teenagers from a focus on a risk reduction strategy to a focus on a risk avoidance strategy. In order to create more effective risk avoidance as well as risk reduction campaigns, this study proposes a framework to illustrate the distinction that teens make between spontaneous sexual activity and planned sexual activity, as well as those teens that make a commitment to abstinence versus abstinence by default. Furthermore, this study classifies teens into three behavior segments (abstemious, promiscuous and monogamous) and then assesses specific differences that exist within these groups relative to their attitudes and perceptions concerning abstinence, sexual activity, contraception, fear and norms. This change in focus from a risk reduction to a risk avoidance strategy has important implications for social marketing, public policy and marketing theory.

  13. Managing a complex project using a risk-risk multiple domain matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointurier, C.; Marle, F.; Jaber, H.

    2014-01-01

    This communication aims at presenting a clustering methodology applied to a complex project consisting of the delivery of three interdependent subsystems. This enables small and complementary task forces to be constituted, enhancing the communication and coordination on transverse issues related to the complexity of the whole system. The problem is to gather and exploit data for such systems, with numerous and heterogeneous risks of different domains (product, process, organization). The method consists in regrouping actors through the clustering of the risks they own. The result is a highlight on important and transverse risk interdependencies, within and between projects. These should not be neglected in order to avoid potential severe issues, whether during the project or during the exploitation of its deliverable. An application on a real program of plant implementation in the CEA-DAM is presented, with a sensitivity analysis of the clustering results to the inputs and chosen configurations of the problem. (authors)

  14. Temperature dependence of the domain wall magneto-Seebeck effect: avoiding artifacts of lead contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Scarioni, Alexander; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Sievers, Sibylle; Hu, Xiukun; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2018-06-01

    We study the resistive and thermopower signatures of a single domain wall in a magnetic nanowire in the temperature range from 4 K to 204 K. The results are compared to the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and anisotropic magneto-Seebeck (AMS) data of the whole permalloy nanowire. The AMS ratio of the nanowire reveals a sign change at a temperature of 98 K, while the AMR ratio is positive over the complete temperature range. This behavior is also observed for the domain wall, allowing an attribution of the measured signatures to the domain wall magneto-Seebeck and domain wall magnetoresistive contributions. However, the observed zero crossing of the AMS ratio, in both types of measurements is not expected for permalloy, since the Mott formula predicts a temperature dependency of the AMS identical to the AMR. We discuss the origin of this behavior and can attribute it to the contributions of the lead and the protective platinum layer used in our devices. A correction scheme is presented and applied. Such contributions could also play a role in the analysis of magneto-Seebeck effects in other nanoscale devices, such as the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect of magnetic tunnel junctions.

  15. Ship Domain Model for Multi-ship Collision Avoidance Decision-making with COLREGs Based on Artificial Potential Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TengFei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-ship collision avoidance decision-making and path planning formulation is studied in a distributed way. This paper proposes a complete set of solutions for multi-ship collision avoidance in intelligent navigation, by using a top-to-bottom organization to structure the system. The system is designed with two layers: the collision avoidance decision-making and the path planning. Under the general requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs, the performance of distributed path planning decision-making for anti-collision is analyzed for both give-way and stand-on ships situations, including the emergency actions taken by the stand-on ship in case of the give-way ship’s fault of collision avoidance measures. The Artificial Potential Field method(APF is used for the path planning in details. The developed APF method combined with the model of ship domain takes the target ships’ speed and course in-to account, so that it can judge the moving characteristics of obstacles more accurately. Simulation results indicate that the system proposed can work effectiveness.

  16. Ants avoid superinfections by performing risk-adjusted sanitary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pull, Christopher D; Metzler, Sina; Seif, Katharina; Naderlinger, Elisabeth; Grasse, Anna V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2018-03-13

    Being cared for when sick is a benefit of sociality that can reduce disease and improve survival of group members. However, individuals providing care risk contracting infectious diseases themselves. If they contract a low pathogen dose, they may develop low-level infections that do not cause disease but still affect host immunity by either decreasing or increasing the host's vulnerability to subsequent infections. Caring for contagious individuals can thus significantly alter the future disease susceptibility of caregivers. Using ants and their fungal pathogens as a model system, we tested if the altered disease susceptibility of experienced caregivers, in turn, affects their expression of sanitary care behavior. We found that low-level infections contracted during sanitary care had protective or neutral effects on secondary exposure to the same (homologous) pathogen but consistently caused high mortality on superinfection with a different (heterologous) pathogen. In response to this risk, the ants selectively adjusted the expression of their sanitary care. Specifically, the ants performed less grooming and more antimicrobial disinfection when caring for nestmates contaminated with heterologous pathogens compared with homologous ones. By modulating the components of sanitary care in this way the ants acquired less infectious particles of the heterologous pathogens, resulting in reduced superinfection. The performance of risk-adjusted sanitary care reveals the remarkable capacity of ants to react to changes in their disease susceptibility, according to their own infection history and to flexibly adjust collective care to individual risk.

  17. Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

  18. Obstetric risk avoidance: Will anyone be offering obstetrics in private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the end of the decade indemnifying obstetric risk will probably be too expensive for doctors in private practice. Non-indemnified doctors will be unable or unwilling to do private deliveries; however, women will still fall pregnant and require delivery. These women will inevitably be forced to deliver in provincial facilities, ...

  19. 2016 Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    measures upon which the CERT/CC based its recommendations and how each domain was triaged for importance. 6. Exploitation Examples details concepts or...Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 2 Methodology A measured approach to analysis is required when...only a few vehicles had access to a cellular Internet connection, and only at 3G speeds. Some vehicles already have LTE connections, and many

  20. Decision-Making Competence Predicts Domain-Specific Risk Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eWeller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision Making Competence (DMC reflects individual differences in rational responding across several classic behavioral decision-making tasks. Although it has been associated with real-world risk behavior, less is known about the degree to which DMC contributes to specific components of risk attitudes. Utilizing a psychological risk-return framework, we examined the associations between risk attitudes and DMC. Italian community residents (n = 804 completed an online DMC measure, using a subset of the original Adult-DMC battery (A-DMC; Bruine de Bruin, Parker, & Fischhoff, 2007. Participants also completed a self-reported risk attitude measure for three components of risk attitudes (risk-taking, risk perceptions, and expected benefits across six risk domains. Overall, greater performance on the DMC component scales were inversely, albeit modestly, associated with risk-taking tendencies. Structural equation modeling results revealed that DMC was associated with lower perceived expected benefits for all domains. In contrast, its association with perceived risks was more domain-specific. These analyses also revealed stronger indirect effects for the DMC  expected benefits  risk-taking than the DMC  perceived riskrisk-taking path, especially for risk behaviors that may be considered more antisocial in nature. These results suggest that DMC performance differentially impacts specific components of risk attitudes, and may be more strongly related to the evaluation of expected value of the given behavior.

  1. Trait Anxiety and Economic Risk Avoidance Are Not Necessarily Associated : Evidence from the Framing Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Runguo; Broster, Lucas S.; Jiang, Y.; xu, Rui; Yang, Qiwei; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-jia

    2017-01-01

    According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious peoples risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this

  2. Trait Anxiety and Economic Risk Avoidance Are Not Necessarily Associated: Evidence from the Framing Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Runguo; Broster, Lucas S.; Jiang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Yang, Qiwei; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2017-01-01

    According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious people’s risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this hypothesis, a decision-making task that could elicit the framing effect was employed. The framing effect indicates that risk preference could be modulated by emotional messages contained in the description ...

  3. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trait Anxiety and Economic Risk Avoidance Are Not Necessarily Associated: Evidence from the Framing Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Runguo; Broster, Lucas S; Jiang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Yang, Qiwei; Xu, Pengfei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2017-01-01

    According to previous literature, trait anxiety is related to the tendency to choose safety options during risk decision-making, that is, risk avoidance. In our opinion, anxious people's risk preference might actually reflect their hypersensitivity to emotional information. To examine this hypothesis, a decision-making task that could elicit the framing effect was employed. The framing effect indicates that risk preference could be modulated by emotional messages contained in the description (i.e., frame) of options. The behavioral results have showed the classic framing effect. In addition, individual level of trait anxiety was positively correlated with the framing effect size. However, trait anxiety was not correlated with risk-avoidance ratio in any condition. Finally, the relationship between anxiety and the framing effect remained significant after the level of depression was also taken into account. The theoretical significance and the major limitations of this study are discussed.

  5. Measuring time and risk preferences: Reliability, stability, domain specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölbert, E.M.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To accurately predict behavior economists need reliable measures of individual time preferences and attitudes toward risk and typically need to assume stability of these characteristics over time and across decision domains. We test the reliability of two choice tasks for eliciting discount rates,

  6. In-hospital delirium risk assessment, diagnosis and management; medications to avoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clegg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delirium is a common, but potentially preventable complication of acute illness that is associated with important adverse outcomes including increased length of hospital admission, risk of dementia and admission to long-term care. In-hospital risk assessment and diagnosis: Age over 65, severe illness, current hip fracture and presence of cognitive impairment or dementia are important risk factors for delirium. Assess people with any of these risk factors for recent changes or fluctuations in behaviour that might indicate delirium. If any indicators are present, complete a full cognitive assessment to confirm the diagnosis of delirium. In-hospital risk management: Multicomponent delirium prevention interventions can reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital by around one third and should be provided to people with any of the important risk factors that do not have delirium at admission. A medication review that considers both the number and type of prescribed medications is an important part of the multicomponent delirium prevention intervention. Which medications to avoid in people at risk of delirium: For people at risk of delirium, avoid new prescriptions of benzodiazepines or consider reducing or stopping these medications where possible. Opioids should be prescribed with caution in people at risk of delirium but this should be tempered by the observation that untreated severe pain can itself trigger delirium. Caution is also required when prescribing dihydropyridines and antihistamine H1 antagonists for people at risk of delirium and considered individual patient assessment is advocated. Conclusion: Delirium is common, distressing to patients, relatives and carers and is associated with important adverse outcomes. Multicomponent delirium prevention interventions can reduce the incidence of delirium by approximately one third and usually incorporate a medication review. Identification of which medications to avoid in people at

  7. Avoidant personality disorder as a social anxiety phenotype: risk factors, associations and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies research trends and synthesizes information from recent studies of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). AVPD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share genetic vulnerability, but may have distinct environmental risk factors that shape qualitative differences. Negative self-concept, shame proneness, and interpersonal hypersensitivity are characteristic of AVPD and may be predisposed to by heritable traits of high negative affectivity and low positive affectivity, and experiences of neglectful or emotionless parents. The interpersonal difficulties of AVPD may be associated with both anxious and avoidant attachment. Most individuals with AVPD do not also meet criteria for SAD. Integrative treatments incorporating cognitive behavioral strategies effective in SAD but also targeting shame aversion and avoidance may be most helpful for AVPD. Therapy adapted to both anxious attachment, associated with heightened interpersonal sensitivity and distress, and avoidant attachment, associated with experiential avoidance, may be optimal, though this is yet to be tested. Effective treatment of AVPD may enhance the outcome of comorbid conditions. More research is needed which compares three social anxiety groups (SAD alone, AVPD alone, and SAD plus AVPD) to further explore these disorders which are highly related, but which may have differences that are clinically relevant for individuals.

  8. Semi Automatic Ontology Instantiation in the domain of Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Jawad; Alquier, Anne-Marie; Prince, Violaine

    One of the challenging tasks in the context of Ontological Engineering is to automatically or semi-automatically support the process of Ontology Learning and Ontology Population from semi-structured documents (texts). In this paper we describe a Semi-Automatic Ontology Instantiation method from natural language text, in the domain of Risk Management. This method is composed from three steps 1 ) Annotation with part-of-speech tags, 2) Semantic Relation Instances Extraction, 3) Ontology instantiation process. It's based on combined NLP techniques using human intervention between steps 2 and 3 for control and validation. Since it heavily relies on linguistic knowledge it is not domain dependent which is a good feature for portability between the different fields of risk management application. The proposed methodology uses the ontology of the PRIMA1 project (supported by the European community) as a Generic Domain Ontology and populates it via an available corpus. A first validation of the approach is done through an experiment with Chemical Fact Sheets from Environmental Protection Agency2.

  9. Collision Avoidance Short Course: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis - NASA Robotic CARA. Part I: ; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment is perhaps the fastest growing area in space situational awareness and protection with military, civil and commercial satellite owner-operators embracing more and more sophisticated processes to avoid the avoidable - namely collisions between high value space assets and orbital debris. NASA and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) have collaborated to offer an introductory short course on all the major aspects of the conjunctions assessment problem. This half-day course will cover satellite conjunction dynamics and theory. Joint Space Operations Center (JsPOC) conjunction data products, major risk assessment parameters and plots, conjunction remediation decision support, and present and future challenges. This briefing represents the NASA portion of the course.

  10. Not all risks are created equal: A twin study and meta-analyses of risk taking across seven domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Rui; Xuan, Yan-Hua; Chen, Jie; Li, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Humans routinely deal with both traditional and novel risks. Different kinds of risks have been a driving force for both evolutionary adaptations and personal development. This study explored the genetic and environmental influences on human risk taking in different task domains. Our approach was threefold. First, we integrated several scales of domain-specific risk-taking propensity and developed a synthetic scale, including both evolutionarily typical and modern risks in the following 7 domains: cooperation/competition, safety, reproduction, natural/physical risk, moral risk, financial risk, and gambling. Second, we conducted a twin study using the scale to estimate the contributions of genes and environment to risk taking in each of these 7 domains. Third, we conducted a series of meta-analyses of extant twin studies across the 7 risk domains. The results showed that individual differences in risk-taking propensity and its consistency across domains were mainly regulated by additive genetic influences and individually unique environmental experiences. The heritability estimates from the meta-analyses ranged from 29% in financial risk taking to 55% in safety. Supporting the notion of risk-domain specificity, both the behavioral and genetic correlations among the 7 domains were generally low. Among the relatively few correlations between pairs of risk domains, our analysis revealed a common genetic factor that regulates moral, financial, and natural/physical risk taking. This is the first effort to separate genetic and environmental influences on risk taking across multiple domains in a single study and integrate the findings of extant twin studies via a series of meta-analyses conducted in different task domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  12. Clarifying values, risk perceptions, and attitudes to resolve or avoid social conflicts in invasive species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Rodrigo A; Anderson, Christopher B; Pizarro, J Cristobal; Burgman, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Decision makers and researchers recognize the need to effectively confront the social dimensions and conflicts inherent to invasive species research and management. Yet, despite numerous contentious situations that have arisen, no systematic evaluation of the literature has examined the commonalities in the patterns and types of these emergent social issues. Using social and ecological keywords, we reviewed trends in the social dimensions of invasive species research and management and the sources and potential solutions to problems and conflicts that arise around invasive species. We integrated components of cognitive hierarchy theory and risk perceptions theory to provide a conceptual framework to identify, distinguish, and provide understanding of the driving factors underlying disputes associated with invasive species. In the ISI Web of Science database, we found 15,915 peer-reviewed publications on biological invasions, 124 of which included social dimensions of this phenomenon. Of these 124, 28 studies described specific contentious situations. Social approaches to biological invasions have emerged largely in the last decade and have focused on both environmental social sciences and resource management. Despite being distributed in a range of journals, these 124 articles were concentrated mostly in ecology and conservation-oriented outlets. We found that conflicts surrounding invasive species arose based largely on differences in value systems and to a lesser extent stakeholder and decision maker's risk perceptions. To confront or avoid such situations, we suggest integrating the plurality of environmental values into invasive species research and management via structured decision making techniques, which enhance effective risk communication that promotes trust and confidence between stakeholders and decision makers. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Validation of the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale in Chinese college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Hu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Using college student samples, two studies were conducted to validate the Chinese version of the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT Scale. The results replicated important findings reported by Weber et al. (2002 in the Chinese culture. Risk-taking and risk perception were domain-specific, whereas perceived-risk attitudes were relatively stable across domains, supporting the risk-return model of risk taking. Results of both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA showed that the ethical, recreational, health/safety, and gambling domains were preserved in the Chinese version of DOSPERT and that the items from social and investment domains formed one factor. This result may be explained by Weber and Hsee's (1998 cushion hypothesis. Other possible reasons for this cross-cultural difference in the factor structure were also discussed.

  14. Food risk perceptions, gender, and individual differences in avoidance and approach motivation, intuitive and analytic thinking styles, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikas, Sointu; Lindeman, Marjaana; Roininen, Katariina; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2007-03-01

    Risks appear to be perceived in two different ways, affectively and rationally. Finnish adult internet users were contacted via e-mail and asked to fill an internet questionnaire consisting of questions of food risks and measures of avoidance and approach motivation, analytic and intuitive information processing style, trait anxiety, and gender in order to find out (1) whether food risks are perceived two-dimensionally, (2) how individual differences in motivation, information processing, and anxiety are associated with the different dimensions of food risk perceptions, and (3) whether gender moderates these associations. The data were analyzed by factor, correlation and regression analyses. Three factors emerged: risk scariness, risk likelihood, and risks of cardiovascular disease. Personality and gender x personality interactions predicted food risk perceptions. Results showed that food risk perceptions generally form two dimensions; scariness and likelihood, but that this may depend on the nature of the risk. In addition, results imply that individuals with high avoidance motivation perceive food risks as scarier and more likely than others, and that individuals with an analytic information processing style perceive food risks as less likely than others. Trait anxiety seems to be associated with higher food risk perceptions only among men.

  15. Does Avoiding Judicial Isolation Outweigh the Risks Related to “Professional Death by Facebook”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Eltis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available What happens when judges, in light of their role and responsibilities, and the scrutiny to which they are subjected, fall prey to a condition known as the “online disinhibition effect”? More importantly perhaps, what steps might judges reasonably take in order to pre-empt that fate, proactively addressing judicial social networking and its potential ramification for the administration of justice in the digital age? The immediate purpose of this article is to generate greater awareness of the issues specifically surrounding judicial social networking and to highlight some practical steps that those responsible for judicial training might consider in order to better equip judges for dealing with the exigencies of the digital realm. The focus is on understanding how to first recognize and then mitigate privacy and security risks in order to avoid bringing justice into disrepute through mishaps, and to stave off otherwise preventable incidents. This paper endeavors to provide a very brief overview of the emerging normative framework pertinent to the judicial use of social media, from a comparative perspective, concluding with some more practical (however preliminary recommendations for more prudent and advised ESM use.

  16. A Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT scale for adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Renée Blais

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a revised version of the original Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT scale developed by Weber, Blais, and Betz (2002 that is shorter and applicable to a {broader range of ages, cultures, and educational levels}. It also provides a French translation of the revised scale. Using multilevel modeling, we investigated the risk-return relationship between apparent risk taking and risk perception in 5 risk domains. The results replicate previously noted differences in reported degree of risk taking and risk perception at the mean level of analysis. The multilevel modeling shows, more interestingly, that within-participants variation in risk taking across the 5 content domains of the scale was about 7 times as large as between-participants variation. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of the person-situation debate related to risk attitude

  17. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  18. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Jackson

    Full Text Available Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  19. Management of mediastinal syndromes in pediatrics: a new challenge of ultrasound guidance to avoid high-risk general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Chrystelle; Choquet, Olivier; Prodhomme, Olivier; Capdevila, Xavier; Dadure, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Adverse events associated with anesthetic management of anterior mediastinal masses in pediatrics are common. To avoid an extremely hazardous general anesthesia, the use of real-time ultrasonography offers an effective alternative in high-risk cases. We report the anesthetic management including a light sedation and ultrasound guidance for regional anesthesia, surgical node biopsy, and placement of a central venous line in two children with an anterior symptomatic mediastinal mass. For pediatric patients with clinical and/or radiologic signs of airway compression, ultrasound guidance provides safety technical assistance to avoid general anesthesia and should be performed for the initial diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Towards the Development of an Evolutionarily Valid Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available From an evolutionary perspective, human risk-taking behaviors should be viewed in relation to evolutionarily recurrent survival and reproductive problems. In response to recent calls for domain-specific measures of risk-taking, we emphasize the need of evolutionarily valid domains. We report on two studies designed to validate a scale of risky behaviors in domains selected from research and theory in evolutionary psychology and biology, corresponding to reoccurring challenges in the ancestral environment. Behaviors were framed in situations which people would have some chance of encountering in modern times. We identify five domains of risk-taking: between-group competition, within-group competition, mating and resource allocation for mate attraction, environmental risks, and fertility risks.

  1. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Yang, Yann-Jy; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lee, Ming-Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women. PMID:24005830

  2. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.

  3. Supporting the information domains of fall-risk management in home care via health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhuwail, Dari; Koru, Güneş; Mills, Mary Etta

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, home care clinicians often start the episode of care devoid of relevant fall-risk information. By collecting and analyzing qualitative data from 30 clinicians in one home health agency, this case study aimed to understand how the currently adopted information technology solutions supported the clinicians' fall-risk management (FRM) information domains, and explored opportunities to adopt other solutions to better support FRM. The currently adopted electronic health record system and fall-reporting application served only some information domains with a limited capacity. Substantial improvement in addressing the FRM information domains is possible by effectively modifying the existing solutions and purposefully adopting new solutions.

  4. The Risky Side of Creativity: Domain Specific Risk Taking in Creative Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vaibhav; Hanoch, Yaniv; Hall, Stephen D.; Runco, Mark; Denham, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Risk taking is often associated with creativity, yet little evidence exists to support this association. The present article aimed to systematically explore this association. In two studies, we investigated the relationship between five different domains of risk taking (financial, health and safety, recreational, ethical and social) and five different measures of creativity. Results from the first (laboratory-based) offline study suggested that creativity is associated with high risk taking tendencies in the social domain but not the other domains. Indeed, in the second study conducted online with a larger and diverse sample, the likelihood of social risk taking was the strongest predictor of creative personality and ideation scores. These findings illustrate the necessity to treat creativity and risk taking as multi-dimensional traits and the need to have a more nuanced framework of creativity and other related cognitive functions. PMID:28217103

  5. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dental avoidance behaviour in parent and child as risk indicators for caries in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigen, Tove I; Skaret, Erik; Wang, Nina J

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between avoidance behaviour and dental anxiety in both parents and children and caries experience in 5-year-old children. It was hypothesised that parents' dental avoidance behaviour and dental anxiety were related to dental caries in 5-year-old children. Data were collected from dental records and by clinical and radiographic examination of 523 children. The parents completed a questionnaire regarding education, national background, dental anxiety, dental attendance, and behaviour management problems. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted. Children having one or more missed dental appointments (OR = 4.7), child behaviour management problems (OR = 3.3), child dental anxiety (OR = 3.1), and parents avoiding dental care (OR = 2.1) were bivariately associated with caries experience at the age of 5 years. In multivariate logistic regression, having one or more missed dental appointments (OR = 4.0) and child behaviour management problems (OR = 2.4) were indicators for dental caries in 5-year-old children, when controlling for parents education and national origin. Parents that avoid bringing their child to scheduled dental appointments and previous experiences of behaviour management problems for the child indicated risk for dental caries in 5-year-old children.

  7. Sexual Selection and Predator Avoidance in the Acoustic Lepidoptera: Discriminating Females Take Fewer Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenfield, Michael D; Greig, Emma

    2003-01-01

    .... Normally, these risks are considered from the perspective of male advertisement signaling, and studies in various animal species have documented increased predation associated with broadcasting...

  8. Domains of Risk in the Developmental Continuity of Fire Setting

    OpenAIRE

    McCarty, Carolyn A.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile fire setting is a serious, dangerous, and costly behavior. The majority of research examining youth fire setting has been cross-sectional. We sought to examine early risk attributes that could differentiate fire setters from non–fire setters, in addition to examining their association with the developmental continuity of fire-setting behavior into late childhood. Using a sample of 361 youth drawn from 4 different U.S. communities, this study examined the association between a broad a...

  9. The Risk of Hyper-Culture: How to Avoid It and Work With Real Organizational Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvesson, M.

    2016-01-01

    The talk addresses the issue of work with organizational culture often circling around nicely formulated, vague and idealistic words — hyper culture. These look good on power point presentations and in policy documents. They seldom work well in practical use. But senior managers, consultants, staff people and educators like the nice-sounding. It is good for status and self-esteem. And we all like what is pedagogical, astetic and reassuring. The talk addresses the phenomenon of hyper culture. And points at ways to avoid these and work with organizational practices in relation to culture. The talk draws on the presenter’s book THE TRIUMPH OF EMPTINESS. Oxford University Press. (author)

  10. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing exposure to trust-related risks to avoid self-blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Miller, Dale T

    2011-02-01

    Three studies demonstrated that anticipated self-blame elicits more conservative decisions about risks that require trust than about otherwise economically identical risks that do not. Participants were more reluctant to invest money in a company when it risked failure due to fraud versus low consumer demand (Study 1), and to risk points in an economic game when its outcome ostensibly depended on another participant versus chance (Studies 2 and 3). These effects were mediated by anticipated self-blame (Studies 1 and 2). Additionally, participants who actually experienced a loss felt more self-blame when the loss violated their trust and became even more conservative in subsequent risk decisions relative to participants whose loss did not violate their trust (Study 3). No support emerged for alternative explanations based on either the perceived probability of incurring a loss or an aversion to losses that profit others. The motivational power of trust violations is discussed.

  12. Effects of occupation on risks of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerheim, K; Martinsen, J I; Lynge, E

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of cancer risk according to occupational affiliation is an essential part of formatting preventive actions aimed at the adult population. Herein, data on 10 major cancer sites amenable by life style exposures from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) are presented. All subjects...... ratios (SIRs) were computed. Variation in risk across occupations was generally larger in men than in women. In men, the most consistent cluster with high risk of numerous cancer types included waiters, cooks and stewards, beverage workers, seamen, and chimney sweeps. Two clusters of occupations...... with generally low cancer risks were seen in both men and women. The first one comprised farmers, gardeners, and forestry workers, the second one included groups with high education, specifically those in health and pedagogical work. Although cancer risk varies by occupation, only a smaller part of the variation...

  13. Knowledge and tools formalization in the accidental risks domain (DRA-35) Ω-13 Boilover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patej, S.

    2003-03-01

    Since 2000 the Ministry of the environment is financing a studies and researches program, called since 2003 ''formalization of the knowledge and tools in the domain of the major risks'' DRA-35. The aim of this program is to realize a document formalizing the INERIS expertise in the domain of the accidental risks: the physical phenomenon implied in the accidents, the risks analysis and control, the methodological aspects for the realization of regulations. This report presents the study of the boilover physical phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  14. Reduced risk avoidance and altered neural correlates of feedback processing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Schuermann, Beate; Roepke, Stefan; Kessler-Scheil, Sonia; Kathmann, Norbert

    2016-09-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show deficits in reward-guided decision making and learning. The present study examined risk-taking behavior in combination with feedback processing. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a probabilistic two-choice gambling task, while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Options differed in risk, but were identical in expected value and outcome probability. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the feedback-related P300 were analyzed. Healthy controls preferred low-risk over high-risk options, whereas BPD patients chose both option with equal probability. FRN amplitudes were reduced in BPD, but effects of feedback valence and risk did not differ between groups. This suggests attenuated outcome processing in the anterior cingulate cortex, but intact reward prediction error signaling. Furthermore, the modulation of the feedback-related P300 with feedback valence and risk was smaller in BPD patients, and decreased P300 amplitudes were associated with increased behavioral risk-taking behavior. These findings could relate to the reduced ability of BPD patients to learn and adequately adjust their behavior based on feedback information, possibly due to reduced significance of negative feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Operational Cybersecurity Risks and Their Effect on Adoption of Additive Manufacturing in the Naval Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    CYBERSECURITY RISKS AND THEIR EFFECT ON ADOPTION OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN THE NAVAL DOMAIN by Michael D. Grimshaw December 2017 Thesis...OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN THE NAVAL DOMAIN 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael D. Grimshaw 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Additive manufacturing (AM) has been proven to provide multiple benefits over traditional

  16. Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Krueger, R F; Ystrom, E; Torvik, F A; Rosenström, T H; Aggen, S H; South, S C; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S; Czajkowski, N O

    2017-09-01

    DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors. When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91. The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

  17. Reducing risk of pressure sores: effects of watch prompts and alarm avoidance on wheelchair push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G W; Mathews, R M; Fawcett, S B

    1989-01-01

    People who use wheelchairs are at risk for developing pressure sores. Regular pressure relief, in the form of a wheelchair push-up, is one way to reduce the likelihood of pressure sores. We examined the effects of antecedent (i.e., instructions, audible prompts) and consequent (i.e., alarm avoidance) events on wheelchair push-ups, using a multiple baseline analysis with 2 participants with spina bifida. Results suggest that the combined procedure was more effective than either antecedent or consequent events alone, and there is some evidence suggesting maintenance of effects over time. PMID:2793635

  18. Foraging Value, Risk Avoidance, and Multiple Control Signals: How the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Controls Value-based Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua W; Alexander, William H

    2017-10-01

    Recent work on the role of the ACC in cognition has focused on choice difficulty, action value, risk avoidance, conflict resolution, and the value of exerting control among other factors. A main underlying question is what are the output signals of ACC, and relatedly, what is their effect on downstream cognitive processes? Here we propose a model of how ACC influences cognitive processing in other brain regions that choose actions. The model builds on the earlier Predicted Response Outcome model and suggests that ACC learns to represent specifically the states in which the potential costs or risks of an action are high, on both short and long timescales. It then uses those cost signals as a basis to bias decisions to minimize losses while maximizing gains. The model simulates both proactive and reactive control signals and accounts for a variety of empirical findings regarding value-based decision-making.

  19. Taxonomic analysis of perceived risk: modeling individual and group perceptions within homogeneous hazard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, N.N.; Slovic, P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of risk perception have typically focused on the mean judgments of a group of people regarding the riskiness (or safety) of a diverse set of hazardous activities, substances, and technologies. This paper reports the results of two studies that take a different path. Study 1 investigated whether models within a single technological domain were similar to previous models based on group means and diverse hazards. Study 2 created a group taxonomy of perceived risk for only one technological domain, railroads, and examined whether the structure of that taxonomy corresponded with taxonomies derived from prior studies of diverse hazards. Results from Study 1 indicated that the importance of various risk characteristics in determining perceived risk differed across individuals and across hazards, but not so much as to invalidate the results of earlier studies based on group means and diverse hazards. In Study 2, the detailed analysis of railroad hazards produced a structure that had both important similarities to, and dissimilarities from, the structure obtained in prior research with diverse hazard domains. The data also indicated that railroad hazards are really quite diverse, with some approaching nuclear reactors in their perceived seriousness. These results suggest that information about the diversity of perceptions within a single domain of hazards could provide valuable input to risk-management decisions

  20. Estimated risk of perihippocampal disease progression after hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy: Safety profile for RTOG 0933

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Marsh, James; Struck, Aaron; Ghia, Amol; Turian, Julius V.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Kuo, John S.; Khuntia, Deepak; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: RTOG 0933 is a phase II clinical trial of hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) to prevent radiation-induced neurocognitive decline. By quantifying baseline incidence of perihippocampal or hippocampal metastasis, we sought to estimate the risk of developing metastases in the hippocampal avoidance region (the hippocampus plus 5 mm margin). Materials/methods: Patients with ≤10 brain metastases treated at two separate institutions were reviewed. Axial images from pre-treatment, post-contrast MRIs were used to contour each metastasis and hippocampus according to a published protocol. Clinical and radiographic variables were correlated with perihippocampal metastasis using a binary logistical regression analysis, with two-sided p 3 increase in the aggregate volume of intra-cranial metastatic disease was associated with an odds ratio of 1.02 (95% CI 1.006-1.034, p = 0.003) for the presence of perihippocampal metastasis. Conclusion: With an estimated perihippocampal metastasis risk of 8.6%, we deem HA-WBRT safe for clinical testing in patients with brain metastases as part of RTOG 0933.

  1. Scapula kinematics of pull-up techniques: Avoiding impingement risk with training changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinold, Joe A I; Bull, Anthony M J

    2016-08-01

    Overhead athletic activities and scapula dyskinesia are linked with shoulder pathology; pull-ups are a common training method for some overhead sports. Different pull-up techniques exist: anecdotally some are easier to perform, and others linked to greater incidences of pathology. This study aims to quantify scapular kinematics and external forces for three pull-up techniques, thus discussing potential injury implications. An observational study was performed with eleven participants (age=26.8±2.4 years) who regularly perform pull-ups. The upward motions of three pull-up techniques were analysed: palms facing anterior, palms facing posterior and wide-grip. A skin-fixed scapula tracking technique with attached retro-reflective markers was used. High intra-participant repeatability was observed: mean coefficients of multiple correlations of 0.87-1.00 in humerothoracic rotations and 0.77-0.90 for scapulothoracic rotations. Standard deviations of hand force was low: kinematics were observed between the pull-up techniques. The reverse technique has extreme glenohumeral internal-external rotation and large deviation from the scapula plane. The wide technique has a reduced range of pro/retraction in the same HT plane of elevation and 90° of arm abduction with 45° external rotation was observed. All these factors suggest increased sub-acromial impingement risk. The scapula tracking technique showed high repeatability. High arm elevation during pull-ups reduces sub-acromial space and increases pressure, increasing the risk of impingement injury. Wide and reverse pull-ups demonstrate kinematics patterns linked with increased impingement risk. Weight-assisted front pull-ups require further investigation and could be recommended for weaker participants. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Risk of Contact Lens Wear and the Avoidance of Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farihah Tariq

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are lenses placed on the surface of the cornea to correct refractive errors such as myopia (short-sightedness, hypermetropia (far-sightedness and astigmatism. Lens-related complications are becoming a greater health concern as increasing number of individuals are using them as an alternative to spectacles. Contact lenses alter the natural ocular environment and reduce the efficacy of the innate defences. Although many complications are minor, microbial keratitis is potentially blinding and suspected cases should be rapidly diagnosed and referred to an ophthalmologist for treatment. Several risk factors have been identified with extended wear, poor hand hygiene, inadequate lens and lens-case care being the most significant. Promotion of good contact lens hygiene and practices are essential to reduce the adverse effects of contact lens wear.

  3. Risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance using a combined steering torque overlay and differential braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyung; Yi, Kyongsu; Yoo, Hyunjae; Chong, Hyokjin; Ko, Bongchul

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance. The proposed risk management algorithm consists of a supervisor and a coordinator. The supervisor is designed to monitor collision risks between the subject vehicle and approaching vehicle in the adjacent lane. An appropriate criterion of intervention, which satisfies high acceptance to drivers through the consideration of a realistic traffic, has been determined based on the analysis of the kinematics of the vehicles in longitudinal and lateral directions. In order to assist the driver actively and increase driver's safety, a coordinator is designed to combine lateral control using a steering torque overlay by motor-driven power steering and differential braking by vehicle stability control. In order to prevent the collision while limiting actuator's control inputs and vehicle dynamics to safe values for the assurance of the driver's comfort, the Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequalities based optimisation methods have been used. The proposed risk management algorithm has been evaluated via simulation using CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink.

  4. Associations among Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Self-Esteem in Six Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated associations among adolescents' self-esteem in 6 domains (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth) and risk behaviours related to substance use, bullying, suicidality and sexuality. Method: A multistage stratified sampling strategy was used to select a representative sample of…

  5. Associations among adolescent risk behaviours and self-esteem in six domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lauren G; Flisher, Alan J; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated associations among adolescents' self-esteem in 6 domains (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth) and risk behaviours related to substance use, bullying, suicidality and sexuality. A multistage stratified sampling strategy was used to select a representative sample of 939 English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking students in Grades 8 and 11 at public high schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants completed the multidimensional Self-Esteem Questionnaire (SEQ; DuBois, Felner, Brand, Phillips, & Lease, 1996) and a self-report questionnaire containing items about demographic characteristics and participation in a range of risk behaviours. It included questions about their use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, solvents and other substances, bullying, suicidal ideation and attempts, and risky sexual behaviour. Data was analysed using a series of logistic regression models, with the estimation of model parameters being done through generalised estimation equations. Scores on each self-esteem scale were significantly associated with at least one risk behaviour in male and female adolescents after controlling for the sampling strategy, grade and race. However, specific self-esteem domains were differentially related to particular risk behaviours. After taking the correlations between the self-esteem scales into account, low self-esteem in the family and school contexts and high self-esteem in the peer domain were significantly independently associated with multiple risk behaviours in adolescents of both sexes. Low body-image self-esteem and global self-worth were also uniquely associated with risk behaviours in girls, but not in boys. Overall, the findings suggest that interventions that aim to protect adolescents from engaging in risk behaviours by increasing their self-esteem are likely to be most effective and cost-efficient if they are aimed at the family and school domains.

  6. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing a strategy of 'de-normalising' tobacco use. The reversal in the social and cultural position of tobacco, which in Finland went from one extreme to another, was not based on pressure created by any wider social movements or organised tobacco-specific citizens groups, as in some other countries, but rather by a state health administration supported by a relatively small network of tobacco control advocates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Avoiding the Water-Climate-Poverty Trap: Adaptive Risk Management for Bangladesh's Coastal Embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our recent research on water security (Sadoff et al., 2015, Dadson et al., 2015) has revealed the dynamic relationship between water security and human well-being. A version of this dynamic is materialising in the coastal polder areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. Repeated coastal floods increase salinity, wipe out agricultural yields for several years and increase out-migration. As a tool to help inform and target future cycles of investment in improvements to the coastal embankments, in this paper we propose a dynamical model of biophysical processes and human well-being, which downscales our previous research to the Khulna region. State variables in the model include agricultural production, population, life expectancy and child mortality. Possible infrastructure interventions include embankment improvements, groundwater wells and drainage infrastructure. Hazard factors include flooding, salinization and drinking water pollution. Our system model can be used to inform adaptation decision making by testing the dynamical response of the system to a range of possible policy interventions, under uncertain future conditions. The analysis is intended to target investment and enable adaptive resource reallocation based on learning about the system response to interventions over the seven years of our research programme. The methodology and paper will demonstrate the complex interplay of factors that determine system vulnerability to climate change. The role of climate change uncertainties (in terms of mean sea level rise and storm surge frequency) will be evaluated alongside multiple other uncertain factors that determine system response. Adaptive management in a 'learning system' will be promoted as a mechanism for coping with climate uncertainties. References:Dadson, S., Hall, J.W., Garrick, D., Sadoff, C. and Grey, D. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model, Global Environmental Change, in review.Sadoff, C.W., Hall, J.W., Grey, D

  8. No dry dock: safely strategy for avoiding unplanned dry dock and reducing safety, health and environment risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinis, Danny A.; Brett, David E. [EM and I Alliance, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There are currently over 150 operational FPUs with an expected increase of a further 100 units in the next 5 years. This results from several factors: increasing demand for hydrocarbons; new reserves in deep water; pipeline infrastructure is not required and FPU design fits many field requirements. FPUs are increasingly chosen for large, deep water, longer life developments. Units are bigger and more complex. Regulators and oil majors are imposing more stringent integrity requirements to protect against safety, environmental and operational risks related to loss of containment and loss of hull structure integrity which could lead to HSE risks, increased costs and production losses which would become particularly onerous should the unit have to dry dock. There are a number of other important components the context of asset integrity, e.g. mooring and sub sea systems, but these are outside the scope of this paper. The 'No Dry dock....Safely' approach is based on the principle of Criticality Based Integrity which identifies components whose integrity is critical to avoiding incidents and the risk of dry docking. Once critical components are identified the challenge is to establish integrity status and maintain fitness-for-service. Various JIPs e.g. the Hull Inspection Techniques and Strategies are looking at best practice inspection methodologies. The industry is progressing ways of maintaining and repairing critical items without going to dry dock. The challenges include coating maintenance, structural and pressure system repairs. Advances in cathodic protection and coating maintenance strategies are proving successful as are techniques for carrying out major structural repairs. The 'No Dry dock...Safely' methodology is a proven solution and case histories have been included. Technological advances will further improve integrity in the industry. There is no reason why FPUs cannot be kept on station and in production for 25 years or more whilst

  9. There is more to life than risk avoidance - elderly people's experiences of falls, fall-injuries and compliant flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Johanna; Jernbro, Carolina; Nilson, Finn

    2018-12-01

    Falls are the most common cause of injury in all ages and are especially difficult to prevent among residential care residents. Compliant flooring that absorbs energy generated within the fall, has been proposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding the implementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of falls, the risk of fall-injury, prevention in general and specifically compliant flooring as an injury preventative measure amongst frail elderly people living in a residential care facility with compliant flooring. Through this, generate a theory that further explains the underlying barriers of active prevention amongst elderly people. We used the grounded theory method and conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with eight elderly people in residential care (data collected between February and December 2017). The identified categories were Falling as a part of life, Fearing the consequences and A wish to prevent falls and injuries. Through the results it was clear that There is more to life than risk avoidance, permeated the interviews, therefore forming the grounded theory. The interviewees viewed falls as something common and normal, and were uninterested in focusing on the risk of falls. Although they wanted to prevent falls, it was often difficult to integrate preventative measures into their everyday life. They embraced the idea of an injury-reducing compliant flooring, however their main interests lay elsewhere, preferring to focus on social interaction and issues concerning daily activities. The theory generated in this paper proposes explanations on the obstacles of implementing fall prevention measures in an elderly frail population. The findings give insights as to why interest and compliance for active fall prevention measures are low. We conclude that complaint flooring, from the perspective of the residents, can work well in residential care.

  10. Changes in the Relative Balance of Approach and Avoidance Inclinations to Use Alcohol Following Cue Exposure Vary in Low and High Risk Drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross C. Hollett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1 to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2 if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test. In two experiments (N = 60; N = 79, low and high risk social drinkers were exposed to alcohol cues, and pre- and post- approach and avoidance inclinations measured. An ad libitum alcohol consumption paradigm and a non-alcohol exposure condition were also included in Study 2. Cue-elicited craving was characterized by a predominant approach inclination only in the high risk drinkers. Conversely, approach inclinations were adaptively balanced by equally strong avoidance inclinations when cue-elicited craving was induced in low risk drinkers. For these low risk drinkers with the balanced craving profile, neither approach or avoidance inclinations predicted subsequent alcohol consumption levels during the taste test. Conversely, for high risk drinkers, where the approach inclination predominated, each inclination synergistically predicted subsequent drinking levels during the taste test. In conclusion, results support the importance of assessing both approach and avoidance inclinations, and their relative balance following alcohol cue exposure. Specifically, this more comprehensive assessment reveals changes in craving profiles that are not apparent from examining changes in approach inclinations alone, and it is this shift in the net balance that distinguishes high from low risk drinkers.

  11. In Sickness but Not in Wealth: Field Evidence on Patients' Risk Preferences in Financial and Health Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo M; Miraldo, Marisa; Stavropoulou, Charitini

    2016-05-01

    We present results from a hypothetical framed field experiment assessing whether risk preferences significantly differ across the health and financial domains when they are elicited through the same multiple price list paired-lottery method. We consider a sample of 300 patients attending outpatient clinics in a university hospital in Athens during the Greek financial crisis. Risk preferences in finance were elicited using paired-lottery questions with hypothetical payments. The questions were adapted to the health domain by framing the lotteries as risky treatments in hypothetical health care scenarios. Using maximum likelihood methods, we estimated the degree of risk aversion, allowing for the estimates to be dependent on domain and individual characteristics. The subjects in our sample, who were exposed to both health and financial distress, tended to be less risk averse in the financial domain than in the health domain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Personal Risk Perception, HIV Knowledge and Risk Avoidance Behavior, and Their Relationships to Actual HIV Serostatus in an Urban African Obstetric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Sinkala, Moses; Kumwenda, Rosemary; Chapman, Victoria; Mwale, Alexandrina; Vermund, Sten H.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.

    2009-01-01

    One quarter of pregnant women in Zambia are infected with HIV. Understanding how knowledge of HIV relates to personal risk perception and avoidance of risky behaviors is critical to devising effective HIV prevention strategies. In conjunction with a large clinical trial in Lusaka, Zambia, we surveyed postpartum women who had been tested for HIV but did not know their status before undergoing the questionnaire. Of 858 women for whom complete data were available, 248 (29%) were HIV infected. Women 22 years of age or older (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.5), women reporting ≥2 sexual partners in their lifetime (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.5), and women reporting a history of a sexually transmitted infection (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7–4.3) were more likely to be HIV infected. Having had ≥2 lifetime sexual partners was a marker for perception of high personnel risk for HIV infection (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.1). However, there was no relationship between perceived risk of HIV infection and actual HIV status. In fact, 127 (52%) of 245 women who stated that they were at no or low risk for HIV infection were HIV infected. Living in an area of high HIV seroprevalence like Zambia seems to be the greatest risk factor for infection in unselected pregnant women. Before significant inroads can be made in decreasing the incidence of HIV infection among pregnant women, population-based strategies that involve men must be implemented. PMID:14707794

  13. Environmental hazard/risk assessment of pesticides used in agriculture for birds and mammals. The Dutch concept. Part 2. Avian food avoidance behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report (the second one of a series in which the methodology for hazard/risk assessment of the use of pesticides for birds and mammals will be presented) is to give a method for taking into account the avoidance behaviour in the evaluation of LC50 studies and to provide a concept

  14. An Entropy Approach to Disclosure Risk Assessment: Lessons from Real Applications and Simulated Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Bai, Xue; Malin, Bradley A.

    2011-01-01

    We live in an increasingly mobile world, which leads to the duplication of information across domains. Though organizations attempt to obscure the identities of their constituents when sharing information for worthwhile purposes, such as basic research, the uncoordinated nature of such environment can lead to privacy vulnerabilities. For instance, disparate healthcare providers can collect information on the same patient. Federal policy requires that such providers share “de-identified” sensitive data, such as biomedical (e.g., clinical and genomic) records. But at the same time, such providers can share identified information, devoid of sensitive biomedical data, for administrative functions. On a provider-by-provider basis, the biomedical and identified records appear unrelated, however, links can be established when multiple providers’ databases are studied jointly. The problem, known as trail disclosure, is a generalized phenomenon and occurs because an individual’s location access pattern can be matched across the shared databases. Due to technical and legal constraints, it is often difficult to coordinate between providers and thus it is critical to assess the disclosure risk in distributed environments, so that we can develop techniques to mitigate such risks. Research on privacy protection has so far focused on developing technologies to suppress or encrypt identifiers associated with sensitive information. There is growing body of work on the formal assessment of the disclosure risk of database entries in publicly shared databases, but a less attention has been paid to the distributed setting. In this research, we review the trail disclosure problem in several domains with known vulnerabilities and show that disclosure risk is influenced by the distribution of how people visit service providers. Based on empirical evidence, we propose an entropy metric for assessing such risk in shared databases prior to their release. This metric assesses risk by

  15. Combining numerical simulations with time-domain random walk for pathogen risk assessment in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, V.; Molin, S.

    2012-02-01

    We present a methodology that combines numerical simulations of groundwater flow and advective transport in heterogeneous porous media with analytical retention models for computing the infection risk probability from pathogens in aquifers. The methodology is based on the analytical results presented in [1,2] for utilising the colloid filtration theory in a time-domain random walk framework. It is shown that in uniform flow, the results from the numerical simulations of advection yield comparable results as the analytical TDRW model for generating advection segments. It is shown that spatial variability of the attachment rate may be significant, however, it appears to affect risk in a different manner depending on if the flow is uniform or radially converging. In spite of the fact that numerous issues remain open regarding pathogen transport in aquifers on the field scale, the methodology presented here may be useful for screening purposes, and may also serve as a basis for future studies that would include greater complexity.

  16. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  17. Review of technical justification of assumptions and methods used by the Environmental Protection Agency for estimating risks avoided by implementing MCLs for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations for allowable levels of radioactive material in drinking water (40 CFR Part 141, 56 FR 33050, July 18, 1991). This review examined the assumptions and methods used by EPA in calculating risks that would be avoided by implementing the proposed Maximum Contaminant Levels for uranium, radium, and radon. Proposed limits on gross alpha and beta-gamma emitters were not included in this review

  18. Does kin recognition and sib-mating avoidance limit the risk of genetic incompatibility in a parasitic wasp?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Metzger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When some combinations of maternal and paternal alleles have a detrimental effect on offspring fitness, females should be able to choose mates on the basis of their genetic compatibility. In numerous Hymenoptera, the sex of an individual depends of the allelic combination at a specific locus (single-locus Complementary Sex Determination, and in most of these species individuals that are homozygous at this sexual locus develop into diploid males with zero fitness.In this paper, we tested the hypothesis of genetic incompatibility avoidance by investigating sib-mating avoidance in the solitary wasp parasitoid, Venturia canescens. In the context of mate choice we show, for the first time in a non-social hymenopteran species, that females can avoid mating with their brothers through kin recognition. In "no-choice" tests, the probability a female will mate with an unrelated male is twice as high as the chance of her mating with her brothers. In contrast, in choice tests in small test arenas, no kin discrimination effect was observed. Further experiments with male extracts demonstrate that chemical cues emanating from related males influence the acceptance rate of unrelated males.Our results are compatible with the genetic incompatibility hypothesis. They suggest that the female wasps recognize sibs on the basis of a chemical signature carried or emitted by males possibly using a "self-referent phenotype matching" mechanism.

  19. Transcription instability in high-risk neuroblastoma is associated with a global perturbation of chromatin domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Carlo; Tonini, Gian Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chromosome instability has a pivotal role among the hallmarks of cancer, but its transcriptional counterpart is rarely considered a relevant factor in cell destabilization. To examine transcription instability (TIN), we first devised a metric we named TIN index and used it to evaluate TIN on a dataset containing more than 500 neuroblastoma samples. We found that metastatic tumors from high-risk (HR) patients are characterized by significantly different TIN index values compared to low/intermediate-risk patients. Our results indicate that the TIN index is a good predictor of neuroblastoma patient's outcome, and a related TIN index gene signature (TIN-signature) is also able to predict the neuroblastoma patient's outcome with high confidence. Interestingly, we find that TIN-signature genes have a strong positional association with superenhancers in neuroblastoma tumors. Finally, we show that TIN is linked to chromatin structural domains and interferes with their integrity in HR neuroblastoma patients. This novel approach to gene expression analysis broadens the perspective of genome instability investigations to include functional aspects. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Parkinsonian motor impairment predicts personality domains related to genetic risk and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Balda, Mara; Alemán, Gabriela González; Florenzano, Néstor V; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Conesa, Horacio A; Escobar, Javier I; Zwir, Igor; Cloninger, C Robert; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2017-01-01

    Identifying endophenotypes of schizophrenia is of critical importance and has profound implications on clinical practice. Here we propose an innovative approach to clarify the mechanims through which temperament and character deviance relates to risk for schizophrenia and predict long-term treatment outcomes. We recruited 61 antipsychotic naïve subjects with chronic schizophrenia, 99 unaffected relatives, and 68 healthy controls from rural communities in the Central Andes. Diagnosis was ascertained with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; parkinsonian motor impairment was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; mesencephalic parenchyma was evaluated with transcranial ultrasound; and personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Ten-year outcome data was available for ~40% of the index cases. Patients with schizophrenia had higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence (ST), and lower reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-directedness (SD). Unaffected relatives had higher ST and lower CO and SD. Parkinsonism reliably predicted RD, CO, and SD after correcting for age and sex. The average duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was over 5 years. Further, SD was anticorrelated with DUP and antipsychotic dosing at follow-up. Baseline DUP was related to antipsychotic dose-years. Further, 'explosive/borderline', 'methodical/obsessive', and 'disorganized/schizotypal' personality profiles were associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Parkinsonism predicts core personality features and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia. Our study suggests that RD, CO, and SD are endophenotypes of the disease that may, in part, be mediated by dopaminergic function. Further, SD is an important determinant of treatment course and outcome.

  1. Identification of important and potentially avoidable risk factors in a prospective audit study of neonatal deaths in a paediatric hospital in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Phuong, Cam N; Ho, Binh T T; Stensballe, Lone G; Pedersen, Freddy K; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-02-01

    Neonatal deaths (≤28 days) account for more than half of child mortality in Vietnam. Presumably most die in hospital, but data are scarce. This study aimed to identify risk factors of death among hospitalised neonates. We prospectively studied all neonatal deaths and expected deaths (discharged alive after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment) in a Vietnamese tertiary paediatric hospital during a 12-month period in 2009-2010. The medical files were audited classifying admission prognosis, discharge outcome, cause of death/expected death according to two classifications, and important and potentially avoidable risk factors during the hospital stay. Among 5763 neonates admitted, 235 deaths and 67 expected deaths were included. According to both classifications, major causes were congenital malformations, prematurity and severe infections. Six risk factors were identified in 85% (60/71) of the neonates with a relatively good prognosis: recognition or response to danger signs, internal transfers, nosocomial infections, sepsis management, access to usual equipment/staff, and family perception. Among 302 neonatal deaths/expected deaths, the major causes were congenital malformations, prematurity and severe infections. Six important and potentially avoidable risk factors could be addressed in the subgroup with relatively good admission prognosis, without implementing new technology or major organisational changes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Identification of important and potentially avoidable risk factors in a prospective audit study of neonatal deaths in a paediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Phuong, Cam N; Ho, Binh T T

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Neonatal deaths (≤28 days) account for more than half of child mortality in Vietnam. Presumably most die in hospital, but data are scarce. This study aimed to identify risk factors of death among hospitalised neonates. METHODS: We prospectively studied all neonatal deaths and expected deaths...... (discharged alive after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment) in a Vietnamese tertiary paediatric hospital during a 12-month period in 2009-2010. The medical files were audited classifying admission prognosis, discharge outcome, cause of death/expected death according to two classifications, and important...... and potentially avoidable risk factors during the hospital stay. RESULTS: Among 5763 neonates admitted, 235 deaths and 67 expected deaths were included. According to both classifications, major causes were congenital malformations, prematurity and severe infections. Six risk factors were identified in 85% (60...

  3. Can we avoid high levels of dose escalation for high-risk prostate cancer in the setting of androgen deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. However, there is little evidence specifically evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving ADT, particularly for EBRT doses >74 Gy. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improves outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated on an institutional protocol prescribing 3-6 months neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, followed by 2 years of adjuvant ADT. Between 2006 and 2012, EBRT doses were escalated from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy. We interrogated our electronic medical record to identify these patients and analyzed our results by comparing dose levels. In all, 479 patients were treated with a 68-month median follow-up. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survivals for the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups were 87.8%, 86.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. The metastasis-free survivals were 95.5%, 94.5%, and 93.9%, respectively, and the prostate cancer-specific survivals were 100%, 94.4%, and 98.1%, respectively. Dose escalation had no impact on any outcome in either univariate or multivariate analysis. There was no benefit of DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of high-risk prostate patients treated with long-term ADT. As dose escalation has higher risks of radiotherapy-induced toxicity, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation beyond 74 Gy in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose escalation for high-risk patients receiving ADT should be considered.

  4. Understanding suicide risk within the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine R; Kleiman, Evan M; Cha, Christine B; Deming, Charlene A; Franklin, Joseph C; Nock, Matthew K

    2018-01-01

    The field is in need of novel and transdiagnostic risk factors for suicide. The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides a framework that may help advance research on suicidal behavior. We conducted a meta-analytic review of existing prospective risk and protective factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (ideation, attempts, and deaths) that fall within one of the five RDoC domains or relate to a prominent suicide theory. Predictors were selected from a database of 4,082 prospective risk and protective factors for suicide outcomes. A total of 460 predictors met inclusion criteria for this meta-analytic review and most examined risk (vs. protective) factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The overall effect of risk factors was statistically significant, but relatively small, in predicting suicide ideation (weighted mean odds ratio: wOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.59-1.87), suicide attempt (wOR = 1.66 [1.57-1.76), and suicide death (wOR = 1.41 [1.24-1.60]). Across all suicide outcomes, most risk factors related to the Negative Valence Systems domain, although effect sizes were of similar magnitude across RDoC domains. This study demonstrated that the RDoC framework provides a novel and promising approach to suicide research; however, relatively few studies of suicidal behavior fit within this framework. Future studies must go beyond the "usual suspects" of suicide risk factors (e.g., mental disorders, sociodemographics) to understand the processes that combine to lead to this deadly outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Role of Stress-test Scenarios in Risk Management Activities and in the Avoidance of a New Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arion NEGRILĂ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress-tests can increase the endurance of banks and financial system when faced with crises especially during economic growth periods, when they may accept higher risks more easily and with lower prices. Their importance was revealed by the crisis which has proven to be much more severe in terms of amplitude than the worst scenarios used by banks.The case study presented assessed the impact that the deterioration of the main macroeconomic indicators might have upon a bank’s exposure to credit, FX, liquidity, interest, operational and market risks, upon its capital requirements, provisions and the balance sheet.

  6. Can we avoid high levels of dose escalation for high-risk prostate cancer in the setting of androgen deprivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakespeare TP

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Shakespeare,1,2 Shea W Wilcox,1 Noel J Aherne1,2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, 2Rural Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia Aim: Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT improve outcomes in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. However, there is little evidence specifically evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving ADT, particularly for EBRT doses >74 Gy. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improves outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT. Patients and methods: Patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated on an institutional protocol prescribing 3–6 months neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, followed by 2 years of adjuvant ADT. Between 2006 and 2012, EBRT doses were escalated from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy. We interrogated our electronic medical record to identify these patients and analyzed our results by comparing dose levels. Results: In all, 479 patients were treated with a 68-month median follow-up. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survivals for the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups were 87.8%, 86.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. The metastasis-free survivals were 95.5%, 94.5%, and 93.9%, respectively, and the prostate cancer-specific survivals were 100%, 94.4%, and 98.1%, respectively. Dose escalation had no impact on any outcome in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion: There was no benefit of DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of high-risk prostate patients treated with long-term ADT. As dose escalation has higher risks of radiotherapy-induced toxicity, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation beyond 74 Gy in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose escalation for high-risk patients receiving ADT should be considered. Keywords: radiotherapy, IMRT, dose

  7. Egg Predation Risk Trigger Adult Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae to Avoid Laying Eggs in Patches Attended by Ladybird Larvae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Susetya Putra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition preference of a predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus on the presence of its potential predators, the ladybird larvae which are inflicted serious impacts on its eggs was examined in a non-choice test. Our results revealed that the biggest and the most aggressive species of ladybird, Harmonia axyridis caused the worst impact on hoverfly eggs by attacking and feeding on. The species and developmental stages of ladybird were attributed to the level of predation risk. We correlated the oviposition site selection by hoverfly females to the egg predation risk level inflicted by ladybird larvae. Hoverfly females laid the least number of eggs on the patches attended by the strongest competitor, the larva of H. axyridis, and tended to lay the highest number of eggs on colonies attended by the weakest competitor, the larva of Scymnus posticalis. In addition, the impact of the fourth instar larva of ladybirds was stronger than of the first instar larva.

  8. Avoiding the ingestion of cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol may reduce the risk of cancer associated with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication. Since cell death activates the division of stem cells, we recently proposed that the possible cytotoxicity of ethanol on the cells lining the tissues in direct contact with alcoholic beverages could explain the local carcinogenic effect of alcohol. Here we report that short-term exposures (2-3 s) to ethanol concentrations between 10% and 15% start to cause a marked cytotoxic effect on human epithelial keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. We propose that choosing alcoholic beverages containing non-cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, or diluting ethanol to non-cytotoxic concentrations, may be a simple and effective way to reduce the risk of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in alcohol users. This preventive strategy may also reduce the known synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on the risk of these cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Growing risk avoidance in Asian oncology site selection: how trends in site selection are limiting growth of the Asia cancer trial landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsburgh D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Horsburgh,1 Yi-Chen Josey Lee,2 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee,3 Malcolm Ogg,4 Karen Wai1 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Site Services Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore; 4Global Integrated Site Services, Quintiles, Green Park, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom Background: Asia-Pacific represents the fastest-growing region for clinical trials, with growth in oncology studies being a strong contributor. Such demand has seen a rapid change in Asia's total site pool and the number of experienced and inexperienced, or naïve, sites being activated. Given the perceived risks involved with naïve sites, this study aims to investigate changes in the rate of naïve site selection and how this risk management may influence future growth within the region. Methods: Rates of total naïve and experienced sites initiated per year, per protocol, and the relative contribution of each to the yearly site total were analyzed. Data was collected from Quintiles internal metrics as well as from the publicly available ClinicalTrials.gov database and was filtered to include oncology studies involving at least one Asian country, between the years 2000 and 2012. Results and discussion: Despite a general increase in the number of sites activated overall, the contribution of naïve sites to the yearly total fell to 20% in 2012. Experienced sites were heavily favored, with reliance on the existing site network preferred to expansion through naïve sites. This is likely a result of the perceived challenges with using inexperienced sites and the industry desire to avoid this risk. However, fluctuations in naïve sites activation suggest that the limited level of growth in the site pool may not be enough to sustain demand, with sudden outreaches to naïve sites necessary as current site pool capacity is occasionally

  10. Considerations on the Application of Blue Ocean Strategy to Avoid the Risk of Bankruptcy to Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe NEGOESCU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, SMEs are facing with great financial problems, which led, during 2008 - 2011, to about 60.000 bankruptcies, 200.000 firm suspension and to an increased number of unemployed from 568.000 at 31.12.2008 to 711 000 unemployed at the half-year of 2011. Professors W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne, authors of Blue Ocean Strategy concept, have identified two working-tools, namely:Strategic Sail and EDDC matrix, which can be used to reduce the risk of bankruptcy of small and medium enterprises. The article presents an example of using these workink- tools for a small enterprise, specialized in financial and economical consulting.

  11. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  12. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  13. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  14. Knowledge and tools formalization in the accidental risks domain (DRA-35) {omega}-13 Boilover; Formalisation du savoir et des outils dans le domaine des risques accidentels (DRA-35) {omega}-13 BOILOVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patej, S

    2003-03-15

    Since 2000 the Ministry of the environment is financing a studies and researches program, called since 2003 ''formalization of the knowledge and tools in the domain of the major risks'' DRA-35. The aim of this program is to realize a document formalizing the INERIS expertise in the domain of the accidental risks: the physical phenomenon implied in the accidents, the risks analysis and control, the methodological aspects for the realization of regulations. This report presents the study of the boilover physical phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  15. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Cancer Trials Designed to Delay or Avoid Radiotherapy: I. Basic Concepts and First Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard G.; Machin, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, although irradiation after disease progression is an important event, patients who have disease progression may decline radiotherapy (RT), or those without disease progression may opt for elective RT. To accurately describe the cumulative need for RT in such instances, it is crucial to account for these distinct events and to evaluate how each contributes to the delay or advancement of irradiation via a competing risks analysis. Methods and Materials: We describe the summary of competing events in such trials using competing risks methods based on cumulative incidence functions and Gray's test. The results obtained are contrasted with standard survival methods based on Kaplan-Meier curves, cause-specific hazard functions and log-rank test. Results: The Kaplan-Meier method overestimates all event-specific rates. The cause-specific hazard analysis showed reduction in hazards for all events (A: RT after progression; B: no RT after progression; C: elective RT) among children with ependymoma. For event A, a higher cumulative incidence was reported for ependymoma. Although Gray's test failed to detect any difference (p = 0.331) between histologic subtypes, the log-rank test suggested marginal evidence (p = 0.057). Similarly, for event C, the log-rank test found stronger evidence of reduction in hazard among those with ependymoma (p = 0.005) as compared with Gray's test (p = 0.086). Conclusions: To evaluate treatment differences, failing to account for competing risks using appropriate methodology may lead to incorrect interpretations.

  16. Group differences in risk across three domains using an expanded measure of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight associations between sexual orientation and risk outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood using an expanded measure of sexual orientation. Recent data indicate higher levels of risk behavior in a newly identified population, mostly heterosexuals, as compared to heterosexuals. Comparisons among groups using an expanded measure of sexual orientation such as this, however, often do not include all possible groups or may restrict comparisons between groups. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); participants identified as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay, or gay. Main risk outcomes were parental mistreatment, home displacement, thoughts of suicide, depressive symptoms, frequency of drinking, and delinquency. A priori planned comparisons examined differences between: (a) heterosexual vs. mostly heterosexual, (b) gay vs. mostly gay, (c) mostly heterosexual vs. bisexual, (d) mostly gay vs. bisexual, (e) mostly heterosexual vs. mostly gay, (f) heterosexual vs. gay, (g) heterosexual vs. bisexual, and (h) gay vs. bisexual. Mostly heterosexual youth were at significantly greater risk than heterosexual youth on all outcomes but did not differ from bisexual or mostly gay youth. Heterosexuals were at lower risk as compared to mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals. This study provides further evidence of differential risk associations for sexual minorities.

  17. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  18. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  19. Avoidance of Cow's Milk-Based Formula for At-Risk Infants Does Not Reduce Development of Celiac Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytinen, Mila; Savilahti, Erkki; Virtanen, Suvi M; Härkönen, Taina; Ilonen, Jorma; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Uibo, Raivo; Vaarala, Outi; Åkerblom, Hans K; Knip, Mikael

    2017-10-01

    Feeding during the first months of life might affect risk for celiac disease. Individuals with celiac disease or type 1 diabetes have been reported to have high titers of antibodies against cow's milk proteins. Avoidance of cow's milk-based formula for infants with genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes reduced the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies. We performed a randomized controlled trial in the same population to study whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula reduced the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity or celiac disease. We performed a double-blind controlled trial of 230 infants with HLA-defined predisposition to type 1 diabetes and at least 1 family member with type 1 diabetes. The infants were randomly assigned to groups fed a casein hydrolysate formula (n = 113) or a conventional formula (control, n = 117) whenever breast milk was not available during the first 6-8 months of life. Serum samples were collected over a median time period of 10 years and analyzed for antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2A) using a radiobinding assay, to endomysium using an immunofluorescence assay, and antibodies to a deamidated gliadine peptide using an immunofluorometry assay. Duodenal biopsies were collected if levels of anti-TG2A exceeded 20 relative units. Cow's milk antibodies were measured during the first 2 years of life. Of the 189 participants analyzed for anti-TG2A, 25 (13.2%) tested positive. Of the 230 study participants observed, 10 (4.3%) were diagnosed with celiac disease. We did not find any significant differences at the cumulative incidence of anti-TG2A positivity (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-2.54) or celiac disease (hazard ratio, 4.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-21.02) between the casein hydrolysate and cow's milk groups. Children who developed celiac disease had increased titers of cow's milk antibodies before the appearance of anti-TG2A or celiac disease. In a randomized

  20. The spatial domain of wildfire risk and response in the wildland urban interface in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In order to quantify the risks from fire at the wildland urban interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of the 999 fires in the Sydney region we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire's weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting >2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances >10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the region. We examined whether the management responses to wildfires are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of wildfires with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than wildfires as a whole, but further away than wildfires that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). Overall, 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.

  1. A polygenic risk score analysis of psychosis endophenotypes across brain functional, structural, and cognitive domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranlund, Siri; Calafato, Stella; Thygesen, Johan H.; Lin, Kuang; Cahn, Wiepke; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Díez, Álvaro; Di Forti, Marta; Iyegbe, Conrad; Jablensky, Assen; Jones, Rebecca; Hall, Mei Hua; Kahn, Rene; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kravariti, Eugenia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Picchioni, Marco M; Prata, Diana P.; Rujescu, Dan; Schulze, Katja; Shaikh, Madiha; Toulopoulou, Timothea; van Haren, Neeltje; van Os, Jim; Vassos, Evangelos; Walshe, Muriel; Lewis, Cathryn M; Murray, Robin M.; Powell, John F.; Bramon, Elvira

    This large multi-center study investigates the relationships between genetic risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and multi-modal endophenotypes for psychosis. The sample included 4,242 individuals; 1,087 patients with psychosis, 822 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients, and 2,333

  2. Are fear-avoidance beliefs in low back pain patients a risk factor for low physical activity or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Lehr, Dirk; Chenot, Jean-François; Keller, Stefan; Luckmann, Judith; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Baum, Erika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Pfingsten, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan; Kochen, Michael M.; Becker, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The assumption that low back pain (LBP) patients suffer from “disuse” as a consequence of high fear-avoidance beliefs is currently under debate. A secondary analysis served to investigate whether fear-avoidance beliefs are associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with the physical activity level (PAL) in LBP patients. Methods: A total of 787 individuals (57% acute and 43% chronic LBP) were followed up over a period of one year with measurements of fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity level. Fear-avoidance beliefs concerning physical activity were measured by the physical-activity subscale of the FABQ (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), the physical activity level was assessed in weighted metabolic equivalents (MET) hours/week with a German self-report questionnaire. Data were investigated by structural equation modelling in a cross-lagged panel design for the whole sample and separately for acute and chronic LBP. Results: The acute and chronic sub sample increased their total physical activity level significantly after one year. The structural equation modelling results did not support the disuse-aspect inherent in the fear-avoidance belief model. Cross-lagged path coefficients were low (.04 and .05 respectively) and, therefore, did not allow to predict final physical activity by initial fear-avoidance beliefs or vice versa. Discussion: Consequently, due to missing links between fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity in a longitudinal design, the assumptions of the fear-avoidance belief model have to be questioned. These findings are in line with other investigations published recently. Most probably, “fear-avoidance belief” represents a cognitive scheme that does not limit activity per se, but only is directed to the avoidance of specific movements. PMID:19742047

  3. ‘Let’s Get Sexting’: Risk, Power, Sex and Criminalisation in the Moral Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Lee; Thomas Crofts; Michael Salter; Sanja Milivojevic; Alyce McGovern

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the criminalisation and governance of sexting among young people. While the focus is on Australian jurisdictions, the article places debates and anxieties about sexting and young people in a broader analysis around concerns about new technologies, child sexual abuse, and the risks associated with childhood sexuality. The article argues that these broader social, cultural and moral anxieties have created an environment where rational debate and policy making around teen s...

  4. [Perceived risks and victimization of military and civil police in the public (in)security domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Constantino, Patrícia

    2007-11-01

    This study was based on a larger survey on the socioeconomic, quality-of-life, occupational, and health characteristics of military and civil police in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study triangulated quantitative methods (an anonymous questionnaire in a random sample of clusters involving 46 police units and 2,678 police force members) and qualitative ones (18 focus groups with 143 police force members, 24 individual semi-structured interviews, and field observations). The article specifically approaches the issues of victimization and perceived risks among on-duty and off-duty police. Data were processed and analyzed according to risk-related variables. We performed a content analysis, comparing strata within and between police forces, according to thematic lines. This empirical approach is supported by secondary data analyses. According to our analysis, the police are the greatest victims in the performance of their duties, especially military police and those from both forces involved in direct law enforcement activities. Different variables are associated with risk in the two forces, with an emphasis on work conditions and especially involvement in other activities during their official off-duty time.

  5. Visualization of nano risk research field to clarify domains year by year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yasuto; Hayashi, Takeshi; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tomobe, Hironori; Kajikawa, Yuya; Matsushima, Katsumori

    2009-01-01

    With rising interest of nano technology R and D, nano risk researches have been greatly studied recently. They attract much attention since influence of nano products in the society is not well-known. Now the current state of nano risk research field is not fully investigated, and the object is overviewing this structure until 2008 and predicting the direction of next-coming studies. Nano risk 1611 papers were searched out with certain query and further refinement. And these papers were clustered by bibliometric method. The selected papers were clustered to seven parts and visually seen as aggregated blocks. Each cluster was labeled with proper name by analyzing in detail and the content of each cluster was classified with three terms, i.e. 'Material', 'Hazard' and 'Kinetics'. The biggest cluster was cluster no. 0 'atmospheric nanoparticles', and secondly cluster no. 1 'nanoparticles used in imaging', thirdly cluster no. 2 'toxicity of manufactured nano materials'. Furthermore, historical trend of the number of papers of each cluster was studied year by year. From the all results, short-term future predicting was performed by examining titles of papers or transition of the number of papers in each cluster and by watching the cluster position and gaps between clusters.

  6. Association between ADAM metallopeptidase domain 33 gene polymorphism and risk of childhood asthma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F J; Zou, L Y; Tong, D M; Lu, X Y; Li, J; Deng, C B

    2017-08-31

    This study aimed to investigate the association between ADAM metallopeptidase domain 33 (ADAM33) gene polymorphisms and the risk of childhood asthma. The relevant studies about the relationship between ADAM33 gene polymorphisms and childhood asthma were searched from electronic databases and the deadline of retrieval was May 2016. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADAM33 (rs511898, rs2280092, rs3918396, rs528557, rs2853209, rs44707, rs2280091 and rs2280089) were analyzed based on several models including the allele, codominant, recessive and dominant models. The results showed that the ADAM33 rs2280091 polymorphism in all four genetic models was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. Positive associations were also found between the polymorphisms rs2280090, rs2787094, rs44707 and rs528557 and childhood asthma in some genetic models. This meta-analysis suggested that ADAM33 polymorphisms rs2280091, rs2280090, rs2787094, rs44707 and rs528557 were significantly associated with a high risk of childhood asthma.

  7. ‘Let’s Get Sexting’: Risk, Power, Sex and Criminalisation in the Moral Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the criminalisation and governance of sexting among young people. While the focus is on Australian jurisdictions, the article places debates and anxieties about sexting and young people in a broader analysis around concerns about new technologies, child sexual abuse, and the risks associated with childhood sexuality. The article argues that these broader social, cultural and moral anxieties have created an environment where rational debate and policy making around teen sexting has been rendered almost impossible. Not only has the voice of young people themselves been silenced in the public, political and media discourse about sexting, but any understanding about the differing behaviours and subsequent harms that constitute teen sexting has been lost. All the while, sexting has been rendered a pleasurable if somewhat risky pastime in an adult cultural context lending weight to the argument that teen sexting is often a subterranean expression of activities that are broadly accepted. The article concludes that the current approaches to regulating teen sexting, along with the emergence of sexting as a legitimate adult activity, may have had the perverse consequence of making teen sexting an even more attractive teenage risk taking activity.

  8. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  9. Role of anti-domain 1-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies in the diagnosis and risk stratification of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, A-S; Musial, J; Devreese, K M J

    2016-09-01

    Essentials Antibodies to domain 1 of β2 glycoprotein I (aD1) are a subset of antiphospholipid antibodies. We evaluated the added diagnostic value of an automated aD1 assay in antiphospholipid syndrome. AD1 IgG correctly classifies patients at risk for thrombosis. Agreement between aD1 and aβ2GPI IgG is high, limiting the added value of aD1 in our setting. Click to hear Professor de Groot's perspective on new mechanistic understanding in antiphospholipid syndrome Background Laboratory diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) includes lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anticardiolipin (aCL) or anti-β2 glycoprotein I (aβ2 GPI) antibodies. Antibodies targeting domain 1 of β2 GPI (aD1) constitute a pathogenic subset of autoantibodies. Objectives In this cohort study, we determined the clinical performance characteristics, additional diagnostic value and the contribution to APS risk stratification of an automated aD1 assay. Patients/Methods LAC, aCL, aβ2 GPI and aD1 IgG were measured in 101 APS patients, 123 patients with autoimmune disorders, 82 diseased controls and 120 healthy controls. aD1 antibodies were detected by QUANTA Flash(®) Beta2GPI-Domain 1 chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results With a cut-off value of 20.0 CU, the aD1 IgG assay identifies APS patients in a clinically affected patient cohort with a sensitivity of 53.5% and specificity of 98.8%. It implied a high odds ratio (OR) for clinical events (OR, 17.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.1-40.5). aD1 IgG did not add diagnostic value to the formal aPL panel because aβ2 GPI IgG was nearly as specific but more sensitive for APS (sensitivity 56.4%) with a higher OR for clinical events (36.2; 95% CI, 11.1-117.9). High aD1 titers identify triple-positive patients and patients with thrombosis in a β2 GPI-dependent LAC-positive population. Agreement between aD1 IgG and aβ2 GPI IgG was high (positive and negative agreement 91.7% and 98.4%, respectively). Conclusion Detection of aD1 IgG correctly classifies

  10. Managing chronic conditions care across primary care and hospital systems: lessons from an Australian Hospital Avoidance Risk Program using the Flinders Chronic Condition Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Zabeen, Sara; Smith, David; Wilson, Ellen; Miller, Cathie; Battersby, Malcolm; Masman, Kevin

    2017-08-24

    Objective The study aimed to determine the impact of the Flinders Chronic Condition Management Program for chronic condition self-management care planning and how to improve its use with Bendigo Health's Hospital Admission Risk Program (HARP). Methods A retrospective analysis of hospital admission data collected by Bendigo Health from July 2012 to September 2013 was undertaken. Length of stay during admission and total contacts post-discharge by hospital staff for 253 patients with 644 admissions were considered as outcome variables. For statistical modelling we used the generalised linear model. Results The combination of the HARP and Flinders Program was able to achieve significant reductions in hospital admissions and non-significant reduction in emergency department presentations and length of stay. The generalised linear model predicted that vulnerable patient groups such as those with heart disease (P=0.037) and complex needs (Pmanage chronic conditions through a greater focus on coordination and integration of care across primary care and hospital systems. In support of HARP, self-management interventions such as the Flinders Program aim to help individuals better manage their medical treatment and cope with the impact of the condition on their physical and mental wellbeing and thus reduce health services utilisation. What does this paper add? This paper sheds light on which patients might be more or less likely to benefit from the combination of the HARP and Flinders Program, with regard to their impact on reductions in hospital admissions, emergency department presentations and length of stay. This study also sheds light on how the Flinders Program could be better targeted towards and implemented among high-need and high-cost patients to lessen chronic disease burden on Australia's health system. What are the implications for practitioners? Programs targeting vulnerable populations and applying evidence-based chronic condition management and self

  11. Does atlas-based autosegmentation of neck levels require subsequent manual contour editing to avoid risk of severe target underdosage? A dosimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voet, Peter W.J.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Teguh, David N.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of not editing auto-contours of the elective neck and organs at risk (OAR), generated with atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS) (Elekta software) for head and neck cancer patients. Materials and methods: For nine patients ABAS auto-contours and auto-contours edited by two observers were available. Based on the non-edited auto-contours clinically acceptable IMRT plans were constructed (designated 'ABAS plans'). These plans were then evaluated for the two edited structure sets, by quantifying the percentage of the neck-PTV receiving more than 95% of the prescribed dose (V 95 ) and the near-minimum dose (D 99 ) in the neck PTV. Dice coefficients and mean contour distances were calculated to quantify the similarity of ABAS auto-contours with the structure sets edited by observer 1 and observer 2. To study the dosimetric importance of editing OAR auto-contours a new IMRT plan was generated for each patient-observer combination, based on the observer's edited CTV and the non-edited salivary gland auto-contours. For each plan mean doses for the non-edited glands were compared with doses for the same glands edited by the observer. Results: For both observers, edited neck CTVs were larger than ABAS auto-contours (p ≤ 0.04), by a mean of 8.7%. When evaluating ABAS plans on the PTVs of the edited structure sets, V 95 reduced by 7.2% ± 5.4% (1 SD) (p 99 was 14.2 Gy (range 1-54 Gy). Even for Dice coefficients >0.8 and mean contour distances 99 up to 11 Gy were observed. For treatment plans based on observer PTVs and non-edited auto-contoured salivary glands, the mean doses in the edited glands differed by only -0.6 Gy ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Editing of auto-contoured neck CTVs generated by ABAS is required to avoid large underdosages in target volumes. Often used similarity measures for evaluation of auto-contouring algorithms, such as dice coefficients, do not predict well for expected PTV underdose

  12. Anesthesiologists’ and surgeons’ perceptions about routine pre-operative testing in low-risk patients: application of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to identify factors that influence physicians’ decisions to order pre-operative tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patey Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine pre-operative tests for anesthesia management are often ordered by both anesthesiologists and surgeons for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of behaviour and identify potential behaviour change interventions. In this study, the TDF is used to explore anaesthesiologists’ and surgeons’ perceptions of ordering routine tests for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. Methods Sixteen clinicians (eleven anesthesiologists and five surgeons throughout Ontario were recruited. An interview guide based on the TDF was developed to identify beliefs about pre-operative testing practices. Content analysis of physicians’ statements into the relevant theoretical domains was performed. Specific beliefs were identified by grouping similar utterances of the interview participants. Relevant domains were identified by noting the frequencies of the beliefs reported, presence of conflicting beliefs, and perceived influence on the performance of the behaviour under investigation. Results Seven of the twelve domains were identified as likely relevant to changing clinicians’ behaviour about pre-operative test ordering for anesthesia management. Key beliefs were identified within these domains including: conflicting comments about who was responsible for the test-ordering (Social/professional role and identity; inability to cancel tests ordered by fellow physicians (Beliefs about capabilities and social influences; and the problem with tests being completed before the anesthesiologists see the patient (Beliefs about capabilities and Environmental context and resources. Often, tests were ordered by an anesthesiologist based on who may be the attending anesthesiologist on the day of surgery while surgeons ordered tests they thought anesthesiologists may need (Social influences. There were also conflicting comments about the potential

  13. Anesthesiologists' and surgeons' perceptions about routine pre-operative testing in low-risk patients: application of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify factors that influence physicians' decisions to order pre-operative tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, Andrea M; Islam, Rafat; Francis, Jill J; Bryson, Gregory L; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-06-09

    Routine pre-operative tests for anesthesia management are often ordered by both anesthesiologists and surgeons for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of behaviour and identify potential behaviour change interventions. In this study, the TDF is used to explore anaesthesiologists' and surgeons' perceptions of ordering routine tests for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. Sixteen clinicians (eleven anesthesiologists and five surgeons) throughout Ontario were recruited. An interview guide based on the TDF was developed to identify beliefs about pre-operative testing practices. Content analysis of physicians' statements into the relevant theoretical domains was performed. Specific beliefs were identified by grouping similar utterances of the interview participants. Relevant domains were identified by noting the frequencies of the beliefs reported, presence of conflicting beliefs, and perceived influence on the performance of the behaviour under investigation. Seven of the twelve domains were identified as likely relevant to changing clinicians' behaviour about pre-operative test ordering for anesthesia management. Key beliefs were identified within these domains including: conflicting comments about who was responsible for the test-ordering (Social/professional role and identity); inability to cancel tests ordered by fellow physicians (Beliefs about capabilities and social influences); and the problem with tests being completed before the anesthesiologists see the patient (Beliefs about capabilities and Environmental context and resources). Often, tests were ordered by an anesthesiologist based on who may be the attending anesthesiologist on the day of surgery while surgeons ordered tests they thought anesthesiologists may need (Social influences). There were also conflicting comments about the potential consequences associated with reducing testing, from negative

  14. Cognitive-behavioral mechanisms in a pain-avoidance and a pain-persistence treatment for high-risk fibromyalgia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Thieme, K.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The heterogeneity of cognitive-behavioral patterns in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) has been proposed to underlie the variability in treatment outcomes. It has previously been shown that pain-avoidance and pain-persistence treatments tailored to the patient's pattern are effective in

  15. Nuclear import of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via hydrophobic interactions with Nup62

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, Jeremy; Onder, Zeynep; Moroianu, Junona, E-mail: moroianu@bc.edu

    2013-11-15

    We previously discovered that nuclear import of high risk HPV16 E7 is mediated by a cNLS located within the zinc-binding domain via a pathway that is independent of karyopherins/importins (Angeline et al., 2003; Knapp et al., 2009). In this study we continued our characterization of the cNLS and nuclear import pathway of HPV16 E7. We find that an intact zinc-binding domain is essential for the cNLS function in mediating nuclear import of HPV16 E7. Mutagenesis of cysteine residues to alanine in each of the two CysXXCys motifs involved in zinc-binding changes the nuclear localization of the EGFP-16E7 and 2xEGFP-16E7 mutants. We further discover that a patch of hydrophobic residues, {sub 65}LRLCV{sub 69}, within the zinc-binding domain of HPV16 E7 mediates its nuclear import via hydrophobic interactions with the FG domain of the central channel nucleoporin Nup62. - Highlights: • An intact zinc-binding domain is essential for the nuclear localization of HPV16 E7. • Identification of a hydrophobic patch that is critical for the nuclear import of HPV16 E7. • HPV16 E7 interacts via its zinc-binding domain with the FG domain of Nup62.

  16. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  17. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Collision avoidance for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) traveling at high relative speeds is a challenging task. It requires both the detection of a possible collision...

  18. Influence able and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rott, G.; Boecker, F.

    2014-01-01

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influence able or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemo static valve.

  19. The nuclear localization of low risk HPV11 E7 protein mediated by its zinc binding domain is independent of nuclear import receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioli, Zachary; McKee, Courtney H.; Leszczynski, Anna; Onder, Zeynep; Hannah, Erin C.; Mamoor, Shahan; Crosby, Lauren; Moroianu, Junona

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear import of low risk HPV11 E7 protein using 1) transfection assays in HeLa cells with EGFP fusion plasmids containing 11E7 and its domains and 2) nuclear import assays in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells with GST fusion proteins containing 11E7 and its domains. The EGFP-11E7 and EGFP-11cE7 39-98 localized mostly to the nucleus. The GST-11E7 and GST-11cE7 39-98 were imported into the nuclei in the presence of either Ran-GDP or RanG19V-GTP mutant and in the absence of nuclear import receptors. This suggests that 11E7 enters the nucleus via a Ran-dependent pathway, independent of nuclear import receptors, mediated by a nuclear localization signal located in its C-terminal domain (cNLS). This cNLS contains the zinc binding domain consisting of two copies of Cys-X-X-Cys motif. Mutagenesis of Cys residues in these motifs changed the localization of the EGFP-11cE7/-11E7 mutants to cytoplasmic, suggesting that the zinc binding domain is essential for nuclear localization of 11E7.

  20. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2016-01-01

    Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered.

  1. Avoiding "culture rejection" in healthcare mergers and acquisitions: how New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services minimized the culture risk when forming Unison Health and Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Among the requirements for a successful merger or acquisition are strategic rationale, rigorous due diligence, the right price and revenue and cost synergies. However, bridging the culture gap between organizations is frequently overlooked. The leaders of New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services explicitly considered culture in their merger to form Unison Health and Community Services, and they used employee engagement surveys to assess culture in their merger planning and post-merger integration. How Unison Health leaders avoided the risk of culture rejection to achieve a successful merger, and the lessons learned from their experience, is the focus of this article.

  2. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  3. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  4. Can we avoid dose escalation for intermediate-risk prostate cancer in the setting of short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakespeare TP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Shakespeare,1,2 Shea W Wilcox,1 Noel J Aherne1,2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, 2Faculty of Medicine, Rural Clinical School, The University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia Background: Both dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT improve the outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Despite this, there are only few reports evaluating DE-EBRT for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant ADT, and virtually no studies investigating dose escalation >74 Gy in this setting. We aimed to determine whether DE-EBRT >74 Gy improved the outcomes for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who received neoadjuvant ADT. Findings: In our institution, patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant ADT and DE-EBRT, with doses sequentially increasing from 74 Gy to 76 Gy and then to 78 Gy between 2006 and 2012. We identified 435 patients treated with DE-EBRT and ADT, with a median follow-up of 70 months. For the 74 Gy, 76 Gy, and 78 Gy groups, five-year biochemical disease-free survival rates were 95.0%, 97.8%, and 95.3%, respectively; metastasis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 100.0%, and 98.6%, respectively; and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 100% for all three dose levels. There was no significant benefit for dose escalation either on univariate or multivariate analysis for any outcome. Conclusion: There was no benefit for DE-EBRT >74 Gy in our cohort of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant ADT. Given the higher risks of toxicity associated with dose escalation, it may be feasible to omit dose escalation in this group of patients. Randomized studies evaluating dose de-escalation should be considered. Keywords: radiotherapy, IMRT, dose, dose escalation, dose de-escalation, androgen deprivation therapy

  5. Re-conceptualising prenatal life stressors in predicting post-partum depression: cumulative-, specific-, and domain-specific approaches to calculating risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H; Tronick, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal life stress predicts post-partum depression (PPD); however, studies generally examine individual stressors (a specific approach) or the summation of such exposure (a cumulative approach) and their associations with PPD. Such approaches may oversimplify prenatal life stress as a risk factor for PPD. We evaluated approaches in assessing prenatal life stress as a predictor of PPD diagnosis, including a domain-specific approach that captures cumulative life stress while accounting for stress across different life stress domains: financial, relational, and physical health. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based survey, was used to analyse the association of prenatal life stressors with PPD diagnoses among 3566 New York City post-partum women. Specific stressors were not associated with PPD diagnosis after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Exposure to a greater number of stressors was associated with PPD diagnosis, even after adjusting for both sociodemographic variables and specific stressors [odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5, 6.7]. Individuals reporting a moderate-to-high number of financial problems along with a moderate-to-high number of physical problems were at greater odds of PPD (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2, 15.3); those with a moderate-to-high number of problems in all three domains were at over fivefold increased odds of PPD (OR = 5.5, CI = 1.1, 28.5). In assessing prenatal stress, clinicians should consider the extent to which stressors occur across different life domains; this association appears stronger with PPD diagnosis than simple assessments of individual stressors, which typically overestimate risk or cumulative exposures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. ["Integrity" in the healthcare system : Recognize and avoid risks: on dealing with the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians and the public prosecutors office].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Martin; Heinrich, Julia

    2018-05-24

    This article describes the introduction of the law to combat corruption in the healthcare system. The effects of the introduced penal regulations on the delivery of medical services is critically scrutinized and the associated procedures as well as indications for the course of action are presented. Knowledge of the relevant regulations and types of procedure is decisive for the penal, social legislative and professional conduct risk minimization.

  7. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user–object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  8. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  9. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  10. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  11. From 4P's to 4 E's – How to Avoid the Risk of Unbalancing the Marketing Mix in Today Hotel Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Epuran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No-one would doubt that hotel business owners are operating in dynamic and challenging times. The frameworks strategic marketers once used are also evolving embracing some of the changes in today’s technology and environment. Recently, Chairman and CEO of Ogilvy One Worldwide, Brian Fetherstonhaugh, advocated the replacement of the traditional marketing mix – known as the “4 P’s” with a modern day version – the “4 E’s”. Acknowledging these changes, the new mix elements should be integrated into marketing plans for more comprehensive and appropriate strategy development which can contribute to diminish the risks in hotels contemporary economy. Some innovative travel programs will be presented to better illustrate this issue.

  12. Concrete domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  13. Domain Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  14. Higher risk of death among MEN1 patients with mutations in the JunD interacting domain: a Groupe d'etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Julien; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Faivre, Laurence; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Calender, Alain; Murat, Arnaud; Giraud, Sophie; Niccoli, Patricia; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Barlier, Anne; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Clauser, Eric; Tabarin, Antoine; Parfait, Béatrice; Chabre, Olivier; Castermans, Emilie; Beckers, Albert; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Le Bras, Morgane; Delemer, Brigitte; Bouchard, Philippe; Guilhem, Isabelle; Rohmer, Vincent; Goichot, Bernard; Caron, Philippe; Baudin, Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Groussin, Lionel; Du Boullay, Hélène; Weryha, Georges; Lecomte, Pierre; Penfornis, Alfred; Bihan, Hélène; Archambeaud, Françoise; Kerlan, Véronique; Duron, Françoise; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Vergès, Bruno; Rodier, Michel; Renard, Michel; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Binquet, Christine; Goudet, Pierre

    2013-05-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Although genotype-phenotype studies have so far failed to identify any statistical correlations, some families harbor recurrent tumor patterns. The function of MENIN is unclear, but has been described through the discovery of its interacting partners. Mutations in the interacting domains of MENIN functional partners have been shown to directly alter its regulation abilities. We report on a cohort of MEN1 patients from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients with a molecular diagnosis and a clinical follow-up, totaling 262 families and 806 patients, were included. Associations between mutation type, location or interacting factors of the MENIN protein and death as well as the occurrence of MEN1-related tumors were tested using a frailty Cox model to adjust for potential heterogeneity across families. Accounting for the heterogeneity across families, the overall risk of death was significantly higher when mutations affected the JunD interacting domain (adjusted HR = 1.88: 95%-CI = 1.15-3.07). Patients had a higher risk of death from cancers of the MEN1 spectrum (HR = 2.34; 95%-CI = 1.23-4.43). This genotype-phenotype correlation study confirmed the lack of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. However, patients with mutations affecting the JunD interacting domain had a higher risk of death secondary to a MEN1 tumor and should thus be considered for surgical indications, genetic counseling and follow-up.

  15. Population avoidance in aimpoint selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    In most past studies of the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons vs the amount of collateral damage produced (civilian casualties), civilians have been congregated into idealized shaped towns and cities, and criteria for city avoidance were usually formulated in terms relating to a town's population. This treatment was sufficient in those studies where weapon yields were so large that great numbers of civilians were almost always placed at risk. As further studies developed, demonstrating that real progress could be made in reducing the numbers of civilians potentially placed at risk in tactical nuclear warfare situations, the inadequacies of the present treatment became obvious. The need existed for a more detailed description of the distribution of civilians. The method described determines the number of civilians at risk for a weapon under consideration being detonated at a given point and displays a symbol relating to the numbers at risk on a map or a transparency that overlays a 1:50,000 map of the region. Thus, a weapons planner making the selection of aimpoints for inflicting the necessary military damage required has the means to reduce potential civilian casualties by properly choosing the weapon and aimpoints

  16. Budgetary prospects in the region in 2014–2016: implementation of the President’s social decrees or avoidance of default risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrovna Pechenskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Budget Code the budget process in the Russian Federation includes the following stages: drafting of a budget project; consideration and approval of the budget; budget execution; preparation of a report on the budget execution and its approval. The given stages are carried out in a strict sequence and are closely interlinked. The approved budget is in force during the budget period, which in the Russian Federation lasts 12 months from January 1 to December 31. The budget is adopted for the mediumterm period of three years. On December 11, 2013 the Vologda Oblast Legislative Assembly members adopted the oblast budget for 2014 and for the planned period of 2015 and 2016 in the final reading. According to the Chairman of the Budget and Taxation Committee of the Vologda Oblast Legislative Assembly A.V. Kanaev, the project of the oblast budget is drafted in difficult economic conditions due to a negative impact of a significant public debt, a need to implement the May Decrees of the President and provision of local budgets balance. The article analyses the Vologda Oblast budget prospects for a three-year period. It is indicated that the regional budget for the upcoming budget cycle differs from the budgets of the previous years, since it is set in the program structure of expenses on the basis of 21 state programs approved by the Oblast Government. Budget execution is to reveal advantages and disadvantages of this innovation. The article states that the most significant risk for the regional budget system is a 2014 expected excess of the threshold limit of the state debt by 2% regarding to their own revenues volume. All the described above is to happen against the background of tensed inter-budgetary relations with the Federal Centre, caused by the decrease in revenue (in relation to gross domestic product and the federal budget deficit rise. The article singles out key qualitative and quantitative properties of the budget cycle

  17. Use of the Theoretical Domains Framework to evaluate factors driving successful implementation of the Accelerated Chest pain Risk Evaluation (ACRE) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoien, Wade; Page, Katie; Parsonage, William; Ashover, Sarah; Milburn, Tanya; Cullen, Louise

    2016-10-12

    The translation of healthcare research into practice is typically challenging and limited in effectiveness. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) identifies 12 domains of behaviour determinants which can be used to understand the principles of behavioural change, a key factor influencing implementation. The Accelerated Chest pain Risk Evaluation (ACRE) project has successfully translated research into practice, by implementing an intervention to improve the assessment of low to intermediate risk patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with chest pain. The aims of this paper are to describe use of the TDF to determine which factors successfully influenced implementation and to describe use of the TDF as a tool to evaluate implementation efforts and which domains are most relevant to successful implementation. A 30-item questionnaire targeting clinicians was developed using the TDF as a guide. Questions encompassed ten of the domains of the TDF: Knowledge; Skills; Social/professional role and identity; Beliefs about capabilities; Optimism; Beliefs about consequences; Intentions; Memory, attention and decision processes; Environmental context and resources; and Social influences. Sixty-three of 176 stakeholders (36 %) responded to the questionnaire. Responses for all scales showed that respondents were highly favourable to all aspects of the implementation. Scales with the highest mean responses were Intentions, Knowledge, and Optimism, suggesting that initial education and awareness strategies around the ACRE project were effective. Scales with the lowest mean responses were Environmental context and resources, and Social influences, perhaps highlighting that implementation planning could have benefitted from further consideration of the factors underlying these scales. The ACRE project was successful, and therefore, a perfect case study for understanding factors which drive implementation success. The overwhelmingly positive response suggests that it

  18. Relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Inger, Kerry Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...

  19. CEO Power, Corporate Tax Avoidance and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    GATOT SOEPRIYANTO

    2017-01-01

    My thesis investigates the association between CEO power, corporate tax avoidance and tax aggressiveness, using two organizational theory perspectives: self-interest and stewardship. I find that a powerful CEO engages in less corporate tax avoidance activities, which lends credence to the risk minimization motive of the stewardship perspective. My findings on the association between CEO power and tax aggressiveness show that powerful CEOs avoid risky tax avoidance strategies that expose a fir...

  20. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  1. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  2. Avoiding Medical Identity Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical records that can plague your medical and financial life for years, or even put your health at risk. ... Monitor your health records closely and address any errors quickly Share personal and health insurance information only ...

  3. Acculturation and Adjustment in Latino Adolescents: How Cultural Risk Factors and Assets Influence Multiple Domains of Adolescent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L.; Bacallao, Martica L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample…

  4. Stressors in Multiple Life-Domains and the Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors among African Americans during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martanez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and mental health outcomes have been associated with experiencing high levels of stress. Yet, little is known about the link between the nature of stressors, their accumulation over time, and the risk for externalizing and internalizing outcomes. Compared to the general population, African Americans are exposed to a disproportionate…

  5. Avoiding fraud risks associated with EHRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jeffrey R

    2010-07-01

    Fraud associated with electronic health records (EHRs) generally falls into two categories: inappropriate billing by healthcare providers and inappropriate access by a system's users. A provider's EHR system requires controls to be of any significant help in detecting such fraudulent activity, or in gathering transactional evidence should such activity be identified. To protect against potential EHR-related healthcare fraud, providers should follow the recommendations established in 2007 by RTI International for the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  7. Application of the Integrated Safety Assessment methodology to safety margins. Dynamic Event Trees, Damage Domains and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibánez, L.; Hortal, J.; Queral, C.; Gómez-Magán, J.; Sánchez-Perea, M.; Fernández, I.; Meléndez, E.; Expósito, A.; Izquierdo, J.M.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Villalba-Jabonero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology, developed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, has been applied to an analysis of Zion NPP for sequences with Loss of the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS). The ISA methodology proposal starts from the unfolding of the Dynamic Event Tree (DET). Results from this first step allow assessing the sequence delineation of standard Probabilistic Safety Analysis results. For some sequences of interest of the outlined DET, ISA then identifies the Damage Domain (DD). This is the region of uncertain times and/or parameters where a safety limit is exceeded, which indicates the occurrence of certain damage situation. This paper illustrates application of this concept obtained simulating sequences with MAAP and with TRACE. From information of simulation results of sequence transients belonging to the DD and the time-density probability distributions of the manual actions and of occurrence of stochastic phenomena, ISA integrates the dynamic reliability equations proposed to obtain the sequence contribution to the global Damage Exceedance Frequency (DEF). Reported results show a slight increase in the DEF for sequences investigated following a power uprate from 100% to 110%. This demonstrates the potential use of the method to help in the assessment of design modifications. - Highlights: • This paper illustrates an application of the ISA methodology to safety margins. • Dynamic Event Trees are useful tool for verifying the standard PSA Event Trees. • The ISA methodology takes into account the uncertainties in human action times. • The ISA methodology shows the Damage Exceedance Frequency increase in power uprates.

  8. Breast tissue composition and its dependence on demographic risk factors for breast cancer: non-invasive assessment by time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Taroni

    Full Text Available Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause. Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content, blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level, and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power. The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated.Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p < 0.05 and often p < 10-4, while oxygen saturation level and scattering parameters show significant dependence only on some conditions. Even when age-adjusted groups of subjects are compared, several optically derived parameters (and in particular always collagen and total hemoglobin content remain significantly different.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy can probe non-invasively breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc. and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk associated with breast density.

  9. Overall and domain-specific life satisfaction when living with familial Alzheimer's disease risk: A quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Mette; Graff, Caroline; Eriksdotter, Maria; Schuster, Marja; Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we explored life satisfaction and sense of coherence in relation to biopsychosocial variables in individuals at risk for the development of familial Alzheimer's disease. Forty nine individuals (response rate: 96%) were interviewed. Life satisfaction was found to be high for the majority of participants. Those who were older than the expected age of onset of disease, those satisfaction with life as a whole, psychological health, vocation, and economy. Women seem to be more vulnerable than men, and attention should be given to those who have not passed the age of expected symptom onset. Early and recurrent counseling and psychosocial support were found to be essential. Issues related to vocation and economy are areas of concern, and are closely associated with sense of coherence, life satisfaction, and psychological health. This study emphasizes the importance of professional teams working together with the patient and their families. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  11. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  12. Predictors of avoiding medical care and reasons for avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Viji Diane; Veazie, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Delayed medical care has negative health and economic consequences; interventions have focused on appraising symptoms, with limited success in reducing delay. To identify predictors of care avoidance and reasons for avoiding care. Using the Health Information National Trends Survey (2007), we conducted logistic regressions to identify predictors of avoiding medical visits deemed necessary by the respondents; and, we then conducted similar analyses on reasons given for avoidance behavior. Independent variables included geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, personal health, health behavior, health care system, and cognitive characteristics. Approximately one third of adults avoided doctor visits they had deemed necessary. Although unadjusted associations existed, avoiding needed care was not independently associated with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Avoidance behavior is characterized by low health self-efficacy, less experience with both quality care and getting help with uncertainty about health, having your feelings attended to by your provider, no usual source of care, negative affect, smoking daily, and fatalistic attitude toward cancer. Reasons elicited for avoidance include preference for self-care or alternative care, dislike or distrust of doctors, fear or dislike of medical treatments, time, and money; respondents also endorsed discomfort with body examinations, fear of having a serious illness, and thoughts of dying. Distinct predictors distinguish each of these reasons. Interventions to reduce patient delay could be improved by addressing the health-related behavioral, belief, experiential, and emotional traits associated with delay. Attention should also be directed toward the interpersonal communications between patients and providers.

  13. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  14. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  15. Formalization of knowledge and tools in the risks domain (DRA-35) {omega}-14. Safety of processes implementing powdery fuels; Formalisation du savoir et des outils dans le domaine des risques majeurs (DRA-35) {omega}-14. Securite des procedes mettant en oeuvre des pulverulents combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineaux, J.

    2004-12-15

    This document aims to present a state of the art of the today exhaustive INERIS knowledge concerning the processes implementing powdery fuels. It is a reference document in the framework of the prevention and protection domain against fire, explosion and auto-heating risks. The risks are presented in the first part. The second part discusses the regulatory framework and the last part details the concerned processes. (A.L.B.)

  16. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  17. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  18. Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Success 22 11.6 Exploitation Examples 22 11.7 Triage Table 22 12 Vehicle Autonomy ( Driverless Cars) 23 12.1 Introduction 23 12.2 Recommendation 24... Driverless Cars) 12.1 Introduction Autonomous vehicles have the ability to move without direct commands from an operator. They can navigate to a...lifestyle, and likely adoption mean that driverless cars will become an incredibly important technology. In addition, the potential for human harm and

  19. Domain Building or Risk Taking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin; Abrahamsen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic Countries are usually seen as the worlds must successful nations when it comes to gender equality, and the Scandinavian population in general appreciates values traditionally labeled feminine as caretaking and the quality of everyday life. However, the inequalities become obvious in sc...

  20. Association between quality domains and health care spending across physician networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Farah; Guan, Jun; Glazier, Richard H.; Brown, Adalsteinn; Bierman, Arlene S.; Croxford, Ruth; Stukel, Therese A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the more fundamental health policy questions is the relationship between health care quality and spending. A better understanding of these relationships is needed to inform health systems interventions aimed at increasing quality and efficiency of care. We measured 65 validated quality indicators (QI) across Ontario physician networks. QIs were aggregated into domains representing six dimensions of care: screening and prevention, evidence-based medications, hospital-community transitions (7-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician; 30-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician and specialist), potentially avoidable hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits, potentially avoidable readmissions and unplanned returns to the ED, and poor cancer end of life care. Each domain rate was computed as a weighted average of QI rates, weighting by network population at risk. We also measured overall and sector-specific per capita healthcare network spending. We evaluated the associations between domain rates, and between domain rates and spending using weighted correlations, weighting by network population at risk, using an ecological design. All indicators were measured using Ontario health administrative databases. Large variations were seen in timely hospital-community transitions and potentially avoidable hospitalizations. Networks with timely hospital-community transitions had lower rates of avoidable admissions and readmissions (r = -0.89, -0.58, respectively). Higher physician spending, especially outpatient primary care spending, was associated with lower rates of avoidable hospitalizations (r = -0.83) and higher rates of timely hospital-community transitions (r = 0.81) and moderately associated with lower readmission rates (r = -0.46). Investment in effective primary care services may help reduce burden on the acute care sector and associated expenditures. PMID:29614131

  1. "Leaving it to chance"-Passive risk taking in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruty Keinan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While risk research focuses on actions that put people at risk, this paper introduces the concept of ``passive risk''---risk brought on or magnified by inaction. We developed a scale measuring personal tendency for passive risk taking (PRT, validated it using a 150 undergraduate student sample, and obtained three factors indicating separate domains of passive risk taking: risk involving resources, medical risks and ethical risks. The scale has criterion validity, as it is correlated with reported passive risk taking in everyday life, and also has high test-retest reliability. While correlated with the DOSPERT scale, the PRT shows divergent validity from classic risk taking constructs like sensation seeking, and convergent validity with tendencies previously not linked to risk taking, such as procrastination and avoidance. The results indicate that passive risk is a separate and unique domain of risk taking, which merits further research to understand the cognitive and motivational mechanism perpetuating it.

  2. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  3. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-06

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  4. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  5. Gerenciamento de riscos na prática ortodôntica: como se proteger de eventuais problemas legais Risk management in orthodontic practice: how to avoid legal problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado Cruz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A relação profissional-paciente na área de Ortodontia e Ortopedia facial é bastante desgastante face à longa duração dos tratamentos e, por causa disso, muitas vezes essa relação pode se deteriorar trazendo prejuízos a ambas as partes. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho visa informar o leitor, em linguagem acessível, sobre os principais problemas jurídicos que podem envolver o ortodontista em sua prática profissional, nas esferas cíveis, criminais e trabalhistas, bem como dos Conselhos Regionais de Odontologia. METODOLOGIA: Traça um perfil da atividade profissional em Ortodontia, analisa deveres e direitos do profissional e do paciente e estabelece alguns conceitos de gerenciamento de riscos a serem incorporados à clínica diária. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: Além de trabalhar bem tecnicamente e com bom embasamento científico, o ortodontista atual deve saber como se prevenir de eventuais problemas legais. Este trabalho poderá servir como ferramenta de consulta para o estabelecimento de uma nova rotina clínica, administrativa e de relacionamento que seja mais segura do ponto de vista jurídico.INTRODUCTION: The professional relationship between the orthodontist and his patient is very consuming due to the long duration of clinical treatments. Frequently this relationship can be deteriorated causing damages to both sides. AIM: This paper aims to inform the reader, in an accessible language, about the main juridical problems that can involve the orthodontist in his practice, in the field of civil, criminal and labor law. METHODOLOGY: This paper draws the outline of professional activity in orthodontics, analyses obligations and rights of both orthodontists and patients and establishes some concepts of risk management that should be incorporated to the clinical practice. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Besides technically good and scientifically based work, orthodontists should know how to avoid legal problems. This paper can be an

  6. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  7. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  8. Predictable and avoidable: What’s next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Pezzuto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper (Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has been one of the first authors to write back in 2008 about the alleged "subprime mortgage loans fraud" which has triggered the 2008 financial crisis, in combination with multiple other complex, highly interrelated, and concurrent factors. The author has been also one of the first authors to report in that same working paper of 2008 (available on SSRN and titled "Miraculous Financial Engineering or Toxic Finance? The Genesis of the U.S. Subprime Mortgage Loans Crisis and its Consequences on the Global Financial Markets and Real Economy" the high probability of a Eurozone debt crisis, due to a number of unsolved structural macroeconomic problems, the lack of a single crisis resolution scheme, current account imbalances, and in some countries, housing bubbles/high private debt. In the book published in 2013 and titled "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", Dr. Ivo Pezzuto has exposed the root causes of the financial crisis in order to enables readers to understand that the crisis we have seen was predictable and should have been avoidable, and that a recurrence can be avoided, if lessons are learned and the right action taken. Almost one year after the publication of the book "Predictable and Avoidable: Repairing Economic Dislocation and Preventing the Recurrence of Crisis", the author has decided to write this working paper to explore what happened in the meantime to the financial markets and to the financial regulation implementation. Most of all, the author with this working paper aims to provide an updated analysis as strategist and scenario analyst on the topics addressed in the book "Predictable and Avoidable" based on a forward-looking perspective and on potential "tail risk" scenarios. The topics reported in this paper relate to financial crises; Government policy; financial regulation; corporate governance; credit risk management

  9. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Doman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking. Autonomous PL&HA builds upon the core GN&C capabilities developed to enable soft, controlled landings on the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies. Through the addition of a Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) function, precision landing within tens of meters of a map-based target is possible. The addition of a 3-D terrain mapping lidar sensor improves the probability of a safe landing via autonomous, real-time Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA). PL&HA significantly improves the probability of mission success and enhances access to sites of scientific interest located in challenging terrain. PL&HA can also utilize external navigation aids, such as navigation satellites and surface beacons. Advanced Lidar Sensors High precision ranging, velocimetry, and 3-D terrain mapping Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) TRN compares onboard reconnaissance data with real-time terrain imaging data to update the S/C position estimate Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) Generates a high-resolution, 3-D terrain map in real-time during the approach trajectory to identify safe landing targets Inertial Navigation During Terminal Descent High precision surface relative sensors enable accurate inertial navigation during terminal descent and a tightly controlled touchdown within meters of the selected safe landing target.

  11. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  12. Matrix- based logic for avoiding paradoxes and its paraconsistent alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Weingartner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article shows that there are consistent and decidable many- valued systems of propositional logic which satisfy two or all the three criteria for non- trivial inconsistent theories by da Costa (1974. The weaker one of these paraconsistent system is also able to avoid a series of paradoxes which come up when classical logic is applied to empirical sciences. These paraconsistent systems are based on a 6- valued system of propositional logic for avoiding difficulties in several domains of empirical science (Weingartner (2009.

  13. Food acquisition and predator avoidance in a Neotropical rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suselbeek, Lennart; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Hirsch, Ben T.; Kays, Roland; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Jansen, Patrick A.

    Foraging activity in animals reflects a compromise between acquiring food and avoiding predation. The risk allocation hypothesis predicts that prey animals optimize this balance by concentrating their foraging activity at times of relatively low predation risk, as much as their energy status

  14. Food aquisition and predator avoidance in a Neotropical rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suselbeek, L.; Emsens, W.J.; Hirsch, B.T.; Kays, R.; Rowcliffe, J.M.; Zamore-Gutierrez, V.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging activity in animals reflects a compromise between acquiring food and avoiding predation. The Risk Allocation Hypothesis predicts that prey animals optimize this balance by concentrating their foraging activity at times of relatively low predation risk, as much as their energy status

  15. How to avoid sedation complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure patient safety, it is crucial that the airway is safeguarded. The single most important responsibility is to protect it. An unobstructed airway, with intact protective reflexes and respiratory drive, is essential to avoid complications. In some procedures, e.g. dental, the airway may need to be shared with the surgeon.

  16. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  17. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  18. Karakteristik Eksekutif Terhadap Tax Avoidance Dengan Leverage Sebagai Variabel Intervening

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina, Verani; Natalia, Maria; Debbianita, Debbianita

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to examine the influence of the executive characteristic on corporate tax avoidance. Risktaker’s executive tended to be more courageous and aggressive in taking decision related to the tax. On thecontrary, the risk averse executive tended to be carefully (Low, 2006). This research used leverage as interveningvariable. Therefore, there was an assumption that the executive characteristic determined the corporateleverage which then influenced their tax avoidance in the compan...

  19. BDNF, impulsiveness and avoidant focused coping in suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    AMBRUS, LIVIA

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important protein for neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. In this thesis the role of BDNF, in suicidal behaviour was investigated with focus on possible risk factors for suicidal behaviour such as avoidant focused coping, dysfuntional personality traits like impulsiveness and hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis.Paper I: The association between avoidant focused coping and the BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism in two differen...

  20. Avoiding Complications with MPFL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R

    2018-05-12

    To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.

  1. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe,Lisa; Malhi,Gin

    2018-01-01

    Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective t...

  2. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD, schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. Keywords: avoidant personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, social cognition, psychotherapy, attachment

  3. Mechanism of avoiding little rip

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAI Xianghua; XI Ping

    2014-01-01

    The scalar phantom field Φ leads to various catastrophic fates of the universe including big rip,little rip and other future singularity depending on the choice of its potential.For example,little rip stems from a quadratic potential in general relativity.We suggest a new mechanism to avoid little rip in the 1/R gravity.The phantom field with different potentials,including quadratic,cubic and quantic potentials are studied via numerical calculation in the 1/R gravity with R2 correction.T...

  4. ViSlang: A system for interpreted domain-specific languages for scientific visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Rautek, Peter; Bruckner, Stefan; Grö ller, Meister Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    -level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces

  5. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the "severity continuum hypothesis", in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment.

  6. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective treatment. The impetus for research into this condition has waxed and waned, possibly due to concerns regarding its distinctiveness from other disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD), schizoid personality disorder, and dependent personality disorder. The prevailing paradigm subscribes to the “severity continuum hypothesis”, in which AVPD is viewed essentially as a severe variant of SAD. However, areas of discontinuity have been described, and there is support for retaining AVPD as a distinct diagnostic category. Recent research has focused on the phenomenology of AVPD, factors of possible etiological significance such as early parenting experiences, attachment style, temperament, and cognitive processing. Self-concept, avoidant behavior, early attachments, and attachment style may represent points of difference from SAD that also have relevance to treatment. Additional areas of research not focused specifically on AVPD, including the literature on social cognition as it relates to attachment and personality style, report findings that are promising for future research aimed at better delineating AVPD and informing treatment. PMID:29563846

  7. Avoided emissions. Enterprises assess their solutions for the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, Julien

    2017-09-01

    In its first part, this publication gives an overview of the issues of avoided emissions: reasons for their calculation, risks to be understood and anticipated, relationships between avoided emissions and enterprises, avoided emissions in the enterprise climate strategy, and available calculation methods. The second part describes the methodology and process of calculation of avoided emissions: project initiation, method selection, reference solution selection, scenario elaboration, definition of the scope of calculation, taking the whole value chain into account, result consolidation, communication. A synthesis of recommendations is provided. Within the text, this publication proposes presentations of actions undertaken by several French companies or French subsidiaries like Air France, BASF, EDF, Michelin, Paprec, RTE, Saint-Gobain, SNCF, Suez, Total, Veolia, and others

  8. Integrated disruption avoidance and mitigation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jayhyun; Woo, M.H.; Han, H.; In, Y.; Bak, J.G.; Eidietis, N.W.

    2014-01-01

    The final target of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) aims advanced tokamak operation at plasma current 2 MA and toroidal field 3.5 T. In order to safely achieve the target, disruption counter-measures are unavoidable when considering the disruption risks, inevitably accompanied with high performance discharges, such as electro-magnetic load on conducting structures, collisional damage by run-away electrons, and thermal load on plasma facing components (PFCs). In this reason, the establishment of integrated disruption mitigation system (DMS) has been started for routine mega-ampere class operations of KSTAR since 2013 campaign. The DMS mainly consists of the disruption prediction and its avoidance/mitigation in company with logical/technical integration of them. We present the details of KSTAR DMS and the related experimental results in this article. (author)

  9. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  10. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS TAX AVOIDANCE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholders’ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paper’s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their “Stop Tax Haven Abuse Bill”. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the

  11. The Swiss Virtual Campus Project NAHRIS: Experiences from a Multidisciplinary E-Learning Project in the Natural Hazard and Risk Management Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Christophe; Bischof, Nicole; Hurni, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of the Swiss Virtual Campus project Dealing with Natural Hazards and Risk (NAHRIS) is to create a common educational course program that compiles the most recent knowledge in the field of natural hazards and risk management. Several higher education institutes from all parts of Switzerland were involved in the realization of this…

  12. Collision avoidance in robotic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized approach to the problem of collision avoidance in robotic environments is presented. This approach transforms the three dimensional but dynamic real-world changing geometric space of the robot in its environment into a multidimensional but static space such that any possible geometric arrangement of the robotic space becomes a point in hyperspace. Major advantages of this approach include clarification of and potential solution to the basic problem of finding optimized, collision free movements from an initial to a final configuration. A major disadvantage of the approach is related to computational and data storage problems. However these latter are technically solvable while the clarification of the control and guidance problem gained through the transformational approach and its general elucidation power remain prime conceptual tools for the problem of robot design and operation

  13. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  14. The Global Attack on Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Gustav Grønborg; Runchel, Daniel Theis; Mac, Martin Tuannhien; Ahmed, Jahanzeeb; Bang, Lars Seneca

    2015-01-01

    The issue of tax avoidance has been subject for recommended regulations by the G20 countries in collaboration with OECD. We examine the usefulness of market failure theory to explain the economic and political issues of tax avoidance. We test our hypothesis using theory through a deductive approach incorporating content analysis to find convergence(s) between tax avoidance methods identified and the efforts of the G20 BEPS action plan to respond to those methods. The issue of tax avoidance...

  15. Tax Avoidance, Welfare Transfers, and Asset Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Gorea

    2013-01-01

    Does tax avoidance have any implications for financial markets? This paper quantifies the general equilibrium implications of tax avoidance by setting up an incomplete markets production economy model in which households pay capital gains taxes and have access to tax avoidance technologies provided by financial institutions. I find that changes in the level of tax avoidance have disproportionate effects on different groups of agents and generally benefit the old, wealthy and high income house...

  16. Modified skin incision for avoiding the lesser occipital nerve and occipital artery during retrosigmoid craniotomy: potential applications for enhancing operative working distance and angles while minimizing the risk of postoperative neuralgias and intraoperative hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Fries, Fabian N; Kulwin, Charles; Mortazavi, Martin M; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-10-01

    Chronic postoperative neuralgias and headache following retrosigmoid craniotomy can be uncomfortable for the patient. We aimed to better elucidate the regional nerve anatomy in an effort to minimize this postoperative complication. Ten adult cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected to observe the relationship between the lesser occipital nerve and a traditional linear versus modified U incision during retrosigmoid craniotomy. Additionally, the relationship between these incisions and the occipital artery were observed. The lesser occipital nerve was found to have two types of course. Type I nerves (60%) remained close to the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and some crossed anteriorly over the sternocleidomastoid muscle near the mastoid process. Type II nerves (40%) left the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and swung medially (up to 4.5cm posterior to the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle) as they ascended over the occiput. The lesser occipital nerve was near a midpoint of a line between the external occipital protuberance and mastoid process in all specimens with the type II nerve configuration. Based on our findings, the inverted U incision would be less likely to injure the type II nerves but would necessarily cross over type I nerves, especially more cranially on the nerve at the apex of the incision. As the more traditional linear incision would most likely transect the type I nerves and more so near their trunk, the U incision may be the overall better choice in avoiding neural and occipital artery injury during retrosigmoid approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conflict Avoidance in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Allan E.; Wood, Lorinda

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores patterns of conflict avoidance among university students, professors, administrators and staff. Analysis of their narratives of conflict avoidance suggests that avoidance can be beneficial in some circumstances, depending upon personality issues, cost?benefit analysis, power imbalance, type of work, length of…

  18. Big Data Usage Patterns in the Health Care Domain: A Use Case Driven Approach Applied to the Assessment of Vaccination Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H.; Liaw, S-T.; Kuziemsky, C.; Mold, F.; Krause, P.; Fleming, D.; Jones, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Generally benefits and risks of vaccines can be determined from studies carried out as part of regulatory compliance, followed by surveillance of routine data; however there are some rarer and more long term events that require new methods. Big data generated by increasingly affordable personalised computing, and from pervasive computing devices is rapidly growing and low cost, high volume, cloud computing makes the processing of these data inexpensive. Objective To describe how big data and related analytical methods might be applied to assess the benefits and risks of vaccines. Method: We reviewed the literature on the use of big data to improve health, applied to generic vaccine use cases, that illustrate benefits and risks of vaccination. We defined a use case as the interaction between a user and an information system to achieve a goal. We used flu vaccination and pre-school childhood immunisation as exemplars. Results We reviewed three big data use cases relevant to assessing vaccine benefits and risks: (i) Big data processing using crowd-sourcing, distributed big data processing, and predictive analytics, (ii) Data integration from heterogeneous big data sources, e.g. the increasing range of devices in the “internet of things”, and (iii) Real-time monitoring for the direct monitoring of epidemics as well as vaccine effects via social media and other data sources. Conclusions Big data raises new ethical dilemmas, though its analysis methods can bring complementary real-time capabilities for monitoring epidemics and assessing vaccine benefit-risk balance. PMID:25123718

  19. A Gly1127Ser mutation in an EGF-like domain of the Fibrillin-I gene is a risk factor for ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francke, U.; Berg, M.A.; Tynan, K. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Ascending aortic disease, ranging from mild aortic root enlargement to aneurysm and/or dissection, has been identified in 10 individuals of a kindred, none of whom had classical Marfan syndrome (MFS). Single-strand conformation analysis of the entire fibrillin-1 (FBN1) cDNA of an affected family member revealed a G-to-A transition at nucleotide 3379, predicting a Gly1127Ser substitution. The glycine in this position is highly conserved in EGF-like domains of FBN1 and other proteins. This mutation was present in 9 of 10 affected family members and in 1 young unaffected member but was not found in other unaffected members, in 168 chromsomes from normal controls, and in 188 chromosomes from other individuals with MFS or related phenotypes. FBN1 intragenic marker haplotypes ruled out the possibility that the other allele played a significant role in modulating the phenotype in this family. Pulse-chase studies revealed normal fibrillin synthesis but reduced fibrillin deposition into the extracellular matrix in cultured fibroblasts from a Gly1127Ser carrier. We postulate that the Gly1127Ser FBN1 mutation is responsible for reduced matrix deposition. We suggest that mutations such as this one may disrupt EFG-like domain folding less drastically than do substitutions of cysteine or of other amino acids important for calcium-binding that cause classical MFS. The Gly 1127Ser mutation, therefore, produces a mild form of autosomal dominantly inherited weakness of elastic tissue, which predisposes to ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection later in life. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Earthworm avoidance of silver nanomaterials over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John

    2018-01-01

    Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....

  1. Joking about cancer as an avoidance strategy among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J

    2017-12-13

    Findings from years of research on fear appeals suggest that individuals with low efficacy utilize avoidance strategies when they perceive a significant threat-a process called fear control. Some research suggests that joking could be an avoidance strategy. The current study identifies conditions in which people are more likely to joke about colorectal cancer and explores how this behavior may be associated with screening avoidance. Older adults (N = 209) recruited from eight different worksites completed a survey measuring fear appeal constructs and enactment of colorectal cancer-related joking. Results of a moderated mediation analysis suggest that men were more likely to joke about colorectal cancer than women, particularly if they perceived significant threat but had limited self-efficacy, signifying fear control. Results support prior fear appeal research, suggesting that an increase in joking behavior concerning colorectal cancer may be indicative of screening avoidance, and describe belief-based mechanisms that explain differences between biological sex and joking. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  3. Pandemic: how to avoid panic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Greco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami that took place on 26th December 2004 in the Indian Ocean and hurricane Katrina, that last August struck the Mexican Gulf, are two recent natural events that turned into catastrophes for mankind, causing several thousands victims. One of the reasons behind this can be traced back to the fact that useful information in the hands of scientists and experts did not reach the right people within the right time. A crushing defeat for risk communication was witnessed in these two recent events. All the more paradoxical since we live in what we like to name “the era of communication and information”.

  4. A Visible and Passive Millimeter Wave Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Pulse-Coupled Neural Network in Tetrolet Domain for Early Risk Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm based on pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN constructed in the Tetrolet transform domain is proposed for the fusion of the visible and passive millimeter wave images in order to effectively identify concealed targets. The Tetrolet transform is applied to build the framework of the multiscale decomposition due to its high sparse degree. Meanwhile, a Laplacian pyramid is used to decompose the low-pass band of the Tetrolet transform for improving the approximation performance. In addition, the maximum criterion based on regional average gradient is applied to fuse the top layers along with selecting the maximum absolute values of the other layers. Furthermore, an improved PCNN model is employed to enhance the contour feature of the hidden targets and obtain the fusion results of the high-pass band based on the firing time. Finally, the inverse transform of Tetrolet is exploited to obtain the fused results. Some objective evaluation indexes, such as information entropy, mutual information, and QAB/F, are adopted for evaluating the quality of the fused images. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to other image fusion algorithms.

  5. Avoidance of Ag nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM...

  6. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  7. The ‘taming’ of Julie and her avoidant attachment style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Perret

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, I present the application of the model developed by Richard Erskine of ‘Self in Relationship’ to a client who I will call Julie. I describe the open and closed domains of contact that I observed at the beginning of the work. Then I explain how I bring this client to a state of awakening of the anaesthetised domains through an implied accompaniment and full contact, whilst respecting her avoidant attachment style. Citation - APA format: Perret, V. (2017. The ‘taming’ of Julie and her avoidant attachment style. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 8(2, 35-40.

  8. Postural analysis in time and frequency domains in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Celletti, Claudia; Mainardi, Luca; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to analyze postural control in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) participants in time and frequency domain. This study considered a pathological group composed by 22 EDS participants performing a postural test consisting in maintaining standing position over a force platform for 30s in two conditions: open eyes (OE) and closed eyes (CE). In order to compare pathological group we acquired in the same conditions a control group composed by 20 healthy participants. The obtained center of pressure (COP) signal was analyzed in time and frequency domain using an AR model. Results revealed differences between pathological and control group: EDS participants pointed out difficulties in controlling COP displacements trying to keep it inside the BOS in AP direction and for this reason increased the use of ML mechanism in order to avoid the risk of fall. Also in CE conditions they demonstrated more difficulties in maintaining posture revealing the proprioceptive system is impaired, due to ligament laxity that characterized EDS participants. Frequency domain analysis showed no differences between the two groups, affirming that the changes in time domain reflected really the impairment to the postural control mechanism and not a different strategy assumed by EDS participants. These data could help in decision-making process to establish a correct rehabilitation approach, based on the reinforcing of muscle tone to supply the ligament laxity in order to prevent risks of falls and its consequences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. KARAKTERISTIK EKSEKUTIF TERHADAP TAX AVOIDANCE DENGAN LEVERAGE SEBAGAI VARIABEL INTERVENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verani Carolina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the influence of the executive characteristic on corporate tax avoidance. Risktaker’s executive tended to be more courageous and aggressive in taking decision related to the tax. On thecontrary, the risk averse executive tended to be carefully (Low, 2006. This research used leverage as interveningvariable. Therefore, there was an assumption that the executive characteristic determined the corporateleverage which then influenced their tax avoidance in the company. Manufacturing companies which werelisted in Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2010-2012 were used as samples. This research usedpurposive sampling method to select the sample with the criteria as follows: they were listed in Indonesia StockExchange during the period of 2010-2012, they made a profit during the period of 2010-2012, and they usedrupiah as reporting currency. Data was processed using path analysis and the result showed that the executivecharacteristic had an impact on corporate tax avoidance with leverage as the intervening variable. The resultof this research could be used for the investors to assess the corporate tax avoidance before they made a decision,and also for the policy makers to detect the corporate tax avoidance.

  10. Comparing Collision Avoidance Systems of Different Type of Transportation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan ÖZDEMİR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Different modes of transportation are often used in our daily lives. Therefore, how safe these modes are commonly researched by researchers. Many models and methods are developed to avoid collision with the development of technology. This development is aimed to improving the safety of life and property. The technological developments also aim to reduce the minimum level of the human error. Technological devices developed to prevent collision are applied in systematic way according to type of transportation mode. When comparatively examined, it is similar to each other technology used in different modes. In this respect, proposed model and methods are similar in general. These approaches are generally based on position of vehicles relative to each other and also rules have been developed taking into consideration the possibilities that may occur. Real-time sensors used to avoid collision in vehicles reduce risk of collision and provide significant achievements on behalf of avoiding collision. Besides this, it has been considered important a communication network between vehicles. As a result, the importance of the technological devices developed to ensure collision avoidance is increasing in our life. Thus, the study aims to explain and compare the methods, models and techniques used in the different transportation modes so as to avoid collision.

  11. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  12. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of Screening, Risk Modification, and Physical Therapy to Prevent Falls Among the Elderly Recently Discharged From the Emergency Department to the Community: The Steps to Avoid Falls in the Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Duncan, Pamela W; Lien, Christopher T; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lee, Mina; Gao, Fei; Sim, Rita; Eom, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial, tailored program of physical therapy to reduce the occurrence of falls among a heterogeneous group of high-risk elderly Singaporeans recently discharged from the emergency department (ED). Randomized controlled trial. Communities. Adults (N=354) aged ≥65 years who were seen in the ED for a fall or fall-related injuries and discharged home. The intervention primarily consisted of a tailored program of physical therapy focused on progressive training in strength, balance, and gait for a period of 3 months. Participants in the intervention group also received screening and follow-up for vision, polypharmacy, and environmental hazards. Participants in the control group received usual care prescribed by a physician and educational materials on falls prevention. The primary outcome measure was experiencing at least 1 fall during the 9-month study period (a 3-mo active intervention phase and a 6-mo maintenance phase). Secondary outcome measures were the occurrence of at least 1 injurious fall during the study period and a change in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. Participants were assessed both after 3 and 9 months. During the 9-month study period, 37.8% of the control group and 30.5% of the intervention group fell at least once, which was not statistically significantly different (odds ratio [OR]=.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], .46-1.12; P=.146). The intervention group had statistically significantly fewer individuals with injurious falls (OR=.56; 95% CI, .32-.98; P=.041) and less deterioration in physical performance, reflected by a mean difference of 0.6 in SPPB scores (P=.029). Multivariate analyses indicated a strong interaction effect between the intervention and the presence of 2 or more major comorbidities; after accounting for this effect, the intervention program reduced the number of people experiencing at least 1 fall (OR=.34; 95% CI, .17-.67; P=.002). We observed that in this

  14. The relationship between avoidant personality disorder and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2007-01-01

    The main explanatory hypothesis for the distinction between social phobia (SP) and avoidant personality disorder (APD) has been the severity continuum hypothesis, stating that APD only differs from SP in terms of severity of dysfunction and symptomatic distress, that is, social anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aimed at a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis in a large sample (n = 2192) of thoroughly assessed patients, most of whom had a diagnosis of personality disorder. Social phobia was stronger associated with APD than with other personality disorders, and APD was stronger associated with SP than with other symptom disorders. Social phobia-pure patients had a higher level of global functioning and lower levels of general symptom distress and interpersonal problems than APD-pure patients. The 2 groups were similar on domains that pertain to social anxiety and introversion, but APD was associated with a broader array of symptoms and interpersonal problems and was substantially lower on the personality domain of conscientiousness. Avoidant personality disorder was stronger associated with eating disorders, and SP was stronger associated with panic disorder. The APD diagnosis seems to capture a broader constellation of symptoms and personality features pointing toward more severe personality dysfunction. Our findings suggest that the severity continuum hypothesis lacks specificity and exploratory power to account for both similarities and differences between SP and APD.

  15. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulwant S Bhangoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  16. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  17. Failure-Avoidance: Parenting, the Achievement Environment of the Home and Strategies for Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws together the as yet nascent literature on the development of failure-avoidant patterns of behaviour. These are behaviours intended to minimise risk to self-worth in the event of failure, thereby avoiding the negative impact of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. Self-worth protection, self-handicapping, impostor…

  18. A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

  19. Effects of IFRS adoption on tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nogueira Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.

  20. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  1. Robust Estimation of Value-at-Risk through Distribution-Free and Parametric Approaches Using the Joint Severity and Frequency Model: Applications in Financial, Actuarial, and Natural Calamities Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Guharay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Value-at-Risk (VaR is a well-accepted risk metric in modern quantitative risk management (QRM. The classical Monte Carlo simulation (MCS approach, denoted henceforth as the classical approach, assumes the independence of loss severity and loss frequency. In practice, this assumption does not always hold true. Through mathematical analyses, we show that the classical approach is prone to significant biases when the independence assumption is violated. This is also corroborated by studying both simulated and real-world datasets. To overcome the limitations and to more accurately estimate VaR, we develop and implement the following two approaches for VaR estimation: the data-driven partitioning of frequency and severity (DPFS using clustering analysis, and copula-based parametric modeling of frequency and severity (CPFS. These two approaches are verified using simulation experiments on synthetic data and validated on five publicly available datasets from diverse domains; namely, the financial indices data of Standard & Poor’s 500 and the Dow Jones industrial average, chemical loss spills as tracked by the US Coast Guard, Australian automobile accidents, and US hurricane losses. The classical approach estimates VaR inaccurately for 80% of the simulated data sets and for 60% of the real-world data sets studied in this work. Both the DPFS and the CPFS methodologies attain VaR estimates within 99% bootstrap confidence interval bounds for both simulated and real-world data. We provide a process flowchart for risk practitioners describing the steps for using the DPFS versus the CPFS methodology for VaR estimation in real-world loss datasets.

  2. Higher threat avoidance costs reduce avoidance behaviour which in turn promotes fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattel, Julina A; Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models specifying the underlying mechanisms of the development and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders state that fear responses acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning are maintained by repeated avoidance behaviour; thus, it is assumed that avoidance prevents fear extinction. The present study investigated behavioural avoidance decisions as a function of avoidance costs in a naturalistic fear conditioning paradigm. Ecologically valid avoidance costs - manipulated between participant groups - were represented via time-delays during a detour in a gamified computer task. After differential acquisitions of shock-expectancy to a predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+), participants underwent extinction where they could either take a risky shortcut, while anticipating shock signaled by the CS+, or choose a costly avoidance option (lengthy detour); thus, they were faced with an approach-avoidance conflict. Groups with higher avoidance costs (longer detours) showed lower proportions of avoiders. Avoiders gave heightened shock-expectancy ratings post-extinction, demonstrating 'protecting from extinction', i.e. failure to extinguish. Moreover, there was an indirect effect of avoidance costs on protection from extinction through avoidance behaviour. No moderating role of trait-anxiety was found. Theoretical implications of avoidance behaviour are discussed, considering the involvement of instrumental learning in the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. No Exit: Identifying Avoidable Terminal Oncology Intensive Care Unit Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantel, Andrew; Wroblewski, Kristen; Balachandran, Jay S.; Chow, Selina; DeBoer, Rebecca; Fleming, Gini F.; Hahn, Olwen M.; Kline, Justin; Liu, Hongtao; Patel, Bhakti K.; Verma, Anshu; Witt, Leah J.; Fukui, Mayumi; Kumar, Aditi; Howell, Michael D.; Polite, Blase N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Terminal oncology intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations are associated with high costs and inferior quality of care. This study identifies and characterizes potentially avoidable terminal admissions of oncology patients to ICUs. Methods: This was a retrospective case series of patients cared for in an academic medical center’s ambulatory oncology practice who died in an ICU during July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. An oncologist, intensivist, and hospitalist reviewed each patient’s electronic health record from 3 months preceding terminal hospitalization until death. The primary outcome was the proportion of terminal ICU hospitalizations identified as potentially avoidable by two or more reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify characteristics associated with avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations. Results: Seventy-two patients met inclusion criteria. The majority had solid tumor malignancies (71%), poor performance status (51%), and multiple encounters with the health care system. Despite high-intensity health care utilization, only 25% had documented advance directives. During a 4-day median ICU length of stay, 81% were intubated and 39% had cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Forty-seven percent of these hospitalizations were identified as potentially avoidable. Avoidable hospitalizations were associated with factors including: worse performance status before admission (median 2 v 1; P = .01), worse Charlson comorbidity score (median 8.5 v 7.0, P = .04), reason for hospitalization (P = .006), and number of prior hospitalizations (median 2 v 1; P = .05). Conclusion: Given the high frequency of avoidable terminal ICU hospitalizations, health care leaders should develop strategies to prospectively identify patients at high risk and formulate interventions to improve end-of-life care. PMID:27601514

  4. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2013-08-20

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  5. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  6. FORUM Obstetric risk avoidance: Will anyone be offering obstetrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performing deliveries in private practice by the end of the decade?' If the answer to the ... Insurance companies, although offering an insurance product, also ... deliver in provincial facilities, shifting the workload and liability to the state.

  7. Ecology: avoidance of disease by social lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2006-05-25

    Transmissible pathogens are the bane of social animals, so they have evolved behaviours to decrease the probability of infection. There is no record, however, of social animals avoiding diseased individuals of their own species in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected with a lethal virus. Early detection and avoidance of infected, though not yet infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour in disease transmission among natural populations.

  8. Prudent avoidance guidelines for power frequency magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, K.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1991, following a wide ranging inquiry into community needs and high voltage transmission line development, Sir Harry Gibbs, an ex-Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia concluded that adverse health effects from power frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) had not been established. He went on to find that there was some evidence that they might pose a risk to health. On this basis, he recommended a policy of prudent avoidance in the construction of new transmission lines. Since that time, a succession of inquiries in Australia and overseas have made similar findings and recommended prudent avoidance. This paper provides practical guidance to electricity transmission and distribution utilities and other interested stakeholders in the application of prudent avoidance to the design and siting of new electrical facilities. The paper provides background information and a range of general measures which might prudently be applied. It is not the authors' intention to provide precise instructions for the application of prudent avoidance but, rather, to provide a series of guiding principles which may be applied to particular situations, having regard to the specific design practices and other policies of individual electricity utilities. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  9. Neuronal and non-neuronal signals regulate Caernorhabditis elegans avoidance of contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexandra; McMullan, Rachel

    2018-07-19

    One way in which animals minimize the risk of infection is to reduce their contact with contaminated food. Here, we establish a model of pathogen-contaminated food avoidance using the nematode worm Caernorhabditis elegans We find that avoidance of pathogen-contaminated food protects C. elegans from the deleterious effects of infection and, using genetic approaches, demonstrate that multiple sensory neurons are required for this avoidance behaviour. In addition, our results reveal that the avoidance of contaminated food requires bacterial adherence to non-neuronal cells in the tail of C. elegans that are also required for the cellular immune response. Previous studies in C. elegans have contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular and cellular basis of host-pathogen interactions and our model provides a unique opportunity to gain basic insights into how animals avoid contaminated food.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Evolution of pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours'. © 2018 The Authors.

  10. Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqin Xu; Xiaoqiao Geng; Yuanqiao Wen

    2016-01-01

    Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encount...

  11. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles KidsHealth / For Parents / Toddlers at the Table: ... common concerns into opportunities to teach healthy eating habits. Most Toddlers Are Picky Eaters Many toddlers express ...

  12. How to avoid overheating during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000865.htm How to avoid overheating during exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... condition can get heat illness. Stay Cool During Exercise Try these tips to help prevent heat-related ...

  13. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  14. Directional Collision Avoidance in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of directional collision avoidance schemes, in which antenna systems are used to direct the transmission and reception of control and data packets in channel access...

  15. Foods to Avoid or Limit during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... during pregnancy Foods to avoid or limit during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  16. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  17. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  18. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  19. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Dwi Pratama; Ujang Sumarwan; Hari Wijayanto

    2016-01-01

    One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES), advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the p...

  20. Banking deregulation and corporate tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill B. Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether tax avoidance substitutes for external financing. We exploit interstate banking deregulation as a quasi-external shock to examine whether firms engage in less tax avoidance after banking deregulation, because of cheaper and easier access to credit from banks. We find no empirical evidence to support this substitutive relation, even for firms with higher financial constraints or firms with higher external financing dependence.

  1. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  2. Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile.

    OpenAIRE

    O Nions, E.; Viding, E.; Greven, C. U.; Ronald, A.; Happé, F.

    2014-01-01

    'Pathological Demand Avoidance' is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to 'socially manipulative' behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand avoidance is thought to share aspects of social impairment with autism spectrum disorders, but autism spectrum disorder-appropriate strategies, such as routine and repetition, ...

  3. A Systematic Review of Carrion Eaters' Adaptations to Avoid Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Rangchi, Tiana N; Briggs, Tiandra; De Andrade, Fabrine Souza; Natterson-Horowitz, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Species that scavenge on dead animals are exposed to enhanced disease risks. Eight hypotheses have been suggested to explain how scavengers avoid becoming sick from their diet. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and found correlative support for four of the eight hypotheses but limited evidence of systematic studies of the hypotheses. We found no support that using urine to sterilize carcasses, having bald heads, eating rapidly, or food-washing behavior reduced disease risk in carrion eaters. With the exception of food washing, none of these hypotheses have been properly evaluated as an adaptation to avoid sickness from carrion. There is some support for having a specialized microbiome, having enhanced immunologic defenses, avoiding rotten food, and maintaining a low gastric pH to eliminate pathogens. Specialized immunologic defenses and having a low pH have the most support, but the diversity of mechanisms suggests that there is a great opportunity for even more detailed study. Increased knowledge in these mechanisms may provide biomimetic insights to help combat foodborne illnesses and enhance health.

  4. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann-Eide, Eivind; Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that

  5. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Normann-Eide

    Full Text Available Personality disorders (PDs are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118. There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to

  6. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that

  7. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  8. Recurrent, Robust and Scalable Patterns Underlie Human Approach and Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David N.; Lehár, Joseph; Lee, Myung Joo; Blood, Anne J.; Lee, Sang; Perlis, Roy H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Morris, Robert; Fava, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Background Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach), decrease (avoid), or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory. Methodology/Principal Findings Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i) a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii) a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii) a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both. Conclusions/Significance These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference

  9. Recurrent, robust and scalable patterns underlie human approach and avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Woo Kim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach, decrease (avoid, or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory.Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both.These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference theory. Since variables in these patterns have been

  10. Sexual selection as a consequence of pathogen avoidance behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Logofet, D.O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Laboratory of Mathematical Ecology

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female choice for good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation is proposed. The pathogen avoidance hypothesis argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status so that sick individuals may be avoided during mating. Our studies shown that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits. The showy traits are argued to originate as simple exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers; vigorous movement; large size). Thus the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic in this theory. A game theory analysis is employed to formalize the theory. Results of the game theory model support the theory. In particular, when the possession of male showy traits does not help reduce disease in the female, then showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to the situation in large flocks or herds in which every animal is thoroughly exposed to all group pathogens on average. Such species do not exhibit showy traits. The good genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance) but will lead to selection for resistance if such genes are present. Overall, the pathogen avoidance hypothesis provides a complete alternative to the good genes theory.

  11. The ins and outs of managing avoidance diets for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Venter, Carina

    2016-08-01

    Food allergic reactions have become more prevalent and management of food allergies requires dietary avoidance of triggers that may place children at nutritional risk. Immunoglobulin E and non-immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies lead to dietary avoidance. Although some children outgrow food allergies or become tolerant to cooked/baked versions of the allergen, many do not. Multiple food avoidance increases the risk for inadequate nutrient intake, including protein, calcium, vitamin D, and others. Multidisciplinary management of patients requires careful attention to growth, particularly height, and nutrition. Although attention to accurate diagnosis of food allergy is key, understanding nutritional risks of children with food allergies can lead to opportunities to address potential deficiencies resulting from food allergen avoidance.

  12. ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE PADA IKLAN DI MEDIA TELEVISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwi Pratama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey

  13. Differences in avoidable mortality between migrants and the native Dutch in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bos V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic origin in the Netherlands and identifies social factors that contribute to this association. Methods Data were obtained from cause of death and population registries in the period 1995–2000. We compared mortality rates for selected 'avoidable' conditions for Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban groups to native Dutch. Results We found slightly elevated risk in total 'avoidable' mortality for migrant populations (RR = 1.13. Higher risks of death among migrants were observed from almost all infectious diseases (most RR > 3.00 and several chronic conditions including asthma, diabetes and cerebro-vascular disorders (most RR > 1.70. Migrant women experienced a higher risk of death from maternity-related conditions (RR = 3.37. Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher mortality risk (RR = 1.65 and 1.31 respectively, while Turkish and Moroccans experienced a lower risk of death (RR = 0.93 and 0.77 respectively from all 'avoidable' conditions compared to native Dutch. Control for demographic and socioeconomic factors explained a substantial part of ethnic differences in 'avoidable' mortality. Conclusion Compared to the native Dutch population, total 'avoidable' mortality was slightly elevated for all migrants combined. Mortality risks varied greatly by cause of death and ethnic origin. The substantial differences in mortality for a few 'avoidable' conditions suggest opportunities for quality improvement within specific areas of the healthcare system targeted to disadvantaged groups.

  14. Key conclusions from AVOID Work Stream One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one ‘2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes

  15. Harm avoidance and disability in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A

    2006-01-01

    The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.

  16. DNA elasticity: topology of self-avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Supurna; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical treatment of DNA stretching and twisting experiments, in which we discuss global topological subtleties of self-avoiding ribbons and provide an underlying justification for the worm-like rod chain (WLRC) model proposed by Bouchiat and Mezard. Some theoretical points regarding the WLRC model are clarified: the 'local writhe formula' and the use of an adjustable cut-off parameter to 'regularize' the model. Our treatment brings out the precise relation between the worm-like chain (WLC), the paraxial worm-like chain (PWLC) and the WLRC models. We describe the phenomenon of 'topological untwisting' and the resulting collapse of link sectors in the WLC model and note that this leads to a free energy profile periodic in the applied link. This periodicity disappears when one takes into account the topology of self-avoidance or at large stretch forces (paraxial limit). We note that the difficult non-local notion of self-avoidance can be replaced (in an approximation) by the simpler local notion of 'south avoidance'. This gives an explanation for the efficacy of the approach of Bouchiat and Mezard in explaining the 'hat curves' using the WLRC model, which is a south avoiding model. We propose a new class of experiments to probe the continuous transition between the periodic and aperiodic behaviour of the free energy

  17. Peer conflict avoidance: associations with loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Spenceri, M C; Mahoney-Wernli, M A

    2001-02-01

    Failure to resolve peer conflict is associated with children's reports of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Although these relationships are well established, researchers have not examined the association between the avoidance of peer conflict and various adjustment characteristics. The current study examined the association between avoidance of conflict and measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance for 59 pupils in Grade 4 (31 boys and 28 girls) and 47 in Grade 8 (22 boys and 25 girls). Volunteers indicated that conflict avoidance based on autonomy, e.g., independence issues, and interpersonal issues, e.g., closeness and cohesion, was associated with scores on loneliness for boys and girls, respectively. Conflict avoidance for emotional and physical well-being and fear of punishment was associated with increased reports of loneliness and social anxiety for children in Grade 4.

  18. A Transient Dopamine Signal Represents Avoidance Value and Causally Influences the Demand to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultorak, Katherine J.; Schelp, Scott A.; Isaacs, Dominic P.; Krzystyniak, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Abstract While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i.e., the economic price of avoidance). Analysis of the rate of decay of avoidance demand curves, which depict an inverse relationship between avoidance and increasing price, allows for inference of the worth an animal places on avoidance outcomes. Rapidly decaying demand curves indicate increased price sensitivity, or low worth placed on avoidance outcomes, while slow rates of decay indicate reduced price sensitivity, or greater worth placed on avoidance outcomes. We therefore used optogenetics to assess how inducing dopamine release causally modifies the demand to avoid electrical footshock in an economic setting. Increasing release at an avoidance predictive cue made animals more sensitive to price, consistent with a negative reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a worse outcome than expected). Increasing release at avoidance made animals less sensitive to price, consistent with a positive reward prediction error (i.e., the animal perceives they received a better outcome than expected). These data demonstrate that transient dopamine release events represent the value of avoidance outcomes and can predictably modify the demand to avoid. PMID:29766047

  19. An avoidance layer in hierarchical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Callatay, A.

    1994-01-01

    A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance

  20. New apparatus for training the avoidance reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1988-01-01

    A new apparatus for active avoidance training in rats consists of a short, wide runway which can be tilted from a horizontal to vertical position. One half of the electrifiable grid floor is covered by a nonconducting sheet. For brightness (black-white) discrimination training a white walled goal box can be inserted into the runway and shifted from left to right during training. Avoidance training of 24 rats (female Wistar SPF) required 14.1 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM) to-criterion trials (9/10) and was completed in less than 4 min. Brightness discrimination training required 21.3 +/- 2.1 to-criterion trials and the time of training did not exceed 12 min. The retention of the acquired responses was very good in both cases. The main advantage of the apparatus is very rapid acquisition of the one-way and discriminated avoidance without the necessity of manual manipulation of the animal.

  1. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  2. Taking chances in the face of threat: romantic risk regulation and approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Justin V; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Holmes, John G

    2009-06-01

    Four studies examine the hypothesis that goals adopted by high and low self-esteem people (HSEs and LSEs) to manage risk in romantic relationships may reflect global shifts in approach motivation and subsequently affect risk taking in nonsocial domains. In Studies 1 and 2, threats to participants' romantic relationships heightened HSEs' self-reported general approach motivation while lowering LSEs' approach motivation. In Studies 2 through 4, HSEs exhibited riskier decision making (i.e., a greater tendency to pursue rewards and ignore risks) in nonsocial domains following a relationship threat manipulation whereas LSEs made more conservative decisions. These results suggest that the romantic risk regulation may be inherently linked to a broader approach and avoidance system and that specific risk regulation behaviors may be driven by global motivational shifts to a greater degree than previously theorized.

  3. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... on information control to insulating leaders by using technical experts and agencies as 'lightning rods.' In 2003, the Chinese strategy of information containment and secrecy backfired, and the Chinese leadership eventually received blame at home and internationally for crisis mismanagement. In 2009, China put...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  4. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  5. Distributed execution of aggregated multi domain workflows using an agent framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Belloum, A.; de Laat, C.; Adriaans, P.; Hertzberger, B.; Zhang, L.J.; Watson, T.J.; Yang, J.; Hung, P.C.K.

    2007-01-01

    In e-Science, meaningful experiment processes and workflow engines emerge as important scientific resources. A complex experiment often involves services and processes developed in different scientific domains. Aggregating different workflows into one meta workflow avoids unnecessary rewriting of

  6. Time-domain full waveform inversion using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted waves energy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Tan, Jun; Song, Peng; Li, Jin-shan; Xia, Dong-ming; Liu, Zhao-lun

    2017-01-01

    The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge storage consumption in the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on Hessian matrices in time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI), but the accuracy

  7. Avoidance Denial versus Optimistic Denial in Reaction to the Threat of Future Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Suzanne C.; Ting, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Two distinctly different denial-based threat orientations (avoidance denial and optimistic denial) were examined using a message about the future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for young adults. Participants (N = 101) completed measures of denial-based dispositional threat orientations, current eating, comparative risk, and objective risk…

  8. Obstacle avoidance in persons with rheumatoid arthritis walking on a treadmill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, E.; Schreven, C.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Duysens, J.E.J.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of falling. In healthy elderly persons with a history of falling, a reduced ability to avoid obstacles while walking has been shown to relate to increased fall risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether this potential

  9. Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clarisse Gautier,1 Denis Charpin1,2 1Department of Pulmonology and Allergy, North Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France Abstract: Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs, molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and

  10. Rewarding peak avoidance: the Dutch 'Spitsmijden' projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.; Bakens, J.; Ettema, D.F.; Verhoef, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term

  11. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  12. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  13. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  14. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  15. Avoidance motivation and conservation of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  16. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  17. ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE BY MUCUNA-PRURIENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; KUIPER, PJC

    The hypothesis was tested that the avoidance of acid subsoil by the velvet bean Mucuna pruriens is based on a mechanism acting on the whole root system rather than on individual roots. In a split-root experiment with circulating nutrient solution the growth of plants with Al-containing (+/+) or

  18. Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...

  19. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.

  20. Women Coping with a Partner's Sexual Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  1. Obstacle detection and avoiding of quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dizhong; Lin, Jiajian

    2017-10-01

    Recent years, the flight control technology over quadcopter has been boosted vigorously and acquired the comprehensive application in a variety of industries. However, it is prominent for there to be problems existed in the stable and secure flight with the development of its autonomous flight. Through comparing with the characteristics of ultrasonic ranging and laser Time-of-Flight(abbreviated to ToF) distance as well as vision measurement and its related sensors, the obstacle detection and identification sensors need to be installed in order to effectively enhance the safety flying for aircraft, which is essential for avoiding the dangers around the surroundings. That the major sensors applied to objects perception at present are distance measuring instruments which based on the principle and application of non-contact detection technology . Prior to acknowledging the general principles of flight and obstacle avoiding, the aerodynamics modeling of the quadcopter and its object detection means has been initially determined on this paper. Based on such premise, this article emphasized on describing and analyzing the research on obstacle avoiding technology and its application status, and making an expectation for the trend of its development after analyzing the primary existing problems concerning its accuracy object avoidance.

  2. Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to-date information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) website -- www.cdc.gov/zika . To prevent getting the Zika virus, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Sexual transmission of the virus can be prevented by using condoms ...

  3. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  4. Approach and avoidance in fear of spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined attitudes towards spiders by employing an Approach-Avoidance Task, in which participants respond to pictures by pulling a joystick towards themselves or by pushing it away from themselves. For spider fearfuls, this stimulus–response assignment is either compatible (push spiders away) or

  5. FORUM Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.

  6. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  7. PENGARUH CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP TAX AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuralifmida Ayu Annisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out how the influence of the corporate governance of tax avoidanceactivity in companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008. The samples are publiclytraded company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008 as many as 200 companies. Thisstudy uses data analysis and regression analysis of the elements of corporate governance and taxavoidance. The results of this study show that the elements of corporate governance that consist ofaudit quality and audit committee significantly influence the activity of tax avoidance as measuredusing proxy book tax gap. Other results show that the tax avoidance activity as measured withproxy book tax gap are not affected significantly by institutional ownership and board ofcommissioners. Limitation of this study is not to use each type of industries as control variable socan’t identify the direct effect from type of industry on tax avoidance. Another limitation of thisstudy is use corporate governance’s proxy separately, so it can’t capture the full effect ofcorporate governance. Keywords:corporate governance, ownership structure, board of commissioners, audit committee,tax avoidance, book tax gap.

  8. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both

  9. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  10. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about...

  11. Simple Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Rehabilitation Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, Floran H.A.; Römer, GertWillem R.B.E.; Stuyt, Harry .J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a rehabilitation robot is improved by offering record-and-replay to operate the robot. While automatically moving to a stored target (replay) collisions of the robot with obstacles in its work space must be avoided. A simple, though effective, generic and deterministic algorithm

  12. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...

  13. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays.

  14. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  15. A collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups: Considering random avoidance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuping; Cai, Yifei; Ke, Ruimin; Yang, Jiwei

    2017-06-01

    Grouping is a common phenomenon in pedestrian crowds and group modeling is still an open challenging problem. When grouping pedestrians avoid each other, different patterns can be observed. Pedestrians can keep close with group members and avoid other groups in cluster. Also, they can avoid other groups separately. Considering this randomness in avoidance patterns, we propose a collision avoidance model for two-pedestrian groups. In our model, the avoidance model is proposed based on velocity obstacle method at first. Then grouping model is established using Distance constrained line (DCL), by transforming DCL into the framework of velocity obstacle, the avoidance model and grouping model are successfully put into one unified calculation structure. Within this structure, an algorithm is developed to solve the problem when solutions of the two models conflict with each other. Two groups of bidirectional pedestrian experiments are designed to verify the model. The accuracy of avoidance behavior and grouping behavior is validated in the microscopic level, while the lane formation phenomenon and fundamental diagrams is validated in the macroscopic level. The experiments results show our model is convincing and has a good expansibility to describe three or more pedestrian groups.

  16. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  17. The pathogen transmission avoidance theory of sexual selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.

  18. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  19. Associating crash avoidance maneuvers with driver attributes and accident characteristics: a mixed logit model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    The current study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics, and environmental conditions. The importance of avoidance maneuvers derives from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed logit model that represents the selection among 5 emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers (i.e., "no avoidance maneuvers," "braking," "steering," "braking and steering," and "other maneuvers) while accommodating correlations across maneuvers and heteroscedasticity. Data for the analysis were retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the year 2009 by considering drivers for which crash avoidance maneuvers are known. The results show that (1) the nature of the critical event that made the crash imminent greatly influences the choice of crash avoidance maneuvers, (2) women and elderly have a relatively lower propensity to conduct crash avoidance maneuvers, (3) drowsiness and fatigue have a greater negative marginal effect on the tendency to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers than alcohol and drug consumption, (4) difficult road conditions increase the propensity to perform crash avoidance maneuvers, and (5) visual obstruction and artificial illumination decrease the probability to carry out crash avoidance maneuvers. The results emphasize the need for public awareness campaigns to promote safe driving style for senior drivers and warning about the risks of driving under fatigue and distraction being comparable to the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Moreover, the results suggest the need to educate drivers about hazard perception, designing

  20. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  1. Avoiding maladaptation to climate change: towards guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnan, Alexandre

    2013-08-01

    The recent publication of the Physical Science Basis volume of IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report reaffirms an already known conclusion: even drastic reductions of global greenhouse gas emissions will be insufficient to avoid some of the impacts of climate change, and is becoming increasingly clear that the temperature increase by the end of the century is likely to exceed the official target of +2 deg. C. Urgent efforts are thus more than ever needed to support socio-ecological systems threatened by climate change, but how to make adaptation happen on the ground remains vague. Consequently, there is a real risk that climate funding may support initiatives that are actually harmful for the socio-ecological systems, i.e. that foster adaptation in the short-term but insidiously affect systems' long-term vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity to climate change. This generally defines 'mal-adaptation', and this paper affirms that avoiding mal-adaptation is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in a broader sense. Focusing on coastal areas at a local scale and with the aim of providing insights to help avoiding mal-adaptation to climate change on the ground, this paper develops eleven practice-oriented guidelines that address the environmental, socio-cultural and economic dimensions of adaptation initiatives (policies, plans, projects). Based upon this, it affirms that the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of mal-adaptation. Together, these guidelines and this assumption constitute the 'Assessment framework' for approaching mal-adaptation to climate change at a local level. (author)

  2. Sexual Fears and Avoidant Sexual Behavior in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stefan P; Mateva, Nonka G; Iliev, Yanko T; Dechev, Ivan D; Karalilova, Rositsa V

    2015-01-01

    Sexual fears, sometimes in the form of phobias, lead to aversive or sexually avoidant behavior blocking sexual closeness and resulting in deep personal and interpersonal distress. To determine the types of sexual fears and aversive behavior in young people of reproductive age (students) and their degree of markedness as to encourage a further implementation of prevention programs and interventions. The study included 116 fifth-year medical students in Plovdiv Medical University. Of these, 55 men and 61 women were assessed with the Sexual Aversion Scale, a 30-item self-rating questionnaire. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria of sexual aversion were used. The statistical analyses used were descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test. Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior are mild to moderate, mean score of 1.54 ± 0.04, without statistically significant gender differences. Both sexes have established fear-related sexual aversive motives of sexual behavior related to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. Women have significantly higher average scores for the following statements: fear of sexual intercourse (1.61 vs 1.25), avoidance of situations in which they may be involved sexually (1.95 vs 1.51), avoidance of genital sexual contact (1.44 vs 1.16), fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease (2.46 vs 2.09 ), fear of pregnancy (2.61 vs 2.15) and concerns what other people think of them (2.34 vs 1.93 ). Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior were mild to moderate. In both sexes similar fears--aversive or blocking patterns of sexual behavior were found, mainly associated with the fear of unwanted pregnancy and the risk of HIV infection, more expressed in women.

  3. Ecological Automation Design, Extending Work Domain Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelink, M.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In high–risk domains like aviation, medicine and nuclear power plant control, automation has enabled new capabilities, increased the economy of operation and has greatly contributed to safety. However, automation increases the number of couplings in a system, which can inadvertently lead to more

  4. Decision Support from Genetic Algorithms for Ship Collision Avoidance Route Planning and Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng; Kao, Sheng-Long; Su, Chien-Min

    When an officer of the watch (OOW) faces complicated marine traffic, a suitable decision support tool could be employed in support of collision avoidance decisions, to reduce the burden and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic. Decisions on routes to avoid collisions could also consider economy as well as safety. Through simulating the biological evolution model, this research adopts the genetic algorithm used in artificial intelligence to find a theoretically safety-critical recommendation for the shortest route of collision avoidance from an economic viewpoint, combining the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGS) and the safety domain of a ship. Based on this recommendation, an optimal safe avoidance turning angle, navigation restoration time and navigational restoration angle will also be provided. A Geographic Information System (GIS) will be used as the platform for display and operation. In order to achieve advance notice of alerts and due preparation for collision avoidance, a Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) operator and the OOW can use this system as a reference to assess collision avoidance at present location.

  5. Research on embedded automobile collision avoidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.

  6. Avoidant Personality Disorder: a Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.

  7. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  8. Construction dispute research conceptualisation, avoidance and resolution

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There are three specific purposes of Construction Dispute Research. First, this volume aims to summarise studies on construction dispute. Second, apart from the theoretical constructs, where appropriate empirical tests are also included. This approach serves to go beyond the commonly used anecdotal approach for the subject matters. Third, it is the sincere hope of the authors that this book will help shaping research agenda of construction dispute.  The studies are mostly framed from a management perspective drawing on methods and concepts in contract law, economics, psychology and management science.   The book has twenty chapters that are arranged in four parts covering conceptualisation, avoidance, negotiation and mediation. Part 1 is devoted for dispute conceptualisation. A building is only as strong as its foundation. Thus it is no better start to study construction dispute by conceptualisation. The theme of Part 2 is dispute avoidance. The conventional wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ se...

  9. Online Learning of Commission Avoidant Portfolio Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Uziel, Guy; El-Yaniv, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel online ensemble learning strategy for portfolio selection. The new strategy controls and exploits any set of commission-oblivious portfolio selection algorithms. The strategy handles transaction costs using a novel commission avoidance mechanism. We prove a logarithmic regret bound for our strategy with respect to optimal mixtures of the base algorithms. Numerical examples validate the viability of our method and show significant improvement over the state-of-the-art.

  10. Detect and Avoid (DAA) Automation Maneuver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    GUY A. FRENCH JOSEPH C. PRICE, MAJ, USAF Work Unit Manager Acting Chief, Supervisory Control and Cognition Branch Supervisory Control and Cognition...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Guy French 19b. TELEPHONE...the ability to detect and safely avoid other aircraft in flight ( Cook & Davis, 2013). In order to increase UAS flight safety and support UAS

  11. Tax avoidance: Definition and prevention issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of resolving issues pertaining to tax avoidance, and particularly its aggressive forms, has been the focal point of discussion among tax scholars which is increasingly gaining attention of politicians alike. As opposed to tax evasion (which is illegal, the phenomenon of tax avoidance calls for careful consideration of state fiscal interests and a highly precise demarcation of the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable conduct. In many contemporary states, tax avoidance (which implies a formal behaviour of tax payers within the limits of tax legislation but contrary to the tax regulation objectives is declared to be illegitimate. State authorities do not want to tolerate such activity, which results in tax payers' reduction or avoidance of tax liabilities. We should also bear in mind that all tax payers have the tax planning option at their disposal, by means of which they make sure that they do not pay more tax than they are legally obliged to. However, in case they skilfully use the tax regulation flaws and loopholes for the sole purpose of tax evasion, and/or resort to misrepresentation and deceptive constructs, they are considered to be exceeding the limits of acceptable tax behaviour. In comparison to the specific anti-abuse measures which have been built into some national tax legislations, there is a growing number of states that introduce the general anti-abuse legislations, which is based on judicial doctrines or statutory legislation. Yet, there is a notable difference among the envisaged anti-abuse measures depending on whether the national legislation is based on the Anglo-American or European-Continental legal system. The efficiency of applying these general anti-abuse rules in taxation largely rests on their interpretation as well as on their relationship with the principle of legality.

  12. Avoiding Local Optima with Interactive Evolutionary Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    the top of a flight of stairs selects for climbing ; suspending the robot and the target object above the ground and creating rungs between the two will...REPORT Avoiding Local Optimawith Interactive Evolutionary Robotics 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The main bottleneck in evolutionary... robotics has traditionally been the time required to evolve robot controllers. However with the continued acceleration in computational resources, the

  13. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...

  14. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of phabit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600

  15. Wavefield Extrapolation in Pseudo-depth Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2011-12-11

    Wave-equation based seismic migration and inversion tools are widely used by the energy industry to explore hydrocarbon and mineral resources. By design, most of these techniques simulate wave propagation in a space domain with the vertical axis being depth measured from the surface. Vertical depth is popular because it is a straightforward mapping of the subsurface space. It is, however, not computationally cost-effective because the wavelength changes with local elastic wave velocity, which in general increases with depth in the Earth. As a result, the sampling per wavelength also increases with depth. To avoid spatial aliasing in deep fast media, the seismic wave is oversampled in shallow slow media and therefore increase the total computation cost. This issue is effectively tackled by using the vertical time axis instead of vertical depth. This is because in a vertical time representation, the "wavelength" is essentially time period for vertical rays. This thesis extends the vertical time axis to the pseudo-depth axis, which features distance unit while preserving the properties of the vertical time representation. To explore the potentials of doing wave-equation based imaging in the pseudo-depth domain, a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is derived to describe acoustic wave in this new domain. This new PDE is inherently anisotropic because the use of a constant vertical velocity to convert between depth and vertical time. Such anisotropy results in lower reflection coefficients compared with conventional space domain modeling results. This feature is helpful to suppress the low wavenumber artifacts in reverse-time migration images, which are caused by the widely used cross-correlation imaging condition. This thesis illustrates modeling acoustic waves in both conventional space domain and pseudo-depth domain. The numerical tool used to model acoustic waves is built based on the lowrank approximation of Fourier integral operators. To investigate the potential

  16. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il; Jain, Mayank; Kazandjieva, Maria A.; Levis, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Granting silence to avoid wireless collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-10-01

    We describe grant-to-send, a novel collision avoidance algorithm for wireless mesh networks. Rather than announce packets it intends to send, a node using grant-to-send announces packets it expects to hear others send. We present evidence that inverting collision avoidance in this way greatly improves wireless mesh performance. Evaluating four protocols from 802.11 meshes and 802.15.4 sensor networks, we find that grant-to-send matches or outperforms CSMA and RTS/CTS in all cases. For example, in a 4-hop UDP flow, grantto- send can achieve 96% of the theoretical maximum throughput while maintaining a 99.9% packet delivery ratio. Grant-tosend is also general enough to replace protocol-specific collision avoidance mechanisms common to sensor network protocols. Grant-to-send is simple. For example, incorporating it into 802.11 requires only 11 lines of driver code and no hardware changes. Furthermore, as it reuses existing 802.11 mechanisms, grant-to-send inter-operates with current networks and can be incrementally deployed. © 2010 IEEE.

  18. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-10

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm.

  19. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  20. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  1. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  2. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  3. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  4. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  5. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  6. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  7. GlycoDomainViewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T

    2018-01-01

    features, which enhances visibility and accessibility of the wealth of glycoproteomic data being generated. The GlycoDomainViewer enables visual exploration of glycoproteomic data, incorporating information from recent N- and O-glycoproteome studies on human and animal cell lines and some organs and body...

  8. Disrupted avoidance learning in functional neurological disorder: Implications for harm avoidance theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel S. Morris

    Full Text Available Background: Functional neurological disorder (FND is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. Methods: We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV. Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS+/CS− information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance. Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. Results: FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS+ compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS+/CS−, persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. Conclusions: FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND

  9. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...

  10. A Crowd Avoidance Method Using Circular Avoidance Path for Robust Person Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Morishita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A life-support service robot must avoid both static and dynamic obstacles for working in a real environment. Here, a static obstacle means an obstacle that does not move, and a dynamic obstacle is the one that moves. Assuming the robot is following a target person, we discuss how the robot avoids a crowd through which the target person passes and arrives at the target position. The purpose of this paper is to propose a crowd avoidance method that makes a robot to be able to avoid both static and dynamic obstacles. The method uses the surface points of the obstacles to form an avoidance region, and the robot moves along the edge of the region. We conducted experiments assuming various situations such that the robot was blocked, there was a wide gap in the crowd, or a person in the crowd yielded for the robot to pass through. As an experimental result, it was confirmed the robot could avoid the crowd even when the obstacles were aligned in an “inverted wedge” shape.

  11. Climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, D.; Favier, R.; Bourg, D.; Marchand, J.P.

    2005-04-01

    The climatic risks are analyzed in this book under the cross-vision of specialists of different domains: philosophy, sociology, economic history, law, geography, climatology and hydrology. The prevention of risks and the precautionary principle are presented first. Then, the relations between climatic risk and geography are analyzed using the notion of territoriality. The territory aspect is in the core of the present day debates about the geography of risks, in particular when the links between climate change and public health are considered. Then the main climatic risks are presented. Droughts and floods are the most damaging ones and the difficulties of prevention-indemnification coupling remain important. (J.S.)

  12. Avoiding Plagiarism in Writing a Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Wajdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how to avoid plagiarism in a research paper. Avoiding plagiarism is part of a scientific writing ethic that always stated in any publication. Every writer should pay attention to their papers submitted to a journal or a scientific forum that they are free from unethical conduct. Writing a research paper needs overall accuracy especially in avoiding plagiarism in the paper that is to be published in a journal or to be presented at a certain scientific meeting, seminar or symposium. It is based on writers’ experience as a paper writer as well as a journal reviewer. The first application that the writers use is ‘checker’, a Mac computer application, used to check spelling and grammar. It assists the writers to check how misspelling and an ungrammatical inaccuracy in the writers’ papers. The second free application is ‘plagiarism checker’. Checking originality of a paper is essential and it is not too difficult to do today. It is freely accessible that plagiarism checker can be used to check how original the paper is. By visiting “Google” then write down ‘plagiarism checker’, it will appear ‘smallseatools’ and then the writers could choose and check how original the paper is. This application is freely accessed and helps immensely to check how original a paper is and how far a paper is free from plagiarism. The unoriginal phrase will be underlined and marked red and finally will be shown how inimitable the paper is. Plagiarism scan report which consists of the date of the report, plagiarism status, total words and total characters can be downloaded.

  13. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A; Lawal, Taiwo A; Peña, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48-72 h after the operation. The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung's disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic stricture and no mortality. Based on

  14. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  15. A Cross-Domain Collaborative Filtering Algorithm Based on Feature Construction and Locally Weighted Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xu; Lin, Jun-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Du, Jun-Wei; Han, Ji-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Cross-domain collaborative filtering (CDCF) solves the sparsity problem by transferring rating knowledge from auxiliary domains. Obviously, different auxiliary domains have different importance to the target domain. However, previous works cannot evaluate effectively the significance of different auxiliary domains. To overcome this drawback, we propose a cross-domain collaborative filtering algorithm based on Feature Construction and Locally Weighted Linear Regression (FCLWLR). We first construct features in different domains and use these features to represent different auxiliary domains. Thus the weight computation across different domains can be converted as the weight computation across different features. Then we combine the features in the target domain and in the auxiliary domains together and convert the cross-domain recommendation problem into a regression problem. Finally, we employ a Locally Weighted Linear Regression (LWLR) model to solve the regression problem. As LWLR is a nonparametric regression method, it can effectively avoid underfitting or overfitting problem occurring in parametric regression methods. We conduct extensive experiments to show that the proposed FCLWLR algorithm is effective in addressing the data sparsity problem by transferring the useful knowledge from the auxiliary domains, as compared to many state-of-the-art single-domain or cross-domain CF methods.

  16. A Cross-Domain Collaborative Filtering Algorithm Based on Feature Construction and Locally Weighted Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-domain collaborative filtering (CDCF solves the sparsity problem by transferring rating knowledge from auxiliary domains. Obviously, different auxiliary domains have different importance to the target domain. However, previous works cannot evaluate effectively the significance of different auxiliary domains. To overcome this drawback, we propose a cross-domain collaborative filtering algorithm based on Feature Construction and Locally Weighted Linear Regression (FCLWLR. We first construct features in different domains and use these features to represent different auxiliary domains. Thus the weight computation across different domains can be converted as the weight computation across different features. Then we combine the features in the target domain and in the auxiliary domains together and convert the cross-domain recommendation problem into a regression problem. Finally, we employ a Locally Weighted Linear Regression (LWLR model to solve the regression problem. As LWLR is a nonparametric regression method, it can effectively avoid underfitting or overfitting problem occurring in parametric regression methods. We conduct extensive experiments to show that the proposed FCLWLR algorithm is effective in addressing the data sparsity problem by transferring the useful knowledge from the auxiliary domains, as compared to many state-of-the-art single-domain or cross-domain CF methods.

  17. Identifying patient fear-avoidance beliefs by physical therapists managing patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calley, Darren Q; Jackson, Steven; Collins, Heather; George, Steven Z

    2010-12-01

    Cross-sectional. To evaluate the accuracy with which physical therapists identify fear-avoidance beliefs in patients with low back pain by comparing therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance to the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia 11-item (TSK-11), and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). To compare the concurrent validity of therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance and a 2-item questionnaire on fear of physical activity and harm, with clinical measures of fear-avoidance (FABQ, TSK-11, PCS), pain intensity as assessed with a numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and disability as assessed with the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ). The need to consider psychosocial factors for identifying patients at risk for disability and chronic low back pain has been well documented. Yet the ability of physical therapists to identify fear-avoidance beliefs using direct observation has not been studied. Eight physical therapists and 80 patients with low back pain from 3 physical therapy clinics participated in the study. Patients completed the FABQ, TSK-11, PCS, ODQ, NPRS, and a dichotomous 2-item fear-avoidance screening questionnaire. Following the initial evaluation, physical therapists rated perceived patient fear-avoidance on a 0-to-10 scale and recorded 2 influences on their ratings. Spearman correlation and independent t tests determined the level of association of therapist 0-to-10 ratings and 2-item screening with fear-avoidance and clinical measures. Therapist ratings of perceived patient fear-avoidance had fair to moderate interrater reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.663). Therapist ratings did not strongly correlate with FABQ or TSK-11 scores. Instead, they unexpectedly had stronger associations with ODQ and PCS scores. Both 2-item screening questions were associated with FABQ-physical activity scores, while the fear of physical activity question was also associated with FABQ-work, TSK-11, PCS, and ODQ scores

  18. Avoiding object by robot using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasetijo, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    A Self controlling robot is necessary in the robot application in which operator control is difficult. Serial method such as process on the computer of van newman is difficult to be applied for self controlling robot. In this research, Neural network system for robotic control system was developed by performance expanding at the SCARA. In this research, it was shown that SCARA with application at Neural network system can avoid blocking objects without influence by number and density of the blocking objects, also departure and destination paint. robot developed by this study also can control its moving by self

  19. Common pitfalls to avoid during workover operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Remedial well work has been, and will continue to be, an integral part of oil company operations. More than 16,000 workover operations were performed during 1993 in the US. The economic impact from workover operations is usually immediate due to flowlines, tank batteries and other equipment being in place and ready for service prior to the workover. Similarly, problems encountered during workover operations contribute an immediate negative impact to project economics. Guidelines for common mistake avoidance are presented. They will be especially helpful for those individuals not well trained in workover preparation and supervision

  20. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  1. Deterministic LOCA avoidance by gravity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, A A [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A novel concept for an intrinsically safe reactor, called the Pellet Suspension Reactor (PSR), has vertical fuel tubes in which fuel, in the form of micro-pellets, is suspended by an upwardly flowing liquid or (preferably) gas coolant. Then, in the event of a primary pump failure, the fuel pellets fall down into a divergent conical annulus which is surrounded by ordinary water; the divergent geometry of this catchment ensures nuclear subcriticality, and the annulus will ensure decay-heat removal by packed-bed conduction. Thus melting of the fuel is avoided, and no emergency shut-down or emergency cooling provisions are required. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  2. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  3. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  4. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  5. Vigilance-avoidance and disengagement are differentially associated with fear and avoidant behaviors in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Travis C; Walukevich, Katherine A; Britton, Jennifer C

    2016-07-15

    Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) often exhibit preferential attention for social threat, demonstrating abnormal orientation to threat (i.e., vigilance-avoidance) and/or difficulty disengaging from threat. However, no research has compared the relationship between attention indices (i.e., vigilance-avoidance, difficulty disengaging from threat) and characteristic features of the disorder such as fear during social situations (social fear) and avoidant behaviors (social avoidance). To address this issue, seventy adults (19.29±1.47 years, 33 females) were separated into low (n=37) or high (n=33) socially anxious groups using clinical cutoff scores on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants in both groups completed a dot-probe task with congruent, incongruent, and neutral trials to obtain measures of vigilance-avoidance and difficulty disengaging. Using linear regression, we examined the associations each attention index shared with self-reported social fear and social avoidance. Exclusively in the high anxious group, greater vigilance towards threat was associated with higher self-reported social fear, but not with social avoidance. However, difficulty disengaging was not associated with either social measure. In the low anxiety group, no relationships between attention indices and either social measure emerged. Future research with clinical samples is necessary to replicate and extend these findings. The small sample size studied may have limited our ability to detect other smaller effects. Indices of attention bias may contribute differently to the etiology and maintenance of SAD, which offers important implications for novel treatments that target attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TENCompetence Domain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    This is the version 1.1 of the TENCompetence Domain Model (version 1.0 released at 19-6-2006; version 1.1 at 9-11-2008). It contains several files: a) a pdf with the model description, b) three jpg files with class models (also in the pdf), c) a MagicDraw zip file with the model itself, d) a release

  7. Hazard avoidance via descent images for safe landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruicheng; Cao, Zhiguo; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Zhiwen

    2013-10-01

    In planetary or lunar landing missions, hazard avoidance is critical for landing safety. Therefore, it is very important to correctly detect hazards and effectively find a safe landing area during the last stage of descent. In this paper, we propose a passive sensing based HDA (hazard detection and avoidance) approach via descent images to lower the landing risk. In hazard detection stage, a statistical probability model on the basis of the hazard similarity is adopted to evaluate the image and detect hazardous areas, so that a binary hazard image can be generated. Afterwards, a safety coefficient, which jointly utilized the proportion of hazards in the local region and the inside hazard distribution, is proposed to find potential regions with less hazards in the binary hazard image. By using the safety coefficient in a coarse-to-fine procedure and combining it with the local ISD (intensity standard deviation) measure, the safe landing area is determined. The algorithm is evaluated and verified with many simulated descent downward looking images rendered from lunar orbital satellite images.

  8. Avoiding humiliations in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hollnagel, Hanne

    2007-06-01

    To explore potentials for avoiding humiliations in clinical encounters, especially those that are unintended and unrecognized by the doctor. Furthermore, to examine theoretical foundations of degrading behaviour and identify some concepts that can be used to understand such behaviour in the cultural context of medicine. Finally, these concepts are used to build a model for the clinician in order to prevent humiliation of the patient. Empirical studies document experiences of humiliation among patients when they see their doctor. Philosophical and sociological analysis can be used to explain the dynamics of unintended degrading behaviour between human beings. Skjervheim, Vetlesen, and Bauman have identified the role of objectivism, distantiation, and indifference in the dynamics of evil acts, pointing to the rules of the cultural system, rather than accusing the individual of bad behaviour. Examining the professional role of the doctor, parallel traits embedded in the medical culture are demonstrated. According to Vetlesen, emotional awareness is necessary for moral perception, which again is necessary for moral performance. A better balance between emotions and rationality is needed to avoid humiliations in the clinical encounter. The Awareness Model is presented as a strategy for clinical practice and education, emphasizing the role of the doctor's own emotions. Potentials and pitfalls are discussed.

  9. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  10. Avoidable cost of alcohol abuse in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Gnam, William H; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Popova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    To estimate avoidable burden and avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Canada for the year 2002. A policy effectiveness approach was used. The impact of six effective and cost-effective alcohol policy interventions aimed to reduce alcohol consumption was modeled. In addition, the effect of privatized alcohol sales that would increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable costs was also modeled. The effects of these interventions were compared with the baseline (aggregate) costs obtained from the second Canadian Study of Social Costs Attributable to Substance Abuse. It was estimated that by implementing six cost-effective policies from about 900 million to two billion Canadian dollars per year could be saved in Canada. The greatest savings due to the implementation of these interventions would be achieved in the lowering of productivity losses, followed by health care, and criminality. Substantial increases in burden and cost would occur if Canadian provinces were to privatize alcohol sales. The implementation of proven effective population-based interventions would reduce alcohol-attributable burden and its costs in Canada to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Avoided operating costs in thermal generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, N.; Billinton, R.; Gupta, R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and straightforward technique was developed to assess avoided system operating costs associated with non-utility generation (NUG). The technique was based on optimum loading configurations of the committed units both before and after the inclusion of NUG energy. The salient features of the technique were presented in this paper. Assessment of avoided operating cost with deterministic and probabilistic criteria were explained. A time differentiated price system was adopted in the algorithms to reflect the different value placed on purchased price by a utility at different times of the day. The algorithms show the utility effects of dispatchable and non-dispatchable NUG energies. The IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS) was utilized for numerical analysis. Results were illustrated. It was found that sensitivity studies similar to those performed on the IEEE-RTS could be utilized to determine the amount of energy and the time period during which utilities and NUGs can maximize their economic benefits. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  13. The impact of avoidant personality disorder on psychosocial impairment is substantial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, Sigmund; Pedersen, Geir; Urnes, Øyvind

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have compared the psychosocial problems associated with different types of personality disorders (PDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the functional impairment and symptomatic distress associated with six PD diagnoses coded in DSM-IV: paranoid, borderline, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive PD and PD not otherwise specified, as well as a condition of non-psychotic symptom disorders with no PD. The study included 1023 patients from eight day treatment units specialized in the treatment of PDs. Eighty-one per cent had one or more PD diagnoses. At admission to day treatment, the patients were evaluated with respect to global functioning, symptomatic and interpersonal distress, education, quality of life, social support, legal problems and previous psychotic episodes and psychiatric hospitalizations. There were few differences in global functioning or symptomatic and interpersonal distress between patients with a single PD diagnosis. Avoidant PD and borderline PD was the diagnoses that contributed most to dysfunction in most variables when taking into account the presences of several co-occurrent PD diagnoses and axis I disorders. The psychosocial problems associated with avoidant and borderline PD were partly domain specific. The study indicates that avoidant PD is associated with severe dysfunction and subjective distress, at a level comparable to that of borderline PD. Avoidant PD deserves more attention, both with respect to the specific psychopathology and dynamics underlying the disorder and the development of treatment approaches.

  14. Avoiding common pitfalls in qualitative data collection and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, K L; McComish, J F; Greenberg, R

    2000-09-01

    The subjective nature of qualitative research necessitates scrupulous scientific methods to ensure valid results. Although qualitative methods such as grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography yield rich data, consumers of research need to be able to trust the findings reported in such studies. Researchers are responsible for establishing the trustworthiness of qualitative research through a variety of ways. Specific challenges faced in the field can seriously threaten the dependability of the data. However, by minimizing potential errors that can occur when doing fieldwork, researchers can increase the trustworthiness of the study. The purpose of this article is to present three of the pitfalls that can occur in qualitative research during data collection and transcription: equipment failure, environmental hazards, and transcription errors. Specific strategies to minimize the risk for avoidable errors will be discussed.

  15. Seven rules to avoid the tragedy of the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Baek, Seung Ki

    2018-07-14

    Cooperation among self-interested players in a social dilemma is fragile and easily interrupted by mistakes. In this work, we study the repeated n-person public-goods game and search for a strategy that forms a cooperative Nash equilibrium in the presence of implementation error with a guarantee that the resulting payoff will be no less than any of the co-players'. By enumerating strategic possibilities for n=3, we show that such a strategy indeed exists when its memory length m equals three. It means that a deterministic strategy can be publicly employed to stabilize cooperation against error with avoiding the risk of being exploited. We furthermore show that, for general n-person public-goods game, m ≥ n is necessary to satisfy the above criteria. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  17. Avoiding Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, K. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, PA (United States); Hall, M. [Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, Seung-Rae [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bradford, D.F. [Department of Economics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School and Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Robertson Hall 448, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the avoidance of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'. Among the many plausible choices, dangerous interference with the climate system may be interpreted as anthropogenic radiative forcing causing distinct and widespread climate change impacts such as a widespread demise of coral reefs or a disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet. The geological record and numerical models suggest that limiting global warming below critical temperature thresholds significantly reduces the likelihood of these eventualities. Here we analyze economically optimal policies that may ensure this risk-reduction. Reducing the risk of a widespread coral reef demise implies drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions within decades. Virtually unchecked greenhouse gas emissions to date (combined with the inertia of the coupled natural and human systems) may have already committed future societies to a widespread demise of coral reefs. Policies to reduce the risk of a West Antarctic ice sheet disintegration allow for a smoother decarbonization of the economy within a century and may well increase consumption in the long run.

  18. Standoffish perhaps, but successful as well: evidence that avoidant attachment can be beneficial in professional tennis and computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Reizer, Abira; Shaver, Phillip R; Dotan, Eyal

    2012-06-01

    Attachment-related avoidance and anxiety have repeatedly been associated with poorer adjustment in various social, emotional, and behavioral domains. We examined 2 domains in which avoidant individuals might be better equipped than their less avoidant peers to succeed and be satisfied--professional singles tennis and computer science. These fields may reward self-reliance, independence, and the ability to work without proximal social support from loved ones. In study 1, we followed 58 professional singles tennis players for 16 months and found that scores on attachment-related avoidance predicted a higher ranking, above and beyond the contributions of training and coping resources. In study 2, we sampled 100 students and found that those who scored higher on avoidance were happier with their choice of computer science as a career than those who scored lower on avoidance. Results are discussed in relation to the possible adaptive functions of certain personality characteristics often viewed as undesirable. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Does osteoporosis predispose falls? a study on obstacle avoidance and balance confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duysens Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is associated with changes in balance and physical performance and has psychosocial consequences which increase the risk of falling. Most falls occur during walking; therefore an efficient obstacle avoidance performance might contribute to a reduction in fall risk. Since it was shown that persons with osteoporosis are unstable during obstacle crossing it was hypothesized that they more frequently hit obstacles, specifically under challenging conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate whether obstacle avoidance ability was affected in persons with osteoporosis compared to a comparison group of a community sample of older adults. Methods Obstacle avoidance performance was measured on a treadmill and compared between persons with osteoporosis (n = 85 and the comparison group (n = 99. The obstacle was released at different available response times (ART to create different levels of difficulty by increasing time pressure. Furthermore, balance confidence, measured with the short ABC-questionnaire, was compared between the groups. Results No differences were found between the groups in success rates on the obstacle avoidance task (p = 0.173. Furthermore, the persons with osteoporosis had similar levels of balance confidence as the comparison group (p = 0.091. The level of balance confidence was not associated with the performance on the obstacle avoidance task (p = 0.145. Conclusion Obstacle avoidance abilities were not impaired in persons with osteoporosis and they did not experience less balance confidence than the comparison group. These findings imply that persons with osteoporosis do not have an additional risk of falling because of poorer obstacle avoidance abilities.

  20. Reconstructive laparoscopic prolapse surgery to avoid mesh erosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devassy, Rajesh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study is to examine the efficacy of the purely laparoscopic reconstructive management of cystocele and rectocele with mesh, to avoid the risk of erosion by the graft material, a well known complication in vaginal mesh surgery. Material and methods: We performed a prospective, single-case, non-randomized study in 325 patients who received laparoscopic reconstructive management of pelvic organe prolaps with mesh. The study was conducted between January 2004 and December 2012 in a private clinic in India. The most common prolapse symptoms were reducible vaginal lump, urinary stress incontinence, constipation and flatus incontinence, sexual dysfunction and dypareunia. The degree e of the prolaps was staged according to POPQ system. The approach was purely laparoscopic and involved the use of polypropylene (Prolene or polyurethane with activated regenerated cellulose coating (Parietex mesh. Results: The mean age was 55 (30–80 years and the most of the patients were multiparous (272/325. The patients received a plastic correction of the rectocele only (138 cases, a cystocele and rectocele (187 cases with mesh. 132 patients had a concomitant total hysterectomy; in 2 cases a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy was performed and 190 patients had a laparoscopic colposuspension. The mean operation time was 82.2 (60–210 minutes. The mean follow up was 3.4 (3–5 years. Urinary retention developed in 1 case, which required a new laparoscopical intervention. Bladder injury, observed in the same case was in one session closed with absorbable suture. There were four recurrences of the rectocele, receiving a posterior vaginal colporrhaphy. Erosions of the mesh were not reported or documented. Conclusion: The pure laparoscopic reconstructive management of the cystocele and rectocele with mesh seems to be a safe and effective surgical procedure potentially avoiding the risk of mesh erosions.

  1. Domain decomposition method for solving elliptic problems in unbounded domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Computational aspects of the box domain decomposition (DD) method for solving boundary value problems in an unbounded domain are discussed. A new variant of the DD-method for elliptic problems in unbounded domains is suggested. It is based on the partitioning of an unbounded domain adapted to the given asymptotic decay of an unknown function at infinity. The comparison of computational expenditures is given for boundary integral method and the suggested DD-algorithm. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic

  3. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  4. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  5. Pengaruh Komite Audit, Kualitas Audit, Kepemilikan Institusional, Risiko Perusahaan dan Return On Assets Terhadap Tax Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Damayanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze and get empirical evidence about the effect of audit committee, audit quality, ownership institutional, corporate risk and return on assets on the tax avoidance. Sample of this research were property and real estate industries which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchanges during 2010-2013 period. The number of property and real estate industries that were became in this study were 22 companies with 4 years observation that acquired by purposive sampling method. Hypothesis in this research were tested by multiple regression model.The result of this research showed that corporate risk and return on assets influence the tax avoidance. In the other hand, the audit quality, audit committee and ownership institutional didn’t influence the tax avoidance.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v5i2.2341

  6. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders. Evaluation and management strategies are also discussed. No data yet exist regarding ARFID׳s prognosis and prevention; however, recommendations to guide parents in establishing appropriate infant and child feeding practices are provided. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Avoiding Deontic Explosion by Contextually Restricting Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheus, Joke; Beirlaen, Mathieu; van de Putte, Frederik

    In this paper, we present an adaptive logic for deontic conflicts, called P2.1 r , that is based on Goble's logic SDL a P e - a bimodal extension of Goble's logic P that invalidates aggregation for all prima facie obligations. The logic P2.1 r has several advantages with respect to SDL a P e. For consistent sets of obligations it yields the same results as Standard Deontic Logic and for inconsistent sets of obligations, it validates aggregation "as much as possible". It thus leads to a richer consequence set than SDL a P e. The logic P2.1 r avoids Goble's criticisms against other non-adjunctive systems of deontic logic. Moreover, it can handle all the 'toy examples' from the literature as well as more complex ones.

  8. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....

  9. Discovering and avoiding self-contradiction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    aspects –first developing critical self-refection and secondly developing skills to conduct an ethical dialogue. The first aspect is addressed by finding out what the students think, do they contradict themselves and how to avoid self-contradictions. This is done by using a questionnaire with 13 ethical...... the theory and see the consequences of such theories in concrete cases, but would not use any of these theories to justify their own ethical decisions in other contexts. In other words, courses were failing to provide the students with theoretical tools that they could apply outside the classroom. Therefore......, this method focuses not so much on teaching what other people think, but rather starts by finding out what the students think, and to which degree they contradict themselves. In addition the method focuses on how students argue for their positions when entering an ethical dialogue. The method focuses on two...

  10. Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Gennery, D. B.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    A Mars rover sample return mission has been proposed for the late 1990's. Due to the long speed-of-light delays between earth and Mars, some autonomy on the rover is highly desirable. JPL has been conducting research in two possible modes of rover operation, Computer-Aided Remote Driving and Semiautonomous Navigation. A recently-completed research program used a half-scale testbed vehicle to explore several of the concepts in semiautonomous navigation. A new, full-scale vehicle with all computational and power resources on-board will be used in the coming year to demonstrate relatively fast semiautonomous navigation. The computational and power requirements for Mars rover local navigation and hazard avoidance are discussed.

  11. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.

  12. Life stressors, emotional avoidance and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenal, Violeta; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Martín Frías, Isabel; Martínez Lozano, Joaquina

    2008-11-01

    Two groups of women were assessed in psychological aspects considered by some authors of interest for personal well-being. The sample consisted of 118 women, 58 diagnosed with breast cancer and 60 healthy women, of similar ages and personal circumstances. The purpose of the study was: (a) to explore the existence of stressful life events in the women's history and their degree of subjective distress and (b) to determine whether or not there is an emotional avoidance style in the group of women with breast cancer. The following assessment instruments were employed: the "Cuestionario de Formas de Afrontamiento" (CEA), the Five-Factor Inventory NEO-PI-R, and the State-Trait Anger Inventory (STAXI). The results revealed more stressful vital events in the last two years in the group of women with breast cancer and significant differences in the degree of current distress. They also obtained higher scores in current anger, resignation, and neuroticism.

  13. Tax Anti-avoidance Through Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pearson, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    -driven discipline to be dealt with by accounting and tax experts. Instead, MNEs face the task of establishing a complex fit with their environment beyond the typical stakeholders with transfer pricing, i.e. tax authorities. These include government officials, tax activists, and consumers who voice......This paper examines the case of Starbucks’ UK branch, which became subject to massive public criticism over alleged tax avoidance. Despite Starbucks arguing that its transfer pricing practices were in full compliance with regulatory requirements, public pressure for higher corporate tax payments...... led Starbucks to increase its UK tax payment on transfer pricing income beyond regulatory requirements. This case study suggests that MNE tax behavior on international transfer pricing is not strictly a matter of compliance with formal tax regulation. We demonstrate the way an MNE attempts to re...

  14. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.

  15. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  16. Risk Management And Organisational Profitability | Ukandu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings revealed that certain measures like: risk reduction/prevention, risk avoidance, risk sharing, risk retention, risk modification, etc. could be adopted to reduce the impact of risk on production. The paper posits that if the proper risk control measures and effective planning techniques are applied, the impact of risk ...

  17. Functional Domain Driven Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  18. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  19. Compensating for Incomplete Domain Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Lynn M; Drezner, Steve; Rue, Rachel; Reyes, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    .... First, many senior leader positions require experience in more than one functional or operational domain, but it is difficult to develop a corps of senior leaders with all the required combinations of domain knowledge...

  20. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  1. Beyond Attributable Burden: Estimating the Avoidable Burden of Disease Associated with Household Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Kuhn

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD studies have transformed global understanding of health risks by producing comprehensive estimates of attributable disease burden, or the current disease that would be eliminated if a risk factor did not exist. Yet many have noted the greater policy significance of avoidable burden, or the future disease that could actually be eliminated if a risk factor were eliminated today. Avoidable risk may be considerably lower than attributable risk if baseline levels of exposure or disease are declining, or if a risk factor carries lagged effects on disease. As global efforts to deliver clean cookstoves accelerate, a temporal estimation of avoidable risk due to household air pollution (HAP becomes increasingly important, particularly in light of the rapid uptake of modern stoves and ongoing epidemiologic transitions in regions like South and Southeast Asia.We estimate the avoidable burden associated with HAP using International Futures (IFs, an integrated forecasting system that has been used to model future global disease burdens and risk factors. Building on GBD and other estimates, we integrated a detailed HAP exposure estimation and exposure-response model into IFs. We then conducted a counterfactual experiment in which HAP exposure is reduced to theoretical minimum levels in 2015. We evaluated avoidable mortality and DALY reductions for the years 2015 to 2024 relative to a Base Case scenario in which only endogenous changes occurred. We present results by cause and region, looking at impacts on acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. We found that just 2.6% of global DALYs would be averted between 2015 and 2024, compared to 4.5% of global DALYs attributed to HAP in the 2010 GBD study, due in large part to the endogenous tendency towards declining traditional stove usage in the IFs base case forecast. The extent of diminished impact was comparable for ALRI and affected NCDs

  2. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...... as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context....

  3. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of the subject. In between these two extremes, conceptual summaries encompass selected concepts derived using background knowledge. We address in this paper an approach where conceptual summaries are provided through a conceptualization as given by an ontology. The ontology guiding the summarization can...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  4. Relationship of work-family conflict with burnout and marital satisfaction: cross-domain or source attribution relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Bagherzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In terms of practical implication, to avoid creating disadvantages of WIF and FIW,facilitation in two domains of improving work and family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences.

  5. Can avoidance of complications lead to biased healthcare decisions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Amsterlaw

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Imagine that you have just received a colon cancer diagnosis and need to choose between two different surgical treatments. One surgery, the ``complicated surgery,'' has a lower mortality rate (16\\% vs. 20\\% but compared to the other surgery, the ``uncomplicated surgery,'' also carries an additional 1\\% risk of each of four serious complications: colostomy, chronic diarrhea, wound infection, or an intermittent bowel obstruction. The complicated surgery dominates the uncomplicated surgery as long as life with complications is In our first survey, 51\\% of a sample (recruited from the cafeteria of a university medical center selected the dominated alternative, the uncomplicated surgery, justifying this choice by saying that the death risks for the two surgeries were essentially the same and that the uncomplicated surgery avoided the risk of complications. In follow-up surveys, preference for the uncomplicated surgery remained relatively consistent (39\\%--51\\% despite (a presenting the risks in frequencies rather than percents, (b grouping the 4 complications into a single category, or (c giving the uncomplicated surgery a small chance of complications as well. Even when a pre-decision ``focusing exercise'' required people to state directly their preferences between life with each complication versus death, 49\\% still chose the uncomplicated People's fear of complications leads them to ignore important differences between treatments. This tendency appears remarkably resistant to debiasing approaches and likely leads patients to make healthcare decisions that are inconsistent %Background: Imagine that you have just received a colon cancer diagnosis %and need to choose between two different surgical treatments. One %surgery, the ``complicated surgery,'' has a lower mortality rate (16\\% %vs. 20\\% but compared to the other surgery, the ``uncomplicated %surgery,'' also carries an additional 1\\% risk of each of four serious %complications

  6. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  7. Public Involvement in Decisions to Avoid Costly Consequences Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, Judy

    2006-01-01

    There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who will work together to make sure that harm is avoided and

  8. Attachment anxiety and avoidance as mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.

  9. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after

  10. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  11. Health numeracy: the importance of domain in assessing numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Ubel, Peter A; Dillard, Amanda J; Weir, David R; Fagerlin, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Existing research concludes that measures of general numeracy can be used to predict individuals' ability to assess health risks. We posit that the domain in which questions are posed affects the ability to perform mathematical tasks, raising the possibility of a separate construct of "health numeracy" that is distinct from general numeracy. The objective was to determine whether older adults' ability to perform simple math depends on domain. Community-based participants completed 4 math questions posed in 3 different domains: a health domain, a financial domain, and a pure math domain. Participants were 962 individuals aged 55 and older, representative of the community-dwelling US population over age 54. We found that respondents performed significantly worse when questions were posed in the health domain (54% correct) than in either the pure math domain (66% correct) or the financial domain (63% correct). Our experimental measure of numeracy consisted of only 4 questions, and it is possible that the apparent effect of domain is specific to the mathematical tasks that these questions require. These results suggest that health numeracy is strongly related to general numeracy but that the 2 constructs may not be the same. Further research is needed into how different aspects of general numeracy and health numeracy translate into actual medical decisions.

  12. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  13. Communication Avoiding and Overlapping for Numerical Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    future exascale systems, communication cost must be avoided or overlapped. Communication-avoiding 2.5D algorithms improve scalability by reducing...linear algebra problems to future exascale systems, communication cost must be avoided or overlapped. Communication-avoiding 2.5D algorithms improve...will continue to grow relative to the cost of computation. With exascale computing as the long-term goal, the community needs to develop techniques

  14. Landslide disaster avoidance: learning from Leyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    On 17 February 2006 a gigantic rockslide triggered a debris avalanche that overran the barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard in Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, burying 154 victims, with 990 missing including 246 school children. Even with satellite imagery, GIS-based landslide susceptibility modelling and real-time meteorological and seismic data analysis, scientific prediction of every potentially fatal landslide is not possible in most parts of the world. This is particular the case in steep, unstable, densely-populated country in which heavy rain is common. So how can further events of this type be prevented from turning into disasters? A number of precursory phenomena were noted by local inhabitants at Guinsaugon: a crack around the slope that failed was noticed in May 2005; coconut trees near the northern foot of the landslide scarp began to lean increasingly in the down-slope direction in December 2005; a slope around the northern edge of the 17 February 2006 landslide scarp failed on December 17, 2005; in the 9 days prior to the rockslide, 640 mm of rain fell; 450 mm in a 3-day period. Such phenomena are commonly reported by local inhabitants before large landslides (e.g. Elm, Mayunmarca, and many others). In many cases, therefore, it is in principle possible for local people to avoid the consequences of the landslide if they know enough to act appropriately in response to the precursory phenomena. For this possibility to be realized, appropriate information must be provided to and assimilated by the local population. Useful ways of achieving this include pamphlets, video, TV and radio programs and visits from civil defence personnel. The information must be properly presented; scientific language will be ineffective. A communication pyramid, leading from government agencies to local leaders, can facilitate the rapid availability of the information to all potentially susceptible communities. If science can determine those areas not vulnerable to landslide

  15. Avoiding surety contracts in bankruptcy procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiber Dragor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's courts jurisprudence has divergent attitudes with respect to the dilemma whether a surety contract represents a contract without consideration, which may be avoided once the guarantor is subject to bankruptcy procedure without any additional conditions, or an onerous contract. Whether a surety contract is an onerous one has anyhow been disputed in the legal theory. One school of thought considers this contract as non-onerous one, since vis-a-vis guarantor's obligation no benefit to be expected from the other contractual party (i. e. creditor exists. The other school of thought understands surety (almost always as an onerous contract bearing in mind that the guarantor who enters into this contract does not have intentio liberalis. There are numerous and nuanced views based on analyses of the relation between a guarantor and a debtor focused on the argument that surety is a contract without consideration if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor rather than vis-a-vis creditor. Our legal literature did not pay much attention to that issue until recently. In a rare text dedicated to it the author's basic standpoint is that surety represents a contract without consideration. An exception, depending on the circumstances of the case, could be surety given by a parent company for the obligation of a subsidiary, provided the former reasonably expected a benefit in terms of an increase in the value of shares. Commercial courts followed such reasoning. In this article an opposite stance has been argued. Namely, the onerousness of surety must be assessed based on the relation between the guarantor and the main debtor rather than between the guarantor and the creditor. As a rule, surety is an onerous contract because the guarantor expects to collect from the debtor through subrogation the amount he paid to the creditor; exceptionally, surety may be a non-onerous contract if intentio liberalis existed vis-a-vis main debtor. However, this

  16. Protein domain analysis of genomic sequence data reveals regulation of LRR related domains in plant transpiration in Ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tiange; Yin, Kangquan; Liu, Jinyu; Cao, Kunfang; Cannon, Charles H; Du, Fang K

    2014-01-01

    Predicting protein domains is essential for understanding a protein's function at the molecular level. However, up till now, there has been no direct and straightforward method for predicting protein domains in species without a reference genome sequence. In this study, we developed a functionality with a set of programs that can predict protein domains directly from genomic sequence data without a reference genome. Using whole genome sequence data, the programming functionality mainly comprised DNA assembly in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) assembly methods and traditional methods, peptide prediction and protein domain prediction. The proposed new functionality avoids problems associated with de novo assembly due to micro reads and small single repeats. Furthermore, we applied our functionality for the prediction of leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains in four species of Ficus with no reference genome, based on NGS genomic data. We found that the LRRNT_2 and LRR_8 domains are related to plant transpiration efficiency, as indicated by the stomata index, in the four species of Ficus. The programming functionality established in this study provides new insights for protein domain prediction, which is particularly timely in the current age of NGS data expansion.

  17. Negative emotions and emotional eating: the mediating role of experiential avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Rachel; Goldbacher, Edie M; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks

    2017-03-01

    Emotional eating is a risk factor for eating pathology across the life- and weight-span. Research demonstrates that negative emotions are a precipitant of emotional eating, particularly among female college students. However, the underlying factors that explain this relationship are unclear. Experiential avoidance, a propensity toward being unwilling to remain in contact with aversive private experiences, may explain the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiential avoidance would mediate the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. A sample of 132 women (17.4 % African American, 59.8 % White) completed measures of mood, experiential avoidance and emotional eating. Bias-corrected bootstrapping mediational analyses were conducted. Experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating b = -0.21, 95 % BC CI [-0.43, -0.07]. The indirect effect through experiential avoidance accounted for 9 % of the variance, which represents a medium effect (k 2  = 0.09, 95 % BC CI [0.03, 0.18]). Results suggest that experiential avoidance is important for understanding the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating and may inform potential strategies for prevention and treatment.

  18. Power mobility with collision avoidance for older adults: user, caregiver, and prescriber perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rosalie H; Korotchenko, Alexandra; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Mortenson, W Ben; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Collision avoidance technology has the capacity to facilitate safer mobility among older power mobility users with physical, sensory, and cognitive impairments, thus enabling independence for more users. Little is known about consumers' perceptions of collision avoidance. This article draws on interviews (29 users, 5 caregivers, and 10 prescribers) to examine views on design and utilization of this technology. Data analysis identified three themes: "useful situations or contexts," "technology design issues and real-life application," and "appropriateness of collision avoidance technology for a variety of users." Findings support ongoing development of collision avoidance for older adult users. The majority of participants supported the technology and felt that it might benefit current users and users with visual impairments, but might be unsuitable for people with significant cognitive impairments. Some participants voiced concerns regarding the risk for injury with power mobility use and some identified situations where collision avoidance might be beneficial (driving backward, avoiding dynamic obstacles, negotiating outdoor barriers, and learning power mobility use). Design issues include the need for context awareness, reliability, and user interface specifications. User desire to maintain driving autonomy supports development of collaboratively controlled systems. This research lays the groundwork for future development by illustrating consumer requirements for this technology.

  19. Losses as ecological guides: minor losses lead to maximization and not to avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Retzer, Matan; Telpaz, Ariel; Hochman, Guy

    2015-06-01

    Losses are commonly thought to result in a neuropsychological avoidance response. We suggest that losses also provide ecological guidance by increasing focus on the task at hand, and that this effect may override the avoidance response. This prediction was tested in a series of studies. In Study 1a we found that minor losses did not lead to an avoidance response. Instead, they guided participants to make advantageous choices (in terms of expected value) and to avoid disadvantageous choices. Moreover, losses were associated with less switching between options after the first block of exploration. In Study 1b we found that this effect was not simply a by-product of the increase in visual contrast with losses. In Study 1c we found that the effect of losses did not emerge when alternatives did not differ in their expected value but only in their risk level. In Study 2 we investigated the autonomic arousal dynamics associated with this behavioral pattern via pupillometric responses. The results showed increased pupil diameter following losses compared to gains. However, this increase was not associated with a tendency to avoid losses, but rather with a tendency to select more advantageously. These findings suggest that attention and reasoning processes induced by losses can out-weigh the influence of affective processes leading to avoidance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deadlock Avoidance Policy in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Free Choice Resource Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Ballal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient control schemes are required for effective cooperation of robot teams in a mobile wireless sensor network. If the robots (resources are also in charge of executing multiple simultaneous missions, then risks of deadlocks due to the presence of shared resources among different missions increase and have to be tackled. Discrete event control with deadlock avoidance has been used in the past for robot team coordination for the case of multi reentrant flowline models with shared resources. In this paper we present an analysis of deadlock avoidance for a generalized case of multi reentrant flow line systems (MRF called the Free Choice Multi Reentrant Flow Line systems (FMRF. In FMRF, some tasks have multiple resource choices; hence routing decisions have to be made and current results in deadlock avoidance for MRF do not hold. This analysis is based on the so-called Circular Waits (CW of the resources in the system. For FMRF, the well known notions of Critical Siphons and Critical Subsystems must be generalized and we redefine these objects for such systems. Our second contribution provides a matrix formulation that efficiently computes the objects required for deadlock avoidance in FMRF systems. A MAXWIP dispatching policy is formulated for deadlock avoidance in FMRF systems. According to this policy, deadlock in FMRF is avoided by limiting the work in progress (WIP in the critical subsystems of each CW. Implemented results of the proposed scheme in a WSN test-bed is presented in the paper.

  1. On Hubbard-Stratonovich transformations over hyperbolic domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V

    2005-01-01

    We discuss and prove the validity of the Hubbard-Stratonovich (HS) identities over hyperbolic domains which are used frequently in studies on disordered systems and random matrices. We also introduce a counterpart of the HS identity arising in disordered systems with 'chiral' symmetry. Apart from this we outline a way of deriving the nonlinear σ-model from the gauge-invariant Wegner k-orbital model avoiding the use of the HS transformations

  2. Perturbation on diffusion problems in domain with interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    A perturbative type algorithm for the solution of linear diffusion equation at two dimensions, in domain with interfaces is presented. The perturbative scheme should be assembled in the weak formulation of diffusion equation, even if the strong solution exists, and when it is taken in terms superiors to first order, it should be calculated analytically, in one of the dimensions to avoid problems of slow convergence. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Based on an Improved Velocity Obstacle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In view of a dynamic obstacle environment with motion uncertainty, we present a dynamic collision avoidance method based on the collision risk assessment and improved velocity obstacle method. First, through the fusion optimization of forward-looking sonar data, the redundancy of the data is reduced and the position, size and velocity information of the obstacles are obtained, which can provide an accurate decision-making basis for next-step collision avoidance. Second, according to minimum meeting time and the minimum distance between the obstacle and unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, this paper establishes the collision risk assessment model, and screens key obstacles to avoid collision. Finally, the optimization objective function is established based on the improved velocity obstacle method, and a UUV motion characteristic is used to calculate the reachable velocity sets. The optimal collision speed of UUV is searched in velocity space. The corresponding heading and speed commands are calculated, and outputted to the motion control module. The above is the complete dynamic obstacle avoidance process. The simulation results show that the proposed method can obtain a better collision avoidance effect in the dynamic environment, and has good adaptability to the unknown dynamic environment.

  4. Avoidance and tolerance to avian herbivores in aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, A.

    2009-01-01

    Tolerance and avoidance are the two contrasting strategies that plants may adopt to cope with herbivores. Tolerance traits define the degree to which communities remain unaffected by herbivory. Trade-offs between herbivore avoidance and competitive strength and between avoidance and colonization

  5. Prion Disease: Learn the Facts. Avoid Exposure.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-23

    This podcast discusses prion diseases and the risk of exposure associated with some common activities.  Created: 5/23/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  6. Avoidable mortality among First Nations adults in Canada: A cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwee; Tjepkema, Michael; Goedhuis, Neil; Pennock, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Avoidable mortality is a measure of deaths that potentially could have been averted through effective prevention practices, public health policies, and/or provision of timely and adequate health care. This longitudinal analysis compares avoidable mortality among First Nations and non-Aboriginal adults. Data are from the 1991-to-2006 Canadian Census Mortality and Cancer Follow-up Study. A 15% sample of 1991 Census respondents aged 25 or older was linked to 16 years of mortality data. This study examines avoidable mortality among 61,220 First Nations and 2,510,285 non-Aboriginal people aged 25 to 74. During the 1991-to-2006 period, First Nations adults had more than twice the risk of dying from avoidable causes compared with non-Aboriginal adults. The age-standardized avoidable mortality rate (ASMR) per 100,000 person-years at risk for First Nations men was 679.2 versus 337.6 for non-Aboriginal men (rate ratio = 2.01). For women, ASMRs were lower, but the gap was wider. The ASMR for First Nations women was 453.2, compared with 183.5 for non-Aboriginal women (rate ratio = 2.47). Disparities were greater at younger ages. Diabetes, alcohol and drug use disorders, and unintentional injuries were the main contributors to excess avoidable deaths among First Nations adults. Education and income accounted for a substantial share of the disparities. The results highlight the gap in avoidable mortality between First Nations and non-Aboriginal adults due to specific causes of death and the association with socioeconomic factors.

  7. Avian Information Systems: Developing Web-Based Bird Avoidance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called "bird strikes," can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and in and around air fields. Although a wealth of bird distribution and density data is collected by numerous organizations, these data are not readily available nor interpretable by aviation. This paper presents two national efforts, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, to develop bird avoidance nodels for aviation. These models integrate data and expert knowledge on bird distributions and migratory behavior to provide hazard maps in the form of GIS-enabled Web services. Both models are in operational use for flight planning and flight alteration and for airfield and airfield vicinity management. These models and their presentation on the Internet are examples of the type of service that would be very useful in other fields interested in species distribution and movement information, such as conservation, disease transmission and prevention, or assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic risks to nature. We expect that developments in cyber-technology, a transition toward an open source philosophy, and higher demand for accessible biological data will result in an increase in the number of biological information systems available on the Internet.

  8. Brief cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; Pritchard, Rhian

    2015-03-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is associated with a high level of impairment in multiple areas of functioning. However, research on the treatment of APD is scarce, and there is an absence of empirically evaluated effective treatment approaches available. This study offers a preliminary investigation of the use of brief cognitive therapy to treat APD. Two individuals, both with a principal diagnosis of APD, but who also possessed a number of comorbidities, participated in 12 weekly sessions. A series of diagnostic symptom severity, global functioning, and self-report measures were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-week follow-up. In addition, regular monitoring of each participant's strength of belief in 4 personally identified cognitions associated with APD was completed. Reductions in APD symptoms, associated negative affect, and increases to quality of life were observed for both participants at posttreatment and follow-up phases. Results suggest that brief cognitive therapy may be an effective treatment for APD and that further studies with larger samples are warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Spaced taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    We succeeded in taste avoidance conditioning with sucrose as the conditional stimulus (CS) and an electrical stimulus (∼1000V, 80μA) as the unconditional stimulus (US). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) persisting for at least one week. However, while STM was elicited with 5, 8, 10, and 20 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. We found, however, that if we inserted a 3h interval between a first and a second set of CS-US pairings that both 8 and 20 paired CS-US presentations on a single day was now sufficient to cause LTM formation. Exposing snails to bryostatin before or during training enhanced LTM formation such that 8 paired presentations of the CS-US resulted in LTM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The amygdala: securing pleasure and avoiding pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushka B P Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala has traditionally been associated with fear, mediating the impact of negative emotions on memory. However, this view does not fully encapsulate the function of the amygdala, nor the impact that processing in this structure has on the motivational limbic corticostriatal circuitry of which it is an important structure. Here we discuss the interactions between different amygdala nuclei with cortical and striatal regions involved in motivation; interconnections and parallel circuitries that have become increasingly understood in recent years. We review the evidence that the amygdala stores memories that allow initially motivationally neutral stimuli to become associated through pavlovian conditioning with motivationally relevant outcomes which, importantly, can be either appetitive (e.g. food or aversive (e.g. electric shock. We also consider how different psychological processes supported by the amygdala such as conditioned reinforcement and punishment, conditioned motivation and suppression, and conditioned approach and avoidance behavior, are not only psychologically but also neurobiologically dissociable, being mediated by distinct yet overlapping neural circuits within the limbic corticostriatal circuitry. Clearly the role of the amygdala goes beyond encoding aversive stimuli to also encode the appetitive, requiring an appreciation of the amygdala’s mediation of both appetitive and fearful behavior through diverse psychological processes.

  11. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    million people (3.7 million men and 0.2 million women) in the Nordic countries were potentially exposed to above-average levels of one or more verified industrial carcinogens. It is expected that these exposures will result in a total of about 1,900 new cases of cancer every year in the Nordic countries...... around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...... cancers, 1% of the leukaemias, and 1% of renal cancers. Overall, it is estimated that verified industrial carcinogens will account for approximately 3% of all cancers in men and less than 0.1% of all cancers in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000. No attempt was made to estimate...

  12. Collision detection and avoidance during treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, John L.; Pizzuto, Domenico; Fleischman, Eric; Mohan, Radhe

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop computer software that assists the planner avoid potential gantry collisions with the patient or patient support assembly during the treatment planning process. Methods and Materials: The approach uses a simulation of the therapy room with a scale model of the treatment machine. Because the dimensions of the machine and patient are known, one can calculate a priori whether any desired therapy field is possible or will result in a collision. To assist the planner, we have developed a graphical interface enabling the accurate visualization of each treatment field configuration with a 'room's eye view' treatment planning window. This enables the planner to be aware of, and alleviate any potential collision hazards. To circumvent blind spots in the graphic representation, an analytical software module precomputes whether each update of the gantry or turntable position is safe. Results: If a collision is detected, the module alerts the planner and suggests collision evasive actions such as either an extended distance treatment or the gantry angle of closest approach. Conclusions: The model enables the planner to experiment with unconventional noncoplanar treatment fields, and immediately test their feasibility

  13. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  14. Approach-avoidance activation without anterior asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally, the expected effects of approach-avoidance motivation on anterior EEG alpha asymmetry fail to emerge, particularly in studies using affective picture stimuli. These null findings have been explained by insufficient motivational intensity of, and/or overshadowing interindividual variability within the responses to emotional pictures. These explanations were systematically tested using data from 70 students watching 5 types of affective pictures ranging from very pleasant to unpleasant. The stimulus categories reliably modulated self-reports as well as the amplitude of late positive potential, an ERP component reflecting orienting towards motivationally significant stimuli. The stimuli did not, however, induce expected asymmetry effects either for the sample or individual participants. Even while systematic stimulus-dependent individual differences emerged in self-reports as well as LPP amplitudes, the asymmetry variability was dominated by stimulus-independent interindividual variability. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest that under some circumstances anterior asymmetry may not be an inevitable consequence of core affect. Instead, state asymmetry shifts may be overpowered by stable trait asymmetry differences and/or stimulus-independent yet situation-dependent interindividual variability, possibly caused by processes such as emotion regulation or anxious apprehension.

  15. General Concepts Regarding Risk Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Dinu

    2014-01-01

    Risk appetite is a very complex system, therefore one of the most important element of a company’s enterprise risk management (ERM) is the risk appetite defining. A proper risk management means making good choices towards the risks a company faces in order to achieve its objectives and measures to mitigate those risks, not to avoid them. Therefore, the moment risk appetite is understood and clearly defined can become a powerful tool both for managing the occurred risks and business performanc...

  16. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  17. The time domain triple probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, M.A.; Hallock, G.A.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new Langmuir probe technique based on the triple probe method is being developed to provide simultaneous measurement of plasma temperature, potential, and density with the temporal and spatial resolution required to accurately characterize plasma turbulence. When the conventional triple probe method is used in an inhomogeneous plasma, local differences in the plasma measured at each probe introduce significant error in the estimation of turbulence parameters. The Time Domain Triple Probe method (TDTP) uses high speed switching of Langmuir probe potential, rather than spatially separated probes, to gather the triple probe information thus avoiding these errors. Analysis indicates that plasma response times and recent electronics technology meet the requirements to implement the TDTP method. Data reduction techniques of TDTP data are to include linear and higher order correlation analysis to estimate fluctuation induced particle and thermal transport, as well as energy relationships between temperature, density, and potential fluctuations

  18. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  19. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health III: Avoiding vs. Seeking Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Janoff, Shannon L; Anderson, Bradley M; Weisner, Constance M; Perrin, Nancy A

    2010-01-01

    Inability to predict most health services use and costs using demographics and health status suggests that other factors affect use, including attitudes and practices that influence health and willingness to seek care. Alcohol consumption has generated interest because heavy, chronic consumption causes adverse health consequences, acute consumption increases injury, and moderate drinking is linked to better health while hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems are stigmatized and may affect willingness to seek care. A stratified random sample of health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). We linked survey data to 24 months of health-plan records to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes, practices, health, and service use. In-depth interviews with a stratified 150-respondent subsample explored individuals' reasons for seeking or avoiding care. Quantitative results suggest health-related practices and attitudes predict subsequent service use. Consistent predictors of care were having quit drinking, current at-risk consumption, cigarette smoking, higher BMI, disliking visiting doctors, and strong religious/spiritual beliefs. Qualitative analyses suggest embarrassment and shame are strong motivators for avoiding care. Although models included numerous health, functional status, attitudinal and behavioral predictors, variance explained was similar to previous reports, suggesting more complex relationships than expected. Qualitative analyses suggest several potential predictive factors not typically measured in service-use studies: embarrassment and shame, fear, faith that the body will heal, expectations about likelihood of becoming seriously ill, disliking the care process, the need to understand health problems, and the effects of self-assessments of health-related functional limitations.

  20. Interdependent Followers Prefer Avoidant Leaders: Followers’ Cultural Orientation Moderates Leaders’ Avoidance Relationships with Followers’ Work Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Kafetsios

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies examining leader–follower interaction in Greece, a collectivistic culture, paradoxically find that leaders’ emotion suppression-related personality traits (attachment avoidance, emotion suppression, emotion control are associated with followers’ positive emotional and work attitude outcomes. These findings have been explained with reference to followers’ implicit cultural schemas, interdependence in particular. Yet, this conjuncture has not been directly tested. The present study directly examined, in a field setting, how followers’ independent and interdependent (cultural self-construal moderate the relationship between leaders’ attachment orientation and followers’ emotion and satisfaction outcomes at the work place. As hypothesized, leaders’ higher avoidance was associated with followers’ job satisfaction, group cohesion, and deep acting as well as lower negative affect and loneliness for followers higher on interdependent self-construal. The results underline perceptual processes involved in followers’ interdependent self-construal in relation to leaders’ emotion suppression-related traits.

  1. Volvo drivers' experiences with advanced crash avoidance and related technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Crash avoidance technologies can potentially prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their success depends in part on driver acceptance. Owners of 2010-2012 model Volvo vehicles with several technologies were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were conducted in summer 2012 with 155 owners of vehicles with City Safety as a standard feature; 145 owners with an optional technology package that included adaptive cruise control, distance alert, collision warning with full auto brake (and pedestrian detection on certain models), driver alert control, and lane departure warning; and 172 owners with both City Safety and the technology package. The survey response rates were 21 percent for owners with City Safety, 30 percent for owners with the technology package, and 27 percent for owners with both. Ten percent of owners opted out before the telephone survey began, and 18 percent declined to participate when called. Despite some annoyance, most respondents always leave the systems on, although fewer do so for lane departure warning (59%). For each of the systems, at least 80 percent of respondents with the system would want it on their next vehicle. Many respondents reported safer driving habits with the systems (e.g., following less closely with adaptive cruise control, using turn signals more often with lane departure warning). Fewer respondents reported potentially unsafe behavior, such as allowing the vehicle to brake for them at least some of the time. About one third of respondents experienced autonomous braking when they believed they were at risk of crashing, and about one fifth of respondents thought it had prevented a crash. About one fifth of respondents with the technology package reported that they were confused or misunderstood which safety system had activated in their vehicle. Consistent with the results for early adopters in the previous survey of Volvo and Infiniti owners, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies

  2. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic...... and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180...

  3. Inbreeding avoidance in spiders: evidence for rescue effect in fecundity of female spiders with outbreeding opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Maklakov, A.A.; Schilling, Nadia

    2007-01-01

    avoidance can be because of low risk of inbreeding, variation in tolerance to inbreeding or high costs of outbreeding. We examined the relationship between inbreeding depression and inbreeding avoidance adaptations under two levels of inbreeding in the spider Oedothorax apicatus, asking whether preference...... for unrelated sperm via pre- and/or post-copulatory mechanisms could restore female fitness when inbreeding depression increases. Using inbred isofemale lines we provided female spiders with one or two male spiders of different relatedness in five combinations: one male sib; one male nonsib; two male sibs; two...

  4. Avoiding the internet of insecure industrial things

    OpenAIRE

    Urquhart, Lachlan; McAuley, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Security incidents such as targeted distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks on power grids and hacking of factory industrial control systems (ICS) are on the increase. This paper unpacks where emerging security risks lie for the industrial internet of things, drawing on both technical and regulatory perspectives. Legal changes are being ushered by the European Union (EU) Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive 2016 and the General Data Protection Regulation 2016 (GDPR) (both to ...

  5. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  6. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  7. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  8. How biological microtubules may avoid decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameroff, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Entangled superpositions persisting for hundreds of milliseconds in protein assemblies such as microtubules (MTs) are proposed in biological functions, e.g. quantum computation relevant to consciousness in the Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model. Cylindrical polymers of the protein tubulin, MTs organize cell activities. The obvious question is how biological quantum states could avoid decoherence, e.g. in the brain at 37.6 degrees centigrade. Screening/sheelding: tubulin protein states/functions are governed by van der Waals London forces, quantum interactions among clouds of delocalizable electrons in nonpolar 'hydrophobic' intra-protein pockets screened from external van der Waals thermal interactions. Such pockets include amino acid resonance structures benzene and indole rings. (Anesthetic gases erase consciousness solely by interfering with London forces in hydrophobic pockets in various brain proteins). Hence tubulin states may act as superpositioned qubits also shielded at the MT level by counter-ion Debye plasma layers (due to charged C-termini tails on tubulin) and by water-ordering actin gels which embed MTs in a quasi-solid. Biological systems may also exploit thermodynamic gradients to give extremely low effective temperatures. Decoherence free subspaces: paradoxically, a system coupled strongly to its environment through certain degrees of freedom can effectively 'freeze' other degrees of freedom (quantum Zeno effect), enabling coherent superpositions and entanglement to persist. Metabolic energy supplied to MT collective dynamics (e.g. Froehlich coherence) can cause Bose-Einstein condenzation and counter decoherence as lasers avoid decoherence at room temperature. Topological quantum error correction: MT lattice structure reveals various helical winding paths through adjacent tubulins which follow the Fibonacci series. Propagation/interactions of quasi-particles along these paths may process information. As proposed by Kitaev (1997), various

  9. A New Paradigm for Evaluating Avoidance/Escape Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F

    2017-07-01

    Organisms have evolved to approach pleasurable opportunities and to avoid or escape from aversive experiences. These 2 distinct motivations are referred to as approach and avoidance/escape motivations and are both considered vital for survival. Despite several recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of motivation, most studies addressed approach but not avoidance/escape motivation. Here we develop a new experimental paradigm to quantify avoidance/escape motivation and examine the pharmacological validity. We set up an avoidance variable ratio 5 task in which mice were required to press a lever for variable times to avoid an upcoming aversive stimulus (foot shock) or to escape the ongoing aversive event if they failed to avoid it. We i.p. injected ketamine (0, 1, or 5 mg/kg) or buspirone (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) 20 or 30 minutes before the behavioral task to see if ketamine enhanced avoidance/escape behavior and buspirone diminished it as previously reported. We found that the performance on the avoidance variable ratio 5 task was sensitive to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. Treatment with ketamine increased while that with buspirone decreased the probability of avoidance from an aversive stimulus in the variable ratio 5 task, being consistent with previous reports. Our new paradigm will prove useful for quantifying avoidance/escape motivation and will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of motivation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. Avoiding unfavorable results in postburn contracture hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sameek

    2013-01-01

    Deformities of the hands are a fairly common sequel of burn especially in the developing world. This is because of high incidence of burns, limited access to standard treatment and rehabilitation. The best outcome of a burnt hand is when deformities are prevented from developing. A good functional result is possible when due consideration is paid to hands during resuscitation, excisional surgery, reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy. The post-burns deformities of hand develop due direct thermal damage or secondary to intrinsic minus position due to oedema or vascular insufficiency. During the acute phase the concerns are, maintenance circulation minimize oedema prevent unphysiological positioning and wound closure with autogenous tissue as soon as possible. The rehabilitation program during the acute phase starts from day one and goes on till the hand has healed and has regained full range of motion. Full blown hand contractures are challenging to correct and become more difficult as time passes. Long-standing cases often land up with attenuation of extensor apparatus leading to swan neck and boutonniere deformity, muscle shortening and bony ankylosis. The major and most common pitfall after contracture release is relapse. The treatment protocol of contracture is solely directed towards countering this tendency. This article aims to guide a surgeon in obtaining optimal hand function and avoid pit falls at different stages of management of hand burns. The reasons of an unfavourable outcome of a burnt hand are possible lack of optimal care in the acute phase, while planning and performing reconstructive procedure and during aftercare and rehabilitation. PMID:24501479

  11. Current strategies to avoid misdiagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänscheid, T

    2003-06-01

    Malaria remains the most important parasitic disease, and tens of thousands of cases are imported into non-endemic countries annually. However, any single institution may see only a very few cases-this is probably the reason why laboratory and clinical misdiagnosis may not be uncommon. In the laboratory, unfamiliarity with microscopic diagnosis may be the main reason, considering the large number of laboratory staff who provide on-call services, often without expert help at hand, as well as the difficulty in detecting cases with low-level parasitemia. Staff should therefore be provided with continuing microscopic training to maintain proficiency. The complementary use of immunochromatographic rapid detection tests (RDTs) may be useful, especially during on-call hours, although, in order to ensure correct interpretation, their inherent limitations have to be well known. Diagnosis based on the polymerase chain reaction is still unsuitable for routine use, due to its long turnaround time, its cost, and its unavailability outside regular hours, although it may be helpful in selected cases. Once the alert clinician has considered the possibility of malaria, and suspicion continues to be high, malaria can be excluded by repeat smears or RDTs. However, the absence of clinical suspicion may not be infrequent, and may have more serious consequences. Depending on the local number of malaria cases seen, laboratory staff should have a low threshold for the decision to perform unsolicited malaria diagnostic tests on suspicious samples, especially if other laboratory tests are abnormal (e.g. thrombocytopenia, presence of atypical lymphocytes, or raised lactate dehydrogenase). The detection of intraleukocytic hemozoin during automated full blood counts is a promising new way to avoid misdiagnosis of clinically unsuspected malaria.

  12. Prediction Reweighting for Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang Li; Shiji Song; Gao Huang

    2017-07-01

    There are plenty of classification methods that perform well when training and testing data are drawn from the same distribution. However, in real applications, this condition may be violated, which causes degradation of classification accuracy. Domain adaptation is an effective approach to address this problem. In this paper, we propose a general domain adaptation framework from the perspective of prediction reweighting, from which a novel approach is derived. Different from the major domain adaptation methods, our idea is to reweight predictions of the training classifier on testing data according to their signed distance to the domain separator, which is a classifier that distinguishes training data (from source domain) and testing data (from target domain). We then propagate the labels of target instances with larger weights to ones with smaller weights by introducing a manifold regularization method. It can be proved that our reweighting scheme effectively brings the source and target domains closer to each other in an appropriate sense, such that classification in target domain becomes easier. The proposed method can be implemented efficiently by a simple two-stage algorithm, and the target classifier has a closed-form solution. The effectiveness of our approach is verified by the experiments on artificial datasets and two standard benchmarks, a visual object recognition task and a cross-domain sentiment analysis of text. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms.

  13. Gravitational waves from domain walls and their implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Nakayama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the impact of domain-wall annihilation on the currently ongoing and planned gravitational wave experiments, including a case in which domain walls experience a frictional force due to interactions with the ambient plasma. We show the sensitivity reach in terms of physical parameters, namely, the wall tension and the annihilation temperature. We find that a Higgs portal scalar, which stabilizes the Higgs potential at high energy scales, can form domain walls whose annihilation produces a large amount of gravitational waves within the reach of the advanced LIGO experiment (O5. Domain wall annihilation can also generate baryon asymmetry if the scalar is coupled to either SU(2L gauge fields or the (B−L current. This is a variant of spontaneous baryogenesis, but it naturally avoids the isocurvature constraint due to the scaling behavior of the domain-wall evolution. We delineate the parameter space where the domain-wall baryogenesis works successfully and discuss its implications for the gravitational wave experiments.

  14. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  15. Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encountering situation of multi-ships is constructed, then the three-dimensional image and spatial curve of the risk index are figured out. Finally, single chip microcomputer is used to realize the model. And attaching this single chip microcomputer to ARPA is helpful to the decision-making of the marine navigators.

  16. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  17. A chance to avoid mistakes human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, Pablo; Obeso, Eduardo; Gomez, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Trying to give an answer to the lack of public information in the industry, in relationship with the different tools that are managed in the nuclear industry for minimizing the human error, a group of workers from different sections of the St. Maria de Garona NPP (Quality Assurance/ Organization and Human Factors) decided to embark on a challenging and exciting project: 'Write a book collecting all the knowledge accumulated during their daily activities, very often during lecture time of external information received from different organizations within the nuclear industry (INPO, WANO...), but also visiting different NPP's, maintaining meetings and participating in training courses related de Human and Organizational Factors'. Main objective of the book is presenting to the industry in general, the different tools that are used and fostered in the nuclear industry, in a practical way. In this way, the assimilation and implementation in others industries could be possible and achievable in and efficient context. One year of work, and our project is a reality. We have presented and abstract during the last Spanish Nuclear Society meeting in Sevilla, last October...and the best, the book is into the market for everybody in web-site: www.bubok.com. The book is structured in the following areas: 'Errare humanum est': Trying to present what is the human error to the reader, its origin and the different barriers. The message is that the reader see the error like something continuously present in our lives... even more frequently than we think. Studying its origin can be established aimed at barriers to avoid or at least minimize it. 'Error's bitter face': Shows the possible consequences of human errors. What better that presenting real experiences that have occurred in the industry. In the book, accidents in the nuclear industry, like Tree Mile Island NPP, Chernobyl NPP, and incidents like Davis Besse NPP in the past, helps to the reader to make a reflection about the

  18. Towards better patient care: drugs to avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Common sense dictates that one should choose tried and tested drugs with proven, concrete benefits that outweigh their adverse effects. Many new drugs are approved each year, often despite a lack of solid evidence that they are any better than existing treatments. Worse, some are approved despite being less effective or more harmful than current options. Massive promotion is used to ensure that such drugs achieve a positive image in the eyes of healthcare professionals and patients. Renowned "opinion leaders" intervene in their favour at conferences and in specialist media, and their opinions are further propagated by specialists in the field. Finally, campaigns in the lay media are used to highlight the target illness, encouraging patients to request a prescription. New data sometimes show that older, initially promising drugs are less effective or more harmful than first thought. For all these reasons, many drugs that are now present on the market are more harmful than beneficial and should be avoided. Unfortunately, negative assessment data and warnings are often drowned in the flood of promotion and advertising. Front-line healthcare professionals who are determined to act in their patients' best interests can find themselves swimming against a tide of specialist opinion, marketing authorisation, and reimbursement decisions. By leaving drugs that are more harmful than beneficial on the market and contenting themselves with simple half-measures, healthcare authorities are failing in their duty to protect patients. Prescrire, a journal funded solely by its subscribers, does not seek to do the work of health authorities, and does not have the means to do so. Prescrire's goal is simply to help healthcare professionals provide better care. The following text lists the principal drugs that we consider more harmful than beneficial, based on our reviews published between 2010 and 2012 in our French edition. These drugs should not be used. Patients and healthcare

  19. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  20. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  1. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itismita Mohanty

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  2. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  3. Attractiveness of food and avoidance from contamination as conflicting stimuli to habitat selection by fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Rodríguez, Elizabeth N V; Salvatierra, David; Cedeño-Macias, Luis A; Vera-Vera, Victoria C; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Habitat selection by fish is the outcome of a choice between different stimuli. Typically, the presence of food tends to attract organisms, while contamination triggers an avoidance response to prevent toxic effects. Given that both food and contaminants are not homogeneously distributed in the environment and that food can be available in contaminated zones, a key question has been put forward in the present study: does a higher availability of food in contaminated areas interfere in the avoidance response to contaminants regardless of the contamination level? Tilapia fry (Oreochromis sp.; 2.5-3.0 cm and 0.5-0.8 g) were exposed to two different effluent samples, diluted along a free-choice, non-forced exposure system simulating a contamination gradient. Initially, avoidance to the effluents was checked during a one hour exposure. Afterwards, food was added to the system so that the availability of food increased with the increase in the level of contamination, and the avoidance response to contamination was checked during another hour. Results clearly showed a concentration-dependent avoidance response for both effluents during the first hour (i.e., with no food). However, in presence of the food, the avoidance pattern was altered: organisms were propelled to intermittently move towards contaminated areas where food availability was higher. The incursions were taken regardless of the potential risk linked to the toxic effects. In conclusion, even when the risk of toxicity was imminent, tilapia fry were more intensively stimulated by the attractiveness of the food than by repulsion to the contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enemy avoidance task: A novel behavioral paradigm for assessing spatial avoidance of a moving subject

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Telenský, Petr; Svoboda, Jan; Pašťálková, Eva; Blahna, Karel; Bureš, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-33 ISSN 0165-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/05/H012; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB500110904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : avoidance * moving subject * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2009

  5. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Experiential Avoidance on Maladaptive Problem Solving and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570

  6. The impact of childhood emotional abuse and experiential avoidance on maladaptive problem solving and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-04-16

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.

  7. Why avoid the hippocampus? A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2010-01-01

    In this review article, we provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of the rationale for using modern IMRT techniques to spare the subgranular zone of the hippocampus during cranial irradiation. We review the literature on neurocognitive effects of cranial irradiation; discuss clinical and preclinical data associating damage to neural progrenitor cells located in subgranular zone of the hippocampus with radiation-induced neurocognitive decline, specifically in terms of short-term memory formation and recall; and present a review of our pilot investigations into the feasibility and risks of sparing the subgranular zone of the hippocampus during whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases. We also introduce our phase II cooperative group clinical trial (RTOG 0933) designed to prospectively evaluate the postulated neurocognitive benefit of hippocampal subgranular zone sparing and scheduled to open in 2010.

  8. Avoiding pitfalls in overseas medical educational experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Sessions

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are a growing number of medical students participating in international health electives. These experiences have the potential to be mutually beneficial to both the host country and the student. However, there is a significant risk of unethical and damaging practices during these trips, including concerns for sending trainees without appropriate pre-travel preparation with inadequate accountability to local health care providers at a stage in their education that imposes an undue burden on the local health facilities. This article describes one first year medical student’s experience in navigating common challenges faced in international health electives and offers practical advice enlightened by the literature on how to overcome them. We emphasize the need for students to ensure adequate pre-trip preparation, communicate their level of training clearly, practice cultural humility, ensure personal safety, and engage in projects needed by the host community.

  9. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  10. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Avoidance-related EEG asymmetry predicts circulating interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has linked avoidance-oriented motivational states to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. According to one of many theories regarding the association between avoidance and cytokine levels, because the evolutionarily basic avoidance system may be activated when an organism is threatened or overwhelmed, an associated inflammatory response may be adaptive for dealing with potential injury in such threatening situations. To examine this hypothesis, we tested whether the neural correlate of avoidance motivation associates with baseline levels of the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Controlling for covariates, greater resting neural activity in the right frontal cortex relative to the left frontal cortex-the neural correlate of avoidance motivation-was associated with baseline IL-6. These results thus support the hypothesis that the avoidance motivational system may be closely linked to systemic inflammatory activity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The relationship between avoidant personality disorder and social phobia: a population-based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Tambs, Kristian; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of comorbidity for social phobia and dimensional representations of avoidant personality disorder by estimating to what extent the two disorders are influenced by common genetic and shared or unique environmental factors versus the extent to which these factors are specific to each disorder. Young adult female-female twin pairs (N=1,427) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for avoidant personality disorder and social phobia using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate Cholesky models were fitted using the Mx statistical program. The best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors only. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia were influenced by the same genetic factors, whereas the environmental factors influencing the two disorders were uncorrelated. Within the limits of statistical power, these results suggest that there is a common genetic vulnerability to avoidant personality disorder and social phobia in women. An individual with high genetic liability will develop avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia entirely as a result of the environmental risk factors unique to each disorder. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that psychobiological dimensions span the axis I and axis II disorders.

  13. Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Lors, Christine; Salmon, Sandrine; Ponge, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    We measured the short-term (100 min) avoidance of a soil heavily polluted by hydrocarbons by the soil springtail Folsomia candida, at six rates of dilution in a control, unpolluted soil. We compared the results with those of long-term (40-day) population tests. Five strains were compared, of varying geographical and ecological origin. When pure, the polluted soil was lethal in the long-term and avoided in the short-term by all strains. Avoidance tests, but not population tests, were able to discriminate between strains. Avoidance thresholds differed among strains. Two ecological consequences of the results were discussed: (i) toxic compounds may kill soil animals or deprive them from food, resulting in death of populations, (ii) pollution spots can be locally deprived of fauna because of escape movements of soil animals. Advantages and limitations of the method have been listed, together with proposals for their wider use in soil ecology and ecotoxicology. - Polluted soils are avoided by soil animals, a phenomenon which can be used as a cheap, sensitive tool for the early detection of environmental risk

  14. Research on Intelligent Avoidance Method of Shipwreck Based on Bigdata Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that current avoidance method of shipwreck has the problem of low success rate of avoidance, this paper proposes a method of intelligent avoidance of shipwreck based on big data analysis. Firstly,our method used big data analysis to calculate the safe distance of approach of ship under the head-on situation, the crossing situation and the overtaking situation.On this basis, by calculating the risk-degree of collision of ships,our research determined the degree of immediate danger of ships.Finally, we calculated the three kinds of evaluation function of ship navigation, and used genetic algorithm to realize the intelligent avoidance of shipwreck.Experimental result shows that compared the proposed method with the traditional method in two in a recent meeting when the distance to closest point of approach between two ships is 0.13nmile, they can effectively evade.The success rate of avoidance is high.

  15. Big Data Usage Patterns in the Health Care Domain: A Use Case Driven Approach Applied to the Assessment of Vaccination Benefits and Risks. Contribution of the IMIA Primary Healthcare Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H; de Lusignan, S; Liaw, S-T; Kuziemsky, C E; Mold, F; Krause, P; Fleming, D; Jones, S

    2014-08-15

    Generally benefits and risks of vaccines can be determined from studies carried out as part of regulatory compliance, followed by surveillance of routine data; however there are some rarer and more long term events that require new methods. Big data generated by increasingly affordable personalised computing, and from pervasive computing devices is rapidly growing and low cost, high volume, cloud computing makes the processing of these data inexpensive. To describe how big data and related analytical methods might be applied to assess the benefits and risks of vaccines. We reviewed the literature on the use of big data to improve health, applied to generic vaccine use cases, that illustrate benefits and risks of vaccination. We defined a use case as the interaction between a user and an information system to achieve a goal. We used flu vaccination and pre-school childhood immunisation as exemplars. We reviewed three big data use cases relevant to assessing vaccine benefits and risks: (i) Big data processing using crowdsourcing, distributed big data processing, and predictive analytics, (ii) Data integration from heterogeneous big data sources, e.g. the increasing range of devices in the "internet of things", and (iii) Real-time monitoring for the direct monitoring of epidemics as well as vaccine effects via social media and other data sources. Big data raises new ethical dilemmas, though its analysis methods can bring complementary real-time capabilities for monitoring epidemics and assessing vaccine benefit-risk balance.

  16. Resource Unavailability (RU) Per Domain Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Westberg, L.; Bader, A.; Tschofenig, Hannes; Tschofenig, H.

    2006-01-01

    This draft specifies a Per Domain Behavior that provides the ability to Diffserv nodes located outside Diffserv domain(s), e.g., receiver or other Diffserv enabled router to detect when the resources provided by the Diffserv domain(s) are not available. The unavailability of resources in the domain

  17. Public Involvement in Decisions to Avoid Costly Consequences Later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2006-09-15

    There should be an agreement of goals in any project that could produce harm. Why are we developing this technology? Who benefits and who pays? What would a 'cleanup' entail? There must be consideration of alternatives with a focus on reducing harm rather than just meeting allowable limits or promising that they will be met in the future. When alternatives are weighed, the burden should be on the proponent of the activity to provide truthful information to the public and provide access and resources necessary for participation. There must be a formal, legal obligation or duty to consider science as well as non-scientific information. It should not be up to those harmed to prove the damage and force the responsible parties to make retribution. It should be the burden of the proponents to measure potential risks, and prove that the benefits to everyone outweigh the risks to everyone. The role of government in decision making should also be redefined. The considerations now seem to be limited to whether or not an action is 'legal' or if it is 'safe'. There should also be a determination that it is 'necessary'. That may seem to be a very difficult question but put simply, if there are alternatives then a thing is not 'necessary'. Governmental decision makers would say: 'We acknowledge that our world will never be free from risk. However, any risk that is unnecessary or not freely chosen is not acceptable'. There must be a move away from situations where prior, important decisions resulted in winners and losers; wealthy beneficiaries and underprivileged victims. There must be recognition that decision making needs to be inclusive, extensive and democratic and that the end products and final results are necessary and worthwhile before projects begin. They must be visible, accessible, and must reflect the cost of doing business which includes taking the time, finding the information and involving the people who

  18. Challenges in Identifying Effects and Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Hüsecken, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers worldwide try to hinder tax avoidance. In order to implement effective tax regulations, it is essential to completely understand why corporations avoid taxes and why some appear to be more effective than others. However, various challenges in identifying effects and determinants of corporate tax avoidance cause knowledge gaps. This thesis consists of three essays highlighting the necessity of refined identification strategies. The first essay “The Undersheltering Puzzle and its P...

  19. To approach or to avoid: neurobiological mechanisms in social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Peer, Jacobien Marit van

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of cortisol (an important stress-hormone) in the regulation of social fear and avoidance behavior in socially anxious individuals, which are characterized by extreme fear and avoidance of social situations. Previous studies in animals and children showed a relation between increased fearfulness and avoidance and elevated cortisol levels, but the causal role of cortisol in these processes is not known. We found that, only in high socially anxious participants, cortisol...

  20. Pengaruh Ukuran Perusahaan terhadap Aggressive Tax Avoidance di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Khoiru Rusydi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to empirically examine the effect of firm size (Firm Size) against aggressive tax avoidance (aggressive tax avoidance) in Indonesia. The method in use is descriptive quantitative with panel data of financial statements of listed companies on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012 which regresswith Eviews program. The results of this study indicate that company size has no effect on aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia, which means that the behavior of firms in Indonesia f...

  1. Deforestation, Leakage and Avoided Deforestation Policies: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Delacote; Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson; Sébastien Roussel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of several avoided deforestation policies within a patchy forested landscape. Central is the idea that one neighbour's deforestation actions may impact the returns to deforestation in nearby patches. We determine the impact of each policy in terms of avoided deforestation and leakage levels at the landscape scale through modelling and simulations. Avoided deforestation policies at a landscape level are respectively: two Payment for Environmental Services (PES) p...

  2. The Effect of Tax Rates on Fiscal Evasion and Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Mentor Gashi; Halil Kukaj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:In order to findelements that destimulate fiscal evasion or avoidance, we have submitted six elements, through the questionnaire, to determine which elements are that destimulate the fiscal evasion and avoidance, and evaluate their impact.This paper is focused in customs duty avoidance.The elements that we have submitted to evaluate their power, are: Powerful control during customs clearance, more efficient post clearance control, probability of subject investigation, higher fines, l...

  3. Universality of collapsing two-dimensional self-avoiding trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D P

    2009-01-01

    Results of a numerically exact transfer matrix calculation for the model of interacting self-avoiding trails are presented. The results lead to the conclusion that at the collapse transition, self-avoiding trails are in the same universality class as the O(n = 0) model of Bloete and Nienhuis (or vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk), which has thermal exponent ν = 12/23, contrary to previous conjectures. (fast track communication)

  4. Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    RETTEW, DAVID C.; ZANARINI, MARY C.; YEN, SHIRLEY; GRILO, CARLOS M.; SKODOL, ANDREW E.; SHEA, M. TRACIE; MCGLASHAN, THOMAS H.; MOREY, LESLIE C.; CULHANE, MELISSA A.; GUNDERSON, JOHN G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore potential risk factors and early manifestations of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) by examining retrospective reports of social functioning and adverse childhood experiences. Method Early social functioning and pathological childhood experiences were assessed using the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire-Revised. The responses of 146 adults diagnosed with primary AVPD were compared with a group of 371 patients with other personality disorders as a primary diagnosis and a group of 83 patients with current major depression disorder and no personality disorders, using χ2 analyses. Diagnoses were based on semistructured interviews by trained reliable clinicians. Results Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement in hobbies during adolescence, and less adolescent popularity than the depressed comparison group and the other personality disorder group. Reported rates of physical and emotional abuse were higher than the depressed group, but this result was influenced by comorbid diagnoses. Conclusions These results suggest that early manifestations of AVPD are present in childhood but that various forms of abuse are not specific to the disorder. PMID:12960713

  5. [Quaternary prevention: An attempt to avoid the excesses of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, María

    2015-09-01

    Seduced by technology, biometrics, practical guidelines and the use of medication, medicine has been driven away from the subject of its care. Quaternary prevention is, among other voices around the world, trying to denounce the consequent excesses of medical practice given by this situation. There are visible excesses, such as the long list of studies being performed on patients without indication, and others, much more subtle, as excessive prevention and the continuous and progressive medicalization of life itself that are rooted in our culture and demanded by a society that requests certainty at almost any cost. Quaternary prevention proposes a series of actions leaning towards avoiding and diminishing the damage produced by health care activities, in order to protect the subject of overdiagnosis and overtreatment; offering also ethical and viable alternatives in which the balance of risks and benefits (based on the best evidences) respects the autonomy of the subject by properly informing and allowing him to decide among the best options he has; altogether in a process that contemplates a rational and equitable use of resources. In order to achieve this, reliable sources of information and a medical education not dependent on industries related to technology or pharmaceuticals, are vital; in conjuction with a medicine that restablishes the subject as its main and central interest.

  6. Planning Strabismus Surgery: How to Avoid Pitfalls and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroichane, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Good surgical results following strabismus surgery depend on several factors. In this article, detailed steps for planning strabismus surgery will be reviewed for basic horizontal strabismus surgery, vertical, and oblique muscle surgeries. The thought process behind each case will be presented to help in selecting the best surgical approach to optimize postoperative results. The surgical planning for strabismus will be developed with clinical examples from easy cases to more complex ones. Preoperative pictures of the ocular alignment are an integral part of planning surgery and help in documenting the strabismus before and after surgery. Three cases of strabismus cases will be reviewed with several key factors for planning surgery, including visual acuity, refractive error, potential for stereovision, and risk of postoperative diplopia. The most important factor is accurate orthoptic measurements. The surgical planning for each patient is detailed along with preoperative pictures. Strabismus surgery results can be improved by careful preoperative planning. The surgeon has the ability to discern potential pitfalls that can alter the surgical outcome. Surgical planning allows a dedicated time of reflection before surgery, foreseeing potential problems, and avoiding them during the surgery. © 2016 Board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System, American Orthoptic Journal, Volume 66, 2016, ISSN 0065-955X, E-ISSN 1553-4448.

  7. Birds flush early and avoid the rush: an interspecific study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo S M Samia

    Full Text Available Since 1986, studies about the escape decisions made by prey are grounded in optimal escape theory (OET which states that prey will initiate escape when the risk of remaining and the costs of leaving are equal. However, a recent hypothesis, Flush Early and Avoid the Rush (FEAR, acknowledged that the cost of monitoring approaching predators might be a ubiquitous cost. The FEAR hypothesis predicts that prey will generally flee soon after they detect a predator so as to minimize the costs incurred by monitoring the predator. Knowing whether animals flee to reduce monitoring costs is of applied interest because wildlife managers use escape behavior to create set-back zones to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Here we provide the most comprehensive assessment of the FEAR hypothesis using data collected from 178 bird species representing 67 families from two continents. The FEAR hypothesis explains escape behavior in 79% of studied species. Because the FEAR hypothesis is a widespread phenomenon that drives escape behavior in birds, alert distance must be systematically incorporated into the design of set-back zones to protect vulnerable species.

  8. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  9. Terrorism-related fear and avoidance behavior in a multiethnic urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Ong, Michael; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Long, Anna; Fielding, Jonathan; Asch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine whether groups traditionally most vulnerable to disasters would be more likely than would be others to perceive population-level risk as high (as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level) would worry more about terrorism, and would avoid activities because of terrorism concerns. We conducted a random digit dial survey of the Los Angeles County population October 2004 through January 2005 in 6 languages. We asked respondents what color alert level the country was under, how often they worry about terrorist attacks, and how often they avoid activities because of terrorism. Multivariate regression modeled correlates of worry and avoidance, including mental illness, disability, demographic factors, and estimated color-coded alert level. Persons who are mentally ill, those who are disabled, African Americans, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Korean Americans, and non-US citizens were more likely to perceive population-level risk as high, as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level. These groups also reported more worry and avoidance behaviors because of concerns about terrorism. Vulnerable populations experience a disproportionate burden of the psychosocial impact of terrorism threats and our national response. Further studies should investigate the specific behaviors affected and further elucidate disparities in the disaster burden associated with terrorism and terrorism policies.

  10. Good Corporate Governance dan Ukuran Perusahaan Pengaruhnya Pada Tax Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Adeyani Tandean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine empirically the effect of the application of GCG and the size of the company on tax avoidance. This study was performed on companies listed on the Stock Exchange 2010-2013. Variables used are institutional ownership, the independence of auditors, the audit committee, and the size of the company as an independent variable and tax avoidance as the dependent variable. The research sample 84 manufacturing companies. The sampling technique using judgment sampling. Testing data using multiple regression analysis. The test results showed that only affects the audit committee on tax avoidance. Keywords: Corporate governance, size, tax avoidance

  11. Pengaruh Ukuran Perusahaan terhadap Aggressive Tax Avoidance di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoiru Rusydi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to empirically examine the effect of firm size (Firm Size against aggressive tax avoidance (aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia. The method in use is descriptive quantitative with panel data of financial statements of listed companies on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012 which regresswith Eviews program. The results of this study indicate that company size has no effect on aggressive tax avoidance in Indonesia, which means that the behavior of firms in Indonesia for more aggressive tax avoidance do not affect the size of the company.

  12. Evidence for an expectancy-based theory of avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Mieke; De Houwer, Jan; Baeyens, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In most studies on avoidance learning, participants receive an aversive unconditioned stimulus after a warning signal is presented, unless the participant performs a particular response. Lovibond (2006) recently proposed a cognitive theory of avoidance learning, according to which avoidance behaviour is a function of both Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In line with this theory, we found that avoidance behaviour was based on an integration of acquired knowledge about, on the one hand, the relation between stimuli and, on the other hand, the relation between behaviour and stimuli.

  13. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  14. House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for treating eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2015-01-19

    Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that tends to involve skin creases, such as the folds of the elbows or knees; it is an intensely itchy skin condition, which can relapse and remit over time. As many as a third of people with eczema who have a positive test for allergy to house dust mite have reported worsening of eczema or respiratory symptoms when exposed to dust. To assess the effects of all house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema. We searched the following databases up to 14 August 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant studies. We handsearched abstracts from international eczema and allergy meetings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any of the house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema, which included participants of any age diagnosed by a clinician with eczema as defined by the World Allergy Organization. We included all non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that sought to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite and their allergenic faeces. The comparators were any active treatment, no treatment, placebo, or standard care only. Two authors independently checked the titles and abstracts identified, and there were no disagreements. We contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We included seven studies of 324 adults and children with eczema. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of bias. Four of the seven trials tested interventions with multiple components, and three tested a single intervention. Two of the seven trials included only children, four included children and adults, and one

  15. Cheating at the end to avoid regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Bryan, Christopher J; Murnighan, J Keith

    2015-09-01

    How do people behave when they face a finite series of opportunities to cheat with little or no risk of detection? In 4 experiments and a small meta-analysis, we analyzed over 25,000 cheating opportunities faced by over 2,500 people. The results suggested that the odds of cheating are almost 3 times higher at the end of a series than earlier. Participants could cheat in 1 of 2 ways: They could lie about the outcome of a private coin flip to get a payoff that they would otherwise not receive (Studies 1-3) or they could overbill for their work (Study 4). We manipulated the number of cheating opportunities they expected but held the actual number of opportunities constant. The data showed that the likelihood of cheating and the extent of dishonesty were both greater when people believed that they were facing a last choice. Mediation analyses suggested that anticipatory regret about passing up a chance to enrich oneself drove this cheat-at-the-end effect. We found no support for alternative explanations based on the possibility that multiple cheating opportunities depleted people's self-control, eroded their moral standards, or made them feel that they had earned the right to cheat. The data also suggested that the cheat-at-the-end effect may be limited to relatively short series of cheating opportunities (i.e., n < 20). Our discussion addresses the psychological and behavioral dynamics of repeated ethical choices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  17. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru, E-mail: a.s.rudenko@inp.nsk.su, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Physics Department and Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  18. What you want to avoid is what you see: Social avoidance motivation affects the interpretation of emotional faces

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of habitual social approach and avoidance motivation on the classification of facial expressions of different visual clarity. Participants (N = 78) categorized partially masked emotional faces expressing either anger or happiness as positive or negative. Participants generally tended to interpret the facial expressions in a positive way. This positivity effect was reduced when persons were highly avoidance motivated. Social avoidance motivation predicted fe...

  19. Associating crash avoidance maneuvers with driver attributes and accident characteristics: a mixed logit model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    from the key role of proactive and state-aware road users within the concept of sustainable safety systems, as well as from the key role of effective corrective maneuvers in the success of automated in-vehicle warning and driver assistance systems. Methods: The analysis is conducted by means of a mixed...... about the risks of driving under fatigue and distraction being comparable to the risks of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Moreover, the results suggest the need to educate drivers about hazard perception, designing a forgiving infrastructure within a sustainable safety systems......Objective: The current study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics, and environmental conditions. The importance of avoidance maneuvers derives...

  20. Strategic mistakes (AVOIDABLE) The topicality of Michel Porter’s generic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Viltard, Leandro Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the topicality of Porter’s generic strategies, assessing about their applicability on two specific automotive industry projects: The Smart and the New Beetle.   After performing a documentation analysis on these two projects, it was concluded that both of them may be considered avoidable strategic mistakes as they show the risks of higher differentiation that is not being paid by the customer, no matter how if it is about recognized brands or icon products. Hazards a...

  1. Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Bryce; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Avoidance coping (AVC) is common in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Given that PTSD and AUD commonly co-occur, AVC may represent a risk factor for the development of comorbid post-traumatic stress and alcohol use. In this study, the relationship between AVC and PTSD symptoms (PTSS) was examined in individuals with versus without AUDs. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims were assessed 6-weeks post accident for AUD histo...

  2. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  3. The mnemonic mover : Nostalgia regulates avoidance and approach motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephan, E.; Wildschut, T.; Sedikides, C.; Zhou, X.; Zu, W.; Routledge, C.; Cheung, W.-Y.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In light of its role in maintaining psychological equanimity, we proposed that nostalgia—a self-relevant, social, and predominantly positive emotion—regulates avoidance and approach motivation. We advanced a model in which (a) avoidance motivation triggers nostalgia and (b) nostalgia, in turn,

  4. Five-Yearly Review: TREF avoids the worst!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2006-01-01

    In our last edition, we informed you about the Staff Council decision to reject the entire set of proposals for the five-yearly review, on the basis of the Director-General's revised proposals 2 and 10. We also indicated that a total failure could still be avoided at TREF on 4 and 5 October. To our relief, TREF avoided the worst!

  5. To approach or to avoid : neurobiological mechanisms in social anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, Jacobien Marit van

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of cortisol (an important stress-hormone) in the regulation of social fear and avoidance behavior in socially anxious individuals, which are characterized by extreme fear and avoidance of social situations. Previous studies in animals and children showed a relation between

  6. Assessment and Implications of Social Avoidance in Chinese Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi

    2018-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…

  7. 20 CFR 606.23 - Avoidance of tax credit reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Avoidance of tax credit reduction. 606.23 Section 606.23 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.23 Avoidance of tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (g) of...

  8. 20 CFR 606.24 - Application for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... respect to which a State requests avoidance of tax credit reduction. The Governor is required to notify... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for avoidance. 606.24 Section 606.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS UNDER...

  9. 26 CFR 20.2107-1 - Expatriation to avoid tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... principal purpose) the avoidance of Federal income, estate, or gift tax. Section 301(b) of the Immigration... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expatriation to avoid tax. 20.2107-1 Section 20... GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Estates of Nonresidents Not...

  10. 78 FR 35262 - Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... experts and interested parties in Government and the private sector regarding the electronic parts... Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of... interested parties in Government and the private sector about the requirements for detection and avoidance of...

  11. 28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552... MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance... information about the inmate and the immediate situation. Based on their assessment of that information, they...

  12. Posture as index for approach-avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerland, A.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franken, Ingmar; Zwaan, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant,

  13. Posture as index for Approach-Avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eerland (Anita); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractApproach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed

  14. 5 CFR 950.109 - Avoidance of conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avoidance of conflict of interest. 950... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.109 Avoidance of conflict of interest. Any... affiliation with a charitable organization, there could be or appear to be a conflict of interest under any...

  15. Comparing empirical results of transaction avoidance rules studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, G.

    2008-01-01

    Empirical legal research in the UK and in the Netherlands has provided data on the extent to which the transaction avoidance rules (avoidance powers, actio Pauliana) generate practical problems. This article’s goal is to explore the similarities and differences of the data. To achieve this, existing

  16. Design study of general aviation collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M. R.; Moore, L. D.; Scott, W. V.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and design of a time/frequency collision avoidance system for use in general aviation aircraft is discussed. The modifications to airline transport collision avoidance equipment which were made to produce the simpler general aviation system are described. The threat determination capabilities and operating principles of the general aviation system are illustrated.

  17. Twenty Common Testing Mistakes for EFL Teachers to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Grant

    2012-01-01

    To some extent, good testing procedure, like good language use, can be achieved through avoidance of errors. Almost any language-instruction program requires the preparation and administration of tests, and it is only to the extent that certain common testing mistakes have been avoided that such tests can be said to be worthwhile selection,…

  18. Brief report: How short is too short? An ultra-brief measure of the big-five personality domains implicates "agreeableness" as a risk for all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Elliot, Ari J

    2017-08-01

    Controversy exists over the use of brief Big Five scales in health studies. We investigated links between an ultra-brief measure, the Big Five Inventory-10, and mortality in the General Social Survey. The Agreeableness scale was associated with elevated mortality risk (hazard ratio = 1.26, p = .017). This effect was attributable to the reversed-scored item "Tends to find fault with others," so that greater fault-finding predicted lower mortality risk. The Conscientiousness scale approached meta-analytic estimates, which were not precise enough for significance. Those seeking Big Five measurement in health studies should be aware that the Big Five Inventory-10 may yield unusual results.

  19. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  20. Beyond Westermarck: Can Shared Mothering or Maternal Phenotype Matching Account for Incest Avoidance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Livingstone Smith Ph.D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Westermarck's Hypothesis (WH is widely accepted amongst evolutionary scientists as the best explanation of human incest avoidance. Although WH may account for incest avoidance between co-reared kin, it cannot explain other forms of incest avoidance, and therefore, cannot account for the differential incidence of sibling-sibling, mother-son, father-daughter and other forms of incest. WH also face problems adequately accounting for phenomena within its explanatory domain. Neither of the studies widely thought to corroborate WH (the Israeli kibbutz and Taiwanese simpua marriage studies provides a genuine test of it, and the results of experimental thought to confirm WH are vitiated by methodological problems. The present paper considers two alternatives to WH: the shared mother hypothesis (SMH and the maternal phenotype-matching hypothesis (MPMH. SMH states that human infants imprint on their mother, who then treat as kin those individuals towards whom their mother behaves in a kin-like or mate-like manner. MPMH states that humans unconsciously use the maternal phenotype as a visual template for estimating coefficients of relatedness, and that these estimate regulate altruistic and mating behavior. Both SMH and MPMH are able to account for the kibbutz and simpua marriage data, and entail additional epidemiological and experimental predictions. SMH and MPMH have greater explanatory power than WH, and MPMH has greater explanatory power than SMH.