WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk assessment safety

  1. Radiological safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.C.; Baird, R.D.; Card, D.H.; de Souza, F.; Elder, J.; Felthauser, K.; Jensen, C.; Winkler, V.

    1982-02-01

    A brief radiological safety and risk assessment of a nuclear power generation center with an adjacent on-site waste disposal facility at a specific site in the State of Utah is presented. The assessment was conducted to assist in determining the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in Utah consisting of nine 1250 MWe nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) electrical generating units arranged in 3 clusters of 3 units each known as triads. The site selected for this conceptual study is in the Horse Bench area about 15 miles directly south of the town of Green River, Utah. The radiological issues included direct radiation exposures to on-site workers and the off-site population, release of radioactive material, and effects of these releases for both normal operations and accidental occurrences. The basic finding of this study is that the concept of an NEC in the Green River area, specifically at the Horse Bench site, is radiologically feasible

  2. Quantitative risk assessment of digitalized safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hym Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jun [UNIST, Ulasn (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A report published by the U.S. National Research Council indicates that appropriate methods for assessing reliability are key to establishing the acceptability of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in safety-critical plants such as NPPs. Since the release of this issue, the methodology for the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems has been studied. However, there is still no widely accepted method. Kang and Sung found three critical factors for safety assessment of digital systems: detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, software reliability quantification, and network communication risk. In reality the various factors composing digitalized I and C systems are not independent of each other but rather closely connected. Thus, from a macro point of view, a method that can integrate risk factors with different characteristics needs to be considered together with the micro approaches to address the challenges facing each factor.

  3. Safety analysis and risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Colwell, R.G.; Dickey, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) provides guidance to the safety analyst at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in the preparation of safety analyses and risk assessments. Although the older guidance (the Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide) continues to be used for updating the Final Safety Analysis Reports developed in the mid-1980s, this new guidance is used with all new authorization basis documents. With the mission change at RFETS came the need to establish new authorization basis documents for its facilities, whose functions had changed. The methodology and databases for performing the evaluations that support the new authorization basis documents had to be standardized, to avoid the use of different approaches and/or databases for similar accidents in different facilities. This handbook presents this new standardized approach. The handbook begins with a discussion of the requirements of the different types of authorization basis documents and how to choose the one appropriate for the facility to be evaluated. It then walks the analyst through the process of identifying all the potential hazards in the facility, classifying them, and choosing the ones that need to be analyzed further. It then discusses the methods for evaluating accident initiation and progression and covers the basic steps in a safety analysis, including consequence and frequency binning and risk ranking. The handbook lays out standardized approaches for determining the source terms of the various accidents (including airborne release fractions, leakpath factors, etc.), the atmospheric dispersion factors appropriate for Rocky Flats, and the methods for radiological and chemical consequence assessments. The radiological assessments use a radiological open-quotes templateclose quotes, a spreadsheet that incorporates the standard values of parameters, whereas the chemical assessments use the standard codes ARCHIE and ALOHA

  4. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  5. Concept of risk: risk assessment and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dissertation is a critical examination of risk assessment and its role in public policy. Nuclear power safety safety issues are selected as the primary source of illustrations and examples. The dissertation examines how risk assessment studies develop a concept of risk which becomes decisive for policy choices. Risk-assessment techniques are interpreted as instruments which secure an evaluation of risk which, in turn, figures prominently in technical reports on nuclear power. The philosophical critique is mounted on two levels. First, an epistemological critique surveys distinctions between the technical concept of risk and more familiar senses of risk. The critique shows that utilization of risk assessment re-structures the concept of risk. The technical concept is contrasted to the function of risk within a decision-maker's conceptual agenda and hierarchy of values. Second, an ethical critique exposes the value commitments of risk assessment recommendations. Although some of these values might be defended for policy decisions, the technical character of risk assessment obfuscates normative issues. Risk assessment is shown to be a form of factual enquiry which, nonetheless, represents a commitment to a specific selection of ethical and social values. Risk assessment should not be interpreted as a primary guide to decision unless the specific values incorporated into its concept of risk are stated explicitly and justified philosophically. Such a statement would allow value questions which have been sublimated by the factual tone of the analytic techniques to be debated on clear, social and ethical grounds

  6. [Patient safety in antibiotics administration: Risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda Palau, M; Pérez Juan, E

    To determine the level of risk in the preparation and administration of antibiotics frequently used in the Intensive Care Unit using a risk matrix. A study was conducted using situation analysis and literature review of databases, protocols and good practice guidelines on intravenous therapy, drugs, and their administration routes. The most used antibiotics in the ICU registered in the ENVIN-HELICS program from 1 April to 30 June 2015 were selected. In this period, 257 patients received antimicrobial treatment and 26 antibiotics were evaluated. Variables studied: A risk assessment of each antibiotic using the scale Risk Assessment Tool, of the National Patient Safety Agency, as well as pH, osmolarity, type of catheter recommended for administration, and compatibility and incompatibility with other antibiotics studied. Almost two-thirds (65.3%) of antibiotics had more than 3 risk factors (represented by a yellow stripe), with the remaining 34.7% of antibiotics having between 0 and 2 risk factors (represented by a green stripe). There were no antibiotics with 6 or more risk factors (represented by a red stripe). Most drugs needed reconstitution, additional dilution, and the use of part of the vial to administer the prescribed dose. More than half of the antibiotics studied had a moderate risk level; thus measures should be adopted in order to reduce it. The risk matrix is a useful tool for the assessment and detection of weaknesses associated with the preparation and administration of intravenous antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk measures in living probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Niemelae, I.

    1993-05-01

    The main objectives of the study are: to define risk measures and suggested uses of them in various living PSA applications for the operational safety management and to describe specific model features required for living PSA applications. The report is based on three case studies performed within the Nordic research project Safety Evaluation by Use of Living PSA and Safety Indicators. (48 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.)

  8. Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, 'ensuring' plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is 'safe.' Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude

  9. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  10. The role of risk assessment and safety analysis in integrated safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niall, R.; Hunt, M.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    To ensure that the design and operation of both nuclear and non- nuclear hazardous facilities is acceptable, and meets all societal safety expectations, a rigorous deterministic and probabilistic assessment is necessary. An approach is introduced, founded on the concept of an ''Integrated Safety Assessment.'' It merges the commonly performed safety and risk analyses and uses them in concert to provide decision makers with the necessary depth of understanding to achieve ''adequacy.'' 3 refs., 1 fig

  11. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components

  12. Risk assessment of safety violations for coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Orsulaka; Vladislav Kecojevicb; Larry Graysona; Antonio Nietoa [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2010-09-15

    This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk assessment is performed, which allows determination of the frequency of occurrence of safety violations (through associated citations) as well as the consequences of them in terms of penalty assessments. Focus is on establishing risk matrices on citation experiences of mines, which can give early indication of emerging potentially serious problems. The resulting frequency, consequence and risk rankings present valuable tools for prioritising resource allocations, determining control strategies, and could potentially contribute to more proactive prevention of incidents and injuries.

  13. Risk assessment and safety regulations in offshore oil and gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management of which risk assessment is part, and safety regulations are common in the offshore oil and gas industry management system. The process of conducting risk assessment is mostly a challenge for operational personnel assigned to perform this function. The most significant problem is the decision to use ...

  14. Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L

    2013-03-01

    In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Safety and security risk assessments--now demystified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    Safety/security risk assessments no longer need to spook nor baffle healthcare safety/security managers. This grid template provides at-at-glance quick lookup of the possible threats, the affected people and things, a priority ranking of these risks, and a workable solution for each risk. Using the standard document, spreadsheet, or graphics software already available on your computer, you can easily use a scientific method to produce professional looking risk assessments that get quickly understood by both senior managers and first responders alike!

  16. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  18. HSE assessment of explosion risk analysis in offshore safety cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brighton, P.W.M.; Fearnley, P.J.; Brearley, I.G. [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

    1995-12-31

    In the past two years HSE has assessed around 250 Safety Cases for offshore oil and gas installations, building up a unique overview of the current state of the art on fire and explosion risk assessment. This paper reviews the explosion risk methods employed, focusing on the aspects causing most difficulty for assessment and acceptance of Safety Cases. Prediction of overpressures in offshore explosions has been intensively researched in recent years but the justification of the means of prevention, control and mitigation of explosions often depends on much additional analysis of the frequency and damage potential of explosions. This involves a number of factors, the five usually considered being: leak sizes; gas dispersion; ignition probabilities; the frequency distribution of explosion strength; and the prediction of explosion damage. Sources of major uncertainty in these factors and their implications for practical risk management decisions are discussed. (author)

  19. A comparison of integrated safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, Dennis R.; Mattern, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted a comparison of two standard tools for risk informing the regulatory process, namely, the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA). PRA is a calculation of risk metrics, such as Large Early Release Frequency (LERF), and has been used to assess the safety of all commercial power reactors. ISA is an analysis required for fuel cycle facilities (FCFs) licensed to possess potentially critical quantities of special nuclear material. A PRA is usually more detailed and uses more refined models and data than an ISA, in order to obtain reasonable quantitative estimates of risk. PRA is considered fully quantitative, while most ISAs are typically only partially quantitative. The extension of PRA methodology to augment or supplant ISAs in FCFs has long been considered. However, fuel cycle facilities have a wide variety of possible accident consequences, rather than a few surrogates like LERF or core damage as used for reactors. It has been noted that a fuel cycle PRA could be used to better focus attention on the most risk-significant structures, systems, components, and operator actions. ISA and PRA both identify accident sequences; however, their treatment is quite different. ISA's identify accidents that lead to high or intermediate consequences, as defined in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 70, and develop a set of Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS) to assure adherence to performance criteria. PRAs identify potential accident scenarios and estimate their frequency and consequences to obtain risk metrics. It is acceptable for ISAs to provide bounding evaluations of accident consequences and likelihoods in order to establish acceptable safety; but PRA applications usually require a reasonable quantitative estimate, and often obtain metrics of uncertainty. This paper provides the background, features, and methodology associated with the PRA and ISA. The differences between the

  20. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS and RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard

  1. Cyber Security Risk Assessment for the KNICS Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. K.; Park, G. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Choi, J. G.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the Korea Nuclear I and C Systems Development (KNICS) project the platforms for plant protection systems are developed, which function as a reactor shutdown, actuation of engineered safety features and a control of the related equipment. Those are fully digitalized through the use of safety-grade programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and communication networks. In 2006 the Regulatory Guide 1.152 (Rev. 02) was published by the U.S. NRC and it describes the application of a cyber security to the safety systems in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Therefore it is required that the new requirements are incorporated into the developed platforms to apply to NPP, and a cyber security risk assessment is performed. The results of the assessment were input for establishing the cyber security policies and planning the work breakdown to incorporate them

  2. Tolerability of risk, safety assessment principles and their implications for probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.J.F.; Campbell, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper gives a regulatory view of probabilistic safety assessment as seen by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and in the light of the general regulatory risk aims set out in the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) The tolerability of risk from nuclear power stations (TOR) and in Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants (SAPs), prepared by NII on behalf of the HSE. Both of these publications were revised and republished in 1992. This paper describes the SAPs, together with the historical background, the motivation for review, the effects of the Sizewell and Hinkley Point C public inquiries, changes since the original versions, comparison with international standards and use in assessment. For new plant, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is seen as an essential tool in balancing the safety of the design and in demonstrating compliance with TOR and the SAPs. (Author)

  3. Health, Safety and Environmental Risk Assessment in Laboratory Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ”Exposing to danger” or in other words, “risk” is a process which is led to an uncertain result in every field. Project risks are uncertain contingent events or situations that if they occur will have positive or negative effects on project’s objectives. Todays, research and educational process and more complicated and the professional risk management become much more difficult, as a result. .Material and Method: In this research, the health and safety issues have been studied and analyzed using ISO 14121 and the environmental issues by EMEA to determine the risk level separately for research laboratories and to prioritize corrective measure in each field (school. .Result: The finding in this study showed that from all the main risks within the rage of 38-86 percent have been decreased. Moreover average of the risk level for the health, safety and environment cases showed a significant decrease (Pvalue<0.0001 by implement controlling and protective countermeasures compariy to the priority state without any measures. . Conclusion: The risk assessment with hazards control strategy based on ISO 14121 is a compatible method in laboratory site as universities and other reasearch sites.

  4. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  5. In prospect: role of safety assessment and risk regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novegno, A.; Askulaj, Eh.

    1987-01-01

    Problems of accident prevention in industry and power engineering are considered for the sake of environment and human health protection. Investigations into comparison of power system risks are conducted; based on the data obtained a possibility to control the risk has appeared. The IAEA provides an active assistance in realization of a program of coordinated investigations on the risk assessment using the cost-benefit method. For each NPP investigation into all types of its effect on the environment (risk for personnel and population under normal radioactivity releases and in case of accidents), is conducted. Two approaches to calculating the impacts of accidents at NPPs-'determination' one, based on the designed accident and safety probability evaluation exist. Regional approach appears to be the best one when solving the problems of risk control. Attention is paid to a joint project of the IAEA-UNO and WHO related to risk assessment and control for human health and environment protection at power and other complex commercial systems

  6. Risk assessment for safety laboratories in Politeknik Negeri Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyata Sundawa, Bakti; Hutajulu, Elferida; Sirait, Regina; Banurea, Waldemar; Indrayadi; Mulyadi, Sangap

    2017-09-01

    International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated 2.34 million people die each year because accidents and diseases in workplace. It also impact to economic losses in some countries. It need to do safety and healthy in working environment especially in laboratory. Identification of potential hazards and risks must be done in Telecommunication Laboratory Politeknik Negeri Medan. Therefore, this study was assessed 5 of potential hazards and risks in our laboratory by Likert Scale. This object was divided into 2 assessment namely likelihood of hazards and severity of consequences. Collecting data is taken from questionnaire who involved 100 students at random academic level. The result showed The highest score is chemical hazards 73.2% in likelihood of hazards and electrical hazards 85% in severity of consequences. This condition is classified as “high” state. Big attention must be given to “high” state because it can help us to determine mitigate action.

  7. Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuckmyun Kwon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm- shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers’ compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012 and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  8. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  9. Assessing systemwide occupational health and safety risks of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Input-output modelling is now being used to assess systemwide occupational and public health and safety risks of energy technologies. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of this method are presented and some of its important limitations are discussed. Its primary advantage is that it provides a standard method with which to compare technologies on a consistent basis without extensive economic analysis. Among the disadvantages are limited range of applicability, limited spectrum of health impacts, and inability to identify unusual health impacts unique to a new technology. (author)

  10. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFICIENT QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JUMP PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic framework for efficient quantitative risk assessment from the simplest general risk, combining three parameters (contamination, exposure, and dose response) in a Kataoka safety-first model and a Poisson probability representing the uncertainty effect or jump processes associated with food safety. Analysis indicates that incorporating jump processes in food safety risk assessment provides more efficient cost/risk tradeoffs. Nevertheless, increased margin of safety...

  12. An approach for risk informed safety culture assessment for Canadian nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important components of effective safety and risk management for nuclear power stations is a healthy safety culture. DNV has developed an approach for risk informed safety culture assessment that combines two complementary paradigms for safety and risk management: loss prevention - for preventing and intervening in accidents; and critical function management - for achieving safety and performance goals. Combining these two paradigms makes it possible to provide more robust systems for safety management and to support a healthy safety culture. This approach is being applied to safety culture assessment in partnership with a Canadian nuclear utility. (author)

  13. Assessing Risk-Based Performance Indicators in Safety-Critical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    TONT Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes framework for a multidisciplinary nuclear risk and safety assessment by modeling uncertainty and combining diverse evidence provided in such a way that it could be used to represent an entire argument about a system's dependability. The identified safety issues are being treated by means of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The behavior simulation of power plant in thepresence of risk factors is analyzed from the vulnerability, risk and functional safety viewpoints, hi...

  14. Risk investigation for safety assessment of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.; Hoertner, H.; Kersting, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most important results of the technical system investigations for Phase B of the German Risk Study and the insight gained from them are discussed in connection with the risk analyses in judging the safety-related design. The results of the German Precursor Study for the Biblis A and B plants are given. There is also a comparison of the German with more recent American risk analyses. (DG) [de

  15. A Practical Risk Assessment Methodology for Safety-Critical Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project proposes a Practical Risk Assessment Methodology (PRAM) for analyzing railroad accident data and assessing the risk and benefit of safety-critical train control systems. This report documents in simple steps the algorithms and data input...

  16. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  17. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  18. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG ampersand G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort

  19. Risk monitor - a tool for operational safety assessment risk monitor - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, M.; Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment has become a key tool as on today to identify and understand Nuclear Power Plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. Risk Monitor is a PC based tool, which computes the real time safety level and assists plant personnel to manage day-to-day activities. Risk Monitor is a PC based user friendly software tool used for modification and re-analysis of a nuclear Power plant. Operation of Risk Monitor is based on PSA methods for assisting in day to day applications. Risk Monitoring programs can assess the risk profile and are used to optimize the operation of Nuclear Power Plants with respect to a minimum risk level over the operating time. This report presents the background activities of Risk Monitor, its application areas and the step by step procedure for the user.to interact with the software. This software can be used with the PSA model of any Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  20. Risk-informed approaches to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashchenko, V.N.; Zlochevskij, V.V.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Ingenious risk-informed methods to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste are proposed in the paper. Probabilistic norms on lethal outcomes and reliability of safety barriers are used as safety criteria. Based on the probability measures, it is established that ecological safety conditions are met for the standard criterion of lethal outcomes

  1. Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminbakhsh, Saman; Gunduz, Murat; Sonmez, Rifat

    2013-09-01

    The inherent and unique risks on construction projects quite often present key challenges to contractors. Health and safety risks are among the most significant risks in construction projects since the construction industry is characterized by a relatively high injury and death rate compared to other industries. In construction project management, safety risk assessment is an important step toward identifying potential hazards and evaluating the risks associated with the hazards. Adequate prioritization of safety risks during risk assessment is crucial for planning, budgeting, and management of safety related risks. In this paper, a safety risk assessment framework is presented based on the theory of cost of safety (COS) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The main contribution of the proposed framework is that it presents a robust method for prioritization of safety risks in construction projects to create a rational budget and to set realistic goals without compromising safety. The framework provides a decision tool for the decision makers to determine the adequate accident/injury prevention investments while considering the funding limits. The proposed safety risk framework is illustrated using a real-life construction project and the advantages and limitations of the framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, Ajit; Professor, Visiting

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment by examining the reasons for human-based error. The need for more emphasis on producing engineers with good engineering judgement is described. The progress in quantifying the role of safety culture and organizational factors in risk assessment studies is summarized

  3. Navigation safety and risk assessment challenges in the High North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, N.A.; Borch, O.J.; Andreassen, N.

    2017-01-01

    marine accidents. Therefore, in this study a mostly qualitative analysis and expert judgement is the basis for the risk assessments. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the region are discussed. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location,....... In this paper we look into the risks of accidents in the Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of response in emergency situations. As accidents are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic...

  4. Safety analysis and risk assessment of the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.; McLouth, L.; Odell, B.

    1996-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed U.S. Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion facility. The candidate sites for locating the NIF are: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the preferred site. The NIF will operate by focusing 192 laser beams onto a tiny deuterium-tritium target located at the center of a spherical target chamber. The NIF mission is to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition, access physical conditions in matter of interest to nuclear weapons physics, provide an above ground simulation capability for nuclear weapons effects testing, and contribute to the development of inertial fusion for electrical power production. The NIF has been classified as a radiological, low hazard facility on the basis of a preliminary hazards analysis and according to the DOE methodology for facility classification. This requires that a safety analysis be prepared under DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. A draft Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has been written, and this will be finalized later in 1996. This paper summarizes the safety issues associated with the operation of the NIF and the methodology used to study them. It provides a summary of the methodology, an overview of the hazards, estimates maximum routine and accidental exposures for the preferred site of LLNL, and concludes that the risks from NIF operations are low

  5. Risk assessment of safety data link and network communication in digital safety feature control system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Kwang Seop; Jung, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety data communication risk assessment framework and quantitative scheme were proposed. • Fault-tree model of ESFAS unavailability due to safety data communication failure was developed. • Safety data link and network risk were assessed based on various ESF-CCS design specifications. • The effect of fault-tolerant algorithm reliability of safety data network on ESFAS unavailability was assessed. - Abstract: As one of the safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs), the Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) employs safety data link and network communication for the transmission of safety component actuation signals from the group controllers to loop controllers to effectively accommodate various safety-critical field controllers. Since data communication failure risk in the ESF-CCS has yet to be fully quantified, the ESF-CCS employing data communication systems have not been applied in NPPs. This study therefore developed a fault tree model to assess the data link and data network failure-induced unavailability of a system function used to generate an automated control signal for accident mitigation equipment. The current aim is to provide risk information regarding data communication failure in a digital safety feature control system in consideration of interconnection between controllers and the fault-tolerant algorithm implemented in the target system. Based on the developed fault tree model, case studies were performed to quantitatively assess the unavailability of ESF-CCS signal generation due to data link and network failure and its risk effect on safety signal generation failure. This study is expected to provide insight into the risk assessment of safety-critical data communication in a digitalized NPP instrumentation and control system.

  6. Formal safety assessment based on relative risks model in ship navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Shenping [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: sphu@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Fang Quangen [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: qgfang@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Xia Haibo [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: hbxia@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Xi Yongtao [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: xiyt@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn

    2007-03-15

    Formal safety assessment (FSA) is a structured and systematic methodology aiming at enhancing maritime safety. It has been gradually and broadly used in the shipping industry nowadays around the world. On the basis of analysis and conclusion of FSA approach, this paper discusses quantitative risk assessment and generic risk model in FSA, especially frequency and severity criteria in ship navigation. Then it puts forward a new model based on relative risk assessment (MRRA). The model presents a risk-assessment approach based on fuzzy functions and takes five factors into account, including detailed information about accident characteristics. It has already been used for the assessment of pilotage safety in Shanghai harbor, China. Consequently, it can be proved that MRRA is a useful method to solve the problems in the risk assessment of ship navigation safety in practice.

  7. Formal safety assessment based on relative risks model in ship navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shenping; Fang Quangen; Xia Haibo; Xi Yongtao

    2007-01-01

    Formal safety assessment (FSA) is a structured and systematic methodology aiming at enhancing maritime safety. It has been gradually and broadly used in the shipping industry nowadays around the world. On the basis of analysis and conclusion of FSA approach, this paper discusses quantitative risk assessment and generic risk model in FSA, especially frequency and severity criteria in ship navigation. Then it puts forward a new model based on relative risk assessment (MRRA). The model presents a risk-assessment approach based on fuzzy functions and takes five factors into account, including detailed information about accident characteristics. It has already been used for the assessment of pilotage safety in Shanghai harbor, China. Consequently, it can be proved that MRRA is a useful method to solve the problems in the risk assessment of ship navigation safety in practice

  8. Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) Marine Safety Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    NMSRA National Maritime Strategic Risk Assessment NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking PFD Personal flotation device PIW Person in the water PWC...barriers’ purpose is to limit the spread of various nuisance species, with a more-recent emphasis on preventing the “lake-ward” influx of silver and...crewmembers at risk of falling overboard, anyone on open decks was required to wear a Type 1 personal flotation device (PFD). • Commercial towing vessels

  9. The implications of probabilistic risk assessment for safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The use of PRA results in decision making requires a level of understanding on the part of the decision maker which is higher than that obtaining previously. The most important application of PRA lies not in the final results but in the intermediate results which refer to specific systems and operations. Such intermediate results are of great value either at the design stage or later during operation. One of the most 'visible' uses of PRA results is in comparing calculated plant risks with either proposed acceptability criteria, or with other plant, or even natural events. The capability to perform PRA has been established. Only the incorporation of PRA into the licensing process is lacking. The principal conclusions on the implications of PRA for safety policy are as follows: regardless of its state of development, PRA is the only means available for calculating public risk, being able to quantify risk is important in policy related to risk acceptability and to national energy policy. PRAs will be used to establish research and development priorities. Any hazardous plant can be treated using the same methods. More sophisticated methods will be used for solving engineering problems. (author)

  10. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.

    2010-01-01

    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...... and value of the QPS assessment for EFSA and to explain its principles such as the unambiguous identity of a taxonomic unit, the body of knowledge including potential safety concerns and how these considerations lead to a list of biological agents recommended for QPS which EFSA keeps updated through...

  11. Review on the assessment of safety and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiber, C.O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany); Doherty, R.M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Historically explosion accidents are linked with energetic materials. There is the further belief, that the proneness to accidents-and their severity-is linked with the sensitivity of these explosives. Consequently there exist seemingly very insensitive materials for which it is believed that their accidental explosion can be ignored, so that safety distances can be reduced to those that apply to materials for which the hazard is assumed to be mass fire rather than mass detonation. Evidence is presented here that shows these assumptions to be invalid. Reports of explosion accidents are gathered here for substances that are not generally considered to be explosives (non UN-class 1 substances, like ammonium nitrate (AN), neat alkali metal chlorates, and even hypochlorites and nitromethane). In most of these cases the proneness of accidents had not been foreseen by testing. The basic explosion mechanisms are of a more general nature than simply those that apply to high explosives. Explosion is not solely a matter of energy, but of any physical power conversion. In order to prove this, a survey of explosion events is given: Natural events, like the impacts of celestial bodies and volcanic erptions. Fuel/liquid interactions in nature are industrial risks too, which occur at very different occasions and sites: Cellulose processing, the oil industry, foundries, power stations, explosions of hot cinders, chemical processing, fire extinguishing, and (most common) in the kitchen, and (most catastrophic) in nuclear reactors. Explosions of similar type are Hydraulic Transients, Bubble resonance explosions with the possibility of associated chemical room explosions (BLEVE), Rollovers. Second order effects are sorption/desorption resonance explosions, which most powerful also occur in nature (Nios Lake (CO{sub 2}-release), Kivu Lake, Monoun Lake, 1984, Tanganjika Lake, all in Africa, and the Ocracoke in the Gulf of Mexico (CH{sub 4}-release))-and at the lowest end shaken

  12. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks

  13. Use of reliability engineering tools in safety and risk assessment of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Amanda Laureano; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Marques, Raíssa Oliveira; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: amandaraso@hotmail.com, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    Safety, reliability and availability are fundamental criteria in design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as nuclear power plants. Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments of such facilities are required by regulatory authorities in order to meet licensing regulations, contributing to assure safety, as well as reduce costs and environmental impacts. Probabilistic Risk Assessment has become an important part of licensing requirements of the nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the world. Risk can be defined as a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of accident sequence frequencies (or probabilities) and their consequences. Risk management is a systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to identify, analyze, plan, implement, control, communicate and document risks. Several tools and computer codes must be combined, in order to estimate both probabilities and consequences of accidents. Event Tree Analysis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD), and Markov models are examples of evaluation tools that can support the safety and risk assessment for analyzing process systems, identifying potential accidents, and estimating consequences. Because of complexity of such analyzes, specialized computer codes are required, such as the reliability engineering software develop by Reliasoft® Corporation. BlockSim (FTA, RBD and Markov models), RENO (ETA and consequence assessment), Weibull++ (life data and uncertainty analysis), and Xfmea (qualitative risk assessment) are some codes that can be highlighted. This work describes an integrated approach using these tools and software to carry out reliability, safety, and risk assessment of nuclear facilities, as well as, and application example. (author)

  14. Use of reliability engineering tools in safety and risk assessment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Amanda Laureano; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Marques, Raíssa Oliveira; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Safety, reliability and availability are fundamental criteria in design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as nuclear power plants. Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments of such facilities are required by regulatory authorities in order to meet licensing regulations, contributing to assure safety, as well as reduce costs and environmental impacts. Probabilistic Risk Assessment has become an important part of licensing requirements of the nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the world. Risk can be defined as a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of accident sequence frequencies (or probabilities) and their consequences. Risk management is a systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to identify, analyze, plan, implement, control, communicate and document risks. Several tools and computer codes must be combined, in order to estimate both probabilities and consequences of accidents. Event Tree Analysis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD), and Markov models are examples of evaluation tools that can support the safety and risk assessment for analyzing process systems, identifying potential accidents, and estimating consequences. Because of complexity of such analyzes, specialized computer codes are required, such as the reliability engineering software develop by Reliasoft® Corporation. BlockSim (FTA, RBD and Markov models), RENO (ETA and consequence assessment), Weibull++ (life data and uncertainty analysis), and Xfmea (qualitative risk assessment) are some codes that can be highlighted. This work describes an integrated approach using these tools and software to carry out reliability, safety, and risk assessment of nuclear facilities, as well as, and application example. (author)

  15. Relationship between Risk Assessment and Compliance to Health and Safety in Ugandan Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiwu, Denis; Kabanda, Milly; Naluwemba, Esther Frances; Kaggwa, Victoria Tamale

    2015-01-01

    Health hazards are part and parcel of human life necessitating the provision of safety in every organizational environment (WHO regional Office for Africa, 2004). Likewise, the area of safety and accident prevention is of great concern to school improvement. The study sought to investigate the relationship between Risk Assessment and Compliancy to…

  16. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Pieters, Wolter; Texeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by

  17. Stockholm Safety Conference. Analysis of the sessions on radiological protection, licensing and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gea, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the sessions on radiological protection, licensing and risk assessment in the safety conference of Stockholm is presented. It is considered the new point of view of the nuclear safety, probabilistic analysis, components failures probability and accident analysis. They are included conclusions applicable in many cases to development countries. (author)

  18. Assessment of Health, Safety and Environmental Risks of Zahedan City Gasoline Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Far

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and determine the health, safety and environmental status of fuel stations in Zahedan. In this study, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA method was used for risk assessment in accordance with the HSE guidelines, national and international standards and laws. In this cross-sectional study, 2 governmental stations and 6 active private stations were evaluated after the necessary coordination with the relevant units. As a result of risk assessment, 27 health risks, 55 safety risks and 22 environmental risks were identified. From among all the identified risks, 67 risks had a Risk Priority Number (RPN of less than 91, 31 risks had an RPN ranging between 91 and 201, and 6 risks had an RPN of over 201. The findings of the study indicated that compliance with the HSE requirements was 51.85%, in the area of health, 47.57% in the area of safety and 27.45% in the environmental area. Overall compliance with the HSE requirements was 42.54%. In order to distribute fuel considering health, reducing risk and increasing compliance with the requirements for safety improvement, health and environmental conditions of fuel supplies are essential.

  19. Methodology for assessment of safety risk due to potential accidents in US gaseous diffusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.; O'Kain, D.U.

    1991-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants that operate in the United States represent a unique combination of nuclear and chemical hazards. Assessing and controlling the health, safety, and environmental risks that can result from natural phenomena events, process upset conditions, and operator errors require a unique methodology. Such a methodology has been developed for the diffusion plants and is being utilized to assess and control the risk of operating the plants. A summary of the methodology developed to assess the unique safety risks at the US gaseous diffusion plants is presented in this paper

  20. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Russ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP. How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  1. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Karen

    2010-09-01

    In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP). How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  2. Implementation of a risk assessment tool based on a probabilistic safety assessment developed for radiotherapy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, A.; Godinez, V.; Lopez, R.

    2010-10-01

    The present work describes the implementation process and main results of the risk assessment to the radiotherapy practices with Linear Accelerators (Linac), with cobalt 60, and with brachytherapy. These evaluations were made throughout the risk assessment tool for radiotherapy practices SEVRRA (risk evaluation system for radiotherapy), developed at the Mexican National Commission in Nuclear Safety and Safeguards derived from the outcome obtained with the Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed at the Ibero-American Regulators Forum for these radiotherapy facilities. The methodology used is supported by risk matrices method, a mathematical tool that estimates the risk to the patient, radiation workers and public from mechanical failures, mis calibration of the devices, human mistakes, and so. The initiating events are defined as those undesirable events that, together with other failures, can produce a delivery of an over-dose or an under-dose of the medical prescribed dose, to the planned target volume, or a significant dose to non prescribed human organs. Initiating events frequency and reducer of its frequency (actions intended to avoid the accident) are estimated as well as robustness of barriers to those actions, such as mechanical switches, which detect and prevent the accident from occurring. The spectrum of the consequences is parameterized, and the actions performed to reduce the consequences are identified. Based on this analysis, a software tool was developed in order to simplify the evaluations to radiotherapy installations and it has been applied as a first step forward to some Mexican installations, as part of a national implementation process, the final goal is evaluation of all Mexican facilities in the near future. The main target and benefits of the SEVRRA implementation are presented in this paper. (Author)

  3. Implementation of a risk assessment tool based on a probabilistic safety assessment developed for radiotherapy practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, A.; Godinez, V.; Lopez, R., E-mail: abpaz@cnsns.gob.m [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The present work describes the implementation process and main results of the risk assessment to the radiotherapy practices with Linear Accelerators (Linac), with cobalt 60, and with brachytherapy. These evaluations were made throughout the risk assessment tool for radiotherapy practices SEVRRA (risk evaluation system for radiotherapy), developed at the Mexican National Commission in Nuclear Safety and Safeguards derived from the outcome obtained with the Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed at the Ibero-American Regulators Forum for these radiotherapy facilities. The methodology used is supported by risk matrices method, a mathematical tool that estimates the risk to the patient, radiation workers and public from mechanical failures, mis calibration of the devices, human mistakes, and so. The initiating events are defined as those undesirable events that, together with other failures, can produce a delivery of an over-dose or an under-dose of the medical prescribed dose, to the planned target volume, or a significant dose to non prescribed human organs. Initiating events frequency and reducer of its frequency (actions intended to avoid the accident) are estimated as well as robustness of barriers to those actions, such as mechanical switches, which detect and prevent the accident from occurring. The spectrum of the consequences is parameterized, and the actions performed to reduce the consequences are identified. Based on this analysis, a software tool was developed in order to simplify the evaluations to radiotherapy installations and it has been applied as a first step forward to some Mexican installations, as part of a national implementation process, the final goal is evaluation of all Mexican facilities in the near future. The main target and benefits of the SEVRRA implementation are presented in this paper. (Author)

  4. Risk management and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.; Novegno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Risk assessment, including probabilistic analyses, has made great progress over the past decade. In spite of the inherent uncertainties it has now become possible to utilize methods and results for decision making at various levels. This paper will, therefore, review risk management in industrial installations, risk management for energy safety policy and prospects of risk management in highly industrialized areas. (orig.) [de

  5. Presentation of a Software Method for Use of Risk Assessment in Building Fire Safety Measure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koohpaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The property loss and physical injuries due to fire events in buildings demonstrate the necessity of implementation of efficient and performance based fire safety measures. Effective and high efficiency protection is possible when design and selection of protection measures are based on risk assessment. This study aims at presenting a software method to make possible selection and design of building fire safety measures based upon quantitative risk assessment and building characteristics. Methods: based on “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineer (FRAME” a program in MATLB software was written. The first section of this program, according to the FRAME method and based on the specification of a building, calculates the potential risk and acceptable risk level. In the second section, according to potential risk, acceptable risk level and the fire risk level that user want, program calculate concession of protective factor for that building.Results: The prepared software make it possible to assign the fire safety measure based on quantitative risk level and all building specifications. All calculations were performed with 0.001 of precision and the accuracy of this software was assessed with handmade calculations. During the use of the software if an error occurs in calculations, it can be distinguished in the output. Conclusion: Application of quantitative risk assessment is a suitable tool for increasing of efficiency in designing and execution of fire protection measure in building. With using this software the selected fire safety measure would be more efficient and suitable since the selection of fire safety measures performed on risk assessment and particular specification of a building. Moreover fire risk in the building can be managed easily and carefully.

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment based expert systems in support of dynamic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varde, P.V.; Sharma, U.L.; Marik, S.K.; Raina, V.K.; Tikku, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies are being performed, world over as part of integrated risk assessment for Nuclear Power Plants and in many cases PSA insight is utilized in support of decision making. Though the modern plants are built with inherent safety provisions, particularly to reduce the supervisory requirements during initial period into the accident, it is always desired to develop an efficient user friendly real-time operator advisory system for handling of plant transients/emergencies which would be of immense benefit for the enhancement of operational safety of the plant. This paper discusses an integrated approach for the development of operator support system. In this approach, PSA methodology and the insight obtained from PSA has been utilized for development of knowledge based or rule based experts system. While Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach has been employed for transient identification, rule-base expert system shell environment was used for the development of diagnostic module in this system. Attempt has been made to demonstrate that this approach offers an efficient framework for addressing requirements related to handling of real-time/dynamic scenario. (author)

  7. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Pieters, Wolter; Teixeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by implementing suitable risk treatment plans. However, an overarching overview of these methods, systematizing the characteristics of such methods, is missing. In this paper, we conduct a systematic l...

  8. Applications of nuclear safety probabilistic risk assessment to nuclear security for optimized risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, S.K.; Harvey, S.B. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Critical infrastructure assets such as nuclear power generating stations are potential targets for malevolent acts. Probabilistic methodologies can be applied to evaluate the real-time security risk based upon intelligence and threat levels. By employing this approach, the application of security forces and other protective measures can be optimized. Existing probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) methodologies and tools employed. in the nuclear industry can be adapted to security applications for this purpose. Existing PSA models can also be adapted and enhanced to consider total plant risk, due to nuclear safety risks as well as security risks. By creating a Probabilistic Security Model (PSM), safety and security practitioners can maximize the safety and security of the plant while minimizing the significant costs associated with security upgrades and security forces. (author)

  9. Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted.

  10. Food Safety Management in a Global Environment: The Role of Risk Assessment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Pila, Joaquin; Jimeno, Vicente; Manzano, Amparo; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Mar Fernandez, Maria Del

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment models are playing a minor role in the development of the new EU legal framework for food safety. There is a tendency of the EU institutions to apply the precautionary principle versus the predisposition of the USA institutions to rely on risk analysis. This paper provides a comparison of the role played by quantitative risk assessment models in the development of new policies on food safety in the EU and in the USA, focusing on a study case: the supply chain of s...

  11. Report on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) quality assurance in utilization of risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Recently in Japan, introduction of nuclear safety regulations using risk information such as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been considered and utilization of risk information in the rational and practical measures on safety assurance has made a progress to start with the operation or inspection area. The report compiled results of investigation and studies of PSA quality assurance in risk-informed activities in the USA. Relevant regulatory guide and standard review plan as well as issues and recommendations were reviewed for technical adequacy and advancement of probabilistic risk assessment technology in risk-informed decision making. Useful and important information to be referred as issues in PSA quality assurance was identified. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  13. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) technology to improve outage safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken an aggressive program, called ORAM (Outage Risk Assessment and Management), to provide utilities with tools and technology to assist in managing risk during the planning and conduct of outages. The ORAM program consists of the following 6 steps: i) Perform utility surveys and visits on shutdown risk management needs, ii) Perform probabilistic shutdown safety assessments (PSSAs) to identify generic insights that can be incorporated into risk management guidelines and identify selected areas for the development of contingency actions, iii) Develop risk management guidelines (RMG's) that provide a systematic approach to the planning and conduct of outages from a safety perspective. Incorporate insights from the shutdown safety assessments and other operating experience into the RMG's. iv) Develop selected contingency actions including a thermalhydraulic tool kit to address higher risk time periods and activities identified in the shutdown safety assessments, v) Develop computer software that integrates all of the above capability into an easy to use tool for effective shutdown operation management for utilities, vi) Provide assistance in the transfer of this technology and the application of these tools. This paper briefly describes the technical approach and tools developed under EPRI's ORAM program and its applications for improving outage safety and economics. (author)

  14. Introduction to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to risk assessment. It discusses the basic concepts of risk assessment, nuclear risk assessment process and products, the role of risk assessment products in nuclear safety assurance, the relationship between risk assessment and other safety analysis and risk assessment and safe operating envelope

  15. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  16. How to interpret safety critical failures in risk and reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvik, Jon Tømmerås; Signoret, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Management of safety systems often receives high attention due to the potential for industrial accidents. In risk and reliability literature concerning such systems, and particularly concerning safety-instrumented systems, one frequently comes across the term ‘safety critical failure’. It is a term associated with the term ‘critical failure’, and it is often deduced that a safety critical failure refers to a failure occurring in a safety critical system. Although this is correct in some situations, it is not matching with for example the mathematical definition given in ISO/TR 12489:2013 on reliability modeling, where a clear distinction is made between ‘safe failures’ and ‘dangerous failures’. In this article, we show that different interpretations of the term ‘safety critical failure’ exist, and there is room for misinterpretations and misunderstandings regarding risk and reliability assessments where failure information linked to safety systems are used, and which could influence decision-making. The article gives some examples from the oil and gas industry, showing different possible interpretations of the term. In particular we discuss the link between criticality and failure. The article points in general to the importance of adequate risk communication when using the term, and gives some clarification on interpretation in risk and reliability assessments.

  17. A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T.S.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

  18. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  19. Establishment of safety goal and its quantification based on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Ken

    2017-01-01

    We must clarify the safety objectives sought by society in securing the safety of nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants. For that purpose, it is useful to utilize risk assessment. Quantitative methods including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are superior in terms of scientific rationality and quantitative performance compared with conventional deterministic methods, and able to indicate an objective numerical value of safety level. Consequently, quantitative methods can enhance the transparency, consistency, compliance, predictability, and explanatory power of regulatory decisions toward business operators and citizens. Business operators can explain the validity of their own safety assurance activities to regulators and citizens. The goal to be secured becomes clear by incorporating the safety goal into the specific performance goal required for the nuclear power plant from the viewpoint of deep safeguard, and it becomes easy to evaluate the effectiveness of the safety measures. It helps us greatly in judging and selecting the appropriateness of safety measures. It should be noted: the fact that the result of implementing the PRA satisfies the safety goal is not a sufficient condition in the sense of guaranteeing complete safety but a necessary condition. The nuclear power field is a region with large uncertainty, and research/efforts for accuracy improvement and evaluation validity will be required continuously. (A.O.)

  20. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment of Health and Safety Approach JSA (Job Safety Analysis) in Plantation Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, Muchamad; Ragil Suryoputro, Muhammad; Tiya Novitasari, Adi

    2017-06-01

    Plantation company needed to identify hazard and perform risk assessment as an Identification of Hazard and Risk Assessment Crime and Safety which was approached by using JSA (Job Safety Analysis). The identification was aimed to identify the potential hazards that might be the risk of workplace accidents so that preventive action could be taken to minimize the accidents. The data was collected by direct observation to the workers concerned and the results were recorded on a Job Safety Analysis form. The data were as forklift operator, macerator worker, worker’s creeper, shredder worker, workers’ workshop, mechanical line worker, trolley cleaning workers and workers’ crepe decline. The result showed that shredder worker value was 30 and had the working level with extreme risk with the risk value range was above 20. So to minimize the accidents could provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) which were appropriate, information about health and safety, the company should have watched the activities of workers, and rewards for the workers who obey the rules that applied in the plantation.

  1. Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be greater than those experienced during an operational lifetime of a facility. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities and as well as during accidents. The risk assessment method was developed by using risk matrix and fuzzy inference logic, on the basis of the radiological and non-radiological hazards for a decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility. Fuzzy inference of radiological and non-radiological hazards performs a mapping from radiological and non-radiological hazards to risk matrix. Defuzzification of radiological and non-radiological hazards is the conversion of risk matrix and priorities to the maximum criterion method and the mean criterion method. In the end, a composite risk assessment methodology, to rank the risk level on radiological and non-radiological hazards of the decommissioning tasks and to prioritize on the risk level of the decommissioning tasks, by simultaneously combining radiological and non-radiological hazards, was developed.

  2. Track 6: safety and risk management. Plant operational risk management. Plant Configuration Risk Assessment Methodology Development for Periodic Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Huichang; Chung, Chang Hyun; Sung, Key Yong

    2001-01-01

    As the operation experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea accumulate and NPP safety functions become enhanced, the role of stable and optimal NPP operation within acceptable safety criteria becomes important at present. To accomplish the goal of safe and optimal operation, maintenance and its related activities should be regarded as the issues of most concern. Studies of methodologies for maintenance improvement and optimization have focused on system performance rather than on the hardware itself. From this point of view, the probabilistic methods are most useful. In terms of risk including core damage frequency and unavailability, the cause that might impact plant safety during normal maintenance activities can be identified and evaluated effectively. The results from these probabilistic analyses can provide insightful information for the reallocation of risk-contributing maintenance activity. This information can be utilized in a way that separates the significant risk-contributing maintenance activities from each other unless they are timely related. In Korea, the risk-monitoring program for operating NPPs is under development and will be implemented in 2003. To accomplish the risk-monitoring program objectives, suitable risk evaluation methods should be developed before the implementation of the risk-monitoring program. The plant configuration assessment methodology was developed for these reasons, and this method is to incorporate the field experiences into the risk calculation exactly within the limit of probabilistic methods. During normal plant operation, the plant operational risk changes frequently depending on the status of the plant system and the arrangement of the components. Specific plant systems or components are typically removed from service because of random equipment failure, planned preventive/predictive maintenance, corrective maintenance, surveillance testing, and operational bypass activities, and such events usually impact the

  3. A 3S Risk ?3SR? Assessment Approach for Nuclear Power: Safety Security and Safeguards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Robert; Reinhardt, Jason Christian; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Williams, Adam David

    2017-11-01

    Safety-focused risk analysis and assessment approaches struggle to adequately include malicious, deliberate acts against the nuclear power industry's fissile and waste material, infrastructure, and facilities. Further, existing methods do not adequately address non- proliferation issues. Treating safety, security, and safeguards concerns independently is inefficient because, at best, it may not take explicit advantage of measures that provide benefits against multiple risk domains, and, at worst, it may lead to implementations that increase overall risk due to incompatibilities. What is needed is an integrated safety, security and safeguards risk (or "3SR") framework for describing and assessing nuclear power risks that can enable direct trade-offs and interactions in order to inform risk management processes -- a potential paradigm shift in risk analysis and management. These proceedings of the Sandia ePRA Workshop (held August 22-23, 2017) are an attempt to begin the discussions and deliberations to extend and augment safety focused risk assessment approaches to include security concerns and begin moving towards a 3S Risk approach. Safeguards concerns were not included in this initial workshop and are left to future efforts. This workshop focused on four themes in order to begin building out a the safety and security portions of the 3S Risk toolkit: 1. Historical Approaches and Tools 2. Current Challenges 3. Modern Approaches 4. Paths Forward and Next Steps This report is organized along the four areas described above, and concludes with a summary of key points. 2 Contact: rforres@sandia.gov; +1 (925) 294-2728

  4. Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, Brandon Road Lock and Dam Invasive Species Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Decision makers must include control-measure monitoring and emergency “interventions” to insure safety. The Coast Guard operational commanders...system” incorporates a travelling car on a rail above the barge-loading wharf to prevent loading personnel, cargo surveyors, or others from falling...to the Gulf of Mexico . As “Loopers”, they will have already transited the CSSC electric barriers. Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, BRLD

  5. Marked point process framework for living probabilistic safety assessment and risk follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjas, Elja; Holmberg, Jan

    1995-01-01

    We construct a model for living probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) by applying the general framework of marked point processes. The framework provides a theoretically rigorous approach for considering risk follow-up of posterior hazards. In risk follow-up, the hazard of core damage is evaluated synthetically at time points in the past, by using some observed events as logged history and combining it with re-evaluated potential hazards. There are several alternatives for doing this, of which we consider three here, calling them initiating event approach, hazard rate approach, and safety system approach. In addition, for a comparison, we consider a core damage hazard arising in risk monitoring. Each of these four definitions draws attention to a particular aspect in risk assessment, and this is reflected in the behaviour of the consequent risk importance measures. Several alternative measures are again considered. The concepts and definitions are illustrated by a numerical example

  6. Application of risk assessment in upgrading safety and quality of radiochemical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.; Hightower, J.R.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1990-01-01

    A Comprehensive Safety Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP) was commenced by the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to achieve excellence in the safety and quality of its operations and condition of its facilities. In the course of conducting CSAUP, a number of issues of concern were identified. The safety risk of these issues has been assessed, and planned actions were prepared for those issues that require corrective actions or improvement/upgrading. The planned actions were evaluated on consideration for the uniqueness of Chem Tech facilities and operations to determine the risks (high, moderate or low) involved by failure to implement the actions. The risk was defined in terms of the frequency and severity of impact. Priority of categorized actions was based on the urgency of the actions. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falakh, Fajrul; Setiani, Onny

    2018-02-01

    Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  8. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falakh Fajrul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Treatment Plant (WTP is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  9. Development of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There are four parts in the structure of RiskA. User input part lets users input the PSA model and some necessary data by GUI or model transformation tool. In calculation engine part, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, importance analysis and failure mode and effects analysis are supplied. User output part outputs the analysis results, user customized reports and some other data. The last part includes reliability database, some other common tools and help documents. • RiskA has several advanced features. Extensible framework makes it easy to add any new functions, making RiskA to be a large platform of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. It is very fast to analysis fault tree in RiskA because many advanced algorithm improvement were made. Many model formats can be imported and exported, which made the PSA model in the commercial software can be easily transformed to adapt RiskA platform. Web-based co-modeling let several users in different places work together whenever they are online. • The comparison between RiskA and other mature PSA codes (e.g. CAFTA, RiskSpectrum, XFTA) has demonstrated that the calculation and analysis of RiskA is correct and efficient. Based on the development of this code package, many applications of safety and reliability analysis of some research reactors and nuclear power plants were performed. The development of RiskA appears to be of realistic and potential value for academic research and practical operation safety management of nuclear power plants in China and abroad. - Abstract: PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) software, the indispensable tool in nuclear safety assessment, has been widely used. An integrated reliability and PSA program named RiskA has been developed by FDS Team. RiskA supplies several standard PSA modules including fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, failure mode and effect analysis and reliability

  10. Incorporation of formal safety assessment and Bayesian network in navigational risk estimation of the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Yan, X.P.; Yang, Z.L.; Wall, A.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Formal safety assessment (FSA), as a structured and systematic risk evaluation methodology, has been increasingly and broadly used in the shipping industry around the world. Concerns have been raised as to navigational safety of the Yangtze River, China's largest and the world's busiest inland waterway. Over the last few decades, the throughput of ships in the Yangtze River has increased rapidly due to the national development of the Middle and Western parts of China. Accidents such as collisions, groundings, contacts, oil-spills and fires occur repeatedly, often causing serious consequences. In order to improve the navigational safety in the Yangtze River, this paper estimates the navigational risk of the Yangtze River using the FSA concept and a Bayesian network (BN) technique. The navigational risk model is established by considering both probability and consequences of accidents with respect to a risk matrix method, followed by a scenario analysis to demonstrate the application of the proposed model

  11. Development of Risk Assessment Matrix for NASA Engineering and Safety Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.; Moses, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study, which had as its principal goal the development of a sufficiently detailed 5 x 5 Risk Matrix Scorecard. The purpose of this scorecard is to outline the criteria by which technical issues can be qualitatively and initially prioritized. The tool using this score card has been proposed to be one of the information resources the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) takes into consideration when making decisions with respect to incoming information on safety concerns across the entire NASA agency. The contents of this paper discuss in detail each element of the risk matrix scorecard, definitions for those elements and the rationale behind the development of those definitions. This scorecard development was performed in parallel with the tailoring of the existing Futron Corporation Integrated Risk Management Application (IRMA) software tool. IRMA was tailored to fit NESC needs for evaluating incoming safety concerns and was renamed NESC Assessment Risk Management Application (NAFMA) which is still in developmental phase.

  12. Risk perception, risk management and safety assessment: what can governments do to increase public confidence in their vaccine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E; Smith, Jennifer; Appleton, Mary

    2012-09-01

    For decades vaccine program managers and governments have devoted many resources to addressing public vaccine concerns, vaccine risk perception, risk management and safety assessment. Despite ever growing evidence that vaccines are safe and effective, public concerns continue. Education and evidence based scientific messages have not ended concerns. How can governments and programs more effectively address the public's vaccine concerns and increase confidence in the vaccine safety system? Vaccination hesitation has been attributed to concerns about vaccine safety, perceptions of high vaccine risks and low disease risk and consequences. Even when the public believes vaccines are important for protection many still have concerns about vaccine safety. This overview explores how heuristics affect public perception of vaccines and vaccine safety, how the public finds and uses vaccine information, and then proposes strategies for changes in the approach to vaccine safety communications. Facts and evidence confirming the safety of vaccines are not enough. Vaccine beliefs and behaviours must be shaped. This will require a shift in the what, when, how and why of vaccine risk and benefit communication content and practice. A change to a behavioural change strategy such as the WHO COMBI program that has been applied to disease eradication efforts is suggested. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of the report ''IAEA safety targets and probabilistic risk assessment'' prepared for Greenpeace International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At the request of the Director General, INSAG reviewed the report ''IAEA Safety Targets and Probabilistic Risk Assessment'' prepared for Greenpeace International by the Gesellschaft fuer Oekologische Forschung und Beratung mbH, Hannover, Germany. The conclusions of the report as well as the review results of INSAG experts are reproduced in this document

  14. A risk assessment approach to evaluating food safety based on product surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, S.; Nauta, M.J.; Jansen, J.; Jouve, J.L.; Mead, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines a risk assessment approach to food safety evaluation, which is based on testing a particular type of food, or group of similar foods, for relevant microbial pathogens. The results obtained are related to possible adverse effects on the health of consumers. The paper also gives an

  15. Risk management: integration of social and technical risk variables into safety assessments of LWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnage, J.J.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A risk management methodology is developed here to formalize the acceptability levels of commercial LWR power plants via the estimation of risk levels acceptable to the public and the integration of such estimates into risk-benefit analysis. Utility theory is used for developing preference models based on value trade-offs among multiple objectives and uncertainties about the impact of alternatives. The method involves reducing the various variables affecting safety acceptability decisions to a single function that provides a metric for acceptability levels. The function accomondates for technical criteria related to design and licensing decisions, as well as public reactions to certain choices

  16. Neuropsychological assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y; Johnson, Amy M; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. A total of 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with no neurologic disease (N = 185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N = 40), Parkinson's disease (N = 91), or stroke (N = 29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18-mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems.

  17. Risk assessment by the occupational safety and health at work in the process of geological exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletović Novica M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of risk assessment in terms of safety and health at work in the process of geological work/ drilling. Optimization model estimates OH & S risk for work place qualified driller, is in line with the provisions of the Mining and Geological exploration, the Law on Safety and Health at Work, the application of the requirements of ISO 31000 and criteria Kinny methods. Model estimates OH & S risks is the basis for the development and implementation of the management system of protection of health and safety at work according to BS OHSAS 18001: 2008 model is applied, checked and verified the approved exploration areas during execution and supervision applied geological exploration (of metals on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  18. Risk assessment of computer-controlled safety systems for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.; Bruske, S.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of fusion reactor systems and the need to display, analyze, and react promptly to large amounts of information during reactor operation will require a number of safety systems in the fusion facilities to be computer controlled. Computer software, therefore, must be included in the reactor safety analyses. Unfortunately, the science of integrating computer software into safety analyses is in its infancy. Combined plant hardware and computer software systems are often treated by making simple assumptions about software performance. This method is not acceptable for assessing risks in the complex fusion systems, and a new technique for risk assessment of combined plant hardware and computer software systems has been developed. This technique is an extension of the traditional fault tree analysis and uses structured flow charts of the software in a manner analogous to wiring or piping diagrams of hardware. The software logic determines the form of much of the fault trees

  19. Radiation safety assessment of cobalt 60 external beam radiotherapy using the risk-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, C; Vilaragut, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Guillen, A.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, M.; McDonnell, J.D.; Papadopulos, S.; Pereira, P.P.; Goncalvez, M.; Morales, J.; Larrinaga, E.; Lopez Morones, R.; Sanchez, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Sanchez, C.; Somoano, F.

    2008-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is the only practice in which humans are placed directly in a radiation beam with the intention to deliver a very high dose. This is why safety in radiotherapy is very critical, and is a matter of interest to both radiotherapy departments and regulatory bodies. Accidental exposures have occurred throughout the world, thus showing the need for systematic safety assessments, capable to identify preventive measures and to minimize consequences of accidental exposure. Risk-matrix is a systematic approach which combines the relevant event features to assess the overall risk of each particular event. Once an event sequence is identified, questions such as how frequent the event, how severe the potential consequences and how reliable the existing safety measures are answered in a risk-matrix table. The ultimate goal is to achieve that the overall risk for events with severe consequences should always be low o very low. In the present study, the risk-matrix method has been applied to an hypothetical radiotherapy department, which could be equivalent to an upper level hospital of the Ibero American region, in terms of safety checks and preventive measures. The application of the method has identified 76 event sequences and revealed that the hypothetical radiotherapy department is sufficiently protected (low risk) against them, including 23 event sequences with severe consequences. The method has revealed that the risk of these sequences could grow to high level if certain specific preventive measures were degraded with time. This study has identified these preventive measures, thus facilitating a rational allocation of resources in regular controls to detect any loss of reliability. The method has proven to have an important practical value and is affordable at hospital level. The elaborated risk-matrix can be easily adapted to local circumstances, in terms of existing controls and safety measures. This approach can help hospitals to identify

  20. BARC-risk monitor- a tool for operational safety assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Babar, A.K.; Hadap, Nikhil

    2000-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment has become a key tool as on today to identify and understand nuclear power plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. Risk monitor is a PC based tool, which computes the real time safety level and assists plant personnel to manage day-to-day activities. Risk monitor is a PC based user friendly software tool used for modification and re-analysis of a nuclear power plant. Operation of risk monitor is based on PSA methods for assisting in day to day applications. Risk monitoring programs can assess the risk profile and are used to optimise the operation of nuclear power plants with respect to a minimum risk level over the operating time. This report presents the background activities of risk monitor, its application areas and also gives the status of such tools in international scenarios. The software is based on the PSA model of Kaiga generating station and would be applicable to similar design configuration. (author)

  1. Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Sergio B.

    2010-01-01

    This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  2. Probabilistic earthquake risk assessment as a tool to improve safety and explanatory adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoi, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the concept of probabilistic earthquake risk assessment, mainly from the viewpoint as a tool to improve safety and explanatory adequacy. The definition of risk is the expected value of undesirable effect in an engineering meaning that is likely to occur in the future, and it is defined in risk management as the triplet of scenario (what can happen), frequency, and impact. As for the earthquake risk assessment of a nuclear power plant, the fragility of structure / system / component (SSC) against earthquake (so-called earthquake fragility) is assessed, and by combining with the earthquake hazard that has been separately obtained, the occurrence frequency and impact of the accident are obtained. From the view of the authors, earthquake risk assessment is for the purpose of decision-making, and is not intended to calculate the probability in a scientifically rigorous manner. For ensuring the quality of risk assessment, the table of 'Expert utilization standards for the evaluation of epistemological uncertainty' is used. Sole quantitative risk assessment is not necessarily sufficient for risk management. It would be important to find how to build the 'framework for comprehensive decision-making.' (A.O.)

  3. Probabilistic Causal Analysis for System Safety Risk Assessments in Commercial Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, James T.

    2003-01-01

    Aviation is one of the critical modes of our national transportation system. As such, it is essential that new technologies be continually developed to ensure that a safe mode of transportation becomes even safer in the future. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is managing the development of new technologies and interventions aimed at reducing the fatal aviation accident rate by a factor of 5 by year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by year 2022. A portfolio assessment is currently being conducted to determine the projected impact that the new technologies and/or interventions may have on reducing aviation safety system risk. This paper reports on advanced risk analytics that combine the use of a human error taxonomy, probabilistic Bayesian Belief Networks, and case-based scenarios to assess a relative risk intensity metric. A sample case is used for illustrative purposes.

  4. Risk-informed decision making a keystone in advanced safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, M.

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has provided extremely valuable complementary insight, perspective, comprehension, and balance to deterministic nuclear reactor safety assessment. This integrated approach of risk-informed management and decision making has been called Risk-Informed Decision Making (RIDM). RIDM provides enhanced safety, reliability, operational flexibility, reduced radiological exposure, and improved fiscal economy. Applications of RIDM continuously increase. Current applications are in the areas of design, construction, licensing, operations, and security. Operational phase safety applications include the following: technical specifications improvement, risk-monitors and configuration control, maintenance planning, outage planning and management, in-service inspection, inservice testing, graded quality assurance, reactor oversight and inspection, inspection finding significance determination, operational events assessment, and rulemaking. Interestingly there is a significant spectrum of approaches, methods, programs, controls, data bases, and standards. The quest of many is to assimilate the full compliment of PSA and RIDM information and to achieve a balanced international harmony. The goal is to focus the best of the best, so to speak, for the benefit of all. Accordingly, this presentation will address the principles, benefits, and applications of RIDM. It will also address some of the challenges and areas to improve. Finally it will highlight efforts by the IAEA and others to capture the international thinking, experience, successes, challenges, and lessons in RIDM. (authors)

  5. Metrics design for safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Yaping; van den Brand, M.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:In the safety domain, safety assessment is used to show that safety-critical systems meet the required safety objectives. This process is also referred to as safety assurance and certification. During this procedure, safety standards are used as development guidelines to keep the risk at an

  6. Non-animal approaches for consumer safety risk assessments: Unilever's scientific research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Paul; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; Fletcher, Samantha; Gilmour, Nicola; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Merolla, Leona; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona; Westmoreland, Carl

    2009-12-01

    Non-animal based approaches to risk assessment are now routinely used for assuring consumer safety for some endpoints (such as skin irritation) following considerable investment in developing and applying new methods over the past 20 years. Unilever's research programme into non-animal approaches for safety assessment is currently focused on the application of new technologies to risk assessments in the areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhalation toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biological and chemical processes that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement with EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, carcinoGENOMICS), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. COLIPA, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US 'Human Toxicology Project' consortium). 2009 FRAME.

  7. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk ŞAKAR; Yusuf ZORBA

    2017-01-01

    The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. ...

  8. Application of the Integrated Safety Assessment methodology to safety margins. Dynamic Event Trees, Damage Domains and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibánez, L.; Hortal, J.; Queral, C.; Gómez-Magán, J.; Sánchez-Perea, M.; Fernández, I.; Meléndez, E.; Expósito, A.; Izquierdo, J.M.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Villalba-Jabonero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology, developed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, has been applied to an analysis of Zion NPP for sequences with Loss of the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS). The ISA methodology proposal starts from the unfolding of the Dynamic Event Tree (DET). Results from this first step allow assessing the sequence delineation of standard Probabilistic Safety Analysis results. For some sequences of interest of the outlined DET, ISA then identifies the Damage Domain (DD). This is the region of uncertain times and/or parameters where a safety limit is exceeded, which indicates the occurrence of certain damage situation. This paper illustrates application of this concept obtained simulating sequences with MAAP and with TRACE. From information of simulation results of sequence transients belonging to the DD and the time-density probability distributions of the manual actions and of occurrence of stochastic phenomena, ISA integrates the dynamic reliability equations proposed to obtain the sequence contribution to the global Damage Exceedance Frequency (DEF). Reported results show a slight increase in the DEF for sequences investigated following a power uprate from 100% to 110%. This demonstrates the potential use of the method to help in the assessment of design modifications. - Highlights: • This paper illustrates an application of the ISA methodology to safety margins. • Dynamic Event Trees are useful tool for verifying the standard PSA Event Trees. • The ISA methodology takes into account the uncertainties in human action times. • The ISA methodology shows the Damage Exceedance Frequency increase in power uprates.

  9. Safety inspections - the role of TS : risks, their assessment and the role of safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar-Alonso, Isabel; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the DG decided a new approach for safety at CERN. This had as consequence the creation of a new unit, the safety service provider, in the TS department. The organization and the services that this unit provides to CERN will be described and the achievements since the creation of the unit will be summarized. Some important personnel safety systems, on their side have been the responsibility of the TS Department for many years. Their importance has grown with the arrival of LHC and their complexity and impact on operation has increased. Their role as well as the importance of an appropriate regulatory framework shall be discussed.

  10. Survey of probabilistic methods in safety and risk assessment for nuclear power plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    After an overview about the goals and general methods of probabilistic approaches in nuclear safety the main features of probabilistic safety or risk assessment (PRA) methods are discussed. Mostly in practical applications not a full-fledged PRA is applied but rather various levels of analysis leading from unavailability assessment of systems over the more complex analysis of the probable core damage stages up to the assessment of the overall health effects on the total population from a certain practice. The various types of application are discussed in relation to their limitation and benefits for different stages of design or operation of nuclear power plants. This gives guidance for licensing staff to judge the usefulness of the various methods for their licensing decisions. Examples of the application of probabilistic methods in several countries are given. Two appendices on reliability analysis and on containment and consequence analysis provide some more details on these subjects. (author)

  11. Food and drinking water safety: Can risk assessment help us to get our priorities right?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, W.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Huge resources are devoted worldwide by governments and food producers to ensure that food and water are produced with due regard to the safety of consumers. This inevitably involves some form of risk assessment but in the field of food safety a formalised process of risk assessment has been slow to develop. An ad hoc mosaic or approaches has evolved which varies not only between countries but sometimes within countries as well. This may not be unexpected considering the vast variety of kinds of food hazards (table 1). Not only do food-related hazards themselves vary widely, so do the effects which they can cause. For example microorganisms can cause mild stomach upsets or death within a few hours depending upon the organism involved. For chemical contaminants in food the potential effects are usually less acute although no less serious. Many of the chemicals of concern are believed to be carcinogens whose effects might only be realised after many years of exposure. Nutritional imbalances may result in an increased risk from diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, which can also arise from other causes. In these latter examples it is often difficult to relate cause to effect even when extensive epidemiological evidence is available. It is important to understand the enormous diversity in possible food-related hazards before describing the assessment of risks associated with them. This great diversity makes it unlikely that any single approach to risk assessment can suit all situations. This means that making comparisons between risks from different hazards is extremely difficult. In fact trying to allocate resources in a logical way between all the different kinds of food-related hazards is a major problem in itself. For with finite resources there is always the danger of finding that focusing on one area of concern results in a potential risk elsewhere being neglected. The aim of this paper is to take a general look at some of the issues facing those with

  12. Food and drinking water safety: Can risk assessment help us to get our priorities right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denner, W H.B. [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    Huge resources are devoted worldwide by governments and food producers to ensure that food and water are produced with due regard to the safety of consumers. This inevitably involves some form of risk assessment but in the field of food safety a formalised process of risk assessment has been slow to develop. An ad hoc mosaic or approaches has evolved which varies not only between countries but sometimes within countries as well. This may not be unexpected considering the vast variety of kinds of food hazards (table 1). Not only do food-related hazards themselves vary widely, so do the effects which they can cause. For example microorganisms can cause mild stomach upsets or death within a few hours depending upon the organism involved. For chemical contaminants in food the potential effects are usually less acute although no less serious. Many of the chemicals of concern are believed to be carcinogens whose effects might only be realised after many years of exposure. Nutritional imbalances may result in an increased risk from diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, which can also arise from other causes. In these latter examples it is often difficult to relate cause to effect even when extensive epidemiological evidence is available. It is important to understand the enormous diversity in possible food-related hazards before describing the assessment of risks associated with them. This great diversity makes it unlikely that any single approach to risk assessment can suit all situations. This means that making comparisons between risks from different hazards is extremely difficult. In fact trying to allocate resources in a logical way between all the different kinds of food-related hazards is a major problem in itself. For with finite resources there is always the danger of finding that focusing on one area of concern results in a potential risk elsewhere being neglected. The aim of this paper is to take a general look at some of the issues facing those with

  13. Procedures to relate the NII safety assessment principles for nuclear reactors to risk

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Hemming, C R

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the Public Inquiry into the proposed pressurised water reactor (PWR) at Sizewell, estimates were made of the levels of individual and societal risk from a PWR designed in a manner which would conform to the safety assessment principles formulated by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). The procedures used to derive these levels of risk are described in this report. The opportunity has also been taken to revise the risk estimates made at the time of the Inquiry by taking account of additional data which were not then available, and to provide further quantification of the likely range of uncertainty in the predictions. This re-analysis has led to small changes in the levels of risk previously evaluated, but these are not sufficient to affect the broad conclusions reached before. For a reactor just conforming to the NII safety assessment principles a maximum individual risk of fatal cancer of about 10 sup - sup 6 per year of reactor operation has been estimated; the societal ris...

  14. On a systematic perspective on risk for formal safety assessment (FSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montewka, Jakub; Goerlandt, Floris; Kujala, Pentti

    2014-01-01

    In the maritime domain, risk is evaluated within the framework of the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA), introduced by the International Maritime Organization in 2002. Although the FSA has become an internationally recognized and recommended method, the definition, which is adopted there, to describe the risk, seems to be too narrow to reflect the actual content of the FSA. Therefore this article discusses methodological requirements for the risk perspective, which is appropriate for risk management in the maritime domain with special attention to maritime transportation systems. A perspective that is proposed here considers risk as a set encompassing the following: a set of plausible scenarios leading to an accident, the likelihoods of unwanted events within the scenarios, the consequences of the events and description of uncertainty. All these elements are conditional upon the available knowledge (K) about the analyzed system and understanding (N) of the system behavior. Therefore, the quality of K and the level of N of a risk model should be reflected in the uncertainty description. For this purpose we introduce a qualitative scoring system, and we show its applicability on an exemplary risk model for a RoPax ship. - Highlights: • We present a risk perspective for the maritime domain. • A distinction between knowledge and understanding is made. • We describe risk as (Scenario, Consequences, Uncertainty/Knowledge, Understanding). • The perspective highlights the strength and weaknesses of a given risk analysis

  15. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Bijleveld, Frits; Cardoso, João L

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the theoretical properties of various exposure measures used in road safety research (e.g. vehicle- and person-kilometres of travel, vehicle fleet, road length, driver population, time spent in traffic, etc.). Moreover, the existing methods for collecting disaggregate exposure data for risk estimates at national level are presented and assessed, including survey methods (e.g. travel surveys, traffic counts) and databases (e.g. national registers). A detailed analysis of the availability and quality of existing risk exposure data is also carried out. More specifically, the results of a questionnaire survey in the European countries are presented, with detailed information on exposure measures available, their possible disaggregations (i.e. variables and values), their conformity to standard definitions and the characteristics of their national collection methods. Finally, the potential of international risk comparisons is investigated, mainly through the International Data Files with exposure data (e.g. Eurostat, IRTAD, ECMT, UNECE, IRF, etc.). The results of this review confirm that comparing risk rates at international level may be a complex task, as the availability and quality of exposure estimates in European countries varies significantly. The lack of a common framework for the collection and exploitation of exposure data limits significantly the comparability of the national data. On the other hand, the International Data Files containing exposure data provide useful statistics and estimates in a systematic way and are currently the only sources allowing international comparisons of road safety performance under certain conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Risk analysis methods: their importance for safety assessment of practices using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, C; Vilaragut, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Guillen, A.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, M.; McDonnell, J.D.; Papadopulos, S.; Pereira, P.P.; Goncalvez, M.; Morales, J.; Larrinaga, E.; Lopez Morones, R.; Sanchez, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Sanchez, C.; Somoano, F.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation safety has been based for many years on verification of compliance with regulatory requirements, codes of practice and international standards, which can be considered prescriptive methods. Accident analyses have been published, lessons have been learned and safety assessments have incorporated the need to check whether a facility is ready to avoid accidents similar to the reported ones. These approaches can be also called 'reactive methods'. They have in common the fundamental limitation of being restricted to reported experience, but do not take into account other potential events, which were never published or never happened, i.e. latent risks. Moreover, they focus on accident sequences with major consequences and low probability but may not pay enough attention to other sequences leading to lower, but still significant consequences with higher probability. More proactive approaches are, therefore, needed, to assess risk in radiation facilities. They aim at identifying all potential equipment faults and human error, which can lead to predefined unwanted consequences and are based on the general risk equation: Risk = Probability of occurrence of an accidental sequence * magnitude of the consequences. In this work, a review is given of the experience obtained by the countries of the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Organizations, by applying proactive methods to radiotherapy practice. In particular, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) used for external beam treatments with linear electron accelerators and two studies, on cobalt 60 therapy and brachytherapy using the risk-matrix approach are presented. The work has identified event sequences, their likelihood of occurrence, the consequences, the efficiency of interlocks and control checks and the global importance in terms of overall risk, to facilitate decision making and implementation of preventive measures. A comparison is presented of advantages and limitations of

  17. Risk Assessment for Bridges Safety Management during Operation Based on Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, large span and large sea-crossing bridges are built, bridges accidents caused by improper operational management occur frequently. In order to explore the better methods for risk assessment of the bridges operation departments, the method based on fuzzy clustering algorithm is selected. Then, the implementation steps of fuzzy clustering algorithm are described, the risk evaluation system is built, and Taizhou Bridge is selected as an example, the quantitation of risk factors is described. After that, the clustering algorithm based on fuzzy equivalence is calculated on MATLAB 2010a. In the last, Taizhou Bridge operation management departments are classified and sorted according to the degree of risk, and the safety situation of operation departments is analyzed.

  18. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  19. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Abkowitz, M. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort.

  20. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M.; Abkowitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort

  1. Toward risk assessment 2.0: Safety supervisory control and model-based hazard monitoring for risk-informed safety interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favarò, Francesca M.; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a staple in the engineering risk community, and it has become to some extent synonymous with the entire quantitative risk assessment undertaking. Limitations of PRA continue to occupy researchers, and workarounds are often proposed. After a brief review of this literature, we propose to address some of PRA's limitations by developing a novel framework and analytical tools for model-based system safety, or safety supervisory control, to guide safety interventions and support a dynamic approach to risk assessment and accident prevention. Our work shifts the emphasis from the pervading probabilistic mindset in risk assessment toward the notions of danger indices and hazard temporal contingency. The framework and tools here developed are grounded in Control Theory and make use of the state-space formalism in modeling dynamical systems. We show that the use of state variables enables the definition of metrics for accident escalation, termed hazard levels or danger indices, which measure the “proximity” of the system state to adverse events, and we illustrate the development of such indices. Monitoring of the hazard levels provides diagnostic information to support both on-line and off-line safety interventions. For example, we show how the application of the proposed tools to a rejected takeoff scenario provides new insight to support pilots’ go/no-go decisions. Furthermore, we augment the traditional state-space equations with a hazard equation and use the latter to estimate the times at which critical thresholds for the hazard level are (b)reached. This estimation process provides important prognostic information and produces a proxy for a time-to-accident metric or advance notice for an impending adverse event. The ability to estimate these two hazard coordinates, danger index and time-to-accident, offers many possibilities for informing system control strategies and improving accident prevention and risk mitigation

  2. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  3. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  4. Assessment of safety measures and plant risks during shut-down periods at NPP Biblis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamme, H.; Roess, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Results of French probabilistic PWR-studies indicated a high contribution of shut down states to the overall plant risk. Mainly inspired by these results qualitative and also probabilistic analyses were started in Germany since 1991. As the Biblis-B-NPP was already reference plant of the German Risk Study first studies of shut-down-states were again focuses on Biblis-B. These studies were mainly performed by the German Association for Reactor Safety (GRS) in close cooperation with the utility RWE Energie AG. This paper briefly reviews the chosen approach to model and assess shut-down-states at Biblis-NPP. An in-depth-presentation is focuses on the quantification of risk in mid-loop-operation (MLO) which was performed by the authors with intensive support of plant personnel

  5. Risk-based approach to long-term safety assessment for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C.W.; Kim, K.I.; Lee, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Korean regulatory approach to safety assessment consistent with probabilistic, risk-based long-term safety requirements for near surface disposal facilities. The approach is based on: (1) From the standpoint of risk limitation, normal processes and probabilistic disruptive events should be integrated in a similar manner in terms of potential exposures; and (2) The uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be reduced using appropriate exposure scenarios. In addition, this paper emphasizes the necessity of international guidance for quantifying potential exposures and the corresponding risks from radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  6. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks.

  7. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental se...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  8. Challenges in Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The process of risk analysis consists out of three components, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. These components are internationally well spread by Codex Alimentarius Commission as being the basis for setting science based standards, criteria on food safety hazards, e.g. setting maximum limits of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. However, the technical component risk assessment is hard to elaborate and to understand. Key in a risk assessment is the translation of biological or...

  9. Health, safety and environment risk assessment in gas pipelines by indexing method:case of Kermanshah Sanandaj oil pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Hamidi; I. Mohamadfam; M. Motamedzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Background and AimsUsing pipelines for oil products transportation involves ranges of safety, health and environmental risks, this option however, is dominant with numerous  advantages. The purpose of this study was; relative risk assessment of abovementioned risk in Kermanshah-Sanandaj Oil Pipeline.MethodsThe method used in this study was Kent Muhlbauer method in which relative risk was assessed using third-party damage, corrosion, design, incorrect operations and leak impact  factor.Results...

  10. Contrasting safety assessments of a runway incursion scenario: Event sequence analysis versus multi-agent dynamic risk modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeve, Sybert H.; Blom, Henk A.P.; Bakker, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the safety literature it has been argued, that in a complex socio-technical system safety cannot be well analysed by event sequence based approaches, but requires to capture the complex interactions and performance variability of the socio-technical system. In order to evaluate the quantitative and practical consequences of these arguments, this study compares two approaches to assess accident risk of an example safety critical sociotechnical system. It contrasts an event sequence based assessment with a multi-agent dynamic risk model (MA-DRM) based assessment, both of which are performed for a particular runway incursion scenario. The event sequence analysis uses the well-known event tree modelling formalism and the MA-DRM based approach combines agent based modelling, hybrid Petri nets and rare event Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison addresses qualitative and quantitative differences in the methods, attained risk levels, and in the prime factors influencing the safety of the operation. The assessments show considerable differences in the accident risk implications of the performance of human operators and technical systems in the runway incursion scenario. In contrast with the event sequence based results, the MA-DRM based results show that the accident risk is not manifest from the performance of and relations between individual human operators and technical systems. Instead, the safety risk emerges from the totality of the performance and interactions in the agent based model of the safety critical operation considered, which coincides very well with the argumentation in the safety literature.

  11. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiassa, E.; Higgins, J.P.T.; Frampton, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimise biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all......Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods...... parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritising systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment....

  12. Radiation safety assessment of treatment teletherapy linear accelerators using the method of the risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz; Vilaragut Llanes, Juan J.; Morales Lopez, Jorge L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents in the world of radiation, demonstrating the need for deepen security assessments. This study evaluates the safety of the treatment of teletherapy linear accelerator (LINAC) at a hospital in Cuba, based on applying the method Risk Matrix. This method has been used for many years in conventional industry, is simple, easy to apply and is based on the equation General risk R = f * P * C (where: f frequency of occurrence of the initiating event, P probability of failure of all barriers and magnitude of the consequences C expected). We have evaluated 140 accident sequences that were identified during the analysis of the treatment process. It was identified that 5 sequences are associated with the level of risk is very low, 96 low-risk, high risk and 39 with no very high risk. All accident sequences associated with high risk (considered unacceptable), have an impact on patients, and no concerns workers and public, which reaffirms that major security problems are related to radiation protection of patients. 34 sequences accidental high risk are associated with human errors and failures only 5 to equipment (LINAC, TPS, TAC, etc.). demonstrating the importance of human error. It shows that 35 of the 39 high-risk accident sequences leading to serious or very serious consequences for patients, which would mean the death of one or more patients, making specific recommendations to reduce risk in these cases. The findings of this work and regulators allow users to refine their programs quality assurance and inspection and suggest the hospital management, prioritize material resources according to criteria of irrigation management. (author)

  13. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  14. Upholding science in health, safety and environmental risk assessments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, Michael; Autrup, Herman N.; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Boobis, Alan R.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Creppy, Edmond E.; Dekant, Wolfgang; Doull, John; Galli, Corrado L.; Goodman, Jay I.; Gori, Gio B.; Greim, Helmut A.; Joudrier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A public appeal has been advanced by a large group of scientists, concerned that science has been misused in attempting to quantify and regulate unmeasurable hazards and risks. The appeal recalls that science is unable to evaluate hazards that cannot be measured, and that science in such cases should not be invoked to justify risk assessments in health, safety and environmental regulations. The appeal also notes that most national and international statutes delineating the discretion of regulators are ambiguous about what rules of evidence ought to apply. Those statutes should be revised to ensure that the evidence for regulatory action is grounded on the standards of the scientific method, whenever feasible. When independent scientific evidence is not possible, policies and regulations should be informed by publicly debated trade-offs between socially desirable uses and social perceptions of affordable precaution. This article explores the premises, implications and actions supporting the appeal and its objectives.

  15. Safety assessment in schools: beyond risk: the role of child psychiatrists and other mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Nancy; Pollack, William S; Flaherty, Lois T; Schwartz, Sarah E O; McMickens, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    This article presents an overview of a comprehensive school safety assessment approach for students whose behavior raises concern about their potential for targeted violence. Case vignettes highlight the features of 2 youngsters who exemplify those seen, the comprehensive nature of the assessment, and the kind of recommendations that enhance a student's safety, connection, well-being; engage families; and share responsibility of assessing safety with the school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental risk index: A tool to assess the safety of dams for leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J.; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Dams for leachate store very toxic substances that contain a large amount of organic material and, probably, heavy metals; they therefore constitute an important threat to the environment. Existing models of environmental risk assessment for landfills do not take into consideration the specific risk that leachate dams may represent for the environment. In this paper a methodology to improve the environmental safety is presented according to the parameters used in their construction and management. In order to do that, the following characteristics of the dam must be known: (1) geotechnical stability, (2) erosion of downstream slope, (3) type of sealing of the dam, (4) overtopping probability, (5) volume of leachate stored inside the dam and (6) pollution load of leachate. Once these parameters have been calculated, they are transformed by means of rating curves into homogeneous units, so as to make it possible to operate between them. From the study and analysis of these parameters an environmental risk index for a dam for leachate can be calculated. If the environmental risk index exceeds an established value then it involves a dam for leachate with high environmental risk, therefore preventive measures in its design, construction and management would be necessary

  17. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in expert system usage for nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of probability risk assessments (PRA's) to nuclear power plants in the Rasmussen Report (WASH-1400) gave us a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants, at least on a relative basis. While the choice of the ''source term'' and methodology in a PRA significantly influence the absolute probability and the consequences of core melt, comparison of two PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can be readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration of a plant to another by removing components or systems from service. This ratio of core melt probabilities (assuming no recovery of failed systems) obtained from two PRA calculations for different configurations was the criterion (called ''risk factor'') chosen as a basis for making a decision in an expert system as to what mitigating action, if any, would be taken to avoid a trip situation from developing. PRISIM was developed by JBF Associates of Knoxville under the sponsorship of the NRC as a system for Resident Inspectors at nuclear power plants to provide them with a relative safety status of the plant under all configurations. PRISIM calculated the risk factor---the ration of core melt probabilities of the plant under the current configuration relative to the normal configuration with all systems functioning---using an algorithm that emulates the results of the original PRA. It also presents time and core melt (assuming no recovery of systems or components)

  18. Road Safety Risk Assessment: An Analysis of Transport Policy and Management for Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road safety assessment has played a crucial role in the theory and practice of transport management systems. This paper focuses on risk evaluation in the Asian region by exploring the interaction between road safety risk and influencing factors. In the first stage, a data envelopment analysis (DEA method is applied to calculate and rank the road safety risk levels of Asian countries. In the second stage, a structural equation model (SEM with latent variables is applied to analyze the interaction between the road safety risk level and the latent variables, measured by six observed performance indicators, i.e., financial impact, institutional framework, infrastructure and mobility, legislation and policy, vehicular road users, and trauma management. Finally, this paper illustrates the applicability of this DEA-SEM approach for road safety performance analysis.

  19. [Safety Walkround as a risk assessment tool: the first Italian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, A; Amato, S; Adrario, E; De Flaviis, C; Delia, C; Milesi, S; Petrini, F; Bevilacqua, L

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Study Group "Clinical Risk Management" of the Italian Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit (SIAARTI) performed a multicentric study in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Safety WalkRound (SWR) as a tool for the risk assessment. As the environment and organization of ICU are more complex than anaesthesia ones, mainly due to the severity of patients, high number of involved healthcare givers and different kinds of procedures, the Study Group decided that a check list is not fit for ICU and , after a careful review of the literature, chose to test the Safety WalkRound. in four Italian General ICUs. The SWR was born in 2003 when Frankel plans a structured interview of 15 questions (about 50% open) to collect operators' opinion about rate and type of errors, near misses, communication, problems regarding the report of adverse events and suggestions to increase patient safety. Consequently SWR is a tool of risk assessment alternative to the Incident Reporting which is marked by a diffuse underreporting of operators. Although the SWR is a new tool not validated in Italian language neither published in Italy on PubMed journals , the Study Group has decided that it might be fit for the organization of Italian Healthcare System. A back translation of the validated model of Joint Commission was provided and the translated version has been lightly changed to be employed in hospitals with and without Incident Reporting . The questions have been changed or introduced on the basis of the organization vulnerabilities detected with observational techniques or Focus Group. The interview performed in Italy contains 16 questions classified into five groups: a) error, b) error prevention, c) communication, teamwork and leadership, d) error discussion and e) relationship with patients and their families. The answers collected have been analyzed to detect the vulnerabilities in the organizations and specify the improvements to

  20. LWR safety studies. Analyses and further assessments relating to the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This documentation of the activities of the Oeko-Institut is intended to show errors made and limits encountered in the experimental approaches and in results obtained by the work performed under phase A of the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants (DRS). Concern is expressed and explained relating to the risk definition used in the Study, and the results of other studies relied on; specific problems of methodology are discussed with regard to the value of fault-tree/accident analyses for describing the course of safety-related events, and to the evaluations presented in the DRS. The Markov model is explained as an approach offering alternative solutions. The identification and quantification of common-mode failures is discussed. Origin, quality and methods of assessing the reliability characteristics used in the DRS as well as the statistical models for describing failure scenarios of reactor components and systems are critically reviewed. (RF) [de

  1. Patient safety risk assessment and risk management: A review on Indian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to discuss a critical need expressed by present healthcare system of India, and how to provide a better health facility and diluting the medication errors caused by inappropriate management of the hospitals. Adverse events related to medication occur due to pathetic infrastructures, corporal punishment by the patient if unsatisfied, doctors on strike and working only for riches, trivial financial aid, and lack of basic amenities in the government-run hospitals of India. Government should reduce the barriers of awareness, accountability, ability, and action into accelerators of patient safety in the government organizations. Physicians, nurses, and pharmacists are truly the critical ingredient to rapid safety practice adoption. Various approaches like Technological Iatrogenesis, Computerized Provider Order Entry, and Electronic Health Record should be used. Although patient safety is recognized as a serious issue in health system, there is an urgent need for development and implementation of strategies for prevention and early detection of errors.

  2. A study on the assessment of safety culture impacts on risk of nuclear power plants using common uncertainty source model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Bang, Young Suk; Chung, Chang Hyun; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Since International Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced term 'safety culture', it has been widely recognized that safety culture has an important role in safety of nuclear power plants. Research on the safety culture can be divided in the following two parts. 1) Assessment of safety culture (by interview, questionnaire, etc.) 2) Assessment of link between safety culture and safety of nuclear power plants. There is a substantial body of literature that addresses the first part, but there is much less work that addresses the second part. To address the second part, most work focused on the development of model incorporating safety culture into Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). One of the most advanced methodology in the area of incorporating safety culture quantitatively into PSA is System Dynamics (SD) model developed by Kwak et al. It can show interactions among various factors which affect employees' productivity and job quality. Also various situations in nuclear power plant can be simulated and time-dependent risk can be recalculated with this model. But this model does not consider minimal cut set (MCS) dependency and uncertainty of risk. Another well-known methodology is Work Process Analysis Model (WPAM) developed by Davoudian. It considers MCS dependency by modifying conditional probability values using SLI methodology. But we found that the modified conditional probability values in WPAM are somewhat artificial and have no sound basis. WPAM tend to overestimate conditional probability of hardware failure, because it uses SLI methodology which is normally used in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). WPAM also does not consider uncertainty of risk. In this study, we proposed methodology to incorporate safety culture into PSA quantitatively that can deal with MCS dependency and uncertainty of risk by applying the Common Uncertainty Source (CUS) model developed by Zhang. CUS is uncertainty source that is common to basic events, and this can be physical

  3. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  4. Comparison between Canadian probabilistic safety assessment methods formulated by Atomic Energy of Canada limited and probabilistic risk assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, H.S.; Smith, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures used by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to perform probabilistic safety assessments (PRAs) differ somewhat from conventionally accepted probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedures used elsewhere. In Canada, PSA is used by AECL as an audit tool for an evolving design. The purpose is to assess the safety of the plant in engineering terms. Thus, the PSA procedures are geared toward providing engineering feedback so that necessary changes can be made to the design at an early stage, input can be made to operating procedures, and test and maintenance programs can be optimized in terms of costs. Most PRAs, by contrast, are performed in plants that are already built. Their main purpose is to establish the core melt frequency and the risk to the public due to core melt. Also, any design modification is very expensive. The differences in purpose and timing between PSA and PRA have resulted in differences in methodology and scope. The PSA procedures are used on all plants being designed by AECL

  5. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: 1. Risk-based safety indicators: Typology of risk-based indicators (RBIs); Tools for defining RBIs; Requirements for the PSA model; Data sources for RBIs; Types of risks monitored; RBIs and operational safety indicators; Feedback from operating experience; PSO model modification for RBIs; RBI categorization; RBI assessment; RBI applications; Suitable RBI applications. 2. Proposal for risk-based indicators: Acquiring information from operational experience; Method of acquiring safety relevance coefficients for the systems from a PSA model; Indicator definitions; On-line indicators. 3. Annex: Application of RBIs worldwide. (P.A.)

  6. Risk analysis and safety rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1989-01-01

    Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied, and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of toxic chemicals in the environment. The report summarises the finding of 5 major technical reports which have been published in the NORD-series. The topics includes developments, uncertainties and limitations in probabilistic safety assessments, negligible risks, risk-cost trade-offs, optimisation of nuclear safety and radiation protection, and the role of risks in the decision making process. (author) 84 refs

  7. Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

    2014-11-01

    As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

  8. [Endorsement of risk management and patient safety by certification of conformity in health care quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waßmuth, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Certification of conformity in health care should provide assurance of compliance with quality standards. This also includes risk management and patient safety. Based on a comprehensive definition of quality, beneficial effects on the management of risks and the enhancement of patient safety can be expected from certification of conformity. While these effects have strong face validity, they are currently not sufficiently supported by evidence from health care research. Whether this relates to a lack of evidence or a lack of investigation remains open. Advancing safety culture and "climate", as well as learning from adverse events rely in part on quality management and are at least in part reflected in the certification of healthcare quality. However, again, evidence of the effectiveness of such measures is limited. Moreover, additional factors related to personality, attitude and proactive action of healthcare professionals are crucial factors in advancing risk management and patient safety which are currently not adequately reflected in certification of conformity programs.

  9. Safety risk assessment for vertical concrete formwork activities in civil engineering construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair G F; Gambatese, John A

    2014-01-01

    The construction sector has one of the worst occupational health and safety records in Europe. Of all construction tasks, formwork activities are associated with a high frequency of accidents and injuries. This paper presents an investigation of the activities and related safety risks present in vertical formwork for in-situ concrete construction in the civil engineering sector. Using the methodology of staticized groups, twelve activities and ten safety risks were identified and validated by experts. Every safety risk identified in this manner was quantified for each activity using binary methodology according to the frequency and severity scales developed in prior research. A panel of experts was selected according to the relevant literature on staticized groups. The results obtained show that the activities with the highest risk in vertical formwork tasks are: Plumbing and leveling of forms, cutting of material, handling materials with cranes, and climbing or descending ladders. The most dangerous health and safety risks detected were falls from height, cutting and overexertion. The research findings provide construction practitioners with further evidence of the hazardous activities associated with concrete formwork construction and a starting point for targeting worker health and safety programmes.

  10. A study on methodologies for assessing safety critical network's risk impact on Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T. J.; Lee, H. J.; Park, S. K.; Seo, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of this project is to investigate and study existing reliability analysis techniques for communication networks in order to develop reliability analysis models for Nuclear Power Plant's safety-critical networks. It is necessary to make a comprehensive survey of current methodologies for communication network reliability. Major outputs of the first year study are design characteristics of safety-critical communication networks, efficient algorithms for quantifying reliability of communication networks, and preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks

  11. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk ŞAKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. Firstly, the variables that are the subject of the problem and that constitute the graphical structure of the Bayes Networks are identified. Then, expert opinion was sought as the statistical data on accident reports were not recorded properly while identifying the conditional probability of the relationships between the variables. Linguistic variables whose fuzzy membership functions were identified were used in detecting the probabilities. The findings of the sensitivity test revealed that the major reasons that could lead to fire and explosion during the tank cleaning process are ignition sources, reaction and safety culture.

  12. LWR safety studies. Analyses and further assessments relating to the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Critical review of the analyses of the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants (DRS) concerning the reliability of the containment under accident conditions and the conditions of fission product release (transport and distribution in the environment). Main point of interest in this context is an explosion in the steam section and its impact on the containment. Critical comments are given on the models used in the DRS for determining the accident consequences. The analyses made deal with the mathematical models and database for propagation calculations, the methods of dose computation and assessment of health hazards, and the modelling of protective and safety measures. Social impacts of reactor accidents are also considered. (RF) [de

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Schuetz, B.

    1982-09-01

    For the purpose of assessing applicability and informativeness on risk-analysis methods in licencing procedures under atomic law, the choice of instruments for probabilistic analysis, the problems in and experience gained in their application, and the discussion of safety goals with respect to such instruments are of paramount significance. Naturally, such a complex field can only be dealt with step by step, making contribution relative to specific problems. The report on hand shows the essentials of a 'stocktaking' of systems relability studies in the licencing procedure under atomic law and of an American report (NUREG-0739) on 'Quantitative Safety Goals'. (orig.) [de

  14. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  15. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  16. Review of Risk Reduction Methods using Probabilistic Safety Assessment Insights and Improved Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan; Choi, Byung-Pil [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As seen in the process of the periodic safety review of domestic nuclear power plants, the risk management objectives such as core damage frequency and large early release frequency are not easy to be met without continuous safety improvements and the integratoin of the improved technologies into the PSA evaluation methodologies. Because external event analyses have a protion of uncertainty factors in the current analysis methodologies, the technical efforts in various perspectives.

  17. Discussing Firearm Ownership and Access as Part of Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: "Means Safety" versus "Means Restriction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relative utility of the terms "means safety" versus "means restriction" in counseling individuals to limit their access to firearms in the context of a mock suicide risk assessment. Overall, 370 participants were randomized to read a vignette depicting a clinical scenario in which managing firearm ownership and access was discussed either using the term "means safety" or "means restriction." Participants rated the term "means safety" as significantly more acceptable and preferable than "means restriction." Participants randomized to the "means safety" condition reported greater intentions to adhere to clinicians' recommendations to limit access to a firearm for safety purposes (F[1,367] = 7.393, p = .007, [Formula: see text]). The term "means safety" may be more advantageous than "means restriction" when discussing firearm ownership and access in clinical settings and public health-oriented suicide prevention efforts.

  18. [OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN WORKERS IN IMPROVEMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Alekseev, V B; Shliapnikov, D M

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the international documents in the field of occupational safety and hygiene, the assessment and minimization of occupational risks is a key instrument for the health maintenance of workers. One of the main ways to achieve it is the minimization of occupational risks. Correspondingly, the instrument for the implementation of this method is the methodology of analysis of occupational risks. In Russian Federation there were the preconditions for the formation of the system for the assessment and management of occupational risks. As the target of the national (state) policy in the field of occupational safety in accordance with ILO Conventions it can be offered the prevention of accidents and injuries to health arising from work or related with it, minimizing the causes of hazards inherent in the working environment, as far as it is reasonably and practically feasible. Global trend ofusing the methodology of the assessment and management of occupational risks to life and health of citizens requires the improvement of national policies in the field of occupational hygiene and safety. Achieving an acceptable level of occupational risk in the formation of national policy in the field of occupational hygiene and safety can be considered as one of the main tasks.

  19. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions...... in the river system occur in periods of high sea water levels where the sluice is closed and increased catchment run-off take place. Climate model data from the ENSEMBLES data archive are used to assess the changes in climate variables and the resulting effect on catchment run-off. Extreme catchment run......-off is expected to increase about 8 % in 2050 and 14 % in 2100. The changes in sea water level is assessed considering climate projections of mean sea level rise, isostatic changes, and changes in storm surge statistics. At the Vidaa sluice a mean sea level rise of 0.15–0.39 m in 2050 and 0.41–1.11 m in 2010...

  20. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  1. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silady, F.A.; Everline, C.J.; Houghton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  2. Probabilistic safety and risk assessments in the field of nuclear technology - Mode of operation, possibilities and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this study probabilistic safety and risk assessments in the field of nuclear energy are explained. Mainly qualitative results and conclusions are presented. Explanations for often discussed aspects of such analysis reveal the procedure and reasonable limits of application. The mentioned literature contains detailed results. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Hydrogen safety risk assessment methodology applied to a fluidized bed membrane reactor for autothermal reforming of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psara, N.; Van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the development and implementation of a safety risk assessment methodology to highlight hazards potentially prevailing during autothermal reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production in a membrane reactor, as well as to reveal potential accidents related to hydrogen

  4. Food safety management and risk assessment in the fresh produce supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.; Allende, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper is the output of several years of scientific research coordinated by Laboratory of Food Preservation and Food Microbiology at UGent, within the EU FP7 Research project Veg-i-trade (www.vegitrade.org), in collaboration with among other partners, Wageningen University and Cebas-CSIC. Fresh produce and derived products are globally traded and subjected to an inherent sensitive towards enteric pathogens as Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli due to their cultivation practices. As fruits and vegetables are increasingly being consumed raw, a potential health risk towards consumers is present. In the Veg-i-Trade project the extend of presence of pathogens in leafy greens and strawberry fruit and their cultivation environment (as water, soil, manured soil, etc.) was analysed. Insight in the food safety management system enlighted the need for further fostering and guidance towards farmers in good practices in order to reduce the potential pressure of the presence of the pathogens both in EU and non EU countries. Exposure assessment calculations demonstrated the usefulness of mathematic modelling to gain more insight in fragmented microbiological analysis and information of cultivation practices, as such the impact of contamination of irrigation water and the impact of a flooding event. Veg-i-Trade was a challenging project both in scientific and management perspective as 23 partners collaborated.

  5. Nanotechnology and health safety--toxicity and risk assessments of nanostructured materials on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2007-09-01

    The field of nanotechnology has recently emerged as the most commercially viable technology of this century because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Man-made nanostructured materials such as fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanopowders, nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, nanofibers, quantum dots, dendrimers, nanoclusters, nanocrystals, and nanocomposites are globally produced in large quantities due to their wide potential applications, e.g., in skincare and consumer products, healthcare, electronics, photonics, biotechnology, engineering products, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery, and agriculture. Human exposure to these nanostructured materials is inevitable, as they can enter the body through the lungs or other organs via food, drink, and medicine and affect different organs and tissues such as the brain, liver, kidney, heart, colon, spleen, bone, blood, etc., and may cause cytotoxic effects, e.g., deformation and inhibition of cell growth leading to various diseases in humans and animals. Since a very wide variety of nanostructured materials exits, their interactions with biological systems and toxicity largely depend upon their properties, such as size, concentration, solubility, chemical and biological properties, and stability. The toxicity of nanostructured materials could be reduced by chemical approaches such by surface treatment, functionalization, and composite formation. This review summarizes the sources of various nanostructured materials and their human exposure, biocompatibility in relation to potential toxicological effects, risk assessment, and safety evaluation on human and animal health as well as on the environment.

  6. A Risk Assessment Model for Reduced Aircraft Separation: A Quantitative Method to Evaluate the Safety of Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Connors, Mary; Wojciech, Jack; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    As new technologies and procedures are introduced into the National Airspace System, whether they are intended to improve efficiency, capacity, or safety level, the quantification of potential changes in safety levels is of vital concern. Applications of technology can improve safety levels and allow the reduction of separation standards. An excellent example is the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM). By taking advantage of the surveillance and display advances of PRM, airports can run instrument parallel approaches to runways separated by 3400 feet with the same level of safety as parallel approaches to runways separated by 4300 feet using the standard technology. Despite a wealth of information from flight operations and testing programs, there is no readily quantifiable relationship between numerical safety levels and the separation standards that apply to aircraft on final approach. This paper presents a modeling approach to quantify the risk associated with reducing separation on final approach. Reducing aircraft separation, both laterally and longitudinally, has been the goal of several aviation R&D programs over the past several years. Many of these programs have focused on technological solutions to improve navigation accuracy, surveillance accuracy, aircraft situational awareness, controller situational awareness, and other technical and operational factors that are vital to maintaining flight safety. The risk assessment model relates different types of potential aircraft accidents and incidents and their contribution to overall accident risk. The framework links accident risks to a hierarchy of failsafe mechanisms characterized by procedures and interventions. The model will be used to assess the overall level of safety associated with reducing separation standards and the introduction of new technology and procedures, as envisaged under the Free Flight concept. The model framework can be applied to various aircraft scenarios, including parallel and in

  7. Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    How the EPA conducts risk assessment to protect human health and the environment. Several assessments are included with the guidelines, models, databases, state-based RSL Tables, local contacts and framework documents used to perform these assessments.

  8. Risk assessment methods in radiotherapy: Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); Los metodos de analisis de riesgo en radioterapia: Analisis Probabilistico de seguridad (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Vera, M. L.; Perez Mulas, A.; Delgado, J. M.; Barrientos Ontero, M.; Somoano, F.; Alvarez Garcia, C.; Rodriguez Marti, M.

    2011-07-01

    The understanding of accidents that have occurred in radiotherapy and the lessons learned from them are very useful to prevent repetition, but there are other risks that have not been detected to date. With a view to identifying and preventing such risks, proactive methods successfully applied in other fields, such as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), have been developed. (Author)

  9. Assessment of food safety practices of food service food handlers (risk assessment data): testing a communication intervention (evaluation of tools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Eversley, Tiffany; Fillion, Katie; Maclaurin, Tanya; Powell, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    Globally, foodborne illness affects an estimated 30% of individuals annually. Meals prepared outside of the home are a risk factor for acquiring foodborne illness and have been implicated in up to 70% of traced outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has called on food safety communicators to design new methods and messages aimed at increasing food safety risk-reduction practices from farm to fork. Food safety infosheets, a novel communication tool designed to appeal to food handlers and compel behavior change, were evaluated. Food safety infosheets were provided weekly to food handlers in working food service operations for 7 weeks. It was hypothesized that through the posting of food safety infosheets in highly visible locations, such as kitchen work areas and hand washing stations, that safe food handling behaviors of food service staff could be positively influenced. Using video observation, food handlers (n = 47) in eight food service operations were observed for a total of 348 h (pre- and postintervention combined). After the food safety infosheets were introduced, food handlers demonstrated a significant increase (6.7%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval) in mean hand washing attempts, and a significant reduction in indirect cross-contamination events (19.6%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Results of the research demonstrate that posting food safety infosheets is an effective intervention tool that positively influences the food safety behaviors of food handlers.

  10. Applicability of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) to LMFBR risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, K.A.; Feller, K.G.; Fleischer, L.; Greebler, P.; McDonald, A.; Sultan, P.; Temme, M.I.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of applying the WASH-1400 methods and data to LMFBR risk assessment is evaluated using the following approach for a selected LMFBR: (1) Structuring the LMFBR risk assessment problem in a modular form similar to WASH-1400; (2) Comparing the predictive tools applicable to each module; (3) Comparing the dependencies among the various modules. It is concluded that the WASH-1400 applicability is limited due to LWR-LMFBR differences in operating environments and accident phenomena. WASH-1400 and LMFBR specific methods applicable to LMFBR risk assessments are indicated

  11. Risk assessment of medical devices: evaluation of microbiological and toxicological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorpema, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safety assessment of medical devices includes sterilization and biological evaluation or biocompatability testing. Sterilization by ETO gas is criticised for their carcinogenic potency or even banned. Mutual acceptance of biological evaluation test results is promoted by a laboratory accreditation and qualification program. (Author)

  12. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  13. Challenges in using a probabilistic safety assessment in a risk informed process (illustrated using risk informed inservice inspection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, James R.; Dimitrijevic, Vesna B.

    1999-01-01

    Many of the ongoing and expected uses of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) create new challenges to ensuring that the resulting conclusions are valid. This paper provides a summary of some of these challenges. Work conducted by the authors on Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection (RI-ISI) is used to illustrate these challenges. Means to address all of the challenges are not provided in detail in this paper. Several earlier papers discuss how these challenges can be addressed. References are provided for the interested reader (Chapman JR et al. In: PSA '95, vol. 1, Seoul, 1995: 177-80; Chapman JR et al. In: ICONE-IV, New Orleans, 1996; Dimitrijevic VB et al. In: Croatian Nuclear Society International Conference, Opatija, 1996: 245-54; Dimitrijevic VB et al. In: Croatian Nuclear Society International Conference, Opatija, 1996: 255-62; Dimitrijevic VB. In: Yugoslav Nuclear Society Conference, Belgrade, 1996: 53-61; O'Regan PJ et al. In: PSA '95, Seoul, vol. 1, 1995: 403-5; O'Regan PJ. In: ICONE-IV, vol. 5, New Orleans, 1996: 277-80)

  14. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-01-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf). (memorandum)

  15. A simplified method for quantitative assessment of the relative health and safety risk of environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Smith, T.H.; Peatross, R.G.; Stepan, I.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents a simplified method to assess the health and safety risk of Environmental Management activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The method applies to all types of Environmental Management activities including waste management, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning. The method is particularly useful for planning or tradeoff studies involving multiple conceptual options because it combines rapid evaluation with a quantitative approach. The method is also potentially applicable to risk assessments of activities other than DOE Environmental Management activities if rapid quantitative results are desired

  16. The assessment of the safety and the radiological risks associated with the transport of radioactive wastes in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    2000-01-01

    Problems related to the handling, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive wastes (radwastes) are very important and the responsibility for the safe management of radioactive wastes for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. Safety and public welfare are to be considered within the radioactive waste management, particularly in the field of transportation because of the potential risk that it could pose to the public and to the environment. The IAEA regulations ensure safety in the transport of Radioactive Materials (RAM) by laying down detailed requirements, appropriate to the degree of hazard represented by the respective material, taking into account its form and quantity. Risk assessment provides a basis for routing radwastes and developing mitigation plans, prioritizing initiatives and enacting legislation to protect human beings and the environment. Factors such as shipment cost, distance, population exposed, environmental impacts or sensitivity, time in transit and infrastructure related issues, could be included in the terms of safety and risk. The paper presents risk assessment activities aimed to evaluate risk categories and the radiological consequences that may arise during normal (accident free) transport and those resulting from transport accidents involving waste shipments in Romania. (author)

  17. Risk Scan: A Review of Risk Assessment Capability and Maturity within the Canadian Safety and Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    SCADA / ICS Cyber Test Lab initiated in 2013 Psychosocial – academic research exists,; opportunity for sharing and developing impact assessment...ecosystems and species at risk), accidents / system failure (rail; pipelines ; ferries CSSP strategy for the North Focus on regional l(and local) problem...Guidance; business planning; environmental scan; proposal evaluation; and performance measurement Program Risk Management – Guidelines for project

  18. Safety assessment of nuclear medicine practice using the Risk Matrix Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Dumenigo; Cruz, Yoanis; Soler, Karen; Guerrero, Mayka

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the main results from the application of the methodology of Risk Matrices in a hypothetical service / department of the Nuclear medicine that realize metabolic radiotherapy treatment and diagnostic studies with 131 I and 99 m Tc and 18 F. We could identify major equipment failures and human errors that could potentially lead to a accident in practice. For each analyzed initiating events evaluated the frequency of occurrence, identified key existing defenses to avoid the accident and assessed the potential consequences of an accident if this comes to fruition. With this methodology we could identify which accident sequences increased risk and to propose means to reduce the risk in such cases. As a result of this work was developed the 'RMA Nuclear Medicine' computer tools that will apply this methodology in nuclear medicine services that need to do similar risk assessments

  19. Safety testing of monoclonal antibodies in non-human primates: Case studies highlighting their impact on human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Frank R; Cavagnaro, Joy; McKeever, Kathleen; Ryan, Patricia C; Schutten, Melissa M; Vahle, John; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Marrer-Berger, Estelle; Black, Lauren E

    2018-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are improving the quality of life for patients suffering from serious diseases due to their high specificity for their target and low potential for off-target toxicity. The toxicity of mAbs is primarily driven by their pharmacological activity, and therefore safety testing of these drugs prior to clinical testing is performed in species in which the mAb binds and engages the target to a similar extent to that anticipated in humans. For highly human-specific mAbs, this testing often requires the use of non-human primates (NHPs) as relevant species. It has been argued that the value of these NHP studies is limited because most of the adverse events can be predicted from the knowledge of the target, data from transgenic rodents or target-deficient humans, and other sources. However, many of the mAbs currently in development target novel pathways and may comprise novel scaffolds with multi-functional domains; hence, the pharmacological effects and potential safety risks are less predictable. Here, we present a total of 18 case studies, including some of these novel mAbs, with the aim of interrogating the value of NHP safety studies in human risk assessment. These studies have identified mAb candidate molecules and pharmacological pathways with severe safety risks, leading to candidate or target program termination, as well as highlighting that some pathways with theoretical safety concerns are amenable to safe modulation by mAbs. NHP studies have also informed the rational design of safer drug candidates suitable for human testing and informed human clinical trial design (route, dose and regimen, patient inclusion and exclusion criteria and safety monitoring), further protecting the safety of clinical trial participants.

  20. The Certification Framework: Risk Assessment for Safety and Effectiveness of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Nicot, J.; Bryant, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the dual objectives of (1) encouraging geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as one of several strategies urgently needed to reduce CO2 emissions, and (2) protecting the environment from unintended CO2 injection-related impacts, we have developed a simple and transparent framework for certifying GCS safety and effectiveness at individual sites. The approach we developed, called the Certification Framework (CF), is proposed as a standard way for project proponents, regulators, and the public to analyze and understand risks and uncertainties of GCS. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO2 leakage risk, where we use the standard definition of risk involving the two factors (1) probability of a particular leakage scenario, and (2) impact of that leakage scenario. In short, if the CO2 leakage risk as calculated by the CF is below threshold values for the life of the project, then effective trapping is predicted and the site can be certified. The concept of effective trapping is more general than traditional "no migration" approaches to underground injection regulation. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) five compartments to represent where impacts can occur (underground sources of drinking water, hydrocarbon and mineral resources, near-surface environment, health and safety, and emission credits and atmosphere), (3) modeled CO2 fluxes and concentrations as proxies for impact to compartments, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated CO2 plumes, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO2 plume with the conduits and compartments. In a case study application of the CF for a saline formation GCS site in the Texas Gulf Coast, analysis with the CF suggested the overall leakage risk to be very small, with the largest contribution coming from risk to the near-surface environment due to potential leakage up abandoned wells, depending on the

  1. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    After defining risk and introducing the concept of individual and societal risk, the author considers each of these, restricting considerations to risk of death. Some probabilities of death arising from various causes are quoted, and attention drawn to the care necessary in making comparisons between sets of data and to the distinction between voluntary and involuntary categories and between early and delayed deaths. The presentation of information on societal risk is discussed and examples given. The history of quantified risk assessment is outlined, particularly related to the nuclear industry, the process of assessing risk discussed: identification of hazard causes, the development of accident chains and the use of event trees, the evaluation of probability through the collection of data and their use with fault trees, and the assessment of consequences of hazards in terms of fatalities. Reference is made to the human element and common-made failures, and to studies supporting the development of reliability assessment techniques. Acceptance criteria are discussed for individual and societal risk in the nuclear field, and it is shown that proposed criteria lead to risks conservative by comparison with risks from day-to-day accidents and other potentially hazardous industries. (U.K.)

  2. Use of a risk assessment method to improve the safety of negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Anne-Sophie; Martelli, Nicolas; Bonan, Brigitte; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith

    2014-06-01

    To conduct a risk analysis of the negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) care process and to improve the safety of NPWT, a working group of nurses, hospital pharmacists, physicians and hospital managers performed a risk analysis for the process of NPWT care. The failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) method was used for this analysis. Failure modes and their consequences were defined and classified as a function of their criticality to identify priority actions for improvement. By contrast to classical FMECA, the criticality index (CI) of each consequence was calculated by multiplying occurrence, severity and detection scores. We identified 13 failure modes, leading to 20 different consequences. The CI of consequences was initially 712, falling to 357 after corrective measures were implemented. The major improvements proposed included the establishment of 6-monthly training cycles for nurses, physicians and surgeons and the introduction of computerised prescription for NPWT. The FMECA method also made it possible to prioritise actions as a function of the criticality ranking of consequences and was easily understood and used by the working group. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to use the FMECA method to improve the safety of NPWT. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Preliminary Safety and Risk HSE Assessment. Application to the Potential Locations of a CO2 Geological Storage Pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.; Ruiz, C.; Lomba, L.; Hurtado, A.

    2015-01-01

    The location of a site safe and able to sequester CO2 for long periods of time is essential to gain public acceptance. This requires a long-term safety assessment developed in a robust and reliable framework. Site selection is the first step and requires specific research. This paper describes the application of the Selection and Classification Method of Geological Formations (SCF) developed to assess the potential of geological formations to CO2 storage. This assessment is based in the analysis of risks to Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) derived from potential CO2 leakage. Comparisons of the results obtained from a number of potential sites can help to select the best candidate for CO2 injection. The potential impact will be related to three key potential features of CO2 geological storage: the potential of the target geological formation for long term CO2 containment; the potential for secondary containment on containment failure of the target formation; and the site's potential to mitigate and/or disperse CO2 leakage if the primary and secondary containments fail. The methodology assesses each of these three characteristics through an analysis and assessment of properties of certain attributes of them. Uncertainty will remain as an input and output value of the methodology due to the usual lack of data in most site selection processes. The global uncertainty reports on the trust on the knowledge of the site characteristics. Therefore, the methodology enables comparing sites taking into account both the HSE risk expectation and the estimation of the quality of knowledge concerning such risk. The objective is to contribute to the selection of potential sites for a CO2 injection pilot plant in the Iberian Peninsula from the perspective of Safety and Risk Analysis.

  4. Health-safety and environmental risk assessment of power plants using multi criteria decision making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Ali Seyed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of environmental issues at global and regional levels including pollution of water, air etc. as well as the outcomes such as global warming and climate change has led to being considered environmental aspects as effective factors for power generation. Study ahead, aims at examination of risks resulting from activities of Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant located in Iran. Method applied in the research is analytical hierarchy process. After identification of factors causing risk, the analytical hierarchy structure of the power plant risks were designed and weight of the criteria and sub-criteria were calculated by intensity probability product using Eigenvector Method and EXPERT CHOICE Software as well. Results indicate that in technological, health-safety, biophysical and socio economic sections of the power plant, factors influenced by the power plant activities like fire and explosion, hearing loss, quantity of groundwater, power generation are among the most important factors causing risk in the power plant. The drop in underground water levels is the most important natural consequence influenced on Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant.

  5. Spatio-temporal assessment of food safety risks in Canadian food distribution systems using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Beni, Leila; Villeneuve, Sébastien; LeBlanc, Denyse I; Côté, Kevin; Fazil, Aamir; Otten, Ainsley; McKellar, Robin; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    While the value of geographic information systems (GIS) is widely applied in public health there have been comparatively few examples of applications that extend to the assessment of risks in food distribution systems. GIS can provide decision makers with strong computing platforms for spatial data management, integration, analysis, querying and visualization. The present report addresses some spatio-analyses in a complex food distribution system and defines influence areas as travel time zones generated through road network analysis on a national scale rather than on a community scale. In addition, a dynamic risk index is defined to translate a contamination event into a public health risk as time progresses. More specifically, in this research, GIS is used to map the Canadian produce distribution system, analyze accessibility to contaminated product by consumers, and estimate the level of risk associated with a contamination event over time, as illustrated in a scenario. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment of WWER440 reactors prediction, quantification and management of the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to summarize probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants with WWER440 reactors and  demonstrate that the plants are safe enough for producing energy even in light of the Fukushima accident. The book examines level 1 and 2 full power, low power and shutdown PSA, and summarizes the author's experience gained during the last 35 years in this area. It provides useful examples taken from PSA training courses the author has lectured and organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Such training courses were organised in Argonne National Laboratory (

  7. Hybrid causal methodology and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment and safety monitoring of socio-technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Katrina; Wang Chengdong; Mosleh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated framework and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and safety monitoring of complex socio-technical systems. An overview of the three-layer hybrid causal logic (HCL) modeling approach and corresponding algorithms, implemented in the Trilith software platform, are provided. The HCL approach enhances typical PRA methods by quantitatively including the influence of soft causal factors introduced by human and organizational aspects of a system. The framework allows different modeling techniques to be used for different aspects of the socio-technical system. The HCL approach combines the power of traditional event sequence diagram (ESD)event tree (ET) and fault tree (FT) techniques for modeling deterministic causal paths, with the flexibility of Bayesian belief networks for modeling non-deterministic cause-effect relationships among system elements (suitable for modeling human and organizational influences). Trilith enables analysts to construct HCL models and perform quantitative risk assessment and management of complex systems. The risk management capabilities included are HCL-based risk importance measures, hazard identification and ranking, precursor analysis, safety indicator monitoring, and root cause analysis. This paper describes the capabilities of the Trilith platform and power of the HCL algorithm by use of example risk models for a type of aviation accident (aircraft taking off from the wrong runway).

  8. Hybrid causal methodology and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment and safety monitoring of socio-technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina, E-mail: kgroth@umd.ed [Center for Risk and Reliability, 0151 Glenn L. Martin Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wang Chengdong; Mosleh, Ali [Center for Risk and Reliability, 0151 Glenn L. Martin Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper introduces an integrated framework and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and safety monitoring of complex socio-technical systems. An overview of the three-layer hybrid causal logic (HCL) modeling approach and corresponding algorithms, implemented in the Trilith software platform, are provided. The HCL approach enhances typical PRA methods by quantitatively including the influence of soft causal factors introduced by human and organizational aspects of a system. The framework allows different modeling techniques to be used for different aspects of the socio-technical system. The HCL approach combines the power of traditional event sequence diagram (ESD)event tree (ET) and fault tree (FT) techniques for modeling deterministic causal paths, with the flexibility of Bayesian belief networks for modeling non-deterministic cause-effect relationships among system elements (suitable for modeling human and organizational influences). Trilith enables analysts to construct HCL models and perform quantitative risk assessment and management of complex systems. The risk management capabilities included are HCL-based risk importance measures, hazard identification and ranking, precursor analysis, safety indicator monitoring, and root cause analysis. This paper describes the capabilities of the Trilith platform and power of the HCL algorithm by use of example risk models for a type of aviation accident (aircraft taking off from the wrong runway).

  9. “Shake, Rattle and Roll”: risk assessment and management for food safety during two Christchurch earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Johnston

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Two earthquakes recently struck the Christchurch region. The 2010 earthquake in Canterbury was strong yet sustained less damage than the 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, which although not as strong, was more damaging and resulted in 185 deaths. Both required activation of a food safety response.Context: The food safety response for both earthquakes was focused on reducing the risk of gastroenteritis by limiting the use of contaminated water and food, both in households and food businesses. Additional food safety risks were identified in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake due the use of large-scale catering for rescue workers, volunteers and residents unable to return home.Action: Using a risk assessment framework, the food safety response involved providing water and food safety advice, issuing a boil water notice for the region and initiating water testing on reticulation systems. Food businesses were contacted to ensure the necessary measures were being taken. Additional action during the 2011 Christchurch earthquake response included making contact with food businesses using checklists and principles developed in the first response and having regular contact with those providing catering for large numbers.Outcome: In the 2010 earthquake in Canterbury, several cases of gastroenteritis were reported, although most resulted from person-to-person contact rather than contamination of food. There was a small increase in gastroenteritis cases following the 2011 Christchurch earthquake.Discussion: The food safety response for both earthquakes was successful in meeting the goal of ensuring that foodborne illness did not put additional pressure on hospitals or affect search and rescue efforts.

  10. Application of non-dose/risk indicators for confidence-building in the H12 safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, K.; Makino, H.; Takasu, A.; Naito, M.; Umeke, H.; Wakasugi, K.; Ishiguro, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the H12 study, non-dose/risk safety indicators have also been considered with a view to increasing confidence in the safety assessment. The H12 safety assessment considers system evolution for a range of scenarios; not only normal groundwater scenarios but also isolation failure scenarios due to unlikely natural disruptive events. The calculated nuclide concentrations and fluxes in the surface environment for the reference groundwater scenario were compared with measurements of naturally occurring nuclides. This comparison indicated that the concentration and fluxes of radionuclides released from the repository would be several orders of magnitude lower than those of natural radionuclides. There may exist cases, such as some natural disruptive events, where the likelihood of occurrence is extremely low and the 'Reference Biosphere' approach is difficult to be applied for biosphere modelling. The use of qualitative assessment to allow comparison with naturally occurring nuclides based on observations of natural systems may play a role in supporting the robustness of the system concept. These examples suggest that relevant application of these non-dose/risk indicators supports a more robust case. An advantage to applying such indicators is that both technical and non-technical audiences can judge the relative, long-term impact of a deep geological repository. (author)

  11. Work-related stress risk assessment in Italy: the validation study of health safety and executive indicator tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Persechino, Benedetta; Castaldi, Tiziana; Valenti, Antonio; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Ronchetti, Matteo; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    In compliance with the Italian occupational health and safety regulatory framework, as provided by the Lgs. Decree 81/2008, the "work-related stress" risk assessment should follow the same principles as other risk assessments, in accordance with the European Agreement of 8 October 2004; therefore, validated and scientifically proven methodological tools are needed to conduct an adequate work-related stress risk assessment. The UK's Health Safety and Executive (HSE) Indicator Tool (IT) is used for assessing the risk of work-related stress. The aim of this study is to test the factor structure of IT as a measure of work-related stress in a sample of Italian workers. Data collected from 65 Italian organizations (6378 workers) was used for a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the 35-item seven-factor model. The results showed acceptable fit to the data (CFI .90; TLI .89, RMSEA .045). A second CFA was done to test a 35-item six-factor model (CFI .89, TLI .87, RMSEA .047). Both models were tested after removing six items (factor loadings less than .50.), resulting in a 29-item model. Here again, there was an acceptable fit to the data (29-item seven-factor model: CFI .93, TLI .91, RMSEA .044; 29-item six-factor model: CFI .92, TLI .90, RMSEA .046). These findings show that the HSE model satisfactorily adapts to use in a sample of Italian workers. One of the most important innovations introduced in the assessment of work-related stress with the HSE IT is the global approach for identifying work-related stress risk factors, aimed at establishing the best strategy from the viewpoints of prevention officers and also of workers.

  12. The use of safety indicators, complementary to dose and risk, in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.; Vovk, I.; Wingefors, S.

    1998-01-01

    The use of safety indicators, other than dose and risk, to complement the safety assessment of disposal systems for radioactive waste, is not a new idea. Several possible approaches have been proposed through the years, including a discussion in an IAEA document of 1994. The present paper reviews critically the various proposed indicators, identifies the most promising ones and suggests a possible approach for the assessment of their viability. In particular it suggests that a Coordinated Research Project should be organized with the main objectives of assembling, reviewing and generating the necessary scientific information on natural values, particularly fluxes and concentrations of pollutants, and on their impacts on public health and environmental quality. (author)

  13. A RE-ASSESSMENT OF OLDER DRIVERS AS A ROAD SAFETY RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim LANGFORD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers are frequently viewed as overly represented in crashes, particularly when crash involvement per distance travelled is considered. This perception has led to a call for tighter licensing conditions for older drivers, a policy which inevitably results in mobility restrictions for at least some drivers. However there is a growing body of research evidence which shows that as a group, older drivers represent no greater road risk than drivers from other age groups once different levels of driving activity are taken into account. This paper has examined aspects of older drivers' fitness to drive based on survey data and off-road and on-road driving performance from a sample of 905 New Zealand older drivers. The results show that policies which target all older drivers and lead to licensing and mobility restrictions cannot be justified from a safety basis.

  14. Health, safety and environment risk assessment in gas pipelines by indexing method:case of Kermanshah Sanandaj oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamidi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsUsing pipelines for oil products transportation involves ranges of safety, health and environmental risks, this option however, is dominant with numerous  advantages. The purpose of this study was; relative risk assessment of abovementioned risk in Kermanshah-Sanandaj Oil Pipeline.MethodsThe method used in this study was Kent Muhlbauer method in which relative risk was assessed using third-party damage, corrosion, design, incorrect operations and leak impact  factor.ResultsOnce applying this method, collection of required data and performing needed experiments, scoring results showed 96 risk segments along the pipeline length in which lengths 100+860, 101+384 and 103+670 had relative risk scores 9.74, 9.82 and 9.91 respectively and therefore these segments were identified as focal risk points and priority for improvement actions.ConclusionRegarding importance of pipeline failure, inspection and regular patrol along the pipeline route, precise control of cathodic protection of pipeline and using communication technologies such as SCADA or optical fibers along the pipeline route were amongst the mostimportant control action suggested by the study.

  15. Risk, fear and public safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1981-04-01

    Part 1 of the paper advocates a rational approach to public safety based on unbiassed quantitative assessment of overall risks and benefits of any technological activity. It shows that improved safety should be attainable at less cost than is the case at present. Part 2 offers an explanation of why so little has been achieved in this direction and outlines the major errors in present practices. Part 3 suggests what might realistically be done towards the achievement of some of the possible benefits. Factors which are important in the study of safety and evidence supporting the arguments are discussed in six appendices. It is urged that the scientific and technological community should improve its understanding of safety as a specialization and should endeavour to lead rather than follow in our present political system

  16. Risk assessment of pesticides and other stressors in bees: Principles, data gaps and perspectives from the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, Agnès; Arnold, Gérard; Dorne, Jean-Lou; More, Simon J; Sperandio, Giorgio; Streissl, Franz; Szentes, Csaba; Verdonck, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Current approaches to risk assessment in bees do not take into account co-exposures from multiple stressors. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is deploying resources and efforts to move towards a holistic risk assessment approach of multiple stressors in bees. This paper describes the general principles of pesticide risk assessment in bees, including recent developments at EFSA dealing with risk assessment of single and multiple pesticide residues and biological hazards. The EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products in bees highlights the need for the inclusion of an uncertainty analysis, other routes of exposures and multiple stressors such as chemical mixtures and biological agents. The EFSA risk assessment on the survival, spread and establishment of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, an invasive alien species, is provided with potential insights for other bee pests such as the Asian hornet, Vespa velutina. Furthermore, data gaps are identified at each step of the risk assessment, and recommendations are made for future research that could be supported under the framework of Horizon 2020. Finally, the recent work conducted at EFSA is presented, under the overarching MUST-B project ("EU efforts towards the development of a holistic approach for the risk assessment on MUltiple STressors in Bees") comprising a toolbox for harmonised data collection under field conditions and a mechanistic model to assess effects from pesticides and other stressors such as biological agents and beekeeping management practices, at the colony level and in a spatially complex landscape. Future perspectives at EFSA include the development of a data model to collate high quality data to calibrate and validate the model to be used as a regulatory tool. Finally, the evidence collected within the framework of MUST-B will support EFSA's activities on the development of a holistic approach to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in bees. In

  17. Safety methodology and risk targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    In assessing the potential safety concerns of fusion, the experience from other energy sources lead to a variety of safety assessment approaches. The available approaches are: (1) The maximum possible accident approach; (2) The maximum credible accident approach; (3) The probabilistic total risk assessment. In the first approach, the mechanistic development of the events leading to the safety concern is ignored. Instead, the total radioactivity of the plant is assumed accessible to the public. Such an approach is obviously conservative and unrealistic. In the second approach a selection is made among the most severe of the possible accidents, and the progression of the accident is modeled as mechanistically as possible. In this case, the passive and active accident mitigation capabilities of the plant are taken into consideration. The result is expected to be that none or only a fraction of the total radioactivity can be released to the public. The adverse effect of this approach is to concentrate attention on a particular accident class, and perhaps not allow for other classes, a judgement that may later become undesirable. The probabilistic risk assessment requires the safety analysts to consider all classes of accidents and estimate both the probabilities of their occurrences and their consequences. Thus, the plant design in fact is subjected to a thorough investigation and the impact of alterations in design can be reflected in the total risk estimate. The disadvantage of this approach lies in the absence of well defined acceptable risk criteria as well as the large effect of public perception factors on the accepted risk. This paper will review the impact of application of these approaches in determination of the level of protection needed against activation product release to the atmosphere. (author)

  18. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In the past few decades, international guidance has been developed on methods for assessing the safety of predisposal and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. More recently, it has been recognized that there is also a need for specific guidance on safety assessment in the context of decommissioning nuclear facilities. The importance of safety during decommissioning was highlighted at the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities held in Berlin in 2002 and at the First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management in 2003. At its June 2004 meeting, the Board of Governors of the IAEA approved the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (GOV/2004/40), which called on the IAEA to: ''establish a forum for the sharing and exchange of national information and experience on the application of safety assessment in the context of decommissioning and provide a means to convey this information to other interested parties, also drawing on the work of other international organizations in this area''. In response, in November 2004, the IAEA launched the international project Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material (DeSa) with the following objectives: -To develop a harmonized approach to safety assessment and to define the elements of safety assessment for decommissioning, including the application of a graded approach; -To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facility through a selected number of test cases; -To investigate approaches for the review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for regulatory decision making; -To provide a forum

  19. Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on companies risk evaluation before endorsement of Loan deriving from business relationships. The aim of this thesis is not only to describe individual steps of risk assessment, but also perfom analysis of particular companies based on available data, i.e. Balance sheet, Profit and Loss statement and external rating and after that propose solution for each company. My analysis will be based on theoretical knowledge, further on experience related to my job role a...

  20. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107...... and the individual dynamic items strengthen the use of this scheme in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)...

  1. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  2. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Kavsek, D.

    2006-01-01

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  3. Risk management for industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novogno, A.

    1989-01-01

    The catastrophic accidents which have occurred in the last decade, in both developed and developing countries, have drawn the attention of decision-makers in the safety area to the urgent necessity to assess and manage risks from hazardous industrial activities which are concentrated in large industrialized areas. The aim of this paper is to review experience gained in conducting studies in the area of 'comparisons of risks in energy systems' and on the practical application of 'cost effectiveness of risk reduction analysis among different energy systems' (case studies). It is also the aim of the paper to discuss and propose a general framework for defining an 'integrated approach' to risk assessment and management in highly industrialized regions within a country. (author)

  4. Safety Auditing and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

  5. Human factors in safety assessment. Safety culture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed

  6. Proposing a model for safety risk assessment in the construction industry using gray multi-criterion decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Abootorabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Statistical Report of the Social Security Organization indicate that among the various industries, the construction industry has the highest number of work-related accidents so that in addition to frequency, it has high intensity, as well. On the other hand, a large number of human resources are working in this whish shows they necessity for paying special attention to these workers. Therefore, risk assessment of the safety in the construction industry is an effective step in this regard. In this study, a method for ranking safety risks in conditions of low number of samples and uncertainty is presented, using gray multi-criterion decision-making. .Material and Method: In this study, we first identified the factors affecting the occurrence of hazards in the construction industry. Then, appropriate for ranking the risks were determined and the problem was defined as a multi-criterion decision-making. In order to weight the criteria and to evaluate alternatives based on each criterion, gray numbers were used. In the last stage, the problem was solved using the gray possibility degree. .Results: The results show that the method of gray multi-criterion decision-making is an effective method for ranking risks in situations of low samples compared with other methods of MCDM. .Conclusion: The proposed method is preferred to fuzzy methods and statistics in uncertain and low sample size, due to simple calculations and no need to define the membership function.

  7. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements

  8. Assessing risks and regulating safety standards in the oil and gas industry: the Peruvian experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Leonardo Vásquez Cordano; Julio Salvador Jácome; Raúl Lizardo García Carpio; Victor Fernández Guzman

    2013-01-01

    Environmental regulation has usually focused on controlling continuous sources of pollution such as CO2 emissions through carbon taxes. However, the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has shown that accidents associated to safety failures can also generate bursts of pollution with serious environmental consequences. Regulating safety conditions to prevent accidents in the oil and gas industry is challenging because public regulators cannot perfectly observe whether firms comply with safety ...

  9. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  10. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  11. Component fragility analysis methodology for seismic risk assessment projects. Proven PSA safety document processing and assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Ladislav

    2013-03-01

    The seismic risk task assessment task should be structured as follows: (i) Define all reactor unit building structures, components and equipment involved in the creation of an initiating event (IE) induced by an seismic event or contributing to the reliability of reactor unit response to an IE; (ii) construct and estimate of the fragility curves for the building and component groups sub (i); (iii) determine the HCLPF for each group of buildings, components or equipment; (iv) determine the nuclear source's seismic resistance (SME) as the minimum HCLPF from the group of equipment in the risk-dominant scenarios; (v) define the risk-limiting group of components, equipment and building structures to the SME value; (vi) based on the fragility levels, identify component groups for which a more detailed fragility analysis is needed; and (vii) recommend groups of equipment or building structures that should be taken into account with respect to the seismic risk, i.e. such groups of equipment or building structures as exhibit a low seismic resistance (HCLPF) and, at the same time, are involved to a significant extent in the reactor unit's seismic risk (are present in the dominant risk scenarios). (P.A.)

  12. Safety evaluation for the LMFBR plant using probabilistic risk assessment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Y.; Aizawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to a typical loop-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plant in the detailed design stage. A comprehensive systems analysis has been performed to identify event sequences leading to core damage and provide insights into the importance of accident contributors. While traditional event tree/fault tree modeling was used for the analysis, this study involved a thorough investigation of initiating events and of support system faults. The qualification of accident sequences has been conducted by combining the fault trees based on the event trees and obtaining sequence cut sets with the use of the SETS code. This study also attempted to quantify the potential for operator recovery actions in the course of each accident sequence. (author)

  13. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: lessons learned regarding passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10 -6 yr -1 , even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10 -6 yr -1 and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10 -5 yr -1 . Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability

  14. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: lessons learned regarding passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D J; Ragland, W A; Roglans, J

    1998-11-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1}, even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1} and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1}. Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability.

  15. The EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment lessons learned regarding passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10 -6 yr -1 , even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10 -6 yr -1 and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10 -5 yr -1 . Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability

  16. Risk assessment of hoisting with and without a safety detaching hook.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wainwright, KA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available of holding the cage from falling down the shaft. This is a safety function, in addition to the jack-catches, that helps prevent fatalities. Safety of persons always takes precedence over damage to infrastructure and loss of production, and this study only...

  17. Risk management and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, K.

    2007-01-01

    Paper informs on the efforts to elaborate a feedback system for risk comprehensive evaluation and a system to improve structure safety foreseeing the possibility to control the latent risk, ensuring the qualitative evaluation of the safety level and improvement of safety culture in various branches of industry, first and foremost, in the electricity producing sector including the nuclear power industry [ru

  18. Assessment of Tolerability and Safety of Monocomponent Complementary Food Products in the Diet of Infants With Risk for Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Namazova-Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with burdened allergological history and/or having preliminary allergy manifestations need the effective prevention of allergy from the first months of life.Objective: Our aim was to assess the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of monocomponent complementary food products in the diet of infants with high risk for allergic diseases.Methods: Tolerability, safety, and efficacy of monocomponent complementary food products (vegetable puree, fruit juices, and after 6 months — meat sauce were studied in a singlecentre, prospective, comparative study. The symptoms of indigestion, skin allergy symptoms were registered, the results of coprological research and immunogenicity of complementary food products were assessed.Results: The study included 200 children in the age from 5 months from the risk group of allergy developing. Children were divided into 4 groups of 50 people. It was found that complementary food products were well tolerated and assimilated by children, did not cause skin and gastrointestinal allergic reactions in healthy children with risk of allergy developing. Food antigens of complementary food components (pumpkin, rabbit meat, turkey meat, apples, pears, plums were characterized by low immunogenicity: the level of specific IgE to the specified products did not change in blood serum and remained at a low level at the beginning and at the end of the study (ranging from 0.01 to 0.03 kE/l.Conclusion: Studied complementary food products (vegetable-, fruit- and meat-based can be used in the diet of children with high risk for allergy.

  19. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  20. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  1. Reactor Safety Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSAS is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  2. Reactor safety assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  3. Bacteriological safety assessment, hygienic habits and cross-contamination risks in a Nigerian urban sample of household kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ochei, Ono P

    2017-06-01

    Urban household kitchen environment was assessed for safety by determining their levels of indicator bacteria, hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination. Household kitchens (60) were selected in Warri Town, Nigeria, by the multi-stage sampling technique. Contact surfaces, water and indoor kitchen air were analysed for aerobic plate counts, total and faecal coliforms using Nutrient and McConkey media by swab/rinse method, membrane filtration and sedimentation methods, respectively. Hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination were assessed with structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic variables. On the basis of median counts, the prevalence of high counts (log cfu/cm 2 /m 3 /100 mL) of aerobic plate counts (>3.0), total coliforms (>1.0) and faecal coliforms (>0) on contact surfaces and air was high (58.0-92.0%), but low in water (30.0-40.0%). Pots, plates and cutleries were the contact surfaces with low counts. Prevalence of poor hygienic habits and high risk of cross-contamination was 38.6 and 67.5%, respectively. Education, occupation and kitchen type were associated with cross-contamination risk (P = 0.002-0.022), while only education was associated with hygienic habits (P = 0.03). Cross-contamination risk was related (P = 0.01-0.05) to aerobic plate counts (OR 2.30; CL 1.30-3.17), total coliforms (OR 5.63; CL 2.76-8.25) and faecal coliforms (OR 4.24; CL 2.87-6.24), while hygienic habit was not. It can be concluded that urban household kitchens in the Nigerian setting are vulnerable to pathogens likely to cause food-borne infections.

  4. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  5. Confidence building in safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, Bertil

    1999-01-01

    Future generations should be adequately protected from damage caused by the present disposal of radioactive waste. This presentation discusses the core of safety and performance assessment: The demonstration and building of confidence that the disposal system meets the safety requirements stipulated by society. The major difficulty is to deal with risks in the very long time perspective of the thousands of years during which the waste is hazardous. Concern about these problems has stimulated the development of the safety assessment discipline. The presentation concentrates on two of the elements of safety assessment: (1) Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and (2) validation and review. Uncertainty is associated both with respect to what is the proper conceptual model and with respect to parameter values for a given model. A special kind of uncertainty derives from the variation of a property in space. Geostatistics is one approach to handling spatial variability. The simplest way of doing a sensitivity analysis is to offset the model parameters one by one and observe how the model output changes. The validity of the models and data used to make predictions is central to the credibility of safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. There are several definitions of model validation. The presentation discusses it as a process and highlights some aspects of validation methodologies

  6. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  7. Safety, risk and Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The author discusses public attitudes to safety, industrial accidents and reactor accidents, in particular the accident at Three-Mile Island. Arguments in favour of nuclear power, including its relative safety, are presented

  8. Probabilistic safety assessment of LWR containment systems performance. Report of principal working group n.5 on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, N.J.; Harper, F.T.; Bellard, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews current approaches to PSA of LWR containment systems performance. It is based on a variety of recent PSA reports which deal with Level-2 PSA. The report is a summary of recent state-of-the-art containment analysis and is intended to assist analysts in their selection of the most appropriate methods of extending Level-1 plant safety evaluations into Level-2 assessments of the containment performance. The document is primarily concerned with the performance of the containment as an engineered system rather than with the source terms consequent upon its failure. It is addressed mainly to the performance of large dry PWR containments, with a secondary emphasis on other containment types. After explaining the purposes of these analyses, a survey of LWR containment analysis options is presented: direct approaches using containment event tree construction, indirect approaches based on previous PSAs, alternative and novel approaches. The selection process is then described, followed by conclusions on their suitability for various cases: accident management, research prioritization, identifying design weaknesses, specific issue resolution, modelling physical reality, etc.

  9. Proactive assessment of becoming airline pilots to risk and safety activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.М. Рева

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available  Construction procedure of distance criterion functions between two AN–24 aircrafts during approach by pilots after a limited number of points is applied. Their propensity, averseness or indifference to the stochastic risk turns out from the analysis of these functions. Accordance between numeral values of function characteristic points and qualitative risk regulation in the ICAO «risk triangle» is set. Due to experimental test REDID the    degree of flying personnel disposition to dangerous conduct states, operative thinking and decision–making is defined.

  10. Addressing Risk Assessment for Patient Safety in Hospitals through Information Extraction in Medical Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proux, Denys; Segond, Frédérique; Gerbier, Solweig; Metzger, Marie Hélène

    Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) is a real burden for doctors and risk surveillance experts. The impact on patients' health and related healthcare cost is very significant and a major concern even for rich countries. Furthermore required data to evaluate the threat is generally not available to experts and that prevents from fast reaction. However, recent advances in Computational Intelligence Techniques such as Information Extraction, Risk Patterns Detection in documents and Decision Support Systems allow now to address this problem.

  11. Assessing older drivers: a primary care protocol to evaluate driving safety risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murden, Robert A; Unroe, Kathleen

    2005-08-01

    Most articles on elder drivers offer either general advice, or review testing protocols that divide drivers into two distinct groups: safe or unsafe. We believe it is unreasonable to expect any testing to fully separate drivers into just these two mutually exclusive groups, so we offer a protocol for a more practical approach. This protocol can be applied by primary care physicians. We review the justification for the many steps of this protocol, which have branches that lead to identifying drivers as low risk, high risk (for accidents) or needing further evaluation. Options for further evaluation are provided.

  12. MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    3 2.1 UK Need for a PRA-Based Approach ............................................................... 3 2.2 A Risk-Based Approach to...Figure 6: MATILDA Coordinate Transformations ....................................................... 22  Figure 7: Geocentric and MICS Coordinates...Star-Shaped Condition ................................................................................. 27  Figure 11: Points of Closest Approach

  13. Food plant toxicants and safety: risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.; Alexander, J.; Bouwmeister, P.J.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Ciere, S.; Gry, J.; Herrman, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Mortby, E.; Renwickn, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI

  14. Assessment of food safety risks associated with preslaughter activities during the traditional slaughter of goats in Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Nenene Daniel; Oguttu, James Wabwire

    2014-06-01

    The South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries estimated in 2012 that there were 2.033 million goats in the country. Of these animals, less than 0.5% are slaughtered at registered abattoirs. Although informal and traditional slaughter of goats for home consumption is permitted under the South African Meat Safety Act 40 of 2000, the responsibility for ensuring that products are safe is left to the traditional or ritual slaughter practitioners. The objective of the present study was to assess whether preslaughter activities associated with traditional or ritual slaughter promote or reduce food-associated risks and to recommend mitigation strategies for potential food safety hazards. Structured interviews were conducted with 105 selected respondents (in and around Tshwane, South Africa) who had been involved in traditional goat slaughter. Approximately 70% of goats slaughtered were obtained from sources that could be traced to ascertain the origin of the goats. None of the respondents were aware of the need for a health declaration for slaughter stock. Some slaughter practitioners (21%) perform prepurchase inspection of stock to ascertain their health status. However, this percentage is very small, and the approach is based on indigenous knowledge systems. The majority of respondents (67.6%) travelled 1 to 11 km to obtain a goat for traditional slaughter. Although approximately 70% of slaughter goats were transported by vehicles, the vehicles used did not meet the legal standard. More than two-thirds of goats were tied to a tree while waiting to be slaughtered, and the rest were held in a kraal. The holding period ranged from 1 to 72 h, but more than 70% of the animals were slaughtered within 36 h. This study revealed that traditional and ritual slaughter involves some preslaughter activities with potential to mitigate the risk of slaughtering animals that are not fit for human consumption. Such activities include prepurchase inspection, obtaining

  15. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  16. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  17. Development of an algorithm for assessing the risk to food safety posed by a new animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E M; Jenson, I; Jordan, D; Ward, M P

    2012-05-01

    An algorithm was developed as a tool to rapidly assess the potential for a new or emerging disease of livestock to adversely affect humans via consumption or handling of meat product, so that the risks and uncertainties can be understood and appropriate risk management and communication implemented. An algorithm describing the sequence of events from occurrence of the disease in livestock, release of the causative agent from an infected animal, contamination of fresh meat and then possible adverse effects in humans following meat handling and consumption was created. A list of questions complements the algorithm to help the assessors address the issues of concern at each step of the decision pathway. The algorithm was refined and validated through consultation with a panel of experts and a review group of animal health and food safety policy advisors via five case studies of potential emerging diseases of cattle. Tasks for model validation included describing the path taken in the algorithm and stating an outcome. Twenty-nine per cent of the 62 experts commented on the model, and one-third of those responding also completed the tasks required for model validation. The feedback from the panel of experts and the review group was used to further develop the tool and remove redundancies and ambiguities. There was agreement in the pathways and assessments for diseases in which the causative agent was well understood (for example, bovine pneumonia due to Mycoplasma bovis). The stated pathways and assessments of other diseases (for example, bovine Johne's disease) were not as consistent. The framework helps to promote objectivity by requiring questions to be answered sequentially and providing the opportunity to record consensus or differences of opinion. Areas for discussion and future investigation are highlighted by the points of diversion on the pathway taken by different assessors. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The impact of discontinuation of 7-day storage of apheresis platelets (PASSPORT) on recipient safety: an illustration of the need for proper risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; Dumont, Larry J; Tomasulo, Peter; Bianco, Celso; Katz, Louis; Benjamin, Richard J; Gajic, Ognjen; Brecher, Mark E

    2009-05-01

    Seven-day stored apheresis platelets (APs) were withdrawn from the US market after detection of two culture-positive units from 2571 tested at outdate in the PASSPORT surveillance study. The impact of this discontinuation on recipient safety was explored using mathematical modeling. Risk models for septic transfusion reactions (STRs) and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) were developed. Key assumptions were 400,000 annual APs transfused, equivalent STR risk for platelets (PLTs) stored for 5 days or more and zero for PLTs stored for less than 5 days, whole blood-derived PLTs (WBplts) administered in 5-unit pools, a 4.6-fold higher risk of false-negatives with surrogate versus culture-based bacterial testing, an AP TRALI risk between 1 per 1000 and 1 per 10,000, and a delay in TRALI risk reduction implementation in some centers by 6 to 12 months due to limited PLT availability. STR risk could increase, decrease, or remain the same depending on the percentage of inventory replaced by surrogate-tested WBplts versus culture-tested apheresis or whole blood PLTs. A delay in TRALI risk reduction implementation is likely to result in a comparable or greater risk during the delayed implementation period than the safety achieved with regard to STRs, even in the most favorable case scenario. A comprehensive risk assessment should have been conducted before the decision to discontinue PASSPORT. Risk assessments using accepted methods (and actual data when available) should precede any major blood safety decisions.

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains 158 papers presented at the International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Risk Assessment held by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS) in Port Chester, New York in 1981. The meeting was second in a series of three. The main focus of the meeting was on the safety of light water reactors. The papers discuss safety goals and risk assessment. Quantitative safety goals, risk assessment in non-nuclear technologies, and operational experience and data base are also covered. Included is an address by Dr. Chauncey Starr

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment as an aid to risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments are providing important insights into nuclear power plant safety. Their value is two-fold: first as a means of quantifying nuclear plant risk including contributors to risk, and second as an aid to risk management. A risk assessment provides an analytical plant model that can be the basis for performing meaningful decision analyses for controlling safety. It is the aspect of quantitative risk management that makes probabilistic risk assessment an important technical discipline of the future

  1. On the Regulation of Life Safety Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    . Starting point is taken in a short outline of what is considered to comprise the present best practice rationale for life safety and health risk regulation. Thereafter, based on selected principal examples from different application areas, inconsistencies in present best practice risk quantification...... absolute level of individual life safety risk subject to assessment of acceptability. It is highlighted that a major cause of inconsistency in risk quantifications and comparisons originates from the fact that present regulations partly address societal activities and partly address applied technologies...

  2. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  3. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  4. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K C [Exxon International (United States)

    1992-07-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime.

  5. Framework of nuclear safety and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Since enormous energy is released by nuclear chain reaction mainly as a form of radiation, a great potential risk accompanies utilization of nuclear energy. Safety has been continuously a critical issue therefore from the very beginning of its development. Though the framework of nuclear safety that has been established at an early developmental stage of nuclear engineering is still valid, more comprehensive approaches are required having experienced several events such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and JCO. This article gives a brief view of the most basic principles how nuclear safety is achieved, which were introduced and sophisticated in nuclear engineering but applicable also to other engineering domains in general. (author)

  6. Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD): An Analysis Tool for Spacecraft Safety Analysis and Ascent/Reentry Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of performing safety analysis and risk assessment for a potential off-nominal atmospheric reentry resulting in vehicle breakup, a synthesis of trajectory propagation coupled with thermal analysis and the evaluation of node failure is required to predict the sequence of events, the timeline, and the progressive demise of spacecraft components. To provide this capability, the Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD) analysis tool was developed. The software and methodology have been validated against actual flights, telemetry data, and validated software, and safety/risk analyses were performed for various programs using SPEAD. This report discusses the capabilities, modeling, validation, and application of the SPEAD analysis tool.

  7. Assessing safety risk in electricity distribution processes using ET & BA improved technique and its ranking by VIKOR and TOPSIS models in fuzzy environment

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rahmani; M. Omidvari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Electrical industries are among high risk industries. The present study aimed to assess safety risk in electricity distribution processes using  ET&BA technique and also to compare with both VIKOR & TOPSIS methods in fuzzy environments.   Material and Methods: The present research is a descriptive study and ET&BA worksheet is the main data collection tool. Both Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy VIKOR methods were used for the worksheet analysis.   Result: Findi...

  8. Spatial Distribution of Mercury (Hg Concentration in Agricultural Soil and Its Risk Assessment on Food Safety in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqian Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil mercury (Hg pollution in some areas of China is a serious problem and has aroused a lot of attention on a local scale. However, there are few studies on Hg pollution on a national scale. This study collected 444 published papers during 2005–2015 on Hg concentrations in agricultural soil throughout China, under seven land uses, namely: dry land, paddy field, vegetable field, tea garden, orchard, traditional Chinese medicine field and tobacco field, to assess the spatial distribution of Hg concentration and evaluate its influence on food safety. The averaged Hg concentration (0.108 mg/kg was higher than its background (0.065 mg/kg, but much lower than the guidelines (GB15618-1995 II for crop production. The spatial distribution of Hg throughout China showed great variability, with some hotspots due to Hg related mining and smelting activities. According to the Environment Quality Standard for soil in China (GB15618-1995 II, 4.2% of agricultural soil should be abandoned due to Hg pollution, and 2.0% faced a high risk of Hg pollution.

  9. Planning and Building Qualifiable Embedded Systems: Safety and Risk Properties Assessment for a Large and Complex System with Embedded Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N.; Lopes, R.; Barbosa, R.

    2012-01-01

    Systems based on embedded components and applications are today used in all markets. They are planned and developed by all types of institutions with different types of background experience, multidisciplinary teams and all types of capability and maturity levels. Organisational/engineering maturity has an impact on all aspects of the engineering of large and complex systems. An embedded system is a specific computer system designed to perform one or more dedicated functions, usually with real-time constraints. It is generally integrated as part of a more complex device typically composed of specific hardware such as sensors and actuators. This article presents an experimented technique to evaluate the organisation, processes, system and software engineering practices, methods, tools and the planned/produced artefacts themselves, leading towards certification/qualification. The safety and risk assessment of such core and complex systems is explained, described on a step-by- step manner, while presenting the main results and conclusions of the application of the technique to a real case study.

  10. 合成洗涤剂的人体安全性风险评估和控制%Human safety risk assessment and management of synthetic detergent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利川; 郑翔龙

    2011-01-01

    合成洗涤剂对人体的安全性一直是消费者关注的问题。结合欧洲家用清洁产品HERA(Human&Environmental Risk Assessment)安全性评估报告的内容,从合成洗涤剂产品组分的安全性角度,对洗涤产品组份安全性评估的主要内容和使用安全性风险评估的方法进行了详细论述,说明洗涤剂的人体安全性风险是可以被控制的。%The human safety of synthetic detergent are always much concerned by consumer.Based on the content of Human Environmental Risk Assessment on ingredients of European household cleaning products,this paper from the components of synthetic detergent safety point of view,discussed the content of the safety assessment and the methods of risk assessment about the components of synthetic detergent in detail.The results showed that the human safety risks of synthetic detergents can be controlled.

  11. Use of cut-off values as meaningfulness limits in probabilistic studies and its effect on NPPs risk assessment and safety improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrangeli, G.; Valeri, A.; Zaffiro, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cut-off values in probabilistic risk assessment/probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), in order to explore under which conditions this practice may help improve the meaningfulness of the results of the analyses and safety of plants, and how it may affect the assessment of risk. Reference is made, in particular, to some past practical applications, also taken from the experience of the authors within the frame of the Italian licensing process. The paper describes the Italian probabilistic criteria which use probabilistic targets and cut-off values to assess safety and identify plant safety improvements. The rationale of the approach is also discussed in the paper and results of sample applications are illustrated. The paper concludes that the use of cut-off values, if properly implemented, could be productive to improve the plant safety as it helps the analyst to focus on a restricted field of analysis, ignoring lower probability and less known events. It also points out that cut-off values should be considered as living numbers to be lowered and even eliminated as soon as significant advancements are made, through research and operational experience, in the knowledge of the pertinent events

  12. Risk assessment strategies as a tool in the application of the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) and Food Safety Objective (FSO) by risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkogka, E; Reij, M W; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2013-10-01

    In the course of the last decade, the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), the Food Safety Objective (FSO) and their associated metrics have been proposed by the World Trade Organization and Codex Alimentarius as a means for competent authorities to ultimately translate governmental public health policy regarding food safety into risk-based targets for the food industry. The industry needs to meet these targets through the effective choice of control measures that are part of its operational food safety management system. The aim of this study was to put the practical application of ALOP and FSO to the test in the case of Salmonella in chicken meat in the Netherlands. Two different risk assessment approaches were applied to derive potential ALOP and FSO values, a 'top-down' approach based on epidemiological data and a 'bottom-up' approach based on food supply chain data. To this end, two stochastic models specific to the Dutch situation were built. Comparisons between 23 countries in Europe were also made using the top-down model. The mean estimated current Level Of Protection values were similar for the two approaches applied, with the bottom-up model yielding 87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year (95% CI: 0.03, 904) and the top-down model 71 (95% CI: 9.9, 155). The estimated FSO values on the other hand were considerably different with the mean 'top down' FSO being -4.6 log CFU/g (95% CI: -5.4, -4.1) and the mean 'bottom-up' FSO -6.0 log CFU/g (95% CI: -8.1, -2.9) reflecting major differences in the output distributions of this parameter obtained with the two approaches. Significant differences were observed between current LOP values for different EU countries, although it was not clear whether this was due to actual differences in the factors influencing the risk of salmonellosis or due to the quality of the available data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uses of human reliability analysis probabilistic risk assessment results to resolve personnel performance issues that could affect safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.; Spettell, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    This report is the first in a series which documents research aimed at improving the usefulness of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) results in addressing human risk issues. This first report describes the results of an assessment of how well currently available PRA data addresses human risk issues of current concern to NRC. Findings indicate that PRA data could be far more useful in addressing human risk issues with modification of the development process and documentation structure of PRAs. In addition, information from non-PRA sources could be integrated with PRA data to address many other issues. 12 tabs

  14. Proceedings of third Indo-German workshop and theme meeting on seismic safety of structures, risk assessment and disaster mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.

    2007-01-01

    This Indo-German workshop focuses and emphasises the current research and development activities in both the countries. Themes of this meeting are Earthquake Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment, Risk Assessment Techniques, Seismic Risk to Mega Cities, Testing and Evaluation of Structures and Components, Base Isolation and other Control Techniques, Seismic Strengthening of Structures, Design Practices and Specifications, Remote Sensing and GIS Applications, Structural Materials and Composites, Containment and Other Special Structures. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Safety assessment for Generation IV nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. ISAM is an integrated 'tool-kit' consisting of 5 analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development: 1) qualitative safety features review - QSR, 2) phenomena identification and ranking table - PIRT, 3) objective provision tree - OPT, 4) deterministic and phenomenological analyses - DPA, and 5) probabilistic safety analysis - PSA. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time

  16. Safety control and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable probability of major accidents in nuclear power is very small, and can not be determined from direct empirical evidence. Therefore, control of the level of safety is a complex problem. The difficulty is related to the fact that a variable, 'safety', which is not accessible to direct measurement, is to be tightly controlled. Control, therefore, depends on a systematic, analytical prediction of the target state, i.e., the level of safety, from indirect evidence. From a control theoretic point of view this means that safety is controlled by a system which includes openloop as well as closed loop control paths. The aim of the paper is to take a general systems view on the complex mechanisms involved in the control of safety of industrial installations like nuclear power. From this, the role of probabilistic risk analysis is evaluated and needs for further development discussed. (author)

  17. Experiences in assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on several Safety Culture self-assessment applications in nuclear organisations, the paper stresses relevant aspects to be considered when programming an assessment of this type. Reasons for assessing Safety Culture, basic principles to take into account, necessary resources, the importance of proper statistical analyses, the feed-back of results, and the setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture are discussed. (author)

  18. Patient safety in external beam radiotherapy, results of the ACCIRAD project: Current status of proactive risk assessment, reactive analysis of events, and reporting and learning systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian; Bly, Ritva; Bulot, Mireille; Godet, Jean-Luc; Jahnen, Andreas; Krengli, Marco; Maingon, Philippe; Prieto Martin, Carlos; Przybylska, Kamila; Skrobała, Agnieszka; Valero, Marc; Jarvinen, Hannu

    2017-04-01

    To describe the current status of implementation of European directives for risk management in radiotherapy and to assess variability in risk management in the following areas: 1) in-country regulatory framework; 2) proactive risk assessment; (3) reactive analysis of events; and (4) reporting and learning systems. The original data were collected as part of the ACCIRAD project through two online surveys. Risk assessment criteria are closely associated with quality assurance programs. Only 9/32 responding countries (28%) with national regulations reported clear "requirements" for proactive risk assessment and/or reactive risk analysis, with wide variability in assessment methods. Reporting of adverse error events is mandatory in most (70%) but not all surveyed countries. Most European countries have taken steps to implement European directives designed to reduce the probability and magnitude of accidents in radiotherapy. Variability between countries is substantial in terms of legal frameworks, tools used to conduct proactive risk assessment and reactive analysis of events, and in the reporting and learning systems utilized. These findings underscore the need for greater harmonisation in common terminology, classification and reporting practices across Europe to improve patient safety and to enable more reliable inter-country comparisons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment: Number 219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. A historical overview of plants in the US is provided, and past, present, and future nuclear safety and risk assessment are discussed. A primer on nuclear power plants is provided with a discussion of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR) and their operation and containment. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), utilizing both event-tree and fault-tree analysis, is discussed as a tool in reactor safety, decision making, and communications. (FI)

  20. Safety Climate, Perceived Risk, and Involvement in Safety Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kouabenan , Dongo Rémi; Ngueutsa , Robert ,; Safiétou , Mbaye

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article examines the relationship between safety climate, risk perception and involvement in safety management by first-line managers (FLM). Sixty-three FLMs from two French nuclear plants answered a questionnaire measuring perceived workplace safety climate, perceived risk, and involvement in safety management. We hypothesized that a positive perception of safety climate would promote substantial involvement in safety management, and that this effect would be str...

  1. Meeting on risk and monitoring analysis techniques for food safety - RLA/5/060/ARCAL Project (ARCAL CXXVIII): sampling plans and introduction to chemical risk assessment in food innocuousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Some of the Latinoamerican countries such us Bolivia, Colombia, Uruguay and Venezuela participant in the meeting gave an exposition about the risk analysis and monitoring techniques in food safety in their countyries. With the aim to study components of risk analysis, food innocuousness, evaluation and chemical dangers, toxicity, exposure, change of paradigms in the global food system, data sources, study in animals and in vitro, sensitivity analysis, risk assessment in health it carried out the meeting

  2. Risk assessment. Basic documents for the preparation of the report 'Energy, Health, environment, and safety hazards' by the Swedish Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report contains several essays on the rational ways of assessing the hazards, and choosing, the future energy production systems. Theories of decision analysis are touched upon by a number of authors and the fault tree statistical method is described. The Rasmussen report (WASH-1400) and a few related papers are discussed. As an example of the risks of advanced technological systems, the air traffic safety is accounted for. (L.E.)

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  4. Implementing Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (TT21C): Making safety decisions using toxicity pathways, and progress in a prototype risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin; Clewell, Rebecca; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matthew; Edwards, Sue; Fowler, Paul; Malcomber, Sophie; Nicol, Beate; Scott, Andrew; Scott, Sharon; Sun, Bin; Westmoreland, Carl; White, Andrew; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment methodologies in toxicology have remained largely unchanged for decades. The default approach uses high dose animal studies, together with human exposure estimates, and conservative assessment (uncertainty) factors or linear extrapolations to determine whether a specific chemical exposure is ‘safe’ or ‘unsafe’. Although some incremental changes have appeared over the years, results from all new approaches are still judged against this process of extrapolating high-dose effects in animals to low-dose exposures in humans. The US National Research Council blueprint for change, entitled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy called for a transformation of toxicity testing from a system based on high-dose studies in laboratory animals to one founded primarily on in vitro methods that evaluate changes in normal cellular signalling pathways using human-relevant cells or tissues. More recently, this concept of pathways-based approaches to risk assessment has been expanded by the description of ‘Adverse Outcome Pathways’ (AOPs). The question, however, has been how to translate this AOP/TT21C vision into the practical tools that will be useful to those expected to make safety decisions. We have sought to provide a practical example of how the TT21C vision can be implemented to facilitate a safety assessment for a commercial chemical without the use of animal testing. To this end, the key elements of the TT21C vision have been broken down to a set of actions that can be brought together to achieve such a safety assessment. Such components of a pathways-based risk assessment have been widely discussed, however to-date, no worked examples of the entire risk assessment process exist. In order to begin to test the process, we have taken the approach of examining a prototype toxicity pathway (DNA damage responses mediated by the p53 network) and constructing a strategy for the development of a pathway based risk assessment for a

  5. Implementing Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (TT21C): Making safety decisions using toxicity pathways, and progress in a prototype risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin; Clewell, Rebecca; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matthew; Edwards, Sue; Fowler, Paul; Malcomber, Sophie; Nicol, Beate; Scott, Andrew; Scott, Sharon; Sun, Bin; Westmoreland, Carl; White, Andrew; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Paul L

    2015-06-05

    Risk assessment methodologies in toxicology have remained largely unchanged for decades. The default approach uses high dose animal studies, together with human exposure estimates, and conservative assessment (uncertainty) factors or linear extrapolations to determine whether a specific chemical exposure is 'safe' or 'unsafe'. Although some incremental changes have appeared over the years, results from all new approaches are still judged against this process of extrapolating high-dose effects in animals to low-dose exposures in humans. The US National Research Council blueprint for change, entitled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy called for a transformation of toxicity testing from a system based on high-dose studies in laboratory animals to one founded primarily on in vitro methods that evaluate changes in normal cellular signalling pathways using human-relevant cells or tissues. More recently, this concept of pathways-based approaches to risk assessment has been expanded by the description of 'Adverse Outcome Pathways' (AOPs). The question, however, has been how to translate this AOP/TT21C vision into the practical tools that will be useful to those expected to make safety decisions. We have sought to provide a practical example of how the TT21C vision can be implemented to facilitate a safety assessment for a commercial chemical without the use of animal testing. To this end, the key elements of the TT21C vision have been broken down to a set of actions that can be brought together to achieve such a safety assessment. Such components of a pathways-based risk assessment have been widely discussed, however to-date, no worked examples of the entire risk assessment process exist. In order to begin to test the process, we have taken the approach of examining a prototype toxicity pathway (DNA damage responses mediated by the p53 network) and constructing a strategy for the development of a pathway based risk assessment for a specific

  6. From Risk Analysis to the Safety Case. Values in Risk Assessments. A Report Based on Interviews with Experts in the Nuclear Waste Programs in Sweden and Finland. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2004-06-01

    The report focuses on values in risk assessment, and is based on interviews with safety assessment experts and persons working at the national authorities in Sweden and Finland working in the area of nuclear waste management. The interviews contained questions related to definitions of risk and safety, standards, constraints and degrees of freedom in the work, data collections, reliability and validity of systems and the safety assessments, as well as communication between experts, and experts and non-experts. The results pointed to an increased amount of data and relevant factors considered in the analyses over time, changing the work content and process from one of risk analysis to a multifaceted teamwork towards the assessment of 'the safety case'. The multifaceted systems approach highlighted the increased importance of investigating assumptions underlying e.g. integration of diverse systems, and simplification procedures. It also highlighted the increased reliance on consensus building processes within the extended expert group, the importance of adequate communication abilities within the extended expert group, as well as the importance of transparency and communication relative the larger society. The results are discussed with reference to e.g. Janis 'groupthink' theory and Kuhns ideas of paradigmatic developments in science. It is concluded that it is well advised, in addition to the ordinary challenges of the work, to investigate also the implicit assumptions involved in the work processes to further enhance the understanding of safety assessments

  7. From Risk Analysis to the Safety Case. Values in Risk Assessments. A Report Based on Interviews with Experts in the Nuclear Waste Programs in Sweden and Finland. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2004-06-01

    The report focuses on values in risk assessment, and is based on interviews with safety assessment experts and persons working at the national authorities in Sweden and Finland working in the area of nuclear waste management. The interviews contained questions related to definitions of risk and safety, standards, constraints and degrees of freedom in the work, data collections, reliability and validity of systems and the safety assessments, as well as communication between experts, and experts and non-experts. The results pointed to an increased amount of data and relevant factors considered in the analyses over time, changing the work content and process from one of risk analysis to a multifaceted teamwork towards the assessment of 'the safety case'. The multifaceted systems approach highlighted the increased importance of investigating assumptions underlying e.g. integration of diverse systems, and simplification procedures. It also highlighted the increased reliance on consensus building processes within the extended expert group, the importance of adequate communication abilities within the extended expert group, as well as the importance of transparency and communication relative the larger society. The results are discussed with reference to e.g. Janis 'groupthink' theory and Kuhns ideas of paradigmatic developments in science. It is concluded that it is well advised, in addition to the ordinary challenges of the work, to investigate also the implicit assumptions involved in the work processes to further enhance the understanding of safety assessments.

  8. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-10-01

    The Reactor Safety Study was sponsored by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission to estimate the public risks that could be involved in potential accidents in commercial nuclear power plants of the type now in use. It was performed under the independent direction of Professor Norman C. Rasmussen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The risks had to be estimated, rather than measured, because although there are about 50 such plants now operating, there have been no nuclear accidents to date resulting in significant releases of radioactivity in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The objective of the study was to make a realistic estimate of these risks and, to provide perspective, to compare them with non-nuclear risks to which our society and its individuals are already exposed. This information may be of help in determining the future reliance by society on nuclear power as a source of electricity. The results from this study suggest that the risks to the public from potential accidents in nuclear power plants are comparatively small.

  9. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The Reactor Safety Study was sponsored by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission to estimate the public risks that could be involved in potential accidents in commercial nuclear power plants of the type now in use. It was performed under the independent direction of Professor Norman C. Rasmussen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The risks had to be estimated, rather than measured, because although there are about 50 such plants now operating, there have been no nuclear accidents to date resulting in significant releases of radioactivity in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The objective of the study was to make a realistic estimate of these risks and, to provide perspective, to compare them with non-nuclear risks to which our society and its individuals are already exposed. This information may be of help in determining the future reliance by society on nuclear power as a source of electricity. The results from this study suggest that the risks to the public from potential accidents in nuclear power plants are comparatively small

  10. Reducing the risk, managing safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Fire safety in healthcare premises has always been a challenge to those that discharge this duty. Statutory compliance should be a matter of course, but in an ever increasingly challenged NHS, even this is not a given. While the NHS is driven by managing very complex risk to deliver cutting edge healthcare, providers cannot be risk averse. Which risk, however, takes priority? Here Peter Aldridge, fire and corporate services manager at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, and Secretary to the National Association of Healthcare Fire Officers (NAHFO)--which will this month and next jointly stage fire safety seminars with IHEEM; see page 8--considers the key issues, with input from a fire officer at a leading mental health and community Trust.

  11. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  12. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  13. Risk assessment for transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Miles, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The world-wide safety of the transport of radioactive material is based on the IAEA Transport Regulations. Risk assessment can provide quantitative data to help in the demonstration, understanding and improvement of the effectiveness of the Regulations in assuring safety. In this Paper the methodology, data and computer codes necessary and available for transport risk assessment are reviewed. Notable examples of assessments carried out over the past 15 years are briefly described along with current research, and the benefits and limitations of the techniques are discussed. (author)

  14. ALARP considerations in criticality safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, Russell L.; Barnes, Andrew; Thorne, Peter R.; Venner, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrating that the risk to the public and workers is As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) is a fundamental requirement of safety cases for nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom. This is embodied in the Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) published by the Regulator, the essence of which is incorporated within the safety assessment processes of the various nuclear site licensees. The concept of ALARP within criticality safety assessments has taken some time to establish in the United Kingdom. In principle, the licensee is obliged to search for a deterministic criticality safety solution, such as safe geometry vessels and passive control features, rather than placing reliance on active measurement devices and plant administrative controls. This paper presents a consideration of some ALARP issues in relation to the development of criticality safety cases. The paper utilises some idealised examples covering a range of issues facing the criticality safety assessor, including new plant design, operational plant and decommissioning activities. These examples are used to outline the elements of the criticality safety cases and present a discussion of ALARP in the context of criticality safety assessments. (author)

  15. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  16. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  17. Probabilistic safety assessment for food irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Prasad, M.; Sonawane, A.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different considerations are required in PSA for Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. ► We carried out PSA for food irradiation facility as a part of safety evaluation. ► The results indicate that the fatal exposure risk is below the ‘acceptable risk’. ► Adequate operator training and observing good safety culture would reduce the risk. - Abstract: Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is widely used for safety evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) worldwide. The approaches and methodologies are matured and general consensus exists on using these approaches in PSA applications. However, PSA applications for safety evaluation for non-reactor facilities are limited. Due to differences in the processes in nuclear reactor facilities and non-reactor facilities, the considerations are different in application of PSA to these facilities. The food irradiation facilities utilize gamma irradiation sources, X-ray machines and electron accelerators for the purpose of radiation processing of variety of food items. This is categorized as Non-Reactor Nuclear Facility. In this paper, the application of PSA to safety evaluation of food irradiation facility is presented considering the ‘fatality due to radiation overexposure’ as a risk measure. The results indicate that the frequency of the fatal exposure is below the numerical acceptance guidance for the risk to the individual. Further, it is found that the overall risk to the over exposure can be reduced by providing the adequate operator training and observing good safety culture.

  18. Improving ICU risk management and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielty, Lucy Ann

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a study which aimed to develop and validate an assessment method for the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 80001-1 (IEC, 2010) standard (the Standard); raise awareness; improve medical IT-network project risk management processes; and improve intensive care unit patient safety. Design/methodology/approach An assessment method was developed and piloted. A healthcare IT-network project assessment was undertaken using a semi-structured group interview with risk management stakeholders. Participants provided feedback via a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was undertaken. Findings The assessment method was validated as fit for purpose. Participants agreed (63 per cent, n=7) that assessment questions were clear and easy to understand, and participants agreed (82 per cent, n=9) that the assessment method was appropriate. Participant's knowledge of the Standard increased and non-compliance was identified. Medical IT-network project strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the risk management processes were identified. Practical implications The study raised awareness of the Standard and enhanced risk management processes that led to improved patient safety. Study participants confirmed they would use the assessment method in future projects. Originality/value Findings add to knowledge relating to IEC 80001-1 implementation.

  19. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  20. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging: hazard, risk and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Suri, S.; Singh, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hazard and risk associated with magnetic resonance imaging is a matter of concern. In 1982, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA issued guidelines to Hospital's Investigational Review Board (IRBs) in 'Guidelines for Evaluating Electromagnetic Exposure Risks for Trials of Clinical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)'. In 1997, the Berufsgenossenschaft (BG), professional association for precision engineering and electronics of Germany, in their preliminary proposal for safety limits extended their concerns on static magnetic field. Owing to both time varying and static magnetic fields applied in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) this became of immediate concern to user community to assess the potential hazard and risk associated with the NMR system

  2. The importance of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in the careful study of risks involved to new nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Jônatas F.C. da; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan in 2011 has raised public fears about the actual safety of nuclear power plants in several countries. The response to this concern by government agencies and private companies has been objective and pragmatic in order to guarantee best practices in the design, construction, operation and decommissioning phases of nuclear reactors. In countries where the nucleo-electric matrix is consolidated, such as the United States, France and the United Kingdom, the safety assessment is carried out considering deterministic and probabilistic criteria. In the licensing stages of new projects, it is necessary to analyze and simulate the behavior of the nuclear power plant, when subjected to conditions that can lead to sequences of accidents. Each initiator event is studied and simulated through computational models, which allow the description and estimation of possible physical phenomena occurring in nuclear reactors. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is fundamental in this process, as it studies in depth the sequences of events that can lead to the fusion of the nucleus of the nuclear reactor. Such sequences should be quantified in terms of probability of occurrence and your possible consequences, and organized through techniques such as Fault Tree Analysis and Event Tree Analysis. For these simulations, specialized computer codes for each type of phenomenon should be used, as well as databases based on experience gained in the operation of similar nuclear reactors. The present work will describe, in an objective way, the procedures for the realization of PSA and its applicability to the assurance of the operational reliability of the nuclear reactors, as well as a brief comparative between the approaches used in some countries traditionally users of thermonuclear energy and Brazil. By means of this analysis, it can be concluded that nuclear power is increasingly reliable and safe, being able to provide the necessary

  3. The importance of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in the careful study of risks involved to new nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Jônatas F.C. da, E-mail: jonatasfmata@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais (UEMG), João Monlevade, MG (Brazil); Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan in 2011 has raised public fears about the actual safety of nuclear power plants in several countries. The response to this concern by government agencies and private companies has been objective and pragmatic in order to guarantee best practices in the design, construction, operation and decommissioning phases of nuclear reactors. In countries where the nucleo-electric matrix is consolidated, such as the United States, France and the United Kingdom, the safety assessment is carried out considering deterministic and probabilistic criteria. In the licensing stages of new projects, it is necessary to analyze and simulate the behavior of the nuclear power plant, when subjected to conditions that can lead to sequences of accidents. Each initiator event is studied and simulated through computational models, which allow the description and estimation of possible physical phenomena occurring in nuclear reactors. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is fundamental in this process, as it studies in depth the sequences of events that can lead to the fusion of the nucleus of the nuclear reactor. Such sequences should be quantified in terms of probability of occurrence and your possible consequences, and organized through techniques such as Fault Tree Analysis and Event Tree Analysis. For these simulations, specialized computer codes for each type of phenomenon should be used, as well as databases based on experience gained in the operation of similar nuclear reactors. The present work will describe, in an objective way, the procedures for the realization of PSA and its applicability to the assurance of the operational reliability of the nuclear reactors, as well as a brief comparative between the approaches used in some countries traditionally users of thermonuclear energy and Brazil. By means of this analysis, it can be concluded that nuclear power is increasingly reliable and safe, being able to provide the necessary

  4. Complementary safety assessments - Report by the French Nuclear Safety Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    As an immediate consequence of the Fukushima accident, the French Authority of Nuclear Safety (ASN) launched a campaign of on-site inspections and asked operators (mainly EDF, AREVA and CEA) to make complementary assessments of the safety of the nuclear facilities they manage. The approach defined by ASN for the complementary safety assessments (CSA) is to study the behaviour of nuclear facilities in severe accidents situations caused by an off-site natural hazard according to accident scenarios exceeding the current baseline safety requirements. This approach can be broken into 2 phases: first conformity to current design and secondly an approach to the beyond design-basis scenarios built around the principle of defence in depth. 38 inspections were performed on issues linked to the causes of the Fukushima crisis. It appears that some sites have to reinforce the robustness of the heat sink. The CSA confirmed that the processes put into place at EDF to detect non-conformities were satisfactory. The complementary safety assessments demonstrated that the current seismic margins on the EDF nuclear reactors are satisfactory. With regard to flooding, the complementary safety assessments show that the complete reassessment carried out following the flooding of the Le Blayais nuclear power plant in 1999 offers the installations a high level of protection against the risk of flooding. Concerning the loss of electrical power supplies and the loss of cooling systems, the analysis of EDF's CSA reports showed that certain heat sink and electrical power supply loss scenarios can, if nothing is done, lead to core melt in just a few hours in the most unfavourable circumstances. As for nuclear facilities that are not power or experimental reactors, some difficulties have appeared to implement the CSA approach that was initially devised for reactors. Generally speaking, ASN considers that the safety of nuclear facilities must be made more robust to improbable risks which are not

  5. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  6. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  7. Dutch Risk Assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Risico- Inventarisatie- en Evaluatie-instrumenten’ is the name for the Dutch risk assessment (RA) tools. A RA tool can be used to perform a risk assessment including an evaluation of the identified risks. These tools were among the first online risk assessment tools developed in Europe. The

  8. Uncertainty analysis in safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Sullivan, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a very complex subject which requires the study of many different fields of science, like hydro geology, meteorology, geochemistry, etc. In addition, the waste disposal facilities are designed to last for a very long period of time. Both of these conditions make safety assessment projections filled with uncertainty. This paper addresses approaches for treatment of uncertainties in the safety assessment modeling due to the variability of data and some current approaches used to deal with this problem. (author)

  9. Risk assessment in maritime transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Teixeira, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    A review is presented of different approaches to quantify the risk in maritime transportation. The discussion of several accident statistics provides a global assessment of the risk levels and its differentiation in ship types and main types of ship losses. Early studies in the probability of ship loss by foundering and capsizing are reviewed. The approaches used to assess the risk of structural design are addressed. Finally a brief account is given of recent development of using formal safety assessments to support decision making on legislation applicable internationally to maritime transportation

  10. Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Vorobyev, Y.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Queral, C.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Rebollo, M. J.; Mena, L.; Gomez-Magin, J.

    2014-02-01

    IDPSA (Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is a family of methods which use tightly coupled probabilistic and deterministic approaches to address respective sources of uncertainties, enabling Risk informed decision making in a consistent manner. The starting point of the IDPSA framework is that safety justification must be based on the coupling of deterministic (consequences) and probabilistic (frequency) considerations to address the mutual interactions between stochastic disturbances (e.g. failures of the equipment, human actions, stochastic physical phenomena) and deterministic response of the plant (i.e. transients). This paper gives a general overview of some IDPSA methods as well as some possible applications to PWR safety analyses. (Author)

  11. Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment

  12. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  13. Risk assessment of component failure modes and human errors using a new FMECA approach: application in the safety analysis of HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardina, M; Castiglia, F; Tomarchio, E

    2014-01-01

    Failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is a safety technique extensively used in many different industrial fields to identify and prevent potential failures. In the application of traditional FMECA, the risk priority number (RPN) is determined to rank the failure modes; however, the method has been criticised for having several weaknesses. Moreover, it is unable to adequately deal with human errors or negligence. In this paper, a new versatile fuzzy rule-based assessment model is proposed to evaluate the RPN index to rank both component failure and human error. The proposed methodology is applied to potential radiological over-exposure of patients during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments. The critical analysis of the results can provide recommendations and suggestions regarding safety provisions for the equipment and procedures required to reduce the occurrence of accidental events. (paper)

  14. Implications of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, M.C.; Shah, S.M.; Gittus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is an analytical process that quantifies the likelihoods, consequences and associated uncertainties of the potential outcomes of postulated events. Starting with planned or normal operation, probabilistic risk assessment covers a wide range of potential accidents and considers the whole plant and the interactions of systems and human actions. Probabilistic risk assessment can be applied in safety decisions in design, licensing and operation of industrial facilities, particularly nuclear power plants. The proceedings include a review of PRA procedures, methods and technical issues in treating uncertainties, operating and licensing issues and future trends. Risk assessment for specific reactor types or components and specific risks (eg aircraft crashing onto a reactor) are used to illustrate the points raised. All 52 articles are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  15. Assessment of criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Clayton, E.D.; Carter, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of 100 violations of criticality safety specifications reported over a 10-y period in the operations of fuel reprocessing plants. The seriousness of each rule violation was evaluated by assigning it a severity index value. The underlying causes or reasons, for the violations were identified. A criticality event tree was constructed using the parameters, causes, and reasons found in the analysis of the infractions. The event tree provides a means for visualizing the paths to an accidental criticality. Some 65% of the violations were caused by misinterpretation on the part of the operator, being attributed to a lack of clarity in the specification and insufficient training; 33% were attributed to lack of care, whereas only 2% were caused by mechanical failure. A fault tree was constructed by assembling the events that could contribute to an accident. With suitable data on the probabilities of contributing events, the probability of the accident's occurrence can be forecast. Estimated probabilities for criticality were made, based on the limited data available, that in this case indicate a minimum time span of 244 y of plant operation per accident ranging up to approx. 3000 y subject to the various underlying assumptions made. Some general suggestions for improvement are formulated based on the cases studied. Although conclusions for other plants may differ in detail, the general method of analysis and the fault tree logic should prove applicable. 4 figures, 8 tables

  16. AGR core safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, N.; Reed, J.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate the safety of its gas-cooled graphite-moderated AGR reactors, nuclear safety assessments of the cores are based upon a methodology which demonstrates no component failures, geometrical stability of the structure and material properties bounded by a database. All AGRs continue to meet these three criteria. However, predictions of future core behaviour indicate that the safety case methodology will eventually need to be modified to deal with new phenomena. A new approach to the safety assessment of the cores is currently under development, which can take account of these factors while at the same time providing the same level of protection for the cores. This approach will be based on the functionality of the core: unhindered movement of control rods, continued adequate cooling of the fuel and the core, continued ability to charge and discharge fuel. (author). 5 figs

  17. A Real-Time Location-Based Services System Using WiFi Fingerprinting Algorithm for Safety Risk Assessment of Workers in Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of a real-time tunnel location-based services (LBS system to provide workers’ safety protection and various services in concrete dam site. In this study, received signal strength- (RSS- based location using fingerprinting algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN risk assessment is employed for position analysis. This tunnel LBS system achieves an online, real-time, intelligent tracking identification feature, and the on-site running system has many functions such as worker emergency call, track history, and location query. Based on ANN with a strong nonlinear mapping, and large-scale parallel processing capabilities, proposed LBS system is effective to evaluate the risk management on worker safety. The field implementation shows that the proposed location algorithm is reliable and accurate (3 to 5 meters enough for providing real-time positioning service. The proposed LBS system is demonstrated and firstly applied to the second largest hydropower project in the world, to track workers on tunnel site and assure their safety. The results show that the system is simple and easily deployed.

  18. Applications of probabilistic risk analysis in nuclear criticality safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Many documents have been prepared that try to define the scope of the criticality analysis and that suggest adding probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to the deterministic safety analysis. The report of the US Department of Energy (DOE) AL 5481.1B suggested that an accident is credible if the occurrence probability is >1 x 10 -6 /yr. The draft DOE 5480 safety analysis report suggested that safety analyses should include the application of methods such as deterministic safety analysis, risk assessment, reliability engineering, common-cause failure analysis, human reliability analysis, and human factor safety analysis techniques. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) report NRC SG830.110 suggested that major safety analysis methods should include but not be limited to risk assessment, reliability engineering, and human factor safety analysis. All of these suggestions have recommended including PRA in the traditional criticality analysis

  19. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  20. A probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive materials transport. A risk analysis of LLW package handling at harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kouno, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) method for radioactive materials (RAM) transport has been developed by CRIEPI. A case study was executed for the purpose of studying the adaptability of the PSA method to LLW package handling, which is one of the processes of the actual transport. The main results of the case study were as follows; 1) Accident scenarios for falling of package were extracted from the 25 ton-crane system chart and package handling manual. 2) Protection methods for each drop accident scenario were confirmed. 3) Important points of the crane system were extracted. 4) Fault trees, which describe accident scenarios, were developed. 5) Probabilities for each basic event and the top event on fault trees were calculated. Consequently, 'falling of a package' on the package handling process by the 25 ton-crane was revealed to be extremely low. Among the four major stages of handling process, i.e. 'Rolling-up', 'Horizontal travelling' 'Rolling-down' and 'Contact with loading platform', the 'Rolling-down' process was found to be a major process with occupies more than 50% of the probability of the falling accidents. According to those results, it was concluded that PSA method is adaptable to package handling from the view points of extraction of weak points and review of the effect of vestment for facility. (author)

  1. Safety assessments for potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.I.

    2012-04-01

    Safety Assessment of potential exposures have been carried out in major practices, namely: industrial radiography, gamma irradiators and electron accelerators used in industry and research, and radiotherapy. This paper focuses on reviewing safety assessment methodologies and using developed software to analyse radiological accidents, also review, and discuss these past accidents.The primary objective of the assessment is to assess the adequacy of planned or existing measures for protection and safety and to identify any additional measures that should be put in place. As such, both routine use of the source and the probability and magnitude of potential exposures arising from accidents or incidents should be considered. Where the assessment indicates that there is a realistic possibility of an accident affecting workers or members of the public or having consequences for the environment, the registrant or licensee should prepare a suitable emergency plan. A safety assessment for normal operation addresses all the conditions under which the radiation source operates as expected, including all phases of the lifetime of the source. Due account needs to be taken of the different factors and conditions that will apply during non-operational phases, such as installation, commissioning and maintenance. (author)

  2. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication supports the Safety Requirements on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. This Safety Guide was prepared on the basis of a systematic review of all the relevant publications including the Safety Fundamentals, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, current and ongoing revisions of other Safety Guides, INSAG reports and other publications that have addressed the safety of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide also provides guidance for Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety in meeting their obligations under Article 14 on Assessment and Verification of Safety. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design states that a comprehensive safety assessment and an independent verification of the safety assessment shall be carried out before the design is submitted to the regulatory body. This publication provides guidance on how this requirement should be met. This Safety Guide provides recommendations to designers for carrying out a safety assessment during the initial design process and design modifications, as well as to the operating organization in carrying out independent verification of the safety assessment of new nuclear power plants with a new or already existing design. The recommendations for performing a safety assessment are suitable also as guidance for the safety review of an existing plant. The objective of reviewing existing plants against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The methods and the recommendations of this Safety Guide can also be used by regulatory bodies for the conduct of the regulatory review and assessment. Although most recommendations of this Safety Guide are general and applicable to all types of nuclear reactors, some specific recommendations and examples apply mostly to water cooled reactors. Terms such as 'safety assessment', 'safety analysis' and 'independent

  3. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  4. Uncertainty analysis in safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sullivan, Terry [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear waste disposal is a very complex subject which requires the study of many different fields of science, like hydro geology, meteorology, geochemistry, etc. In addition, the waste disposal facilities are designed to last for a very long period of time. Both of these conditions make safety assessment projections filled with uncertainty. This paper addresses approaches for treatment of uncertainties in the safety assessment modeling due to the variability of data and some current approaches used to deal with this problem. (author) 13 refs.; e-mail: lemos at bnl.gov; sulliva1 at bnl.gov

  5. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  6. University building safety index measurement using risk and implementation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Arumsari, F.; Maryani, A.

    2018-04-01

    Many high rise building constructed in several universities in Indonesia. The high-rise building management must provide the safety planning and proper safety equipment in each part of the building. Unfortunately, most of the university in Indonesia have not been applying safety policy yet and less awareness on treating safety facilities. Several fire accidents in university showed that some significant risk should be managed by the building management. This research developed a framework for measuring the high rise building safety index in university The framework is not only assessed the risk magnitude but also designed modular building safety checklist for measuring the safety implementation level. The safety checklist has been developed for 8 types of the university rooms, i.e.: office, classroom, 4 type of laboratories, canteen, and library. University building safety index determined using risk-implementation matrix by measuring the risk magnitude and assessing the safety implementation level. Building Safety Index measurement has been applied in 4 high rise buildings in ITS Campus. The building assessment showed that the rectorate building in secure condition and chemical department building in beware condition. While the library and administration center building was in less secure condition.

  7. Human reliability in probabilistic safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Mendez, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nowadays a growing interest in medioambiental aspects is detected in our country. It implies an assessment of the risk involved in the industrial processess and installations in order to determine if those are into the acceptable limits. In these safety assessments, among which PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessments), can be pointed out the role played by the human being in the system is one of the more relevant subjects. (This relevance has been demostrated in the accidents happenned). However in Spain there aren't manuals specifically dedicated to asses the human contribution to risk in the frame of PSAs. This report aims to improve this situation providing: a) a theoretical background to help the reader in the understanding of the nature of the human error, b) a guide to carry out a Human Reliability Analysis and c) a selected overwiev of the techniques and methodologies currently applied in this area. (Author)

  8. Human Reliability in Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Mendez, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nowadays a growing interest in environmental aspects is detected in our country. It implies an assessment of the risk involved in the industrial processes and installations in order to determine if those are into the acceptable limits. In these safety assessments, among which PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessments), can be pointed out the role played by the human being in the system is one of the more relevant subjects (This relevance has been demonstrated in the accidents happened) . However, in Spain there aren't manuals specifically dedicated to asses the human contribution to risk in the frame of PSAs. This report aims to improve this situation providing: a) a theoretical background to help the reader in the understanding of the nature of the human error, b) a quid to carry out a Human Reliability Analysis and c) a selected overview of the techniques and methodologies currently applied in this area. (Author) 20 refs

  9. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  10. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  11. Probabilistic safety assessment goals in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    CANDU safety philosphy, both in design and in licensing, has always had a strong bias towards quantitative probabilistically-based goals derived from comparative safety. Formal probabilistic safety assessment began in Canada as a design tool. The influence of this carried over later on into the definition of the deterministic safety guidelines used in CANDU licensing. Design goals were further developed which extended the consequence/frequency spectrum of 'acceptable' events, from the two points defined by the deterministic single/dual failure analysis, to a line passing through lower and higher frequencies. Since these were design tools, a complete risk summation was not necessary, allowing a cutoff at low event frequencies while preserving the identification of the most significant safety-related events. These goals gave a logical framework for making decisions on implementing design changes proposed as a result of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis. Performing this analysis became a regulatory requirement, and the design goals remained the framework under which this was submitted. Recently, there have been initiatives to incorporate more detailed probabilistic safety goals into the regulatory process in Canada. These range from far-reaching safety optimization across society, to initiatives aimed at the nuclear industry only. The effectiveness of the latter is minor at very low and very high event frequencies; at medium frequencies, a justification against expenditures per life saved in other industries should be part of the goal setting

  12. Analytical solutions of linked fault tree probabilistic risk assessments using binary decision diagrams with emphasis on nuclear safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusbaumer, O. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study is concerned with the quantification of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) using linked Fault Tree (FT) models. Probabilistic Risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) complements traditional deterministic analysis; it is widely recognized as a comprehensive and structured approach to identify accident scenarios and to derive numerical estimates of the associated risk levels. PRA models as found in the nuclear industry have evolved rapidly. Increasingly, they have been broadly applied to support numerous applications on various operational and regulatory matters. Regulatory bodies in many countries require that a PRA be performed for licensing purposes. PRA has reached the point where it can considerably influence the design and operation of nuclear power plants. However, most of the tools available for quantifying large PRA models are unable to produce analytically correct results. The algorithms of such quantifiers are designed to neglect sequences when their likelihood decreases below a predefined cutoff limit. In addition, the rare event approximation (e.g. Moivre's equation) is typically implemented for the first order, ignoring the success paths and the possibility that two or more events can occur simultaneously. This is only justified in assessments where the probabilities of the basic events are low. When the events in question are failures, the first order rare event approximation is always conservative, resulting in wrong interpretation of risk importance measures. Advanced NPP PRA models typically include human errors, common cause failure groups, seismic and phenomenological basic events, where the failure probabilities may approach unity, leading to questionable results. It is accepted that current quantification tools have reached their limits, and that new quantification techniques should be investigated. A novel approach using the mathematical concept of Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is proposed to overcome these deficiencies

  13. Assessment of technical risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions.

  14. Quantified reliability and risk assessment methodology in safety evaluation and licensing: survey of practice and trends in E.C. countries; partial contribution in decision making, perpective of safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    Quantified reliability analysis of structures and systems and the quantified risk-concept is increasingly developed and applied in safety evaluation and in the licensing/regulatory process where deterministic approaches are however still predominant. A description of the types of application and a survey of the diversified opinions and the problem areas (e.g. the validity of input data, uncertainties in consequence modelling, human factors, common mode failures, etc.) are given. The significance of quantified risk assessment and comparisons, as one of the contributors in the solution to acceptability of modern technology such as nuclear power production, is discussed. Other contributions, such as benefit assessment and cost-efficiency of risk reduction, are also put into perspective within the decision-making process and in the problem of actual acceptance of new technologies. The growing need of developing and agreeing on overall safety objectives (how safe is safe enough) is finally discussed, in the light of the increasing diversity of approaches in the interconnected areas of accident hypotheses/sequences, siting parameters and technical bases for emergency planning; the latter problem being also closely connected to decisional processes for acceptability and to actual acceptance

  15. Safety management system needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The safety of the traveling public is critical as each year there are approximately 200 highway fatalities in Nebraska and numerous crash injuries. The objective of this research was to conduct a needs assessment to identify the requirements of a sta...

  16. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  17. Prospects for probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article provides some reflections on future developments of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in view of the present state of the art and evaluates current trends in the use of PSA for safety management. The main emphasis is on Level 1 PSA, although Level 2 aspects are also highlighted to some extent. As a starting point, the role of PSA is outlined from a historical perspective, demonstrating the rapid expansion of the uses of PSA. In this context the wide spectrum of PSA applications and the associated benefits to the users are in focus. It should be kept in mind, however, that PSA, in spite of its merits, is not a self-standing safety tool. It complements deterministic analysis and thus improves understanding and facilitating prioritization of safety issues. Significant progress in handling PSA limitations - such as reliability data, common-cause failures, human interactions, external events, accident progression, containment performance, and source-term issues - is described. This forms a background for expected future developments of PSA. Among the most important issues on the agenda for the future are PSA scope extensions, methodological improvements and computer code advancements, and full exploitation of the potential benefits of applications to operational safety management. Many PSA uses, if properly exercised, lead to safety improvements as well as major burden reductions. The article provides, in addition, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) perspective on the topics covered, as reflected in the current PSA programs of the agency. 74 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Living probabilistic safety assessment (LPSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years many nuclear power plant organizations have performed probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) to identify and understand key plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit to plant safety can be obtained. However, any PSA which is to be used in this way must have a credible and defensible basis. Thus, it is very important to have a high quality 'living PSA' accepted by the plant and the regulator. With this background in mind, the IAEA has prepared this report on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) which addresses the updating, documentation, quality assurance, and management and organizational requirements for LPSA. Deficiencies in the areas addressed in this report would seriously reduce the adequacy of the LPSA as a tool to support decision making at NPPs. This report was reviewed by a working group during a Technical Committee Meeting on PSA Applications to Improve NPP Safety held in Madrid, Spain, from 23 to 27 February 1998

  19. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  20. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  1. Safety assessment of genetically modified crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Keith T.

    2002-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable efforts to select acceptable and robust hybrid offspring. The difficulties of applying traditional toxicological testing and risk assessment procedures to whole foods are discussed along with the evaluation strategies that are used for these new food products to ensure the safety of these products for the consumer

  2. Categorization of reactor safety issues from a risk perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to identify and rank reactor safety and risk issues identified from past Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and other safety analyses. Because of the varied scope of these analyses, the list of issues may be incomplete. Nevertheless, those studies comprised ordered analyses to whatever their respective depths; hence, they warranted scrutiny for whatever insights they could reveal with respect to issue importance. The top-ranked issues in terms of their contribution to the uncertainty in risk are described in some detail. All of these risk issues are compared to the generic safety issues for completeness and omissions

  3. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  4. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  5. Determination of Safety Performance Grade of NPP Using Integrated Safety Performance Assessment (ISPA) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2000, the safety regulation of nuclear power plant (NPP) has been challenged to be conducted more reasonable, effective and efficient way using risk and performance information. In the United States, USNRC established Reactor Oversight Process (ROP) in 2000 for improving the effectiveness of safety regulation of operating NPPs. The main idea of ROP is to classify the NPPs into 5 categories based on the results of safety performance assessment and to conduct graded regulatory programs according to categorization, which might be interpreted as 'Graded Regulation'. However, the classification of safety performance categories is highly comprehensive and sensitive process so that safety performance assessment program should be prepared in integrated, objective and quantitative manner. Furthermore, the results of assessment should characterize and categorize the actual level of safety performance of specific NPP, integrating all the substantial elements for assessing the safety performance. In consideration of particular regulatory environment in Korea, the integrated safety performance assessment (ISPA) program is being under development for the use in the determination of safety performance grade (SPG) of a NPP. The ISPA program consists of 6 individual assessment programs (4 quantitative and 2 qualitative) which cover the overall safety performance of NPP. Some of the assessment programs which are already implemented are used directly or modified for incorporating risk aspects. The others which are not existing regulatory programs are newly developed. Eventually, all the assessment results from individual assessment programs are produced and integrated to determine the safety performance grade of a specific NPP

  6. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim

    2005-03-01

    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  7. Understanding and assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalling, Ian

    1997-01-01

    The 'Dalling' integrated model of organisational performance is introduced and described. A principal element of this model is culture, which is dynamically contrasted with the five other interacting critical elements, which comprise: the management system, the knowledge base, corporate leadership, stakeholders and consciousness. All six of these principal driving elements significantly influence health, safety, environmental, security, or any other aspect of organisational performance. It is asserted that the elements of organisational performance must be clearly defined and understood if meaningful measurements are to be carried out and sustained progress made in improving the knowledge of organisational performance. AEA Technology's safety culture research programme is then described together with the application of a safety culture assessment tool to organisations in the nuclear, electricity, transport, and oil and gas industries, both within and outside of the United Kingdom. (author)

  8. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles, A.; Pérez, Y.; Duménigo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice. [es

  9. Probabilistic safety assessment as a standpoint for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of probabilistic safety assessment in decision-making. The prerequisites for use of the results of probabilistic safety assessment and the criteria for the decision-making based on probabilistic safety assessment are discussed. The decision-making process is described. It provides a risk evaluation of impact of the issue under investigation. Selected examples are discussed, which highlight the described process. (authors)

  10. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion has significant potential safety advantages. There is a strong incentive for designing fusion plants to ensure that inherent safety will be achieved. Accordingly, both the Tokamak Power Systems Studies and MINIMARS have identified inherent safety as a design goal. A necessary condition is for the blanket to maintain its configuration and integrity under all credible accident conditions. A main problem is caused by afterheat removal in an accident condition. In this regard, it is highly desirable to achieve the required level of protection of the plant capital investment and limitation of radioactivity release by systems that rely only on inherent properties of matter (e.g., thermal conductivity, specific heat, etc.) and without the use of active safety equipment. This paper assesses the conditions under which inherent safety is feasible. Three types of accident conditions are evaluated for two blankets. The blankets evaluated are a self cooled vanadium/lithium blanket and a self-cooled vanadium/Flibe blanket. The accident conditions evaluated are: (1) loss-of-flow accident; (2) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA); and (3) partial loss-of-coolant accident

  11. Risk as a target of safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.

    1986-01-01

    Job creation is not the idea behind the demand for risk studies to be intensified in safety research. Risks are not only a target safety research should investigate, they are a subject that actually can be most adequately investigated by safety research. Assuming a neutral position between irrational fears and interest-minded problem minimization, that is the central approach and the ethics of a safety scientist. The Babylonian confusion of terminology experienced after the Chernobyl accident is a good example proving the necessity of fostering the neutral professionalism in safety research. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Operational risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Vicky L

    2017-06-01

    In the world of risk management, which encompasses the business continuity disciplines, many types of risk require evaluation. Financial risk is most often the primary focus, followed by product and market risks. Another critical area, which typically lacks a thorough review or may be overlooked, is operational risk. This category encompasses many risk exposure types including those around building structures and systems, environmental issues, nature, neighbours, clients, regulatory compliance, network, data security and so on. At times, insurance carriers will assess internal hazards, but seldom do these assessments include more than a cursory look at other types of operational risk. In heavily regulated environments, risk assessments are required but may not always include thorough assessments of operational exposures. Vulnerabilities may linger or go unnoticed, only to become the catalyst for a business disruption at a later time, some of which are so severe that business recovery becomes nearly impossible. Businesses may suffer loss of clients as the result of a prolonged disruption of services. Comprehensive operational risk assessments can assist in identifying such vulnerabilities, exposures and threats so that the risk can be minimised or removed. This paper lays out how an assessment of this type can be successfully conducted.

  13. Human reliability assessment and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Lucas, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) is used within Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to identify the human errors (both omission and commission) which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. There exist a variey of HRA techniques and the selection of an appropriate one is often difficult. This paper reviews a number of available HRA techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. The techniques reviewed include: decompositional methods, time-reliability curves and systematic expert judgement techniques. (orig.)

  14. Risk assessment [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis S. Ojima; Louis R. Iverson; Brent L. Sohngen; James M. Vose; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; David L. Peterson; Jeremy S. Littell; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters; Gary W. Yohe; Megan M. Friggens

    2014-01-01

    What is "risk" in the context of climate change? How can a "risk-based framework" help assess the effects of climate change and develop adaptation priorities? Risk can be described by the likelihood of an impact occurring and the magnitude of the consequences of the impact (Yohe 2010) (Fig. 9.1). High-magnitude impacts are always...

  15. Chemical Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course is aimed at providing an overview of the fundamental guiding principles and general methods used in chemical risk assessment. Chemical risk assessment is a complex and ever-evolving process. These principles and methods have been organized by the National Research Cou...

  16. Communicating on risk and safety in terms of awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    'Safety awareness' is proposed as a possibly constructive concept for the purpose of promoting initiatives in nuclear safety work and gaining improved understanding when communicating on nuclear safety. Safety is thus conceived as resulting essentially from and actually constituting awareness of critical factors in regard of safety. The concept aims specifically at promoting the view of 'safety' as 'awareness of required conditions for being in control of risk'. It aims as well at making clearer sense in calling for constant improvement of safety, according to practice in a safety culture. This proposed view would be expected to lead to applying the usual types of safety criteria but offers the merit of attracting due attention to 'awareness goals' in process oriented safety management which are fundamental to maintaining and improving safety. Applications are discussed in regard of communicating on nuclear safety between decision-makers and the general public, developing and maintaining safety culture, integrating specialist expert contributions in over-all safety assessment, setting safety goals and using safety indicators

  17. Taking the Risk Out of Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The ability to understand risks and have the right strategies in place when risky events occur is essential in the workplace. More and more organizations are being confronted with concerns over how to measure their risks or what kind of risks they can take when certain events transpire that could have a negative impact. NASA is one organization that faces these challenges on a daily basis, as effective risk management is critical to the success of its missions especially the Space Shuttle missions. On July 29, 1996, former NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin charged NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance with developing a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tool to support decisions on the funding of Space Shuttle upgrades. When issuing the directive, Goldin said, "Since I came to NASA [in 1992], we've spent billions of dollars on Shuttle upgrades without knowing how much they improve safety. I want a tool to help base upgrade decisions on risk." Work on the PRA tool began immediately. The resulting prototype, the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) Version 1.0, was jointly developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, its Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, and researchers at the University of Maryland. QRAS software automatically expands the reliability logic models of systems to evaluate the probability of highly detrimental outcomes occurring in complex systems that are subject to potential accident scenarios. Even in its earliest forms, QRAS was used to begin PRA modeling of the Space Shuttle. In parallel, the development of QRAS continued, with the goal of making it a world-class tool, one that was especially suited to NASA s unique needs. From the beginning, an important conceptual goal in the development of QRAS was for it to help bridge the gap between the professional risk analyst and the design engineer. In the past, only the professional risk analyst could perform, modify, use, and perhaps even adequately understand PRA. NASA wanted

  18. Confidence building in safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osthols, E.

    1999-01-01

    Engineered disposal systems are necessary to isolate radioactive waste from humans and the environment. It is essential to have access to basic thermochemical data relevant to varying geological environments for the radioactive elements involved. The OECD/NEA Thermochemical Data Base project (TDB) aims to make widely available basic thermochemical data of the type needed for safety assessment of nuclear storage facilities. The history and the present status of the project are presented. (K.A.)

  19. Mastery of risks and operational safety, risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Creating socially useful richness is certainly the prime reason for companies to exist. Reaching this always moving target leads to seize opportunities and to take risks at the same time. For companies, risks and opportunities are two indissociable factors. Any decision making has to deal with an uncertain environment with random events of technological, economical, biological, human, environmental or natural origin. Because of the fear of uncertainty, risk acts as a brake to initiatives. In front of this problem, companies have to adopt a prevention policy based on a global and systemic approach, by identifying, evaluating, quantifying, sorting, mastering and managing unwanted events and by communicating about the way to treat them. In front of uncertainties, the operational safety, thanks to its methods and tools, supplies an incomparable contribution in the form of an help to any decision made with uncertainties. Operational safety contributes to the evaluation of costs and makes more realistic the economical estimations by taking into account the foreseeable and unforeseeable risks. The mastery of unwanted events, of their stakes and uncertainties, allows companies to carry out their projects in non-determined contexts and in a competitive environment. This colloquium concerns all socio-economical actors: industrialists, investors, decision makers, university and laboratory staffs, etc., who need a better evaluation of risks for a better mastery of their decisions in all sectors of activity. Seventeen papers of this conference, dealing with safety analysis and risk assessment at nuclear facilities and at other energy-related facilities, have been selected for Inis. (J.S.)

  20. Overview of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimington, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits

  1. Overview of risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimington, J D [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits.

  2. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  3. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  4. Safety assessment of HLW geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Morimasa

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the Japanese nuclear program, the liquid waste with a high level of radioactivity arising from reprocessing is solidified in a stable glass matrix (vitrification) in stainless steel fabrication containers. The vitrified waste is referred to as high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and is characterized by very high initial radioactivity which, even though it decreases with time, presents a potential long-term risk. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly manage HLW from human and his environment. After vitrification, HLW is stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, and finally disposed of in a stable geological environment at depths greater than 300 m below surface. The deep underground environment, in general, is considered to be stable over geological timescales compared with surface environment. By selecting an appropriate disposal site, therefore, it is considered to be feasible to isolate the waste in the repository from man and his environment until such time as radioactivity levels have decayed to insignificance. The concept of geological disposal in Japan is similar to that in other countries, being based on a multibarrier system which combines the natural geological environment with engineered barriers. It should be noted that geological disposal concept is based on a passive safety system that does not require any institutional control for assuring long term environmental safety. To demonstrate feasibility of safe HLW repository concept in Japan, following technical steps are essential. Selection of a geological environment which is sufficiently stable for disposal (site selection). Design and installation of the engineered barrier system in a stable geological environment (engineering measures). Confirmation of the safety of the constructed geological disposal system (safety assessment). For site selection, particular consideration is given to the long-term stability of the geological environment taking into account the fact

  5. The safety of risk or the risk of safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Waarts, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Safety is nowadays one of the main items on the agenda during the planning, realisation and management of most large-scale projects, particularly in infrastructure and building projects in intensively used areas such as multiple use of land projects. It is vital that safety aspects are properly

  6. Big Data Risk Analysis for Rail Safety?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gulijk, Coen; Hughes, Peter; Figueres-Esteban, Miguel; Dacre, Marcus; Harrison, Chris; HUD; RSSB

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists believe that the enormous amounts of data in the internet will unchain a management revolution of uncanny proportions. Yet, to date, the potential benefit of this revolution is scantily investigated for safety and risk management. This paper gives a brief overview of a research programme that investigates how the new internet-driven data-revolution could benefit safety and risk management for railway safety in the UK. The paper gives a brief overview the current activities...

  7. Advanced methods for the risk, vulnerability and resilience assessment of safety-critical engineering components, systems and infrastructures, in the presence of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Safety-critical industrial installations (e.g., nuclear plants) and infrastructures (e.g., power transmission networks) are complex systems composed by a multitude and variety of heterogeneous 'elements', which are highly interconnected and mutually dependent. In addition, such systems are affected by large uncertainties in the characterization of the failure and recovery behavior of their components, interconnections and interactions. Such characteristics raise concerns with respect to the system risk, vulnerability and resilience properties, which have to be accurately and precisely assessed for decision making purposes. In general, this entails the following main steps: (1) representation of the system to capture its main features; (2) construction of a mathematical model of the system; (3) simulation of the behavior of the system under various uncertain conditions to evaluate the relevant risk, vulnerability and resilience metrics by propagating the uncertainties through the mathematical model; (4) decision making to (optimally) determine the set of protective actions to effectively reduce (resp., increase) the system risk and vulnerability (resp., resilience). New methods to address these issues have been developed in this dissertation. Specifically, the research works have been carried out along two main axes: (1) the study of approaches for uncertainty modeling and quantification; (2) the development of advanced computational methods for the efficient system modeling, simulation and analysis in the presence of uncertainties. (author)

  8. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  9. Business managers turn to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Risk assessments have evolved to help technical managers in nuclear and other industries to design and operate plant with safety in mind. However, they are now developing into the area of business management. (author)

  10. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. State of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.

    1978-03-01

    In view of the growing importance assumed in recent years by scientific work on the calculation, quantification, evaluation and acceptance as well as behavior in the face of risks in general and more specifically, the risks of large industrial plants, the report attempts to provide a survey of the current situation, results and evaluation of this new branch of research, risk assessment. The emphasis of the report is on the basic discussion and criticism of the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the field of risk assessment (section 3). It is concerned above all with - methodical problems of determining and quantifying risks (3.1) - questions of the possibility of risk evaluation and comp arison (3.1, 3.2) - the premises of normative and empirical studies on decision making under risk (3.2, 3.3) - investigations into society's acceptance of risks involved in the introduction of new technologies (3.4) - attempts to combine various aspects of the field of risk assessment in a unified concept (3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Because risk assessment is embedded in the framework of decision theory and technology assessment, it can be implicitly evaluated at a more general level within this framework, as far as its possibilities and weaknesses of method and application are concerned (section 4). Sections 2 and 5 deal with the social context of origin and utilization of risk assessment. Finally, an attempt is made at a summary indicating the possible future development of risk assessment. (orig./HP) [de

  12. IAEA safety requirements for safety assessment of fuel cycle facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorises the Agency to establish standards of safety for protection of health and minimisation of danger to life and property. In that respect, the IAEA has established a Safety Fundamentals publication which contains ten safety principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment from the harmful effects of ionising radiation. A number of these principles require safety assessments to be carried out as a means of evaluating compliance with safety requirements for all nuclear facilities and activities and to determine the measures that need to be taken to ensure safety. The safety assessments are required to be carried out and documented by the organisation responsible for operating the facility or conducting the activity, are to be independently verified and are to be submitted to the regulatory body as part of the licensing or authorisation process. In addition to the principles of the Safety Fundamentals, the IAEA establishes requirements that must be met to ensure the protection of people and the environment and which are governed by the principles in the Safety Fundamentals. The IAEA's Safety Requirements publication 'Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities', establishes the safety requirements that need to be fulfilled in conducting and maintaining safety assessments for the lifetime of facilities and activities, with specific attention to defence in depth and the requirement for a graded approach to the application of these safety requirements across the wide range of fuel cycle facilities and activities. Requirements for independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the operating organisation, including the requirement for the safety assessment to be periodically reviewed and updated are also covered. For many fuel cycle facilities and activities, environmental impact assessments and non-radiological risk assessments will be required. The

  13. Engineering safety assessment. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    There have been several major industrial accidents in recent years, notably the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Bhopal disaster and the Mexico City gas explosions. It is essential that engineers should understand the natures of the hazards and risks of industrial plant. This book is intended to give an introduction to this subject. Determining the risks associated with hazardous plant such as a chemical plant or a nuclear power station requires knowledge of the probability of a given accident, as well as knowledge of the likely consequences in terms of human lives or damaged property. In this book, the author explains these two main themes in assessing overall risk. He introduces basic probability theory, the assessment of systems reliabilities and structural reliabilities, and the means used to estimate the consequences of hypothetical major accidents. In particular, the methodologies for estimating the consequences of accidental explosion and accidents involving the release of airborne toxic materials (including chemical toxins, carcinogens, and radioactive materials) are explained. A final chapter explores the difficult question of 'acceptable' risk, and how much can justifiably be spent on risk reduction. Intended for use by final year students of chemical, mechanical or nuclear engineering, this book will also be suitable for postgraduate students and practising engineers and scientists whose work involves them in risk assessment. (author)

  14. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  15. The Risk Assessment at the Workplace of Assembly Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Burda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk Assessment Process by FMEA method involve hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control processes and their input is fundamental to a successful EH&S system. This Risk assessment tool follows the general process and requirements of the Health and Safety Risk Assessment Procedure.

  16. Safety assessment of a lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Roberta, Ferri; Barbara, Giannone

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the safety assessment of the lithium target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) through evaluating the most important risk factors related to system operation and verifying the fulfillment of the safety criteria. The hazard assessment is based on using a well-structured Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) procedure by detailing on a component-by-component basis all the possible failure modes and identifying their effects on the plant. Additionally, a systems analysis, applying the fault tree technique, is performed in order to evaluate, from a probabilistic standpoint, all the relevant and possible failures of each component required for safe system operation and assessing the unavailability of the lithium target system. The last task includes the thermal-hydraulic transient analysis of the target lithium loop, including operational and accident transients. A lithium target loop model is developed, using the RELAP5/Mod3.2 thermal-hydraulic code, which has been modified to include specific features of IFMIF itself. The main conclusions are that target safety is fulfilled, the hazards associated with lithium operation are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries, the environmental impact is negligible, and the plant responds to the simulated transients by being able to reach steady conditions in a safety situation

  17. Therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient: safety planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Wortzel, Hal S

    2014-05-01

    This column is the fourth in a series describing a model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. Previous columns presented an overview of the therapeutic risk management model, provided recommendations for how to augment risk assessment using structured assessments, and discussed the importance of risk stratification in terms of both severity and temporality. This final column in the series discusses the safety planning intervention as a critical component of therapeutic risk management of suicide risk. We first present concerns related to the relatively common practice of using no-suicide contracts to manage risk. We then present the safety planning intervention as an alternative approach and provide recommendations for how to use this innovative strategy to therapeutically mitigate risk in the suicidal patient.

  18. Safety assessment for spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Practice has been prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on the safety assessment of interim spent fuel storage facilities which are not an integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. This report provides general guidance on the safety assessment process, discussing both deterministic and probabilistic assessment methods. It describes the safety assessment process for normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and also related to accident conditions. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  19. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  20. TWRS safety and technical integration risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety and Technical Integration (STI) programmatic risk management program are to assess, analyze, and handle risks associated with TWRS STI responsibilities and to communicate information about the actions being taken and the results to enable decision making. The objective of this TWRS STI Risk Management Plan is to communicate a consistent approach to risk management that will be used by the organization

  1. Safety in relation to risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1985-01-01

    The proper definition and quantification of human safety is discussed and from this basis the historical development of our present very high standard of safety is traced. It is shown that increased safety is closely associated with increased wealth, and the quantitative relationship between then is derived from different sources of evidence. When this factor is applied to the production of wealth by industry, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the asserted risks by orders of magnitude. It is concluded that present policies and attitudes in respect to the safety of industry may be diametrically wrong. (orig.) [de

  2. Aging in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Cizelj, R.; Kozuh, M.

    1995-01-01

    Aging is a phenomenon, which is influencing on unavailability of all components of the plant. The influence of aging on Probabilistic Safety Assessment calculations was estimated for Electrical Power Supply System. The average increase of system unavailability due to aging of system components was estimated and components were prioritized regarding their influence on change of system unavailability and relative increase of their unavailability due to aging. After the analysis of some numerical results, the recommendation for a detailed research of aging phenomena and its influence on system availability is given. (author)

  3. Safety Goal, Multi-unit Risk and PSA Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon-Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The safety goal is an answer of each country to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'. Table 1 shows some examples of the safety goal. However, many countries including Korea do not have the official safety goal for NPPs up to now since the establishment of safety goal is not just a technical issue but a very complex socio-technical issue. In establishing the safety goal for nuclear facilities, we have to consider various factors including not only technical aspects but also social, cultural ones. Recently, Korea is trying to establish the official safety goal. In this paper, we will review the relationship between the safety goal and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). We will also address some important technical issues to be considered in establishing the safety goal for NPPs from PSA point of view, i.e. a multi-unit risk issue and the uncertainty of PSA. In this paper, we reviewed some issues related to the safety goal and PSA. We believe that the safety goal is to be established in Korea considering the multi-unit risk. In addition, the relationship between the safety goal and PSA should be also defined clearly since PSA is the only way to answer to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'.

  4. Waste isolation safety assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.

    1979-05-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Among the analyses required for isolation system evaluation is the detailed assessment of the post-closure performance of nuclear waste repositories in geologic formations. This assessment is essential, since it is concerned with aspects of the nuclear power program which previously have not been addressed. Specifically, the nature of the isolation systems (e.g., involving breach scenarios and transport through the geosphere), and the time-scales necessary for isolation, dictate the development, demonstration and application of novel assessment capabilities. The assessment methodology needs to be thorough, flexible, objective, and scientifically defensible. Further, the data utilized must be accurate, documented, reproducible, and based on sound scientific principles

  5. Understanding Risk Tolerance and Building an Effective Safety Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, David

    2018-01-01

    Estimates range from 65-90 percent of catastrophic mishaps are due to human error. NASA's human factors-related mishaps causes are estimated at approximately 75 percent. As much as we'd like to error-proof our work environment, even the most automated and complex technical endeavors require human interaction... and are vulnerable to human frailty. Industry and government are focusing not only on human factors integration into hazardous work environments, but also looking for practical approaches to cultivating a strong Safety Culture that diminishes risk. Industry and government organizations have recognized the value of monitoring leading indicators to identify potential risk vulnerabilities. NASA has adapted this approach to assess risk controls associated with hazardous, critical, and complex facilities. NASA's facility risk assessments integrate commercial loss control, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Process Safety, API (American Petroleum Institute) Performance Indicator Standard, and NASA Operational Readiness Inspection concepts to identify risk control vulnerabilities.

  6. Sovereign default risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, H.A.; Altman, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach toward assessing sovereign risk by examining rigorously the health and aggregate default risk of a nation's private corporate sector. Models can be utilised to measure the probability of default of the non-financial sector cumulatively for five years, both as an absolute

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment - regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Paul, U.K.; Hajra, P.; Agarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been designed, constructed and operated mainly based on deterministic safety analysis philosophy. In this approach, a substantial amount of safety margin is incorporated in the design and operational requirements. Additional margin is incorporated by applying the highest quality engineering codes, standards and practices, and the concept of defence-in-depth in design and operating procedures, by including conservative assumptions and acceptance criteria in plant response analysis of postulated initiating events (PIEs). However, as the probabilistic approach has been improved and refined over the years, it is possible for the designer, operator and regulator to get a more detailed and realistic picture of the safety importance of plant design features, operating procedures and operational practices by using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) along with the deterministic methodology. At present, many countries including USA, UK and France are using PSA insights in their decision making along with deterministic basis. India has also made substantial progress in the development of methods for carrying out PSA. However, consensus on the use of PSA in regulatory decision-making has not been achieved yet. This paper emphasises on the requirements (e.g.,level of details, key modelling assumptions, data, modelling aspects, success criteria, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis) for improving the quality and consistency in performance and use of PSA that can facilitate meaningful use of the PSA insights in the regulatory decision-making in India. This paper also provides relevant information on international scenario and various application areas of PSA along with progress made in India. The PSA perspective presented in this paper may help in achieving consensus on the use of PSA for regulatory / utility decision-making in design and operation of NPPs

  8. Managing risk in healthcare: understanding your safety culture using the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianne

    2009-03-01

    To provide sufficient information about the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF) to allow healthcare professionals to assess its potential usefulness. The assessment of safety culture is an important aspect of risk management, and one in which there is increasing interest among healthcare organizations. Manchester Patient Safety Framework offers a theory-based framework for assessing safety culture, designed specifically for use in the NHS. The framework covers multiple dimensions of safety culture, and five levels of safety culture development. This allows the generation of a profile of an organization's safety culture in terms of areas of relative strength and challenge, which can be used to identify focus issues for change and improvement. Manchester Patient Safety Framework provides a useful method for engaging healthcare professionals in assessing and improving the safety culture in their organization, as part of a programme of risk management.

  9. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  10. OSART Independent Safety Culture Assessment (ISCA) Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture is understood as an important part of nuclear safety performance. This has been demonstrated by the analysis of significant events such as Chernobyl, Davis Besse, Vandellos II, Asco, Paks, Mihamma and Forsmark, among others. In order to enhance safety culture, one essential activity is to perform assessments. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-3, The Management System for Facilitites and Activities, states requirements for continuous improvement of safety culture, of which self, peer and independent safety culture assessments constitute an essential part. In line with this requirement, the Independent Safety Culture Assessment (ISCA) module is offered as an add-on module to the IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme. The OSART programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. By including the ISCA module in an OSART mission, the receiving organization benefits from the synergy between the technical and the safety culture aspects of the safety review. The joint operational safety and safety culture assessment provides the organization with the opportunity to better understand the interactions between technical, human, organizational and cultural aspects, helping the organization to take a systemic approach to safety through identifying actions that fully address the root causes of any identified issue. Safety culture assessments provide insight into the fundamental drivers that shape organizational patterns of behaviour, safety consciousness and safety performance. The complex nature of safety culture means that the analysis of the results of such assessments is not as straightforward as for other types of assessment. The benefits of the results of nuclear safety culture assessments are maximized only if appropriate tools and guidance for these assessments is used; hence, this comprehensive guideline has been developed. The methodology explained

  11. Risk Assessment for an Unmanned Merchant Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø.J. Rødseth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The MUNIN project is doing a feasibility study on an unmanned bulk carrier on an intercontinental voyage. To develop the technical and operational concepts, MUNIN has used a risk-based design method, based on the Formal Safety Analysis method which is also recommended by the International Mari-time Organization. Scenario analysis has been used to identify risks and to simplify operational scope. Systematic hazard identification has been used to find critical safety and security risks and how to address these. Technology and operational concept testing is using a hypothesis-based test method, where the hypotheses have been created as a result of the risk assessment. Finally, the cost-benefit assessment will also use results from the risk assessment. This paper describes the risk assessment method, some of the most important results and also describes how the results have been or will be used in the different parts of the project.

  12. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  13. Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswal, V. H.

    2001-01-01

    Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

  14. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  15. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinaishin, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  16. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  17. Probabilistic safety assessment for seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Technical Document on Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Seismic Events is mainly associated with the Safety Practice on Treatment of External Hazards in PSA and discusses in detail one specific external hazard, i.e. earthquakes

  18. Chlorine transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautkaski, Risto; Mankamo, Tuomas.

    1977-02-01

    An assessment has been made on the toxication risk of the population due to the bulk rail transportation of liquid chlorine in Finland. Fourteen typical rail accidents were selected and their probability was estimated using the accident file of the Finnish State Railways. The probability of a chlorine leak was assessed for each type of accident separately using four leak size categories. The assessed leakage probability was dominated by station accidents, especially by collisions of a chlorine tanker and a locomotive. Toxication hazard areas were estimated for the leak categories. A simple model was constructed to describe the centring of the densely populated areas along the railway line. A comparison was made between the obtained risk and some other risks including those due to nuclear reactor accidents. (author)

  19. Risk assessment and management in IOR projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, S.G.; Gregory, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The application of IOR techniques is one of the investment opportunities open to Exploration and Production companies. A project will only go forward if the perceived balance between the rewards and the risks is acceptable. IOR projects may be ruled out because they are considered to involve significantly higher risks than conventional developments. Therefore, some means of evaluating the actual level of risk may be required if the full economic benefits from IOR techniques are to be realized. Risk assessment is a key element in safety cases, where a well-established methodology for quantifying risk exists. This paper discusses the extension of these methods to IOR project risk assessment. Combining reservoir and IOR technique uncertainties with their impact on project performance allows project risk to be better quantified. The results of the risk assessment are presented in terms of a risk-reward diagram that plots the probability surface for possible project outcomes as a function of NPV (reward) and exposure (risk)

  20. Nuclear safety research - risk and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear power industry deals in many kinds of risks, complicated by political stress and communication problems. Power plant design must prepare for the unexpected attack, physical as well as psychological, but a zero-defects technology is not possible. The public has not been made sufficiently aware of the risk the US takes if there is not enough energy because nuclear power has been curtailed. Energy shortages could drive industry and jobs abroad, force the public to turn to government for a solution, drive the country to energy allocation, and cause a nuclear war. Policies that prevent closing the nuclear fuel cycle are ineffective in preventing proliferation and counterproductive to national needs

  1. Risk Assessment in the Maritime Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a well-developed field which many operators are currently applying to improve their operations and reduce their risk exposure. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the risk assessment for mariners in the Maritime transportation. The risks addressed are primarily those affecting the safety of a vessel, facility or operation. The concept of risk is defined, and the methods available to assess the risks associated with an operation are described. Regulatory requirements that have prompted the development of modern risk assessment practices are described, and future regulatory trends are discussed. There are many different analysis techniques and models that have been developed to aid in conducting risk assessments. A key to any successful risk analysis is choosing the right method (or combination of methods for the situation at hand. This is achieved through critical analysis of the available data concerning marine crises. This paper provides a brief introduction to some of the analysis methods available and suggests risk analysis approaches to support different types of decision making within the maritime transportation to cope with crises. Finally, as awareness of risk assessment increases, the benefits which can be realized through its application will continue to increase. Organizations in both the public and the private sector are becoming more and more familiar with the benefits associated with risk-based approaches to managing safety and consequently reducing crisis in maritime transportation.

  2. Consideration of aging in probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titina, B.; Cepin, M.

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment is a standardised tool for assessment of safety of nuclear power plants. It is a complement to the safety analyses. Standard probabilistic models of safety equipment assume component failure rate as a constant. Ageing of systems, structures and components can theoretically be included in new age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment, which generally causes the failure rate to be a function of age. New age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment models, which offer explicit calculation of the ageing effects, are developed. Several groups of components are considered which require their unique models: e.g. operating components e.g. stand-by components. The developed models on the component level are inserted into the models of the probabilistic safety assessment in order that the ageing effects are evaluated for complete systems. The preliminary results show that the lack of necessary data for consideration of ageing causes highly uncertain models and consequently the results. (author)

  3. Assessment of fracture risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanis, John A.; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V.

    2009-01-01

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Bailey, R.T.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O'Kula, K.R.; Wittman, R.S.; Woody, N.D.; Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide useful information to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other DOE programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety

  5. NANoREG framework for the safety assessment of nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardo, Stefania; Alessandrelli, Maria; Amenta, Valeria; Atluri, Rambabu; Barberio, Grazia; Bekker, Cindy; Bergonzo, Philippe; Bleeker, Eric; Booth, Andy; Borges, Teresa; Buttol, Patrizia; Carlander, David; Castelli, Stefano; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The NANoREG framework addresses the need to ease the nanomaterials safety assessment in the REACH Regulation context. It offers forward-looking strategies: Safe-by-Design, a Nanospecific Prioritisation and Risk Assessment, and Life Cycle Assessment. It is intended for scientific experts, regulatory authorities and industry.

  6. Selection of tolerable risk criteria for dam safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.M.; Hartford, D.N.D.; MacDonald, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment has received increasing attention in recent years as a means of aiding decision making on dams by providing systematic and rational methods for dealing with risk and uncertainty. Risk assessment is controversial and decisions affecting risk to life are the most controversial. Tolerable criteria, based on the risks that society is prepared to accept in order to avoid excessive costs, set bounds within which risk-based decisions may be made. The components of risk associated with dam safety are addressed on an individual basis and criteria established for each component, thereby permitting flexibility in the balance between component risk and avoiding the problems of placing a monetary value on life. The guiding principle of individual risk is that dams do not impose intolerable risks on any individual. A risk to life of 1 in 10 4 per annum is generally considered the maximum tolerable risk. When considering societal risk, the safety of a dam should be proportional to the consequences of its failure. Risks of financial losses beyond the corporation's ability to finance should be so low as to be considered negligible. 17 refs., 3 figs

  7. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Stian [Section for Control Systems, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Stian.Ruud@dnv.com; Mikkelsen, Age [Section for Lifting Appliances, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Age.Mikkelsen@dnv.com

    2008-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented.

  8. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Stian; Mikkelsen, Age

    2008-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented

  9. Getting fire risk assessment right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, David

    2012-06-01

    The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures.

  10. Risk prediction, safety analysis and quantitative probability methods - a caveat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    Views are expressed on the use of quantitative techniques for the determination of value judgements in nuclear safety assessments, hazard evaluation, and risk prediction. Caution is urged when attempts are made to quantify value judgements in the field of nuclear safety. Criteria are given the meaningful application of reliability methods but doubts are expressed about their application to safety analysis, risk prediction and design guidances for experimental or prototype plant. Doubts are also expressed about some concomitant methods of population dose evaluation. The complexities of new designs of nuclear power plants make the problem of safety assessment more difficult but some possible approaches are suggested as alternatives to the quantitative techniques criticized. (U.K.)

  11. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated 'toolkit' consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  12. Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model for Safety Technology Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.

  13. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckle, F.

    1991-01-01

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Risk based limits for Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    OSR limits are designed to protect the assumptions made in the facility safety analysis in order to preserve the safety envelope during facility operation. Normally, limits are set based on ''worst case conditions'' without regard to the likelihood (frequency) of a credible event occurring. In special cases where the accident analyses are based on ''time at risk'' arguments, it may be desirable to control the time at which the facility is at risk. A methodology has been developed to use OSR limits to control the source terms and the times these source terms would be available, thus controlling the acceptable risk to a nuclear process facility. The methodology defines a new term ''gram-days''. This term represents the area under a source term (inventory) vs time curve which represents the risk to the facility. Using the concept of gram-days (normalized to one year) allows the use of an accounting scheme to control the risk under the inventory vs time curve. The methodology results in at least three OSR limits: (1) control of the maximum inventory or source term, (2) control of the maximum gram-days for the period based on a source term weighted average, and (3) control of the maximum gram-days at the individual source term levels. Basing OSR limits on risk based safety analysis is feasible, and a basis for development of risk based limits is defensible. However, monitoring inventories and the frequencies required to maintain facility operation within the safety envelope may be complex and time consuming

  15. Risk assessment - black art or science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of risk can be divided into two categories, those that observe or calculate the risk of a process or project, and those that rely on the level of risk as perceived by the people during the assessment. Collection of data of accidents (where cause and effect are obvious) and experiments on animals which can then be extrapolated to humans, are two ways of risk assessment. Mathematical models and computerized simulations, using either fault tree analysis or Monte Carlo methods are explained simply. Using these methods, experts are able to perceive risk fairly realistically. However, the general public's perception of risk is often quite different, as potential risk is assessed in different ways. The concept of tolerable risk is considered, particularly with reference to nuclear reactors such as Sizewell-B. The need to inform the public of safeguards and safety procedures so they have a better understanding of the risks of nuclear power is stressed. (U.K.)

  16. Model uncertainty in safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Huovinen, T.

    1996-01-01

    The uncertainty analyses are an essential part of any risk assessment. Usually the uncertainties of reliability model parameter values are described by probability distributions and the uncertainty is propagated through the whole risk model. In addition to the parameter uncertainties, the assumptions behind the risk models may be based on insufficient experimental observations and the models themselves may not be exact descriptions of the phenomena under analysis. The description and quantification of this type of uncertainty, model uncertainty, is the topic of this report. The model uncertainty is characterized and some approaches to model and quantify it are discussed. The emphasis is on so called mixture models, which have been applied in PSAs. Some of the possible disadvantages of the mixture model are addressed. In addition to quantitative analyses, also qualitative analysis is discussed shortly. To illustrate the models, two simple case studies on failure intensity and human error modeling are described. In both examples, the analysis is based on simple mixture models, which are observed to apply in PSA analyses. (orig.) (36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.)

  17. Model uncertainty in safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, U; Huovinen, T [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1996-01-01

    The uncertainty analyses are an essential part of any risk assessment. Usually the uncertainties of reliability model parameter values are described by probability distributions and the uncertainty is propagated through the whole risk model. In addition to the parameter uncertainties, the assumptions behind the risk models may be based on insufficient experimental observations and the models themselves may not be exact descriptions of the phenomena under analysis. The description and quantification of this type of uncertainty, model uncertainty, is the topic of this report. The model uncertainty is characterized and some approaches to model and quantify it are discussed. The emphasis is on so called mixture models, which have been applied in PSAs. Some of the possible disadvantages of the mixture model are addressed. In addition to quantitative analyses, also qualitative analysis is discussed shortly. To illustrate the models, two simple case studies on failure intensity and human error modeling are described. In both examples, the analysis is based on simple mixture models, which are observed to apply in PSA analyses. (orig.) (36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.).

  18. Integrating risk management and safety culture in a framework for risk informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Operators and regulators of nuclear power plants agree on the importance of maintaining safety and controlling accident risks. Effective safety and risk management requires treatment of both technical and organizational components. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides tools for technical risk management. However, organizational factors are not treated in PRA, but are addressed using different approaches. To bring both components together, a framework of Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is needed. The objective tree structure of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a promising approach to combine both elements. Effective collaboration involving regulatory and industry groups is needed to accomplish the integration. (author)

  19. Safety regulations: Implications of the new risk perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, T.; Ylönen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current safety regulations for industrial activities are to a large extent functionally oriented and risk-based (informed), expressing what to achieve rather than the means and solutions needed. They are founded on a probability-based perspective on risk, with the use of risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria and tolerability limits. In recent years several risk researchers have argued for the adoption of some new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is defined, the point being to better reflect the knowledge, and lack of knowledge, dimension of risk. The Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority has recently implemented such a perspective. The new ISO standard 31000 is based on a similar thinking. In this paper we discuss the implications of these perspectives on safety regulation, using the oil & gas and nuclear industries as illustrations. Several suggestions for how to develop the current safety regulations in line with the ideas of the new risk perspectives are outlined, including some related to the use of risk acceptance criteria (tolerability limits). We also point to potential obstacles and incentives that the larger societal and institutional setting may impose on industry as regards the adoption of the new risk perspectives. - Highlights: • Some new types of risk perspectives have been promoted. • They have been implemented for example by the Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority. • The paper studies the implication of these perspectives on the risk regulation. • Suggestions for how to develop the regulations are provided • Obstacles and incentives for the implementation of the perspectives are pointed to.

  20. Development of safety related technology and infrastructure for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.

    1997-01-01

    Development and optimum utilisation of any technology calls for the building up of the necessary infrastructure and backup facilities. This is particularly true for a developing country like India and more so for an advanced technology like nuclear technology. Right from the inception of its nuclear power programme, the Indian approach has been to develop adequate infrastructure in various areas such as design, construction, manufacture, installation, commissioning and safety assessment of nuclear plants. This paper deals with the development of safety related technology and the relevant infrastructure for safety assessment. A number of computer codes for safety assessment have been developed or adapted in the areas of thermal hydraulics, structural dynamics etc. These codes have undergone extensive validation through data generated in the experimental facilities set up in India as well as participation in international standard problem exercises. Side by side with the development of the tools for safety assessment, the development of safety related technology was also given equal importance. Many of the technologies required for the inspection, ageing assessment and estimation of the residual life of various components and equipment, particularly those having a bearing on safety, were developed. This paper highlights, briefly, the work carried out in some of the areas mentioned above. (author)

  1. Thinking of the safety assessment of HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Honghui; Zhao Shuaiwei; Liu Jianqin; Liu Wei; Wan Lei; Yang Zhongtian; An Hongxiang; Sun Qinghong

    2014-01-01

    The function and the research methods of safety assessment are discussed. Two methods about safety assessment and the requirement of safety assessment are introduced. The key parameters and influence factors in nuclide transport of safety assessment are specialized. The works will be done on safety assessment is discussed which will give some suggests for the development of safety assessment. (authors)

  2. Nuclear safety culture and integrated risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    A primary focus of nuclear safety is the prevention of large releases of radioactivity in the case of low-probability severe accidents. An analysis of the anatomy of nuclear (Chernobyl, Three Mile Island Unit 2) and nonnuclear (Challenger, Bhopal, Piper Alpha, etc.) severe accidents yields four broad categories of root causes: human (operating crew response), machine (design with its basic flaws), media (natural phenomena, operational considerations, political environment, commercial pressures, etc.)-providing triggering events, and management (basic organizational safety culture flaws). A strong management can minimize the contributions of humans, machines, and media to the risk arising from the operation of hazardous facilities. One way that management can have a powerful positive influence is through the establishment of a proper safety culture. The term safety culture is used as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Safety Advisory Group

  3. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process

  4. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  5. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.

  6. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  7. Regulatory review of safety cases and safety assessments - associated challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory reviews of safety cases and safety assessments are essential for credible decision making on the licensing or authorization of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Regulatory review also plays an important role in developing the safety case and in establishing stakeholders' confidence in the safety of the facility. Reviews of safety cases for radioactive waste disposal facilities need to be conducted by suitably qualified and experienced staff, following systematic and well planned review processes. Regulatory reviews should be sufficiently comprehensive in their coverage of issues potentially affecting the safety of the disposal system, and should assess the safety case against clearly established criteria. The conclusions drawn from a regulatory review, and the rationale for them should be reproducible and documented in a transparent and traceable way. Many challenges are faced when conducting regulatory reviews of safety cases. Some of these relate to issues of project and programme management, and resources, while others derive from the inherent difficulties of assessing the potential long term future behaviour of engineered and environmental systems. The paper describes approaches to the conduct of regulatory reviews and discusses some of the challenges faced. (author)

  8. Advanced Test Reactor outage risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, T.A.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, risk assessment was performed for each Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) outage aiding the coordination of plant configuration and work activities (maintenance, construction projects, etc.) to minimize the risk of reactor fuel damage and to improve defense-in-depth. The risk assessment activities move beyond simply meeting Technical Safety Requirements to increase the awareness of risk sensitive configurations, to focus increased attention on the higher risk activities, and to seek cost-effective design or operational changes that reduce risk. A detailed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) had been performed to assess the risk of fuel damage during shutdown operations including heavy load handling. This resulted in several design changes to improve safety; however, evaluation of individual outages had not been performed previously and many risk insights were not being utilized in outage planning. The shutdown PRA provided the necessary framework for assessing relative and absolute risk levels and assessing defense-in-depth. Guidelines were written identifying combinations of equipment outages to avoid. Screening criteria were developed for the selection of work activities to receive review. Tabulation of inherent and work-related initiating events and their relative risk level versus plant mode has aided identification of the risk level the scheduled work involves. Preoutage reviews are conducted and post-outage risk assessment is documented to summarize the positive and negative aspects of the outage with regard to risk. The risk for the outage is compared to the risk level that would result from optimal scheduling of the work to be performed and to baseline or average past performance

  9. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.) [de

  10. Assessing safety risk in electricity distribution processes using ET & BA improved technique and its ranking by VIKOR and TOPSIS models in fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahmani

    2016-04-01

      Conclusion: The height and electricity are of the main causes of accidents in electricity transmission and distribution industry which caused the overhead power networks to be ranked as high risk. Application of decision-making models in fuzzy environment minimizes the judgment of assessors in the risk assessment process.

  11. Additional safety assessment of ITER - Addition safety investigation of the INB ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This assessment aims at re-assessing safety margins in the light of events which occurred in Fukushima Daiichi, i.e. extreme natural events challenging the safety of installations. After a presentation of some characteristics of the ITER installation (location, activities, buildings, premise detritiation systems, electric supply, handling means, radioactive materials, chemical products, nuclear risks, specific risks), the report addresses the installation robustness by identifying cliff-edge effect risks which can be related to a loss of confinement of radioactive materials, explosions, a significant increase of exposure level, a possible effect on water sheets, and so on. The next part addresses the various aspects related to a seismic risk: installation sizing (assessment methodology, seismic risk characterization in Cadarache), sizing protection measures, installation compliance, and margin assessment. External flooding is the next addressed risk: installation sizing with respect to this specific risk, protection measures, installation compliance, margin assessment, and studied additional measures. Other extreme natural phenomena are considered (meteorological conditions, earthquake and flood) which may have effects on other installations (dam, canal). Then, the report addresses technical risks like the loss of electric supplies and cooling systems, the way a crisis is managed in terms of technical and human means and organization in different typical accidental cases. Subcontracting practices are also discussed. A synthesis proposes an overview of this additional safety assessment and discusses the impact which could have additional measures which could be implemented

  12. Intermediate probabilistic safety assessment approach for safety critical digital systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taeyong, Sung; Hyun Gook, Kang

    2001-01-01

    Even though the conventional probabilistic safety assessment methods are immature for applying to microprocessor-based digital systems, practical needs force to apply it. In the Korea, UCN 5 and 6 units are being constructed and Korean Next Generation Reactor is being designed using the digital instrumentation and control equipment for the safety related functions. Korean regulatory body requires probabilistic safety assessment. This paper analyzes the difficulties on the assessment of digital systems and suggests an intermediate framework for evaluating their safety using fault tree models. The framework deals with several important characteristics of digital systems including software modules and fault-tolerant features. We expect that the analysis result will provide valuable design feedback. (authors)

  13. The issue of risk dilution in risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.; Robinson, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores an issue that was first highlighted more than 20 years ago during an inquiry concerning the Sizeweli B nuclear power station in the UK. In the probabilistic safety assessment for this plant, the proponent had apparently reduced its estimates of risk by admitting to increased uncertainty about the timing of certain events. This situation is counter-intuitive, since an increase in uncertainty about the factors contributing to safety would be expected to lead to less confidence and hence to greater risk. This paradoxical situation was termed 'risk dilution' and it has been a topic of interest to reviewers of safety cases since. The recent international peer review of the Yucca Mountain performance assessments concluded that there was a potential for risk dilution in the assumptions and calculations presented. The next section describes how assumptions about the timing of events and other aspects of an assessment may lead to risk dilution, and this is followed by two examples based on recent performance assessments. The final section discusses how potential problems can be identified in safety cases, and the types of response that a regulator might adopt as a result. (authors)

  14. Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme bibliography, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.

    1990-10-01

    This bibliography lists reports and papers written as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme, which is concerned with disposal of low-level and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) and associated radiological assessments. (author)

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment activities at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdonas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Barselina Project was initiated in the summer 1991. The project was a multilateral co-operation between Lithuania, Russia and Sweden up until phase 3, and phase 4 has been performed as a bilateral between Lithuania and Sweden. The long-range objective is to establish common perspectives and unified bases for assessment of severe accident risks and needs for remedial measures for the RBMK reactors. During phase 3, from 1993 to 1994, a full scope Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) model of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant unit 2 was developed to identify possible safety improvement of risk importance. The probabilistic methodology was applied on a plant specific basis for a channel type reactor of RBMK design. During phase 4, from 1994 to 1996, the PSA was further developed, taking into account plant changes, improved modelling methods and extended plant information concerning dependencies (area events, dynamic effects, electrical and signal dependencies). The model reflected the plant status before the outage 1996. During phase 4+, 1998 to 1999 the PSA model was upgraded taking into account the newest plant modifications. The new PSA model of CPS/AZRT was developed. Modelling was based on the Single Failure Analysis

  16. CEA: risk management assessment 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard; Bonnevie, Edwige; Maillot, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes a qualitative and quantitative overview of CEA activities in the field of risk management during 2011. These activities concerned the impact on the environment, the safety of installations, the management of professional risks (safety and health at work), the radiological protection of workers, the transports of hazardous materials, waste management, protection of sites, installations and heritage, the management of emergency situations, the management of law risks, controls and audits

  17. Research on advanced system safety assessment procedures (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-03-01

    The past research reports in the area of safety engineering proposed the Computer-aided HAZOP system to be applied to Nuclear Reprocessing Facilities. Automated HAZOP system has great advantage compared with human analysts in terms of accuracy of the results, and time required to conduct HAZOP studies. This report surveys the literature on risk assessment and safety design based on the concept of independent protection layers (IPLs). Furthermore, to improve HAZOP System, tool is proposed to construct the basic model and the internal state model. Such HAZOP system is applied to analyze two kinds of processes, where the ability of the proposed system is verified. In addition, risk assessment support system is proposed to integrate safety design environment and assessment result to be used by other plants as well as to enable the underline plant to use other plants' information. This technique can be implemented using web-based safety information systems. (author)

  18. Risk assessment and risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1978-01-01

    With the help of results of investigations and model calculations the risk of nuclear energy in routine operation is shown. In this context it is pointed out that the excellent operation results of reactors all over the world have led to the acceptability of risks from local loads no longer being in question. The attention of radiation protection is therefore focused on the emissions of long-living isotopes which collect in the atmosphere. With LWRs the risk of accidents is so minimal that statistical data is, and never will be available. One has to therefore fall back upon the so-called fault tree analyses. On the subject of risk evalution the author referred to a poll in Austria. From the result of this investigation one might conclude that nuclear energy serves as a crystallization point for a discussion of varying concepts for future development. More attention should be paid to this aspect from both sides, in order to objectify the further expansion of this source of energy. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Safety culture assessment developed by JANTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Japan's JCO accident in September 1999 provided a real-life example of what can happen when insufficient attention is paid to safety culture. This accident brought to light the importance of safety culture and reinforced the movement to foster a safety culture. Despite this, accidents and inappropriate conduct have continued to occur. Therefore, there is a strong demand to instill a safety culture throughout the nuclear power industry. In this context, Japan's nuclear power regulator, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), decided to include in its safety inspections assessments of the safety culture found in power utilities' routine safety operations to get signs of deterioration in the organizational climate. In 2007, NISA constructed guidelines for their inspectors to carry out these assessments. At the same time, utilities have embarked on their own independent safety culture initiatives, such as revising their technical specifications and building effective PDCA cycle to promote safety culture. In concert with these developments, JANTI has also instituted safety culture assessments. (author)

  20. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  1. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively

  2. Swedish REGULATORY APPROACH TO SAFETY Assessment AND SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Sandervaag, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Swedish regulatory approach to safety assessment and severe accident management is briefly described. The safety assessment program, which focuses on prevention of incidents and accidents, has three main components: periodic safety reviews, probabilistic safety analysis, and analysis of postulated disturbances and accident progression sequences. Management and man-technology-organisation issues, as well as inspections, play a key role in safety assessment. Basis for severe accident management were established by the Government decisions in 1981 and 1986. By the end of 1988, the severe accident mitigation systems and emergency operating procedures were implemented at all Swedish reactors. The severe accident research has continued after 1988 for further verification of the protection provided by the systems and reduction of remaining uncertainties in risk dominant phenomena

  3. NUSS safety standards: A critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minogue, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The NUSS safety standards are based on systematic review of safety criteria of many countries in a process carefully defined to assure completeness of coverage. They represent an international consensus of accepted safety principles and practices for regulation and for the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants. They are a codification of principles and practices already in use by some Member States. Thus, they are not standards which describe methodologies at their present state of evolution as a result of more recent experience and improvements in technological understanding. The NUSS standards assume an underlying body of national standards and a defined technological base. Detailed design and industrial practices vary between countries and the implementation of basic safety standards within countries has taken approaches that conform with national industrial practices. Thus, application of the NUSS standards requires reconciliation with the standards of the country where the reactor will be built as well as with the country from which procurement takes place. Experience in making that reconciliation will undoubtedly suggest areas of needed improvement. After the TMI accident a reassessment of the NUSS programme was made and it was concluded that, given the information at that time and the then level of technology, the basic approach was sound; the NUSS programme should be continued to completion, and the standards should be brought into use. It was also recognized, however, that in areas such as probabilistic risk assessment, human factors methodology, and consideration of detailed accident sequences, more advanced technology was emerging. As these technologies develop, and become more amenable to practical application, it is anticipated that the NUSS standards will need revision. Ideally those future revisions will also flow from experience in their use

  4. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 2, Human factors research; Advanced I and C hardware and software; Severe accident research; Probabilistic risk assessment topics; Individual plant examination: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 2, present topics in human factors research, advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software, severe accident research, probabilistic risk assessment, and individual plant examination. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.G.; Jones, J.L.; Hunt, R.N.; Roush, M.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  6. N reactor individual risk comparison to quantitative nuclear safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Rainey, T.E.; Zentner, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A full-scope level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been completed for N reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided the technical leadership for this work, using the state-of-the-art NUREG-1150 methodology developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The main objectives of this effort were to assess the risks to the public and to the on-site workers posed by the operation of N reactor, to identify changes to the plant that could reduce the overall risk, and to compare those risks to the proposed NRC and DOE quantitative safety goals. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and SNL for individual health risk evaluation, its results, and a comparison to the NRC safety objectives and the DOE nuclear safety guidelines. The N reactor results, are also compared with the five NUREG-1150 nuclear plants. Only internal events are compared here because external events are not yet reported in the current draft NUREG-1150. This is the first full-scope level III PRA study with a detailed quantitative safety goal comparison performed for DOE production reactors

  7. NPP Krsko periodic safety review. Safety assessment and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Spiler, J.; Thaulez, F.

    2002-01-01

    Definition of a PSR (Periodic Safety Review) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that the plant remains safe when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. The overall goals of the NEK PSR Program are defined in compliance with the basic role of a PSR and the current practice typical for most of the countries in EU. This practice is described in the related guides and good practice documents issued by international organizations. The overall goals of the NEK PSR are formulated as follows: to demonstrate that the plant is as safe as originally intended; to evaluate the actual plant status with respect to aging and wear-out identifying any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and to identify appropriate corrective actions, where needed; to compare current level of safety in the light of modern standards and knowledge, and to identify where improvements would be beneficial for minimizing deviations at justifiable costs. The Krsko PSR will address the following safety factors: Operational Experience, Safety Assessment, EQ and Aging Management, Safety Culture, Emergency Planning, Environmental Impact and Radioactive Waste.(author)

  8. Learning Safety Assessment from Accidents in a University Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes how a chemical engineering department started learning from accidents during experimental work and ended up implementing an industrially inspired system for risk assessment of new and existing experimental setups as well as a system for assessing potential risk from the chemicals used in the experimental work. These experiences have led to recent developments which focus increasingly on the a theoretical basis for modeling and reasoning on safety as well as operati...

  9. Safety assessment of nuclear medicine practice using the Risk Matrix Method; Evaluaciones de seguridad de la practica de medicina nuclear utilizando el metodo de Matrices de Riesgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Dumenigo; Cruz, Yoanis; Soler, Karen, E-mail: cruz@orasen.co.cu [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Guerrero, Mayka, E-mail: mayka@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de investigaciones Medico Quirurgicas (CIMEQ), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the main results from the application of the methodology of Risk Matrices in a hypothetical service / department of the Nuclear medicine that realize metabolic radiotherapy treatment and diagnostic studies with {sup 131}I and {sup 99} m Tc and {sup 18}F. We could identify major equipment failures and human errors that could potentially lead to a accident in practice. For each analyzed initiating events evaluated the frequency of occurrence, identified key existing defenses to avoid the accident and assessed the potential consequences of an accident if this comes to fruition. With this methodology we could identify which accident sequences increased risk and to propose means to reduce the risk in such cases. As a result of this work was developed the 'RMA Nuclear Medicine' computer tools that will apply this methodology in nuclear medicine services that need to do similar risk assessments.

  10. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  11. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  12. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  13. Risk concepts in UK nuclear safety decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighton, P.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of risk as understood in the UK, with particular reference to the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in nuclear safety decision making. The way 'risk' appears in UK fundamental legislation means that the concept cannot be limited to evaluation of numerical probabilities of physical harm. Rather the focus is on doing all that is reasonably practicable to reduce risks: this entails applying relevant good practice and then seeking further safety measures until the money, time and trouble required are grossly disproportionate to the residual risk. PSA is used to inform rather than dictate such decisions. This approach is reinforced by considering how far any practical PSA can be said to measure risk. The behaviour of complex socio-technical systems such as nuclear power stations does not meet the conditions under which probability theory can be applied in an absolutely objective statistical sense. Risk is not an intrinsic real property of such systems. Rather PSA is a synthesis of data and subjective expert judgements, dependent on the extent of detailed knowledge of the plant. There are many other aspects of engineering judgement involved in safety decisions which cannot be so captured. (author)

  14. Estimating and controlling workplace risk: an approach for occupational hygiene and safety professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffel, Michael W; Birkner, Lawrence R

    2002-07-01

    The protection of people and physical assets is the objective of health and safety professionals and is accomplished through the paradigm of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of risks in the occupational environment. Risk assessment concepts are not only used by health and safety professionals, but also by business and financial planners. Since meeting health and safety objectives requires financial resources provided by business and governmental managers, the hypothesis addressed here is that health and safety risk decisions should be made with probabilistic processes used in financial decision-making and which are familiar and recognizable to business and government planners and managers. This article develops the processes and demonstrates the use of incident probabilities, historic outcome information, and incremental impact analysis to estimate risk of multiple alternatives in the chemical process industry. It also analyzes how the ethical aspects of decision-making can be addressed in formulating health and safety risk management plans. It is concluded that certain, easily understood, and applied probabilistic risk assessment methods used by business and government to assess financial and outcome risk have applicability to improving workplace health and safety in three ways: 1) by linking the business and health and safety risk assessment processes to securing resources, 2) by providing an additional set of tools for health and safety risk assessment, and 3) by requiring the risk assessor to consider multiple risk management alternatives.

  15. The role of probabilistic safety assessment and probabilistic safety criteria in nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Report is to provide guidelines on the role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and a range of associated reference points, collectively referred to as probabilistic safety criteria (PSC), in nuclear safety. The application of this Safety Report and the supporting Safety Practice publication should help to ensure that PSA methodology is used appropriately to assess and enhance the safety of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are intended for use by nuclear power plant designers, operators and regulators. While these guidelines have been prepared with nuclear power plants in mind, the principles involved have wide application to other nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. In Section 2 of this Safety Report guidelines are established on the role PSA can play as part of an overall safety assurance programme. Section 3 summarizes guidelines for the conduct of PSAs, and in Section 4 a PSC framework is recommended and guidance is provided for the establishment of PSC values

  16. Issues regarding Risk Effect Analysis of Digitalized Safety Systems and Main Risk Contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors of safety-critical digital systems affect overall plant risk. In order to assess this risk effect, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required. This article aims to provide an overview of the issues when developing a risk model and demonstrate their effect on plant risk quantitatively. Research activities in Korea for addressing these various issues, such as the software failure probability and the fault coverage of self monitoring mechanism are also described. The main risk contributors related to the digitalized safety system were determined in a quantitative manner. Reactor protection system and engineered safety feature component control system designed as part of the Korean Nuclear I and C System project are used as example systems. Fault-tree models were developed to assess the failure probability of a system function which is designed to generate an automated signal for actuating both of the reactor trip and the complicated accident-mitigation actions. The developed fault trees were combined with a plant risk model to evaluate the effect of a digitalized system's failure on the plant risk. (authors)

  17. Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this document is threefold: 1) to describe the laboratory bio safety and biosecurity risk assessment process and its conceptual framework; 2) provide detailed guidance and suggested methodologies on how to conduct a risk assessment; and 3) present some practical risk assessment process strategies using realistic laboratory scenarios.

  18. Review of the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattison, M.B.; Davis, P.R.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Gilmore, W.E.; Gregg, R.E.

    1989-11-01

    A review of the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant probabilistic risk Assessment was conducted with the objective of confirming the safety perspectives brought to light by the probabilistic risk assessment. The scope of the review included the entire Level I probabilistic risk assessment including external events. This is consistent with the scope of the probabilistic risk assessment. The review included an assessment of the assumptions, methods, models, and data used in the study. 47 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  19. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  20. Assessment of basic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Work on the French-German common safety approach for future nuclear power plants continued in 1994 to allow for more detailed discussion of some major issues, taking into account the options provided by the industry for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project, as described in the document entitled 'Conceptual Safety Features Review File'. Seven meetings of a GPR/RSK advisory experts subgroup, six GPR/RSK plenary sessions and six meetings of the safety authorities (DFD) dealt with the following topics: design of the systems and use of probabilistic approaches, application of a 'break preclusion' approach to the main primary pipings, protection against external hazards (aircraft crashes, explosions, earthquakes), provisions with respect to accidents involving core melt and to containment design, radiological consequences of reference accidents and accidents involving core melt at low pressure. The important aspects of the joint policy are recalled in the presentation. The whole set of GPR/RSK recommendations were agreed by the French and German safety authorities during the DFD meetings of 1994 and early 1995. The utilities decided to begin the basic design phase in February, 1995. Work is now continuing to develop the common French-German approach for future nuclear power plants, in the same way as before. In 1995, this mainly covers the design of the containment and of the systems, but also new issues such as the protection against secondary side overpressurization, radiological protection of workers and radioactive wastes. (J.S.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. CEA - 2014 risk management assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevie, Edwige; Verwaerde, Daniel; Maillot, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    After introducing presentations of CEA managers in charge of risk management and controls, this document presents and comments the actions undertaken by the CEA and the obtained results in terms of risk management in different fields: protection and control of the environment, installation safety, health, safety and radiation protection, transport of hazardous materials, waste management, protection of sites, installations and heritage, management of emergency situations, management of legal risks, internal audits and controls. Other topics are addressed like the presentation of the risk management department, and the role of the CEA in the relationship between research and industry

  2. Independent assessment for new nuclear reactor safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Auria Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous framework for safety assessment is established in all countries where nuclear technology is used for the production of electricity. On the one side, industry, i.e. reactor designers, vendors and utilities perform safety analysis and demonstrate consistency between results of safety analyses and requirements. On the other side, regulatory authorities perform independent assessment of safety and confirm the acceptability of safety of individual reactor units. The process of comparing results from analyses by reactor utilities and regulators is very complex. The process is also highly dependent upon mandatory approaches pursued for the analysis and from very many details which required the knowledge of sensitive proprietary data (e.g. spacer designs. Furthermore, all data available for the design, construction and operation of reactors produced by the nuclear industry are available to regulators. Two areas for improving the process of safety assessment for individual Nuclear Power Plant Units are identified: New details introduced by industry are not always and systematically requested by regulators for the independent assessment; New analytical techniques and capabilities are not necessarily used in the analyses by regulators (and by the industry. The established concept of independent assessment constitutes the way for improving the process of safety assessment. This is possible, or is largely facilitated, by the recent availability of the so-called Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty approach.

  3. Independent assessment for new nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Glaeser, H.; Debrecin, N.

    2017-01-01

    A rigorous framework for safety assessment is established in all countries where nuclear technology is used for the production of electricity. On one side, industry, i.e. reactor designers, vendors and utilities perform safety analysis and demonstrate consistency between results of safety analyses and requirements. On the other side, regulatory authorities perform independent assessment of safety and confirm the acceptability of safety of individual reactor units. The process of comparing results from analyses by reactor utilities and regulators is very complex. The process is also highly dependent upon mandatory approaches pursued for the analysis and from very many details which required the knowledge of sensitive proprietary data (e.g. spacer designs). Furthermore, all data available for the design, construction and operation of reactors produced by the nuclear industry are available to regulators. Two areas for improving the process of safety assessment for individual Nuclear Power Plant Units are identified: New details introduced by industry are not always and systematically requested by regulators for the independent assessment; New analytical techniques and capabilities are not necessarily used in the analyses by regulators (and by the industry). The established concept of independent assessment constitutes the way for improving the process of safety assessment. This is possible, or is largely facilitated, by the recent availability of the so-called Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) approach. (authors)

  4. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers

  5. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  6. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  7. Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted mainly through aerosolization of infected sputum which puts laboratory workers at risk in spite of the laboratory workersf risk of infection being at 3 to 9 times higher than the general public. Laboratory safety should therefore be ...

  8. Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Buck, J.

    2009-01-01

    modelling is considered to be the most promising approach for use in population risk assessment (which is a particular focus for risk managers). For all approaches, further improvement of input data is desirable, particularly data on consumption patterns/food choices in food allergic consumers, data...... models. The workshop concluded that all the three approaches to safety and risk assessment of allergenic foods should continue to be considered. A particular strength of the MoE and probabilistic approaches is that they do not rely on low-dose extrapolations with its inherent issues. Probabilistic......A workshop was organised to investigate whether risk assessment strategies and methodologies used in classical/conventional toxicology may be used for risk assessment of allergenic foods. to discuss the advantages and limitations of different approaches and to determine the research needed to move...

  9. Mastery of risks and operating safety, risks and efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A proper management of ones risks consists in acting to exert prevention and protection capacities against the negative consequences of an event, but also by committing oneself into an offensive approach allowing to improve efficiency, quality and availability. Safety and efficiencies are mutual reinforcing goals aiming at ensuring the perenniality of industries and services. The implementation of a risk management approach in an industrial environment allows to reach a better reactiveness and to increase the efficiency of a system by the mastery of organization and processes. The activities in concern are those of industries and services: transports, energy and environment, automotive industry, petrochemistry, chemistry, food, space, health, defense industries, telecommunication, mining industry, information systems, textile industry, finances.. The topics approached during this meeting treat of: the relevance of risk-abatement resources with respect to risks criticality; the consistent management of uncertainties with respect to stakes; the mastery of components aging and the expression of aging-dependent availability, maintenance and safety policies; the expression of obsolescence-related renewing policies; the operating safety tools and methods applied to complex and computerized-controlled systems; the integration of social, organizational and human factors in technical decisions and companies management; transverse and global risk analysis and decision-aid approaches; the vigilance culture; crisis anticipation and management; the experience feedback on technical and organisational aspects; efficiency and risk mastery indicators; cost/benefit approach in risk management, and economic intelligence approaches. Nineteen presentations have been selected which deal with the mastery of risks and the operating safety at nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  10. Developing IAM for Life Cycle Safety Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toxopeus, Marten E.; Lutters, Diederick; Nee, Andrew Y.C.; Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This publication discusses aspects of the development of an impact assessment method (IAM) for safety. Compared to the many existing IAM’s for environmentally oriented LCA, this method should translate the impact of a product life cycle on the subject of safety. Moreover, the method should be

  11. Safety factors for neutron fluences in NPP safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhin, V.L.; Bukanov, V.N.; Il'kovich, V.V.; Pugach, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with global practice and a number of existing regulations, the use of conservative approach is required for the calculations related to nuclear safety assessment of NPP. It implies the need to consider the determination of neutron fluence errors that is rather complicated. It is proposed to carry out the consideration by the way of multiplying the neutron fluences obtained with transport calculations by safety factors. The safety factor values are calculated by the developed technique based on the theory of errors, features of the neutron transport calculation code and the results obtained with the code. It is shown that the safety factor value is equal 1.18 with the confidence level of not less than 0.95 for the majority of VVER-1000 reactor places where neutron fluences are determined by MCPV code, and its maximum value is 1.25

  12. Bayesian-network-based safety risk analysis in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Limao; Wu, Xianguo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J.; Zhong, Jingbing; Lu, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systemic decision support approach for safety risk analysis under uncertainty in tunnel construction. Fuzzy Bayesian Networks (FBN) is used to investigate causal relationships between tunnel-induced damage and its influential variables based upon the risk/hazard mechanism analysis. Aiming to overcome limitations on the current probability estimation, an expert confidence indicator is proposed to ensure the reliability of the surveyed data for fuzzy probability assessment of basic risk factors. A detailed fuzzy-based inference procedure is developed, which has a capacity of implementing deductive reasoning, sensitivity analysis and abductive reasoning. The “3σ criterion” is adopted to calculate the characteristic values of a triangular fuzzy number in the probability fuzzification process, and the α-weighted valuation method is adopted for defuzzification. The construction safety analysis progress is extended to the entire life cycle of risk-prone events, including the pre-accident, during-construction continuous and post-accident control. A typical hazard concerning the tunnel leakage in the construction of Wuhan Yangtze Metro Tunnel in China is presented as a case study, in order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and its application potential. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages between FBN and fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) as risk analysis tools is also conducted. The proposed approach can be used to provide guidelines for safety analysis and management in construction projects, and thus increase the likelihood of a successful project in a complex environment. - Highlights: • A systemic Bayesian network based approach for safety risk analysis is developed. • An expert confidence indicator for probability fuzzification is proposed. • Safety risk analysis progress is extended to entire life cycle of risk-prone events. • A typical

  13. Next generation of microbiological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Bover-Cid, Sara; Dagnas, Stéphane; Ellouze, Mariem; Guillou, Sandrine; Nychas, George; O'Mahony, Cian; Pérez-Rodriguez, Fernando; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now

  14. Assessment of safety culture at INPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesin, S.

    2002-01-01

    Safety Culture covers all main directions of plant activities and the plant departments involved through integration into the INPP Quality Assurance System. Safety Culture is represented by three components. The first is the clear INPP Safety and Quality Assurance Policy. Based on the Policy INPP is safely operated and managers' actions firstly aim at safety assurance. The second component is based on personal responsibility for safety and attitude of each employee of the plant. The third component is based on commitment to safety and competence of managers and employees of the plant. This component links the first two to ensure efficient management of safety at the plant. The above mentioned components including the elements which may significantly affect Safety Culture are also presented in the attachment. The concept of such model implies understanding of effect of different factors on the level of Safety Culture in the organization. In order to continuously correct safety problems, self-assessment of the Safety Culture level is performed at regular intervals. (author)

  15. Continued efforts to improve the robustness of the French Gen II PWRs with respect to the risk of severe accidents. Safety assessment and research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Bonnet, J.M.; Generino, G.; Dubreuil, M.; Pichereau, F.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of post Fukushima accident, the paper presents the continuous efforts performed in France to upgrade progressively the French Gen II pressurised water reactors safety features in order to face the risks of any severe accident. It reminds some decisions taken after the TMI2 and the Chernobyl accidents and describes the situation in France before the Fukushima accident: -) progress done on severe accident consequences analysis thanks to recent research activities, -) improvement of Gen II PWRs safety features, in relation with the periodic safety review process, -) definition of higher safety levels requirement directly linked to the protection of population in the framework of Gen II PWRs long term operation. The last part of the paper comments carefully how the Fukushima accident will interfere on all these previous efforts to increase the Gen II PWRs robustness. The Fukushima accident clearly highlights a need of additional efforts to identify possible cliff edge effect in case of beyond design events (especially external events). The definition of additional accident management procedures and means to secure a reactor (or a site) whatever the conditions will be a major consequence for the French NPPs. In a second step, some complements on the existing defense-in-depth approach are now expected: additional requirements to define line of defense against adverse consequences of beyond design situations. The need for specific additional research activities after the Fukushima accident seems to be limited to some specific issues (for example spent fuel pool behaviour in case of long term loss of cooling). This paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  16. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complementary safety assessment assessment of nuclear facilities - Tricastin facility - AREVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This complementary safety assessment analyses the robustness of the Areva part of the Tricastin nuclear site to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident. This study includes the following facilities: Areva NC Pierrelatte, EURODIF production, Comurhex Pierrelatte, Georges Besse II plant and Socatri. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accidental sequence. Moreover, safety is not only a matter of design or engineered systems but also a matter of organizing: task organization (including subcontracting) as well as the setting of emergency plans or the inventory of nuclear materials are taken into consideration in this assessment. This report is divided into 10 main chapters: 1) the feedback experience of the Fukushima accident; 2) description of the site and its surroundings; 3) featuring of the site's activities and installations; 4) accidental sequences; 5) protection from earthquakes; 6) protection from floods; 7) protection from other extreme natural disasters; 8) the loss of electrical power and of the heat sink; 9) the management of severe accidents; and 10) subcontracting policy. This analysis has identified 5 main measures to be taken to limit the risks linked to natural disasters: -) continuing the program for replacing the current conversion plant and the enrichment plant; -) renewing the storage of hydrofluoric acid at the de-fluorination workshop; -) assessing the seismic behaviour of some parts of the de-fluorination workshop and of the fluorine fabrication workshop; -) improving the availability of warning and information means in case of emergency; and -) improving the means to mitigate accidental gaseous releases. (A.C.)

  18. Value-impact assessment of safety-related modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, W.M.C.; Dinnie, K.S.; Gordon, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Like other nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, as part of its risk management activities, continually assesses the safety of its nuclear operations. In addition, new regulatory requirements are being applied to the older nuclear power plants. Both of these result in proposed plant modifications designed to reduce the risk to the public. However, modifications to an operating plant can have serious economic effects, and the resources, both financial and personnel, required for the implementation of these modifications are limited. Thus, all potential benefits and effects of a proposed modification must be thoroughly investigated to judge whether the modification is beneficial. Ontario Hydro has begun to use comprehensive value-impact assessments, utilizing plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), as tools to provide an informed basis for judgments on the benefit of safety-related modifications. The results from value-impact assessments can also be used to prioritize the implementation of these modifications

  19. Dose inspection and risk assessment on radiation safety for the use of non-medical X-ray machines in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Yuh; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing

    2017-11-01

    The subject of this study is the on-site visits and inspections of facilities commissioned by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the possible dose and dose rate of cabinet-type X-ray equipment with nominal voltages of 30-150 kV and open-beam (portable or handheld) equipment, taking both normal operation and possibly abnormal operation conditions into account. Doses and dose rates were measured using a plastic scintillation survey meter and an electronic personal dosimeter. In total, 401 X-ray machines were inspected, including 139 units with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV X-ray equipment, 140 units with nominal voltages of 50-150 kV, and 122 open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment. The investigated doses for radiation workers and non-radiation workers operating cabinet-type X-ray equipment under normal safety conditions were all at the background dose level. Several investigated dose rates at the position of 10 cm away from the surface of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment were very high, such X-ray machines are used by aeronautical police for the detection of suspected explosives, radiation workers are far away (at least 10 m away) from the X-ray machine during its operation. The doses per operation in X-ray equipment with a 30-50 kV nominal voltage were less than 1 mSv in all cases of abnormal use. Some doses were higher than 1 mSv per operation for X-ray equipment of 50-150 kV nominal voltage X-ray. The maximum dose rates at the beam exit have a very wide range, mostly less than 100 μSv/s and the largest value is about 3.92 mSv/s for open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray devices. The risk induced by operating X-ray devices with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV is extremely low. The 11.5 mSv dose due to one operation at nominal voltage of 50-150 kV X-ray device is equivalent to the exposure of taking 575 chest X-rays. In the abnormal use of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment, the

  20. Risk assessment of complex accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluegel, Jens-Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The use of methods of risk assessment in accidents in nuclear plants is based on an old tradition. The first consistent systematic study is considered to be the Rasmussen Study of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, WASH-1400. Above and beyond the realm of nuclear technology, there is an extensive range of accident, risk and reliability research into technical-administrative systems. In the past, it has been this area of research which has led to the development of concepts of safety precautions of the type also introduced into nuclear technology (barrier concept, defense in depth, single-failure criterion), where they are now taken for granted as trivial concepts. Also for risk analysis, nuclear technology made use of methods (such as event and fault tree analyses) whose origins were outside the nuclear field. One area in which the use of traditional methods of probabilistic safety analysis is encountering practical problems is risk assessment of complex accident scenarios in nuclear technology. A definition is offered of the term 'complex accident scenarios' in nuclear technology. A number of problems are addressed which arise in the use of traditional PSA procedures in risk assessment of complex accident scenarios. Cases of complex accident scenarios are presented to demonstrate methods of risk assessment which allow robust results to be obtained even when traditional techniques of risk analysis are maintained as a matter of principle. These methods are based on the use of conditional risk metrics. (orig.)

  1. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Anttonen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in SME's and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in occupational safety and health are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  2. Assessment of elementary school safety restraint programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify elementary school (K-6) safety belt : education programs in use in the United States, to review their development, and : to make administrative and impact assessments of their use in selected States. : Six...

  3. Risk assessment or mismanagement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyte, T. [Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-10-01

    As the coal industry progresses into a new year of economic uncertainty one thing remains paramount and that is maintaining the health and safety of our coal mine workers. With the ever present reminder from the media that no job is safe, Queensland's coal mine workers thoughts are not 100 percent on the job and now more than ever is the time for all to be truly vigilant and to look after their workmates. The articles discusses management aspects of coal mine health and safety, based on some key points from the Coal Mining Safety and Health Act 1999 and the Coal Mining Safety and Health Regulation 2001. 2 photos.

  4. Use of risk information to safety regulation. Reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    A procedure of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a reprocessing facility has been under the development aiming to utilize risk information for safety regulations in this project. Activities in the fiscal year 2012 are summarized in the paper. A major activity is a fundamental study on a concept of serious accidents, requirements of serious accident management, and a policy of utilizing risk information for fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Other than the activity a study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials at a serious accident in a reprocessing facility has been conducted. The outline and results are provided in the chapter 1 and 2 respectively. (author)

  5. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Nam; Szilard, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system's 'loading' and its 'capacity', plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons

  6. Safety assessments for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of safety assessment for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is to evaluate how well the engineered barriers and geological setting inhibit radionuclide migration and prevent radiation dose to man. Safety assessment is influenced through interaction with the regulatory agencies, research groups, the public and the various levels of government. Under the auspices of the IAEA, a generic disposal system description has been developed to facilitate international exchange and comparison of data and results, and to enable development and comparison of performance for all components of the disposal system. It is generally accepted that a systems modelling approach is required and that safety assessment can be considered on two levels. At the systems level, all components of the system are taken into account to evaluate the risk to man. At the systems level, critical review and quality assurance on software provide the major validation techniques. Risk is a combination of dose estimate and probability of that dose. For analysis of the total system to be practical, the components are usually represented by simplified models. Recently, assessments have been taking uncertainties in the input data into account. At the detailed level, large-scale, complex computer programs model components of the system in sufficient detail that validation by comparison with field and laboratory measurements is possible. For example, three-dimensional fluid-flow, heat-transport and solute-transport computer programs have been used. Approaches to safety assessment are described, with illustrations from safety assessments performed in a number of countries. (author)

  7. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited....... CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting...

  8. [Adolescents, risk situations and road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Falcón, Carmen; Gil García, Eugenia; Romo Avilés, Nuria

    2010-09-01

    Describe the risk behaviour relationships with road safety in adolescents. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Madrid and Andalusia Regions, representative samples. The sample included 3,612 in secondary school pupils from Madrid (n=1708) and Andalusia (n=1904). The survey was carried out during May and June 2007. The data collected included sociodemographic areas (age, sex, grade, father's profession, birth place, etc.) and risk situation and behaviour (risk behaviour as driver or passenger). 16.2% of the adolescents have been involved in a dangerous situation with motorcycles during the last year. 16.7% never use a helmet when riding a motorcycle and 62% do not wear one when riding a bicycle on the road; 17.4% frequently ride a motorcycle over the speed limit and 24.5% when driving a car. There are significant differences regarding sex, grade and region (Madrid or Andalusia). There are four factors which explain 62% of the variance: drug factor, speed factor, security factor and passenger factor. Two of these have twice the probability of having a dangerous situation when riding a motorcycle: drug factor (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.77-2.18) and the speed factor ((OR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.92-2.36). Adolescents in higher grades and living in Andalusia were less road safety conscious. This pattern should be taken into account when designing preventive actions in Road Safety Education. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. National Waste Repository Novi Han operational safety analysis report. Safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The scope of the safety assessment (SA), presented includes: waste management functions (acceptance, conditioning, storage, disposal), inventory (current and expected in the future), hazards (radiological and non-radiological) and normal and accidental modes. The stages in the development of the SA are: criteria selection, information collection, safety analysis and safety assessment documentation. After the review the facilities functions and the national and international requirements, the criteria for safety level assessment are set. As a result from the 2nd stage actual parameters of the facility, necessary for safety analysis are obtained.The methodology is selected on the base of the comparability of the results with the results of previous safety assessments and existing standards and requirements. The procedure and requirements for scenarios selection are described. A radiological hazard categorisation of the facilities is presented. Qualitative hazards and operability analysis is applied. The resulting list of events are subjected to procedure for prioritization by method of 'criticality analysis', so the estimation of the risk is given for each event. The events that fall into category of risk on the boundary of acceptability or are unacceptable are subjected to the next steps of the analysis. As a result the lists with scenarios for PSA and possible design scenarios are established. PSA logical modeling and quantitative calculations of accident sequences are presented

  10. Methods of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  11. Risk perception, safety goals and regulatory decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Deciding on 'how safe is safe enough?' includes value judgements with implications of an ethical and political nature. As regulators are accountable to governments, parliaments and the general public, regulatory decision-making should be characterized by transparency with respect to how such value judgements are reflected in risk assessments and regulatory decisions. Some approaches in this respect are discussed in the paper, based on more than fifteen years of experience in nuclear regulatory decision-making. Issues discussed include: (1) risk profiles and safety goals associated with severe reactor accidents--individual health risks, societal risks and risk of losing investments; (2) risk profile-based licensing of the Swedish SFR final disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

  12. Development of safety function assessment trees for pressurized heavy water reactor LP/SD operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui Chang; Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ki Yong; Jee, Moon Hak; Sung, Chang Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    The objective of Configuration Risk Management Program(CRMP) is to maintain the safety level by assuring the defense-in-depth of nuclear power plant while the configurations are changed during plant operations, especially for the LP/SD. Such a safety purpose can be achieved by establishing the risk monitoring programs with both quantitative and qualitative features. Generally, the quantitative risk evaluation models, i.e., PRA models are used for the risk evaluation during full power operation, and the qualitative risk evaluation models such as safety function assessment trees are used. Through this study, safety function assessment trees were developed

  13. Risk assessments ensure safer power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-19

    A growth industry is emerging devoted to the study and comparison of the economic, social and health risks posed by large industrial installations. Electricity generation is one area coming under particularly close scrutiny. Types of risk, ways of assessing risk and the difference between experts' analyses and the public perception of risk are given. An example of improved risk assessment helping to reduce deaths and injuries in coal mining is included.

  14. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix XI. Analysis of comments on the draft WASH-1400 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning comments on reactor safety by governmental agencies and civilian organizations; reactor safety study methodology; consequence model; probability of accident sequences; and various accident conditions

  15. Operationalization Of The Professional Risks Assessment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivascu, Victoria Larisa; Cirjaliu, Bianca; Draghici, Anca

    2015-07-01

    Professional risks assessment approach (integration of analysis and evaluation processes) is linked with the general concerns of nowadays companies for their employees' health and safety assurances, in the context of organizations sustainable development. The paper presents an approach for the operationalization of the professional risk assessment activity in companies through the implementation and use of the OnRisk platform (this have been tested in some industrial companies). The short presentation of the relevant technical reports and statistics on OSH management at the European Union level underlines the need for the development of a professional risks assessment. Finally, there have been described the designed and developed OnRisk platform as a web platform together with some case studies that have validate the created tool.

  16. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  17. Risk assessment activities at NIOSH: Information resources and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.

  18. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  19. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  20. An integrated risk sensing system for geo-structural safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W. Huang; D.M. Zhang; B.M. Ayyub

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, geo-structures are experiencing a rapid development in China. The potential risks inherent in the huge amount of construction and asset operation projects in China were well managed in the major project, i.e. the project of Shanghai Yangtze tunnel in 2002. Since then, risk assessment of geo-structures has been gradually developed from a qualitative manner to a quantitative manner. However, the current practices of risk management have been paid considerable attention to the assessment, but little on risk control. As a result, the responses to risks occurrences after a comprehensive assessment are basically too late. In this paper, a smart system for risk sensing incorporating the wireless sensor network (WSN) on-site visualization techniques and the resilience-based repair strategy was proposed. The merit of this system is the real-time monitoring for geo-structural performance and dynamic pre-warning for safety of on-site workers. The sectional convergence, joint opening, and seepage of segmental lining of shield tunnel were monitored by the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based sensors. The light emitting diode (LED) coupling with the above WSN system was used to indicate different risk levels on site. By sensing the risks and telling the risks in real time, the geo-risks could be controlled and the safety of geo-structures could be assured to a certain degree. Finally, a resilience-based analysis model was proposed for designing the repair strategy by using the measured data from the WSN system. The application and efficiency of this system have been validated by two cases including Shanghai metro tunnel and underwater road tunnel.

  1. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant.

  2. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant

  3. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  4. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  5. The assessment of technical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, T.A.

    1978-01-01

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  7. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a "margin of exposure" approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  8. Risk assessment for LRW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The information obtained by probabilistic methods is explained discussing the results of various studies, such as the Reactor Safety Study of the USA, the West-German Reactor Safety Study (phases A and B), some other important studies like the RSSMAP and the IREP, as well as the Sizewell B report and an NRC report on precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. (DG) [de

  9. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  10. Quantitative risk assessment: an emerging tool for emerging foodborne pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lammerding, A. M.; Paoli, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    New challenges to the safety of the food supply require new strategies for evaluating and managing food safety risks. Changes in pathogens, food preparation, distribution, and consumption, and population immunity have the potential to adversely affect human health. Risk assessment offers a framework for predicting the impact of changes and trends on the provision of safe food. Risk assessment models facilitate the evaluation of active or passive changes in how foods are produced, processed, d...

  11. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  12. Safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaletchumy Karuppiah; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzuki Nik Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin

    2008-08-01

    Safety assessments are used to evaluate the performance of a radioactive waste disposal facility and its impact on human health and the environment. This paper presents the overall information and methodology to carry out the safety assessment for a long term performance of a disposal system. A case study was also conducted to gain hands-on experience in the development and justification of scenarios, the formulation and implementation of models and the analysis of results. AMBER code using compartmental modeling approach was used to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in this training. This safety assessment is purely illustrative and it serves as a starting point for each development stage of a disposal facility. This assessment ultimately becomes more detail and specific as the facility evolves. (Author)

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    Increasing interest in using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods for research reactor safety is being observed in many countries throughout the world. This is mainly because of the great ability of this approach in achieving safe and reliable operation of research reactors. There is also a need to assist developing countries to apply Probabilistic Safety Assessment to existing nuclear facilities which are simpler and therefore less complicated to analyse than a large Nuclear Power Plant. It may be important, therefore, to develop PSA for research reactors. This might also help to better understand the safety characteristics of the reactor and to base any backfitting on a cost-benefit analysis which would ensure that only necessary changes are made. This document touches on all the key aspects of PSA but placed greater emphasis on so-called systems analysis aspects rather than the in-plant or ex-plant consequences

  14. The Research on Safety Management Information System of Railway Passenger Based on Risk Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenmin; Jia, Yuanhua

    2018-01-01

    Based on the risk management theory and the PDCA cycle model, requirements of the railway passenger transport safety production is analyzed, and the establishment of the security risk assessment team is proposed to manage risk by FTA with Delphi from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The safety production committee is also established to accomplish performance appraisal, which is for further ensuring the correctness of risk management results, optimizing the safety management business processes and improving risk management capabilities. The basic framework and risk information database of risk management information system of railway passenger transport safety are designed by Ajax, Web Services and SQL technologies. The system realizes functions about risk management, performance appraisal and data management, and provides an efficient and convenient information management platform for railway passenger safety manager.

  15. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  16. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    .g. structural and non structural, organizational, human behavior). This is even more truth for the fire safety design of such structures. Fire safety in tunnels is challenging because of the particular environment, bearing in mind also that a fire can occur in different phases of the tunnel’s lifecycle. Plans...... for upgrading fire safety provisions and tunnel management are also important for existing tunnels. In this study, following a brief introduction of issues regarding the above mentioned aspects, the structural performance of a steel rib for a tunnel infrastructure subject to fire is assessed by means...

  17. An Autopsy Checklist: A Monitor of Safety and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkrum, Michael James; Kent, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Any autopsy has safety and risk management issues, which can arise in the preautopsy, autopsy, and postautopsy phases. The London Health Sciences Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Autopsy Checklist was developed to address these issues. The current study assessed 1 measure of autopsy safety: the effectiveness of the checklist in documenting pathologists' communication of the actual or potential risk of blood-borne infections to support staff. Autopsy checklists for cases done in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. The frequency of communication, as recorded in checklists, by pathologists to staff of previously diagnosed blood-borne infections (hepatitis B/C and human immunodeficiency virus) or the risk of infection based on lifestyle (eg, intravenous drug abuse) was tabulated. These data were compared with medical histories of the deceased and circumstances of their deaths described in the final autopsy reports. Information about blood-borne infections was recorded less frequently in the checklists compared with the final reports. Of 4 known human immunodeficiency virus cases, there was no checklist documentation in 3. All 11 hand injuries were documented. None of these cases had known infectious risks. The Autopsy Checklist is a standardized means of documenting safety and risk issues arising during the autopsy process, but its effectiveness relies on accurate completion.

  18. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and