WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk assessment remediation

  1. Site remediation guided by risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, E.A.; Gowing, A.; Pieczonka, G.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Risk assessment (RA) provides an effective tool for identifying hazards with respect to human health and ecological receptors, hazards that arise from contaminants in the environment. Risk assessment relies upon: hazard identification/problem formulation; toxicity assessment; exposure assessment; and risk characterization. Hence, risk assessment provides an effective guide for site remediation through the identification of the associated risks arising from pre- and potential post-remediation activities. As a demonstration of this decision-making process, a site-specific risk assessment (SSRA) was performed on a chemical producing facility. Historical waste practices during the production of DDT compounds resulted in impacted site soils and sediment and soils of the creek passing through the facility. The purpose of the SSRA was to derive site-specific cleanup values for the impacted on-site soils, creek sediments, and embankment soils, incorporating human and ecological receptors associated with the environmental media. The human exposure pathways considered were dermal contact, incidental ingestion, and inhalation of the various soils. The potential human receptors were industrial workers, construction workers, trespassers, and off-site residents. Ingestion of fish from the creek by residents was also evaluated in the human health risk assessment (HHRA). Food web analyses were used to evaluate the impact of exposure to chemical compounds in aquatic sediments and related soils by ecological receptors such as the great blue heron, raccoon, and mink. The SSRA involved modelling the daily chemical intake by receptors and the transfer of chemicals to identified secondary media (e.g., ambient air or animal tissues) that are also potential exposure media. These models, while using the site-specific chemical data in the source media, possess uncertainties associated with default parameters that are only approximations and not site-specific (e.g., soil

  2. Risk assessment and remedial policy evaluation using predictive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkov, L.; Schell, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of nuclear industry operation and accidents, large areas of natural ecosystems have been contaminated by radionuclides and toxic metals. Extensive societal pressure has been exerted to decrease the radiation dose to the population and to the environment. Thus, in making abatement and remediation policy decisions, not only economic costs but also human and environmental risk assessments are desired. This paper introduces a general framework for risk assessment and remedial policy evaluation using predictive modeling. Ecological risk assessment requires evaluation of the radionuclide distribution in ecosystems. The FORESTPATH model is used for predicting the radionuclide fate in forest compartments after deposition as well as for evaluating the efficiency of remedial policies. Time of intervention and radionuclide deposition profile was predicted as being crucial for the remediation efficiency. Risk assessment conducted for a critical group of forest users in Belarus shows that consumption of forest products (berries and mushrooms) leads to about 0.004% risk of a fatal cancer annually. Cost-benefit analysis for forest cleanup suggests that complete removal of organic layer is too expensive for application in Belarus and a better methodology is required. In conclusion, FORESTPATH modeling framework could have wide applications in environmental remediation of radionuclides and toxic metals as well as in dose reconstruction and, risk-assessment

  3. Remediation planning and risk assessment support through data fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Coleman Research's Data Fusion Modeling (DFM) services gives one the ability to use large geophysical and hydrological data sets, which include direct and indirect measurements, to obtain a unified mathematical model of the geology and hydrology at one's site. Coleman Research (CRC) has adapted highly stable and efficient statistical inversion techniques, developed over the past 20 years, to provide a 3D site model with quantified uncertainty based on state-of-the-art modeling codes. This site model supports risk assessment and remediation planning with enhanced numerical accuracy for tradeoff studies of alternate remediation strategies. Further, DFM supports real time model updates during remediation and site investigation

  4. Qualitative risk assessment as a remediation management tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The technique used to complete this thesis utilizes existing NRC and EPA guidance on health-based risk to qualitatively prioritize preliminary assessments and provide a tool for the direction and management of remediation activities. This method is intended as a decision making tool to aid in prioritizing the remediation effort and manage the remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process. It is not a replacement for the RI/FS. The methodology for qualitative risk assessment utilizes data gathered in preliminary assessments and calculates the health-based hazards and consequences from contaminants found at each individual location. The health-based qualitative risk indicated that number-sign 6 fuel oil, carbon tetrachloride, depleted uranium, and enriched uranium were the contaminants of major concern, in that order. Plutonium ranked approximately sixth in the contaminant of concern priority. 38 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  5. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E.; Stenner, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System decisions and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize the highly radioactive Hanford Site tank wastes and encapsulated cesium and strontium materials in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner. Additionally, the TWRS conducts, as part of this mission, resolution of safety issues associated with the wastes within the 177 underground radioactive waste tanks. Systems engineering principles are being applied to determine the functions and establish requirements necessary for accomplishing the TWRS mission (DOE 1994 draft). This systematic evaluation of the TWRS program has identified key decisions that must be executed to establish mission scope, determine requirements, or select a technical solution for accomplishing identified functions and requirements. Key decisions identified through the systematic evaluation of the TWRS mission are presented in this document. Potential alternative solutions to each decision are discussed. After-discussion and evaluation of each decision with effected stakeholder groups, the US Department of Energy (DOE) will select a solution from the identified alternatives for implementation. In order to proceed with the development and execution of the tank waste remediation program, the DOE has adopted a planning basis for several of these decisions, until a formal basis is established. The planning bases adopted by the DOE is continuing to be discussed with stakeholder groups to establish consensus for proceeding with proposed actions. Technical and programmatic risks associated with the planning basis adopted by the DOE are discussed

  7. Risk assessment guidance document for the UMTRA project groundwater remediation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the groundwater remedial activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites is to reduce, control, or eliminate risks to human health and the environment. This is in accordance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 192. According to this regulation, the need for groundwater restoration is based upon US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-defined groundwater cleanup standards and must be consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Risk assessments will be used in the UMTRA Groundwater Program to aid in the evaluation of sites. Risk assessments are conducted for four purposes: (1) Preliminary risk assessments are used to aid in prioritizing sites, scope data collection, end determine if a site presents immediate health risks. (2) Baseline risk assessments provide a comprehensive integration and interpretation of demographic, geographic, physical, chemical, and biological factors at a site to determine the extent of actual or potential harm. This information Is used to determine the need for remedial action. (3) Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives is performed to evaluate risks to humans or the environment associated with the various remedial strategies. (4) After remediation, an evaluation of residual risks is conducted. The information gathered for each of these risk evaluations is used to determine the need for subsequent evaluation. Several sites may be eliminated after a preliminary risk assessment if there is no current or future threat to humans or the environment. Likewise, much of the data from a baseline risk assessment can be used to support alternate concentration limits or supplemental standards demonstrations, or identify sensitive habitats or receptors that may be of concern in selecting a remedy

  8. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hagberg, Jessika; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  9. Factors for assessment of human health risk associated with remedial action at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Holmes, W.G.; Gordon, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A risk assessment strategy that is cost effective and minimized human health risks was developed for closure of hazardous waste sites at the Savannah River Plant. The strategy consists of (1) site characterization, (2) contaminant transport modeling, and (3) determination of relative merits of alternative remedial actions according to the degree of health protection they provide

  10. The role of risk assessment in remedial action cleanup programs (RACP): A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessler, R.G.; Bergmann, W.R.; Greenberg, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A RACP (Remedial Action Cleanup Program) selects site cleanup criteria that protect human health and the environment and are cost effective. They generally use existing environmental standards and/or guidelines which include safe drinking water, RCRA groundwater protection, threshold limit values and air quality standards, and recommended soil cleanup level guidelines. If these are the only criteria used, the RACP may be more stringent and expensive than necessary. Another step, a risk assessment program, should then be considered in the cleanup decision process. A risk assessment uses chemical concentrations observed in soils, groundwater, and air to project their impact on human health and the environment. Toxicological data on human exposure to these concentrations (LD 50s and carcinogenic action levels) are used to assess risks to human health and the environment. The risk assessment also considers the probability of exposure. E.g., remedial programs at Superfund sites consider three criteria in order to assess risks to human health and the environment: (1) pathways of exposure, (2) population at risk, and (3) chemicals of concern. By eliminating or severely limiting the significance of any criteria, the site may no longer represent a significant risk. This paper presents a RACP case history where a risk assessment was needed to select a cost effective and environmentally acceptable cleanup program

  11. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  12. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  13. Recent developments in health risks modeling techniques applied to hazardous waste site assessment and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, W.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Remediation of hazardous an mixed waste sites is often driven by assessments of human health risks posed by the exposures to hazardous substances released from these sites. The methods used to assess potential health risk involve, either implicitly or explicitly, models for pollutant releases, transport, human exposure and intake, and for characterizing health effects. Because knowledge about pollutant fate transport processes at most waste sites is quite limited, and data cost are quite high, most of the models currently used to assess risk, and endorsed by regulatory agencies, are quite simple. The models employ many simplifying assumptions about pollutant fate and distribution in the environment about human pollutant intake, and toxicologic responses to pollutant exposures. An important consequence of data scarcity and model simplification is that risk estimates are quite uncertain and estimates of the magnitude uncertainty associated with risk assessment has been very difficult. A number of methods have been developed to address the issue of uncertainty in risk assessments in a manner that realistically reflects uncertainty in model specification and data limitations. These methods include definition of multiple exposure scenarios, sensitivity analyses, and explicit probabilistic modeling of uncertainty. Recent developments in this area will be discussed, along with their possible impacts on remediation programs, and remaining obstacles to their wider use and acceptance by the scientific and regulatory communities

  14. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S.

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  15. IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION OF SOIL METALS BASED ON BIOAVAILABILITY MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals in soils can comprise risk through plant uptake or soil ingestion. Recent research results and progress in understandings of risks and methods for soil metal remediation will be presented. Beneficial use of composts/bosolids plus limestone to remediate metal killed e...

  16. An Integrated Simulation, Inference and Optimization Approach for Groundwater Remediation with Two-stage Health-Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated simulation, inference and optimization approach with two-stage health risk assessment (i.e., ISIO-THRA is developed for supporting groundwater remediation for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Both environmental standards and health risk are considered as the constraints in the ISIO-THRA model. The health risk includes two parts: (1 the health risk during the remediation process and (2 the health risk in the natural attenuation period after remediation. In the ISIO-THRA framework, the relationship between contaminant concentrations and time is expressed through first-order decay models. The results demonstrate that: (1 stricter environmental standards and health risk would require larger pumping rates for the same remediation duration; (2 higher health risk may happen in the period of the remediation process; (3 for the same environmental standard and acceptable health-risk level, the remediation techniques that take the shortest time would be chosen. ISIO-THRA can help to systematically analyze interaction among contaminant transport, remediation duration, and environmental and health concerns, and further provide useful supportive information for decision makers.

  17. A case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Guo, J.; Wu, J.; Wang, J.; Chien, C.; Stahl, R.; Mack, E.; Grosso, N.

    2013-12-01

    A field site in Nanjing, China was selected for a case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation. This site is about 100m long and 100m wide. A chemical plant (1999-2010) at the site manufactured optical brightener PF, 2-Amino-4-methylphenol and 2-Nitro-4-methylphenol, totally three products. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for PPL 126 (126 pollutants in the 'Priority Pollutants List' issued by US EPA). Values of the Dutch Standards were used as the screening criteria for soil and ground water. Low levels of ethylbenezene, chlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4- dichlorobenzene were detected in one soil sample. Concentrations above Dutch Target Value (DTV) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and/or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, phenol, and/or 2,4-dichlorophenol were exhibited in two groundwater samples. The ground water was especially highly impacted by bichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes. The maximum concentration of impacts was 7.3 mg/L of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in groundwater which was 730 times higher than Dutch Intervention Values (DIV). Risk of soil and groundwater at this site was assessed according to the guidelines issued by Chinese MEP and US EPA, respectively. Finally, remedy techniques were selected according to the result of risk assessment and the characteristics of hydrogeology conditions and contaminants.

  18. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J.; Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  19. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J. [Vito, Mol (Belgium); Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A. [TTE, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  20. Baseline ecological risk assessment and remediation alternatives for a hydrocarbon-contaminated estuarine wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedagiri, U.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to a property transaction, the groundwater at an industrial refinery site in New Jersey was found to be contaminated with a variety of petroleum-based organic compounds. The highly built-up site included an on-site estuarine wetland and was located in a developed, industrialized area near ecologically important estuarine marshes. A preliminary ecological risk assessment was developed on the basis of available data on site contamination and ecological resources. The onsite wetland and its user fauna were identified as the sensitive receptors of concern and the primary contaminant pathways wee identified. The ecological significance of the contamination was assessed with regard to the onsite wetland and in the context of its position within the landscape and surrounding land uses. The wetland exhibited a combination of impact and vitality, i.e., there were clearly visible signs of contaminant impact as well as a relatively complex and abundant food web. Because of its position within the developed landscape, the onsite wetland appeared to function as a refugium for wildlife despite the level of disturbance. The feasibility of achieving regulatory compliance through natural remediation was also examined with respect to the findings of the risk assessment and the resultant conclusions are discussed

  1. Presentation on the role or risk assessment in FUSRAP remedial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the primary emphasis of the FUSRAP program is to mitigate hazards by removing and disposing of contamination exceeding relevant generic guidelines, current FUSRAP protocol allows for application of supplemental risk-based standards in unique cases where generic standards are inappropriate. This presentation provides background information on the rationale supporting current generic cleanup standards, and how site-specific, risk-based standards can be applied to improve the cost effectiveness of overall remedial strategies. The current DOE process for development, review and granting of supplemental standards is discussed. The discussion includes a description of experience being gained through development of supplemental standards for the Albany Research Center (ARC) FUSRAP site. In particular, the presentation focuses on the methodology used to assess potential exposure risks posed by residual contamination at the ARC, cost and cost-benefit information compiled to support application of supplemental standards at ARC, and general issues identified during the development of supplemental standards. Criteria used to evaluate the appropriateness of applying supplemental standards to a specific situation are discussed. Finally, several examples of residual contamination at FUSRAP sites which may be considered for supplemental standards are identified and discussed

  2. Application of probabilistic risk assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, Betsy; Henderson, James; Murphy-Hagan, Clare; Kirkwood, Gemma; Wolf, Frederick; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed to evaluate the range of potential baseline and postremedy health risks to fish consumers at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (the "Site"). The analysis focused on risks of consuming fish resident to the Site containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), given that this exposure scenario and contaminant are the primary basis for US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) selected remedy per the January 2017 Record of Decision (ROD). The PRA used probability distributions fit to the same data sets used in the deterministic baseline human health risk assessment (BHHRA) as well as recent sediment and fish tissue data to evaluate the range and likelihood of current baseline cancer risks and noncancer hazards for anglers. Areas of elevated PCBs in sediment were identified on the basis of a geospatial evaluation of the surface sediment data, and the ranges of risks and hazards associated with pre- and postremedy conditions were calculated. The analysis showed that less active remediation (targeted to areas with the highest concentrations) compared to the remedial alternative selected by USEPA in the ROD can achieve USEPA's interim risk management benchmarks (cancer risk of 10 -4 and noncancer hazard index [HI] of 10) immediately postremediation for the vast majority of subsistence anglers that consume smallmouth bass (SMB) fillet tissue. In addition, the same targeted remedy achieves USEPA's long-term benchmarks (10 -5 and HI of 1) for the majority of recreational anglers. Additional sediment remediation would result in negligible additional risk reduction due to the influence of background. The PRA approach applied here provides a simple but adaptive framework for analysis of risks and remedial options focused on variability in exposures. It can be updated and refined with new data to evaluate and reduce uncertainty, improve understanding of the Site and target populations, and foster informed remedial decision

  3. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  4. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  5. Effective use of risk assessments and the public comment process to achieve acceptable remediation goals for mercury-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.Q.; Barnett, M.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of recalculating risk levels using new information, the remediation goals and cleanup strategy for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplains have been significantly changed to reflect an important reduction in cleanup costs while ensuring protectionof human health and the environment. This project and its stakeholders have made the risk assessment more effective by better defining the contaminant and adjusting assessment parameters. As a result, the remediation goal initially set at 50 ppM Hg has been changed to 400 ppM, resulting in significant reductions in both the destruction of the floodplain landscape and project costs. Volume of soils to be excavated has been decreased from 1 million cubic yards to 25,000 cubic yards, and the cost has been reduced from about $1 billion to less than $20 million. The Record of Decision for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek was approved in August 1995

  6. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique

  7. Risk-based remediation: Approach and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana

  8. Optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by the Wismut uranium mining operations using performance and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelz, F.; Jakubick, A.Th.; Kahnt, R.

    2003-01-01

    The cost and risk assessment at Wismut GmbH is performed for optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by uranium mining and milling. An iterative either probabilistic or deterministic 'top-down' model of the remediation project as an integrated system is used. Initially all relevant processes are captured in a rather abstract and simplistic way. In the course of the model development those variables and processes to which results have been shown to be sensitive are described in more detail. This approach is useful for identifying any gaps in the knowledge base that have to be filled in the course of the multi-attributive decision making. The requirement for optimisation, also with respect to socio-economic impacts, is met by including other variables in addition to costs and health risks. (authors)

  9. Optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by the Wismut uranium mining operations using performance and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, F.; Jakubick, A.Th.; Kahnt, R. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cost and risk assessment at Wismut GmbH is performed for optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by uranium mining and milling. An iterative either probabilistic or deterministic 'top-down' model of the remediation project as an integrated system is used. Initially all relevant processes are captured in a rather abstract and simplistic way. In the course of the model development those variables and processes to which results have been shown to be sensitive are described in more detail. This approach is useful for identifying any gaps in the knowledge base that have to be filled in the course of the multi-attributive decision making. The requirement for optimisation, also with respect to socio-economic impacts, is met by including other variables in addition to costs and health risks. (authors)

  10. On using residual risk to assess the cost effectiveness and health protectiveness of remedy selection at superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Peter T.; Kastenberg, William E.

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the importance of determining residual risk and its impact on remedy selection at Superfund Sites. Within this examination, risks are assessed using probabilistic models that incorporate the uncertainty and variability of the input parameters, and utilize parameter distributions based on current and applicable site-specific data. Monte Carlo methods are used to propagate these uncertainties and variabilities through the risk calculations resulting in a distribution for the estimate of both risk and residual risk. Such an approach permits an informed decision based on a broad information base which involves considering the entire uncertainty distribution of risk rather than a point estimate for each exposure scenario. Using the probabilistic risk estimates, with current and applicable site-specific data, alternative decisions regarding cleanup are obtained for two Superfund Sites

  11. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).

  12. Using bioavailability to assess contaminated sediment risk: Passive sampling and Pore Water Remedial Guidelines (PWRGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosted by the Contaminated Sediment Forum, this half-day course will introduce the RPM to the use of passive samplers to assess bioavailability and in ecological risk assessment. Passive sampling devices (PSD) are a technology with growing acceptance for measuring porewater conce...

  13. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report

  14. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  15. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  16. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  17. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites

  18. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  19. Tank waste remediation system risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management Plan is to describe a consistent approach to risk management such that TWRS Project risks are identified and managed to achieve TWRS Project success. The Risk Management Plan implements the requirements of the Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Plan in the area of risk management. Figure ES-1 shows the relationship of the TWRS Risk Management Plan to other major TWRS Project documents. As the figure indicates, the Risk Management Plan is a tool used to develop and control TWRS Project work. It provides guidance on how TWRS Project risks will be assessed, analyzed, and handled, and it specifies format and content for the risk management lists, which are a primary product of the risk management process. In many instances, the Risk Management Plan references the TWRS Risk Management Procedure, which provides more detailed discussion of many risk management activities. The TWRS Risk Management Plan describes an ongoing program within the TWRS Project. The Risk Management Plan also provides guidance in support of the TWRS Readiness To-Proceed (RTP) assessment package

  20. Using a risk assessment approach to handle 'hot spot' remediation in an environmentally-sensitive habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BenKinney, M.T.; Guiseppi-Eli, A.; Novick, N.J.; Naro, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    A number of different approaches have been used to address site restoration following an accidental discharge or spill. Removal of all contamination with subsequent site restoration has been a favored approach. The authors' presentation will focus on a case study where a risk assessment approach was used to establish the criteria for is the restoration. Waste oil from a gasoline service station had leaked, over time, into a swale system in an ecologically-sensitive coastal forested habitat. The initial regulatory recommendation was to excavate all soils and restore the area. Their initial investigations revealed that only a limited area was heavily contaminated, predominantly with paraffinic hydrocarbons. They used a risk assessment approach coupled with sediment elutriate testing to demonstrate that leaving the lightly contaminated material in place would not present an environmental hazard from the waste oil, while causing less damage to the swale bed and forested area. Bioassay tests were conducted on sediments collected along the length of the swale from the areas with the highest remaining hydrocarbon concentrations using fathead minnow and Daphnia magna. The bioassay studies confirmed the results of the risk assessment which determined that no environmental toxicity would be expected from allowing lightly contaminated material to remain in-place at this site

  1. Site remediation and risk assessment in Canada: current CPPI activities and a vision for the 21. century - a perspective from the Canadian Petroleum Products Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The scope of site remediation in the Canadian petroleum products industry was discussed. It was estimated that the cost to clean up the nearly 100,000 contaminated sites in Canada would be in the order of $20 billion. One alternative to the high cost of clean up is the use of risk assessment for the development of soil remediation criteria that would be appropriate to the real impact of a given contaminated site, instead of the use of arbitrary criteria that are intended to protect all sites. In this way, most dollars would be spent at cleaning up the highest risk sites. Recommendations were made as to how the science and the administration of risk assessments could be improved. It was suggested that a more holistic approach to site remediation must be taken. The issues of risk, risk trade-offs, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and prioritization within the site remediation context was also discussed. A comparative study of two risk assessment models, the ASTM-RBCA model used in Atlantic Canada, and the B.C. Vapour Intrusion Model Validation study was described. 23 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Multimedia assessment of health risks for the Weldon Spring site remedial action project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, L.A.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. The Weldon Spring site became radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The US Department of the Army used the Weldon Spring site to produce dinitrotoluene (DNT) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives from 1941 to 1946. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, predecessor of the DOE) used the site to process uranium and thorium ore concentrates from 1957 to 1966. The quarry was used by the Army and the AEC for waste disposal beginning in the early 1940s; it was last used for disposal in 1969. Wastes placed in the quarry include TNT and DNT residues and radioactively contaminated materials. A summary of disposal activities at the quarry is presented. As part of the environmental compliance process at the Weldon Spring site, a baseline risk evaluation (BRE) was prepared to assess the potential risks associated with contamination present at the quarry. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  4. In situ remediation-released zero-valent iron nanoparticles impair soil ecosystems health: A C. elegans biomarker-based risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Fe{sup 0} NPs induced infertility risk in C. elegans. • A C.elegans-based probabilistic risk assessment model is developed. • In situ remediation-released Fe{sup 0} NPs impair soil ecosystems health. - Abstract: There is considerable concern over the potential ecotoxicity to soil ecosystems posed by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe{sup 0} NPs) released from in situ environmental remediation. However, a lack of quantitative risk assessment has hampered the development of appropriate testing methods used in environmental applications. Here we present a novel, empirical approach to assess Fe{sup 0} NPs-associated soil ecosystems health risk using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. A Hill-based dose-response model describing the concentration–fertility inhibition relationships was constructed. A Weibull model was used to estimate thresholds as a guideline to protect C. elegans from infertility when exposed to waterborne or foodborne Fe{sup 0} NPs. Finally, the risk metrics, exceedance risk (ER) and risk quotient (RQ) of Fe{sup 0} NPs in various depths and distances from remediation sites can then be predicted. We showed that under 50% risk probability (ER = 0.5), upper soil layer had the highest infertility risk (95% confidence interval: 13.18–57.40%). The margins of safety and acceptable criteria for soil ecosystems health for using Fe{sup 0} NPs in field scale applications were also recommended. Results showed that RQs are larger than 1 in all soil layers when setting a stricter threshold of ∼1.02 mg L{sup −1} of Fe{sup 0} NPs. This C. elegans biomarker-based risk model affords new insights into the links between widespread use of Fe{sup 0} NPs and environmental risk assessment and offers potential environmental implications of metal-based NPs for in situ remediation.

  5. Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Lane, N.K.; Swenson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is one of the many tools used to evaluate and select remedial alternatives and evaluate the risk associated with selected remedial alternatives during and after implementation. The risk evaluation of remedial alternatives (RERA) is performed to ensure selected alternatives are protective of human health and the environment. Final remedy selection is promulgated in a record of decision (ROD) and risks of the selected alternatives are documented. Included in the ROD documentation are the risk-related analyses for long-term effectiveness, short-term effectiveness, and overall protection of human health and the environment including how a remedy will eliminate, reduce or control risks and whether exposure will be reduced to acceptable levels. A major goal of RERA in the process leading to a ROD is to provide decision-makers with specific risk information that may be needed to choose among alternatives. For the Hanford Site, there are many considerations that must be addressed from a risk perspective. These include the large size of the Hanford Site, the presence of both chemical and radionuclide contamination, one likelihood of many analogues sites, public and worker health and safety, and stakeholder concern with ecological impacts from site contamination and remedial actions. A RERA methodology has been promulgated to (1) identify the points in the process leading to a ROD where risk assessment input is either required or desirable and (2) provide guidance on how to evaluate risks associated with remedial alternatives under consideration. The methodology and evaluations parallel EPA guidance requiring consideration of short-term impacts and the overall protectiveness of remedial actions for evaluating potential human health and ecological risks during selection of remedial alternatives, implementation of remedial measures, and following completion of remedial action

  6. Orchestrating environmental research and assessment for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Whicker, F.W.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The interface between science, assessment, and policy have come to the forefront of national attention recently, and the issues involved were summarized for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The authors of this letter consider if the lessons learned in NAPAP are being applied to the remediation of contaminated sites in the U.S. DOE nuclear weapons complex. A figure giving the authors'prospective of the role science should play in a risk management problems is presented. Three major lessons from the NAPAP experience are discussed in reference to DOE: (1) objectives must be clearly spelled out early in the assessment; (2) the importance of peer review throughout the scientific evaluation phase, including publication of a significant amount of research in peer-reviewed journal in a timely fashion; (3) the risk associated with remediation alternative should be included in any assessment. 30 refs., 1 fig

  7. Two-scale evaluation of remediation technologies for a contaminated site by applying economic input-output life cycle assessment: risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO2 emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    2011-09-15

    A two-scale evaluation concept of remediation technologies for a contaminated site was expanded by introducing life cycle costing (LCC) and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA). The expanded evaluation index, the rescue number for soil (RN(SOIL)) with LCC and EIO-LCA, comprises two scales, such as risk-cost, risk-energy consumption or risk-CO(2) emission of a remediation. The effectiveness of RN(SOIL) with LCC and EIO-LCA was examined in a typical contamination and remediation scenario in which dieldrin contaminated an agricultural field. Remediation was simulated using four technologies: disposal, high temperature thermal desorption, biopile and landfarming. Energy consumption and CO(2) emission were determined from a life cycle inventory analysis using monetary-based intensity based on an input-output table. The values of RN(SOIL) based on risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO(2) emission were calculated, and then rankings of the candidates were compiled according to RN(SOIL) values. A comparison between three rankings showed the different ranking orders. The existence of differences in ranking order indicates that the scales would not have reciprocal compatibility for two-scale evaluation and that each scale should be used independently. The RN(SOIL) with LCA will be helpful in selecting a technology, provided an appropriate scale is determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Defining the role of risk assessment in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation process at the DOE-OR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.; McGinn, C.W.; Purucker, S.T.; White, R.K.

    1994-08-01

    The risk assessment strategy that will be implemented on the Oak Ridge Reservation has been standardized to ensure consistency and technical defensibility in all risk assessment activities and is presented within this document. The strategy emphasizes using existing environmental data in screening risk analyses to aid in identifying chemicals of potential concern, operable units that could pursue a no further investigation determination, and operable units that may warrant early response actions. The screening risk analyses include a comparison of measured chemical concentrations to preliminary remediation goals, performing a most likely exposure and integration point assessment, and performing a screening ecological risk assessment. This document focuses heavily on the screening risk analyses and relies on existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment guidance to provide specific details on conducting baseline risk assessments. However, the document does contain a section on the baseline risk assessment process that details the exposure pathways to be evaluated on the Oak Ridge Reservation. This document will be used in conjunction with existing Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Environmental Restoration risk assessment standards, policies, procedures, and technical memoranda. The material contained herein will be periodically updated as the strategy is tried and tested and as the risk assessment methodology is revised. The primary purpose for this document is to present the proposed strategy to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV and receive concurrence or additional comments on the material presented herein

  9. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  10. Development of the remedial action priority system: An improved risk assessment tool for prioritizing hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Steelman, B.L.; Hawley, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) represents a methodology that prioritizes inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This methodology is intended to bridge the technology gap that exists between the initial site evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and the time-consuming process of actual field site characterization, assessment and remediation efforts. The HRS was designed as an initial screening tool to discriminate between hazardous waste sites that do not and those that are likely to power significant problems to human health, safety and/or the environment. The HRS is used by the U.S. EPA to identify sites for nomination to the National Priorities List (NPL). Because the HRS is not designed to evaluate sites containing radionuclides, a modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS) addressing both hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the HRS nor the mHRS was designed to prioritize sites that are nominated to the NPL according to their potential risks. To provide DOE with a better management tool for prioritizing funding and human resource allocations for further investigations and possible remediations at its inactive waste sites, PNL is developing the risk assessment methodology called RAPS. Use of RAPS will help DOE ensure that those sites posing the highest potential risk are addressed first

  11. Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides guidance on the process of risk evaluation of remedial alternatives (RERA) at the Hanford Site. Remediation activities at the Hanford Site are being conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This document identifies points in the remedial alternative selection process where risk assessment input is either required or desirable. For each of these points of application, the document identifies issues to consider and address, and suggests possible approaches, techniques, and appropriate levels of detail. The level of detail of a RERA is driven by the need to use risk as a criterion for selecting a remedial alternative. Such a document is needed to ensure that RERA is conducted in a consistent manner, and to prevent restating or creating guidance within each RERA

  12. Using risk-based corrective action (RBCA) to assess (theoretical) cancer deaths averted compared to the (real) cost of environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.; Pomatto, C.B.; Hylko, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    programs should be reviewed and updated annually. RBCA is a consistent decision-making process for the assessment and response to a particular risk, based on the protection of human health and the environment. The allocation of limited resources (e.g., time, money, regulatory oversight) to any one site necessarily influences corrective action decisions at other sites. This has spurred the search for innovative approaches to corrective action decision making, which still ensures that human health and the environment are protected. The RBCA process is a consistent, streamlined decision process for selecting corrective actions at sites identified for remediation. Moreover, as operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and non-radiological risks associated with this and similar remedial action projects, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general pubic. (author)

  13. Remedial investigation report on waste area grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 4, Appendix C, Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 is part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is located on the United States Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR). The site lies southeast of Haw Ridge in Melton Valley and comprises approximately 32 ha (80 ac) [12 ha (30 ac) of forested area and the balance in grassed fields]. Waste Area Grouping 5 consists of several contaminant source areas for the disposal of low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and fissile wastes (1959 to 1973) as well as inorganic and organic chemical wastes. Wastes were buried in trenches and auger holes. Radionuclides from buried wastes are being transported by shallow groundwater to Melton Branch and White Oak Creek. Different chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) were identified (e.g., cesium-137, strontium-90, radium-226, thorium-228, etc.); other constituents and chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, trichloroethene, were also identified as COPCs. Based on the results of this assessment contaminants of concern (COCs) were subsequently identified. The objectives of the WAG 5 Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment (BHHRA) are to document the potential health hazards (i.e., risks) that may result from contaminants on or released from the site and provide information necessary for reaching informed remedial decisions. As part of the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), ORNL and its associated waste/contamination sites fall under the auspices of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The results of the BHHRA will (1) document and evaluate risks to human health, (2) help determine the need for remedial action, (3) determine chemical concentrations protective of current and future human receptors, and (4) help select and compare various remedial alternatives.

  14. Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Eriksson, Jan; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Galazka, Rafal; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien; Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Oustriere, Nadège; Puschenreiter, Markus; Renella, Giancarlo; Roumier, Pierre-Hervé; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Manier, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  16. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  17. PROBABILISTIC RISK ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION EFFORTS IN NAPL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Vries, L.; Pool, M.; Sapriza, G.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors). Thus, the methodology allows combining the probability of failure of a remediation effort due to multiple causes, each one associated to several pathways and receptors.

  18. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6: Appendix G -- Baseline ecological risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix G contains ecological risks for fish, benthic invertebrates, soil invertebrates, plants, small mammals, deer, and predator/scavengers (hawks and fox). This risk assessment identified significant ecological risks from chemicals in water, sediment, soil, and shallow ground water. Metals and PCBs are the primary contaminants of concern.

  19. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    ), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic...

  20. Development of the Remedial Action Priority System: an improved risk assessment tool for prioritizing hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Steelman, B.L.; Hawley, K.A.

    1985-08-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) represents a methodology that prioritizes inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This methodology is intended to bridge the technology gap that exists between the initial site evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and the time-consuming process of actual field site characterization, assessment, and remediation efforts. The HRS was designed as an initial screening tool to discriminate between hazardous waste sites that do not and those that are likely to pose significant problems to human health, safety, and/or the environment. The HRS is used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to identify sites for nomination to the National Priorites List (NPL). Because the HRS is not designed to evaluate sites containing radionuclides, a modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS) addressing both hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the HRS nor the mHRS was designed to prioritize sites that are nominated to the NPL according to their potential risks. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Risk-based remediation of polluted sites: A critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-11-01

    Sites contaminated with chemical pollutants represent a growing challenge, and remediation of such lands is of international concern. Risk-based land management (RBLM) is an emerging approach that integrates risk assessment practices with more traditional site-specific investigations and remediation activities. Developing countries are yet to adopt RBLM strategies for remediation. RBLM is considered to be practical, scientifically defensible and cost-efficient. However, it is inherently limited by: firstly, the accuracy of risk assessment models used; secondly, ramifications of the fact that they are more likely to leave contamination in place; and thirdly, uncertainties involved and having to consider the total concentrations of all contaminants in soils that overestimate the potential risks from exposure to the contaminants. Consideration of contaminant bioavailability as the underlying basis for risk assessment and setting remediation goals of those contaminated lands that pose a risk to environmental and human health may lead to the development of a more sophisticated risk-based approach. However, employing the bioavailability concept in RBLM has not been extensively studied and/or legalized. This review highlights the extent of global land contamination, and the concept of risk-based assessment and management of contaminated sites including its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the concept of bioavailability-based RBLM strategy has been proposed, and the challenges of RBLM and the priority areas for future research are summarized. Thus, the present review may help achieve a better understanding and successful implementation of a sustainable bioavailability-based RBLM strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk characterization and remedial management of TPH-affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Von Burg, R.; Preslo, L.; Lakin, M.

    1994-01-01

    A risk-based remedial program for petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils has been implemented at a large land parcel in California. The site is the former location of a manufacturing facility that had been in operation since the 1940s. As a result of various activities related to parts manufacturing, several large areas of soil were found to contain various petroleum products. The primary sources of petroleum hydrocarbons included cutting oils, lubricating oils, fuels, and hydraulic oils associated with the site operations. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as high as 100,000 mg/kg were identified in soil. These high concentrations of TPH were identified at depths up to 60 feet below ground surface (bgs), with the vadose zone extending to depths of more than 150 feet bgs. Within California, traditional cleanup levels for TPH-affected soils typically range from 100 to 1,000 mg/kg. Because of the client's desire to sell the property for rapid development, the remedial alternative of excavation and off-haul was deemed too time consuming and costly. The estimated costs associated with this remediation which potentially involved soil removal to 100--120 feet exceeded $20 million and could take up to one year to complete. To meet the schedule requirements for site remediations as well as significantly reduce the overall project cost, the authors undertook a risk-based approach to assess if remediation of the TPH-affected soils was required

  3. USING RISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTION (RBCA) TO ASSESS (THEORETICAL) CANCER DEATHS AVERTED COMPARED TO THE (REAL) COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M. L.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites and vicinity properties. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were prevented in the next 100 years at a cost of $1.45 billion, based on the Fiscal Year 1998 Federal UMTRA budget. The individual site costs ranged from $0.2 million up to $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted over the next 100 years. Resources required to sustain remediation activities such as this are subject to reduction over time, and are originally based on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public. This evaluation used a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA); a three-tiered, decision-making process tailoring corrective action activities according to site-specific conditions and risks. If RBCA had been applied at the start of the UMTRA Project, and using a criterion of >1 excess cancer death prevented as justification to remediate the site, only 50% of the existing sites would have been remediated, yielding a cost savings of $303.6 million to the Federal Government and affected States, which share 10% of the cost. This cost savings equates to 21% of the overall project budget. In addition, only 22% of the vicinity properties had structural contamination contributing to elevated interior gamma exposure and radon levels. Focusing only on these particular properties could have saved an additional $269.3 million, yielding a total savings of $573 million; 40% of the overall project budget. As operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and nonradiological risks, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative

  4. Remedy and Recontamination Assessment Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    instruments pre-installed from the R/V Ecos during the April 22, 2016 event. .................................................................... 38...Environmental Security Technology Certification Program IBI Index of Benthic Integrity ISMA In situ Microcosm Arrays HOC Hydrophobic Organic Compound...system was successfully designed and constructed based on the goal of providing an integrated technology for assessing the effectiveness of

  5. Risk-based economic decision analysis of remediation options at a PCE-contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Friis-Hansen, P.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    by the remediation activities. More attention is increasingly being given to these secondary environmental impacts when evaluating remediation options. This paper presents a methodology for an integrated economic decision analysis which combines assessments of remediation costs, health risk costs and potential...... at a downstream groundwater well. Potential environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales due to the site remediation activities are evaluated using life cycle assessments (LCA). The potential impacts on health and environment are converted to monetary units using a simplified cost model. A case......Remediation methods for contaminated sites cover a wide range of technical solutions with different remedial efficiencies and costs. Additionally, they may vary in their secondary impacts on the environment i.e. the potential impacts generated due to emissions and resource use caused...

  6. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design

  7. Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    How the EPA conducts risk assessment to protect human health and the environment. Several assessments are included with the guidelines, models, databases, state-based RSL Tables, local contacts and framework documents used to perform these assessments.

  8. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Plastino, J.C.; Roeck, F.V.; Tuttle, B.G.

    1997-04-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation involves the excavation, treatment if applicable, and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The scope of the 300-FF-1 remediation is to excavate, transport, and dispose of contaminated solid from sites identified in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

  9. Improving Risk Governance of Emerging Technologies through Public Engagement: The Neglected Case of Nano-Remediation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Wickson, Fern; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2012-01-01

    : the use of nanoparticles for environmental remediation (nano-remediation). Through our review and analysis we find that the main approaches to incorporating public engagement into governance strategies have been the generation of a better understanding of public perceptions of NT and the setting...... of general research priorities. In the case of nano-remediation, we find that public engagement efforts have been extremely limited, even though this technology has been used in the field in several countries and highlighted as potentially problematic by others. Finally, we provide recommendations...... for improving the links between public engagement and risk assessment and specifically call for more work on the case of nano-remediation....

  10. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O 2 and CO 2 in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%

  11. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    After defining risk and introducing the concept of individual and societal risk, the author considers each of these, restricting considerations to risk of death. Some probabilities of death arising from various causes are quoted, and attention drawn to the care necessary in making comparisons between sets of data and to the distinction between voluntary and involuntary categories and between early and delayed deaths. The presentation of information on societal risk is discussed and examples given. The history of quantified risk assessment is outlined, particularly related to the nuclear industry, the process of assessing risk discussed: identification of hazard causes, the development of accident chains and the use of event trees, the evaluation of probability through the collection of data and their use with fault trees, and the assessment of consequences of hazards in terms of fatalities. Reference is made to the human element and common-made failures, and to studies supporting the development of reliability assessment techniques. Acceptance criteria are discussed for individual and societal risk in the nuclear field, and it is shown that proposed criteria lead to risks conservative by comparison with risks from day-to-day accidents and other potentially hazardous industries. (U.K.)

  12. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trade-offs between worker risk and public risk during remediation at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, B.N.; Morris, J.; Blaylock, B.; Travis, C.

    1995-01-01

    Within the next 30 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating thousands of waste sites across the DOE complex. A major concern during remediation will be the protection of thousands of workers engaged in the remediation. In addition to well know safety hazards associated with conventional construction operations, remedial workers at DOE will encounter radiation and chemical exposures from radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste. Although historically represented as minimal due to a paucity of data related to worker exposures during remediation, potential worker health risk is an important factor that must be taken into account in the selection of remedial strategies, and the potential risk reduction offered by a remedial strategy must be weighed against the potential worker risk incurred during its implementation. Analysis has shown a trend that the worker risk incurred outweighs,the benefits of risk reduction to the public

  14. Geostatistical approach for assessing soil volumes requiring remediation: validation using lead-polluted soils underlying a former smelting works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demougeot-Renard, Helene; De Fouquet, Chantal

    2004-10-01

    Assessing the volume of soil requiring remediation and the accuracy of this assessment constitutes an essential step in polluted site management. If this remediation volume is not properly assessed, misclassification may lead both to environmental risks (polluted soils may not be remediated) and financial risks (unexpected discovery of polluted soils may generate additional remediation costs). To minimize such risks, this paper proposes a geostatistical methodology based on stochastic simulations that allows the remediation volume and the uncertainty to be assessed using investigation data. The methodology thoroughly reproduces the conditions in which the soils are classified and extracted at the remediation stage. The validity of the approach is tested by applying it on the data collected during the investigation phase of a former lead smelting works and by comparing the results with the volume that has actually been remediated. This real remediated volume was composed of all the remediation units that were classified as polluted after systematic sampling and analysis during clean-up stage. The volume estimated from the 75 samples collected during site investigation slightly overestimates (5.3% relative error) the remediated volume deduced from 212 remediation units. Furthermore, the real volume falls within the range of uncertainty predicted using the proposed methodology.

  15. Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on companies risk evaluation before endorsement of Loan deriving from business relationships. The aim of this thesis is not only to describe individual steps of risk assessment, but also perfom analysis of particular companies based on available data, i.e. Balance sheet, Profit and Loss statement and external rating and after that propose solution for each company. My analysis will be based on theoretical knowledge, further on experience related to my job role a...

  16. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107...... and the individual dynamic items strengthen the use of this scheme in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)...

  17. Assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardos, R.P.; Kearney, T.E.; Nathanail, C.P.; Weenk, A.; Martin, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider qualitative and quantitative approaches for assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination. In terms of the environmental element of sustainable development, a remediation project's overall environmental performance is the sum of the

  18. Tank waste remediation system risk management list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remedation System (TWRS) Risk Management List and it's subset of critical risks, the Critical Risk Management List, provide a tool to senior RL and WHC management (Level-1 and -2) to manage programmatic risks that may significantly impact the TWRS program. The programmatic risks include cost, schedule, and performance risks. Performance risk includes technical risk, supportability risk (such as maintainability and availability), and external risk (i.e., beyond program control, for example, changes in regulations). The risk information includes a description, its impacts, as evaluation of the likelihood, consequences and risk value, possible mitigating actions, and responsible RL and WHC managers. The issues that typically form the basis for the risks are presented in a separate table and the affected functions are provided on the management lists

  19. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5: Appendix F - Baseline human health risk assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix F documents potential risks and provides information necessary for making remediation decisions. A quantitative analysis of the inorganic, organic, and radiological site-related contaminants found in various media is used to characterize the potential risks to human health associated with exposure to these contaminants

  20. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5: Appendix F -- Baseline human health risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix F documents potential risks and provides information necessary for making remediation decisions. A quantitative analysis of the inorganic, organic, and radiological site-related contaminants found in various media is used to characterize the potential risks to human health associated with exposure to these contaminants.

  1. Functional remediation components: A conceptual method of evaluating the effects of remediation on risks to ecological receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, tribal leaders, and the public are faced with understanding and evaluating the effects of cleanup activities on species, populations, and ecosystems. While engineers and managers understand the processes involved in different remediation types such as capping, pump and treat, and natural attenuation, there is often a disconnect between (1) how ecologists view the influence of different types of remediation, (2) how the public perceives them, and (3) how engineers understand them. The overall goal of the present investigation was to define the components of remediation types (= functional remediation). Objectives were to (1) define and describe functional components of remediation, regardless of the remediation type, (2) provide examples of each functional remediation component, and (3) explore potential effects of functional remediation components in the post-cleanup phase that may involve continued monitoring and assessment. Functional remediation components include types, numbers, and intensity of people, trucks, heavy equipment, pipes, and drill holes, among others. Several components may be involved in each remediation type, and each results in ecological effects, ranging from trampling of plants, to spreading invasive species, to disturbing rare species, and to creating fragmented habitats. In some cases remediation may exert a greater effect on ecological receptors than leaving the limited contamination in place. A goal of this conceptualization is to break down functional components of remediation such that managers, regulators, and the public might assess the effects of timing, extent, and duration of different remediation options on ecological systems.

  2. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites in Europe. Of these, approximately 340,000 sites are thought to be contaminated to a degree that may require remediation (Joint Research Center, 2014). Until recently, remediation was considered...... to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment...

  3. Human health and other risk drivers to prioritize site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, T.; Connor, J. [Groundwater Services Inc, Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Remedial actions at soil and groundwater cleanup sites have traditionally been addressed on an individual, case-by-case basis, as needed to address regulatory requirements. However, effective management of large portfolios of remediation sites (such as hundreds or thousands of underground storage tank sites owned by a single company) requires coordination and prioritisation of individual site response actions to optimise the degree of risk reduction achieved with available resources. To meet these management objectives, two new risk-based management tools have been developed and implemented by the authors: i) a simple risk-based classification system, that can be employed to prioritise response actions, identify key risk drivers, and measure risk reduction progress over time for the full site portfolio; and ii) a lifecycle cost management system that can be employed to forecast remediation spending and optimise risk reduction benefits. For use in prioritising response actions at remediation sites, 'risk' is defined as the negative consequence of no action. (orig.)

  4. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 4: Appendix C, Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 is part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is located on the United States Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR). The site lies southeast of Haw Ridge in Melton Valley and comprises approximately 32 ha (80 ac) [12 ha (30 ac) of forested area and the balance in grassed fields]. The western and southern boundaries of WAG are contiguous with the WAG 2 area which includes White Oak Creek and Melton Branch and associated floodplains. Waste Area Grouping 5 consists of several contaminant source areas for the disposal of low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and fissile wastes (1959 to 1973) as well as inorganic and organic chemical wastes. Wastes were buried in trenches and auger holes. Radionuclides from buried wastes are being transported by shallow groundwater to Melton Branch and White Oak Creek. Different chemicals of potential concern (COPCS) were identified (e.g., cesium-137, strontium-90, radium-226, thorium-228, etc.); other constituents and chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, trichloroethene, were also identified as COPCS. Based on the results of this assessment contaminants of concern (COCS) were subsequently identified. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) (EPA 1989). First, the data for the different media are evaluated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting COPCS, contaminants to be considered in the BHHRA are identified for each media, and the representative concentrations for these contaminants are determined. Third, an assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of the exposure and toxicity assessments are combined and summarized in the risk characterization section

  5. Using risk-based remedy selection to minimize remedial response costs -- A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.A.; Hochreiter, J.J. Jr.; Stout, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors used a risk-based remedy selection at a former coal tar emulsion production facility in a heavily industrialized area of northern New Jersey. Historical site activities resulted in extensive contamination of shallow site soils from high molecular weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), including potentially carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs). Then-current risk-based proposed soil cleanup goals developed by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) were not representative of potential exposures under current or future exposure scenarios. Alternate soil cleanup goals were calculated, incorporating relevant input variables that accurately reflected site conditions and potential receptors/exposure scenarios; these cleanup goals demonstrated the site did not pose the degree of risk assumed by the NJDEP. However, they were not accepted by NJDEP as performance standards for remedial activities for ''policy'' reasons

  6. Remedial Action Assessment System: A computer-based methodology for conducting feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Buelt, J.L.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Because of the complexity and number of potential waste sites facing the US Department of Energy (DOE) for potential cleanup, DOE is supporting the development of a computer-based methodology to streamline the remedial investigation/feasibility study process. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS), can be used for screening, linking, and evaluating established technology processes in support of conducting feasibility studies. It is also intended to do the same in support of corrective measures studies. The user interface employs menus, windows, help features, and graphical information while RAAS is in operation. Object-oriented programming is used to link unit processes into sets of compatible processes that form appropriate remedial alternatives. Once the remedial alternatives are formed, the RAAS methodology can evaluate them in terms of effectiveness, implementability, and cost. RAAS will access a user-selected risk assessment code to determine the reduction of risk after remedial action by each recommended alternative. The methodology will also help determine the implementability of the remedial alternatives at a site and access cost estimating tools to provide estimates of capital, operating, and maintenance costs. This paper presents the characteristics of two RAAS prototypes currently being developed. These include the RAAS Technology Information System, which accesses graphical, tabular and textual information about technologies, and the main RAAS methodology, which screens, links, and evaluates remedial technologies. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Assane Diop, BS; Meredith Block, MPA; Alexander Smith-Jones, BS; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS

    2011-01-01

    Background. This paper describes the impact of improper used lead-acid battery (ULAB) handling and disposal. A specific case study is presented describing the field assessment and remediation of lead contamination in a community in Senegal where at least 18 children died from lead poisoning. Objectives. The assessment and remediation process utilized to address the Senegal lead contamination has been used as a model approach to solving used lead-acid battery (ULAB) contamination in other e...

  8. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  9. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  10. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report describes risk assessment methodology associated with the remedial action programs at the Hanford Reservation. Topics addressed include human health evaluation, pollutant and radionuclide transport through the environment, and environmental transport pathways

  11. Tank waste remediation system programmatic risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This risk management plan defines the approach to be taken to managing risks in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program. It defines the actions to be taken at the overall program level, and the risk management requirements for lower-level projects and other activities. The primary focus of this plan is on ''programmatic'' risks, i.e., risks with respect to the cost, schedule, and technical performance of the program. The plan defines an approach providing managers with the flexibility to manage risks according to their specific needs, yet creates. The consistency needed for effectiveness across the program. The basic risk management approach uses a risk management list for the program, each project, and additional lower-level activities. The risk management list will be regularly reviewed and updated by appropriate level of management. Each list defines key risks, their likelihood and consequences, risk management actions to be taken, responsible individuals, and other management information

  12. Briefing paper -- Remedial Action Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    Congress has mandated a more comprehensive management of hazardous wastes with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or ''Superfund'') and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This mandate includes restoration of disposal sites contaminated through past disposal practices. This mandate applies to facilities operated for and by the Department of Energy (DOE), just as it does to industrial and other institutions. To help implement the CERCLA/SARA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process in a consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, a methodology needs to be developed that will allow definition, sorting, and screening of remediation technologies for each operable unit (waste site). This need is stated specifically in Section 2.2.2.1 of the October 1989 Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Plan of the DOE. This Briefing Paper is prepared to respond to this need. 1 fig

  13. Objective Assessment of General Surgery Residents Followed by Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas, Becca L; Buckarma, EeeLN H; Mohan, Monali; Pandian, T K; Farley, David R

    Surgical training programs often lack objective assessment strategies. Complicated scheduling characteristics frequently make it difficult for surgical residents to undergo formal assessment; actually having the time and opportunity to remediate poor performance is an even greater problem. We developed a novel methodology of assessment for residents and created an efficient remediation system using a combination of simulation, online learning, and self-assessment options. Postgraduate year (PGY) 2 to 5 general surgery (GS) residents were tested in a 5 station, objective structured clinical examination style event called the Surgical X-Games. Stations were 15 minutes in length and tested both surgical knowledge and technical skills. Stations were scored on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = Fail, 2 = Mediocre, 3 = Pass, 4 = Good, and 5 = Stellar). Station scores ≤ 2 were considered subpar and required remediation to a score ≥ 4. Five remediation sessions allowed residents the opportunity to practice the stations with staff surgeons. Videos of each skill or test of knowledge with clear instructions on how to perform at a stellar level were offered. Trainees also had the opportunity to checkout take-home task trainers to practice specific skills. Residents requiring remediation were then tested again in-person or sent in self-made videos of their performance. Academic medical center. PGY2, 3, 4, and 5 GS residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. A total of, 35 residents participated in the Surgical X-Games in the spring of 2015. Among all, 31 (89%) had scores that were deemed subpar on at least 1 station. Overall, 18 (58%) residents attempted remediation. All 18 (100%) achieved a score ≥ 4 on the respective stations during a makeup attempt. Overall X-Games scores and those of PGY2s, 3s, and 4s were higher after remediation (p remediation. Despite difficulties with training logistics and busy resident schedules, it is feasible to objectively assess most GS trainees and

  14. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 100-DR-1 remedial action readiness assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Ard, J.A.; Corpuz, F.M.; DeMers, S.K.; Donahoe, R.L.; Frank, J.M.; Hobbs, B.J.; Roeck, F.V.

    1997-02-01

    This readiness assessment report presents the results of the project readiness assessment for the 100-DR-1 source sites remediation. The assessment was conducted at the conclusion of a series of project activities that began in August 1996. These activities included confirming the completion of project-specific procedures, training of staff, obtaining support equipment, receipt of subcontractor submittals, and mobilization and construction of site support systems

  15. Automated remedial assessment methodology software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiting, M.; Wilkins, M.; Stiles, D.

    1994-11-01

    The Automated Remedial Analysis Methodology (ARAM) software system has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in evaluating cleanup options for over 10,000 contaminated sites across the DOE complex. The automated methodology comprises modules for decision logic diagrams, technology applicability and effectiveness rules, mass balance equations, cost and labor estimating factors and equations, and contaminant stream routing. ARAM is used to select technologies for meeting cleanup targets; determine the effectiveness of the technologies in destroying, removing, or immobilizing contaminants; decide the nature and amount of secondary waste requiring further treatment; and estimate the cost and labor involved when applying technologies

  16. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  17. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.W.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Remsen, W.E.; Tuttle, B.G.; Wilson, R.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the readiness assessment for initial startup of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Task. A readiness assessment verifies and documents that field activities are ready to start (or restart) safely. The 300-FF-1 assessment was initiated in April 1997. Readiness assessment activities included confirming the completion of project-specific procedures and permits, training staff, obtaining support equipment, receipt and approval of subcontractor submittals, and mobilization and construction of site support systems. The scope of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Task includes excavation and disposal of contaminated soils at liquid waste disposal facilities and of waste in the 618-4 Burial Ground and the 300-FF-1 landfills. The scope also includes excavation of test pits and test trenches

  18. Reduced risk estimations after remediation of lead (Pb) in drinking water at two US school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 μg/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 μg/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 μg/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems. © 2013.

  19. Ecotoxicity testing and environmental risk assessment of iron nanomaterials for sub-surface remediation – Recommendations from the FP7 project NanoRem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Coutris, Claire; Nguyen, Nhung

    2017-01-01

    engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron® and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V. fisheri, E. coli), algae (P. subcapitata...... milled nZVI (FerMEG12), showed no toxicity in the test battery when tested in concentrations up to 100 mg/L, which is the cutoff for hazard labeling in chemicals regulation in Europe. However it should be noted that Fe nanomaterials proved challenging to test adequately due to their turbidity...

  20. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  1. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  2. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms open-quote risk assessment close-quote and open-quote risk management close-quote are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of open-quotes... the most significant data and uncertainties...close quotes in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are open-quotes...those that define and explain the main risk conclusionsclose quotes. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation

  3. Introduction to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to risk assessment. It discusses the basic concepts of risk assessment, nuclear risk assessment process and products, the role of risk assessment products in nuclear safety assurance, the relationship between risk assessment and other safety analysis and risk assessment and safe operating envelope

  4. Challenges in Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The process of risk analysis consists out of three components, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. These components are internationally well spread by Codex Alimentarius Commission as being the basis for setting science based standards, criteria on food safety hazards, e.g. setting maximum limits of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. However, the technical component risk assessment is hard to elaborate and to understand. Key in a risk assessment is the translation of biological or...

  5. Minimizing the Health Risks from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils by Using Electric Field-Based Treatment for Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aura Istrate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the assessment of human health risk from soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs due to crude oil pollution, with a particular focus on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH group of carcinogenic and toxic substances. Given that the measured risk for human health exceeded the accepted level, the study considered an electrochemical remediation method. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using an electric field-based treatment as a possible solution for the remediation of contaminated soil. After 20 days of treatment, while the voltage applied was 15 V (specific voltage of 1 V/cm, the hydrocarbon content was significantly reduced. The parameters measured to determine the overall remediation efficiency were pH, redox potential, ionic strength, soil characteristics, voltage gradient, and zeta potential. The remediation degree observed during the experiments was around 50% for TPHs and 46% for PAHs. The applied remediation method resulted in significant removal efficiency of the tested contaminants from the soil. Consequently, the human health risk assessment for the new degree of contaminants in the soil was achieved. This data demonstrated to what extent the application of the remediation applied technology ensured an acceptable risk under the same exposure conditions for the industrial workers.

  6. Evaluation methods for assessing effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Biao; Zeng, Guangming; Gong, Jilai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang; Ye, Shujing; Yi, Huan; Ren, Xiaoya

    2017-08-01

    Soil and sediment contamination has become a critical issue worldwide due to its great harm to the ecological environment and public health. In recent years, many remediation technologies including physical, chemical, biological, and combined methods have been proposed and adopted for the purpose of solving the problems of soil and sediment contamination. However, current research on evaluation methods for assessing these remediation technologies is scattered and lacks valid and integrated evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review with an environmental perspective on the evaluation methods for assessing the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals. The review systematically summarizes recent exploration and attempts of the remediation effectiveness assessment based on the content of pollutants, soil and sediment characteristics, and ecological risks. Moreover, limitations and future research needs of the practical assessment are discussed. These limitations are not conducive to the implementation of the abatement and control programs for soil and sediment contamination. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness while developing new in situ remediation technologies in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  8. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  9. Assessment of the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okparanma, Reuben N; Azuazu, Ikeabiama; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2017-12-15

    This study was conducted to quantify and rank the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation using soil quality index. The investigation was conducted at three oil spill sites in the Niger Delta (5.317°N, 6.467°E), Nigeria with a predominance of Oxisols. Baseline assessment and a two-step post-remediation monitoring of the sites were conducted. Target contaminants including total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results of the baseline assessment showed that TPH concentrations across the study sites averaged between 5113 and 7640 mg/kg at 0- to 1-m depth, which was higher than the local regulatory value of 5000 mg/kg. The soil quality index across the sites ranged between 68 and 45, suggesting medium to high potential ecological health risks with medium to high priority for remediation. BTEX concentrations followed a similar trend. However, after remediation TPH degraded rapidly initially and then slowly but asymptotically during the post-remediation monitoring period. Then, soil quality index across the study sites ranged between 100 and 58, indicating very low to medium potential ecological health risks. This demonstrates the effectiveness of onsite exsitu remediation by enhanced natural attenuation as a remediation strategy for petroleum-contaminated soils, which holds great promise for the Niger Delta province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, L.; Hers, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent to a marine environment was discussed. The presentation provided an introduction and illustration to the site location and history, located close to Skagway, Alaska and northwestern British Columbia. The site investigation and conceptual model were also presented. The remedial approach was also described with reference to a risk-based action approach, remedial objectives, soil vapour extraction (SVE)-bioventing, and air sparging-biosparging. The objectives were to minimize potential exposure to aquatic receptors by minimizing non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) mobility and dissolved transport of petroleum hydrocarbons. Groundwater modeling to assess the attenuation rate and to determine remedial targets was also discussed. Model validation and results of groundwater modeling as well as remediation system details and performance were then provided. It was determined that significant attenuation is occurring and that effective mass removal and concentrations have been decreasing over time. It was demonstrated that risk-based remedial goals and hydrogeology can change with land use/development. tabs., figs.

  11. Stakeholder value-linked sustainability assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Sabine E; Fitzpatrick, Anne G; McNally, Amanda; Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory decisions on remediation should consider affected communities' needs and values, and how these might be impacted by remedial options; this process requires that diverse stakeholders are able to engage in a transparent consideration of value trade-offs and of the distribution of risks and benefits associated with remedial actions and outcomes. The Stakeholder Values Assessment (SVA) tool was developed to evaluate remedial impacts on environmental quality, economic viability, and social equity in the context of stakeholder values and priorities. Stakeholder values were linked to the pillars of sustainability and also to a range of metrics to evaluate how sediment remediation affects these values. Sediment remedial alternatives proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site were scored for each metric, based upon data provided in published feasibility study (FS) documents. Metric scores were aggregated to generate scores for each value; these were then aggregated to generate scores for each pillar of sustainability. In parallel, the inferred priorities (in terms of regional remediation, restoration, planning, and development) of diverse stakeholder groups (SGs) were used to evaluate the sensitivity and robustness of the values-based sustainability assessment to diverse SG priorities. This approach, which addresses social indicators of impact and then integrates them with indicators of environmental and economic impacts, goes well beyond the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act's (CERCLA) 9 criteria for evaluating remedial alternatives because it evaluates how remedial alternatives might be ranked in terms of the diverse values and priorities of stakeholders. This approach identified trade-offs and points of potential contention, providing a systematic, semiquantitative, transparent valuation tool that can be used in community engagement. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018

  12. Developing remediation criteria on the basis of health and ecological risks at a former sour gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G. L.; Wilson, R. M.; Clyde, G. A.; Chollak, D. F.

    1997-01-01

    A human health and ecological risk assessment was completed for the Okotoks sour gas processing gas plant, based on the existing environmental sampling and toxicity testing that has been collected at the site since 1987. For the human health risk assessment, two potential scenarios were considered, including industrial use and parkland use. The ecological risk assessment involved synthesis of existing sampling and toxicity testing results as well as the assessment of potential risk to ecological receptors such as the meadow vole, red-tailed hawk and cattle. The assessment included chemical screening, receptor and exposure pathway selection, toxicity assessment of chemicals of concern, estimation of exposures, risk characterization and generation of soil and groundwater remediation criteria. Results of the assessments to date indicate that limited subsurface remediation is required for the protection of human health under industrial/parkland use. In contrast, ecological considerations will require remediation or reclamation of surface soil and the imposition of certain risk management controls, such as e. g. encumbrances on land title. 2 figs

  13. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  14. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-01-01

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion

  15. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program environmental compliance assessment checklists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Sigmon, C.F.

    1989-09-29

    The purpose of the Environmental Compliance Assessment Program is to assess the compliance of Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites with applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The mission is to identify, assess, and decontaminate sites utilized during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to process and store uranium and thorium ores in support of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. To conduct the FUSRAP environmental compliance assessment, checklists were developed that outline audit procedures to determine the compliance status of the site. The checklists are divided in four groups to correspond to these regulatory areas: Hazardous Waste Management, PCB Management, Air Emissions, and Water Discharges.

  16. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program environmental compliance assessment checklists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Sigmon, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Compliance Assessment Program is to assess the compliance of Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites with applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The mission is to identify, assess, and decontaminate sites utilized during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to process and store uranium and thorium ores in support of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. To conduct the FUSRAP environmental compliance assessment, checklists were developed that outline audit procedures to determine the compliance status of the site. The checklists are divided in four groups to correspond to these regulatory areas: Hazardous Waste Management, PCB Management, Air Emissions, and Water Discharges

  17. Evaluation of unit risk factors in support of the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J. II.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the generation of unit risk factors for use with the Graphical Information System (GIS) being developed by Advanced Sciences, Inc. for the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. The GIS couples information on source inventory and environmental transport with unit risk factors to estimate the potential risk from contamination at all locations on the Hanford Site. The major components of the effort to generate the unit risk factors were: determination of pollutants to include in the study, definition of media of concern, and definition of exposure assessment scenarios, methods, and parameters. The selection of pollutants was based on inventory lists which indicated the pollutants likely to be encountered at the known waste sites. The final pollutants selected included 47 chemical pollutants and 101 radionuclides. Unit risk factors have been generated for all 148 pollutants per unit initial concentration in five media: soil (per unit mass), soil (per unit area), air, groundwater, and surface water. The exposure scenarios were selected as the basis for the unit risk factor generation. The endpoint in the exposure assessment analysis is expressed as risk of developing cancer for radionuclides and carcinogenic chemicals. For noncarcinogenic chemicals, the risk endpoint is the hazard quotient. The cancer incidence and hazard quotient values are evaluated for all exposure pathways, pollutants, and scenarios. The hazard index values and unit risk values are used by the GIS to produce maps of risk for the Hanford Site

  18. Dutch Risk Assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Risico- Inventarisatie- en Evaluatie-instrumenten’ is the name for the Dutch risk assessment (RA) tools. A RA tool can be used to perform a risk assessment including an evaluation of the identified risks. These tools were among the first online risk assessment tools developed in Europe. The

  19. Assessing Environmental Sustainability of Remediation Technologies in a Life Cycle Perspective is Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into remediation projects has attracted attention from remediation practitioners, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a popular tool to address the environmental dimension. The total number of studies has reached 31 since the first framework for LCA of site reme...... about the environmental sustainability of remediation technologies.......Integrating sustainability into remediation projects has attracted attention from remediation practitioners, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a popular tool to address the environmental dimension. The total number of studies has reached 31 since the first framework for LCA of site...

  20. Application of risk management techniques for the remediation of an old mining site in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, I; Karayannis, A; Adam, K; Aravossis, K

    2009-05-01

    This article summarizes the project and risk management of a remediation/reclamation project in Lavrion, Greece. In Thoricos the disposal of mining and metallurgical wastes in the past resulted in the contamination with heavy metals and acid mine drainage. The objective of this reclamation project was to transform this coastal zone from a contaminated site to an area suitable for recreation purposes. A separate risk assessment study was performed to provide the basis of determining the relevant environmental contamination and to rate the alternative remedial schemes involved. The study used both existing data available from comprehensive studies, as well as newly collected field data. For considering environmental risk, the isolation and minimization of risk option was selected, and a reclamation scheme, based on environmental criteria, was applied which was comprised of in situ neutralization, stabilization and cover of the potentially acid generating wastes and contaminated soils with a low permeability geochemical barrier. Additional measures were specifically applied in the areas where highly sulphidic wastes existed constituting active acid generation sources, which included the encapsulation of wastes in HDPE liners installed on clay layers.

  1. The effect of cognitive remediation in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise Birkedal; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Kristensen, Tina Dam

    2017-01-01

    of five studies that reported a cognitive outcome found cognitive remediation to improve cognition in the domains of verbal memory, attention, and processing speed. Two out of four studies that reported on functional outcome found cognitive remediation to improve the functional outcome in the domains...... of social functioning and social adjustment. Zero out of the five studies that reported such an outcome found cognitive remediation to affect the magnitude of clinical symptoms. Research on the effect of cognitive remediation in the ultra-high risk state is still scarce. The current state of evidence...

  2. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labieniec, Paula Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  3. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labieniec, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface

  4. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zou; Xiaolu Jiang; Xiaoli Duan; Xiuge Zhao; Jing Zhang; Jingwen Tang; Guoqing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewabl...

  5. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  6. Assessment and remediation of earthen pits in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, D.E.; Deibert, L.

    1999-01-01

    The proper decommissioning of abandoned earthen pits and the elimination of the associated environmental liabilities were discussed. An earthen pit is an excavated pit used by upstream oil and gas companies to contain/store/burn produced fluids and gases from either gas or oil producing operations. Produced fluids may include liquid hydrocarbons, process chemicals and water originating from oil wells, gas wells, and associated batteries and processing facilities. Improper operation and management at some pits has resulted in soil and/or groundwater contamination. In response to regulatory direction, petroleum operators in Alberta have begun the process of replacing earthen pits with alternative flaring and liquid storage facilities, and embarked on programs to assess, remediate and decommission earthen pits at their operations. This paper describes some of the challenges facing petroleum operators in this regard. It also outlines the regulatory framework within which decommissioning projects must be completed. 2 tabs

  7. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  8. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  9. Radon in indoor air. Health risk, measurement methods and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1996-02-01

    Radon in indoor air is the main source of ionizing radiation in Norway. The booklet contains a presentation of radon sources, measurement methods, indoor radon concentrations, action levels, health risk and remedial measures

  10. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  11. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  12. Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and ecological evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigations (RI) and the Resource conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) facility investigations (FI) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994), referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and ecological risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  13. Values of Local Wisdom: A Potential to Develop an Assessment and Remedial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toharudin, Uus; Kurniawan, Iwan Setia

    2017-01-01

    Development assessment and remedial needs to be done because it is an important part of a learning process. This study aimed to describe the ability of student teachers of biology in developing assessment and remedial based on local wisdom. using a quasi-experimental research methods with quantitative descriptive analysis techniques. The research…

  14. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  15. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M.; Massmann, J.W.; Freeze, R.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site

  16. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  17. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  18. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  19. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Jiang, Xiaolu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Jingwen; Sun, Guoqing

    2017-03-23

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewable resource industrial park in mainland China. With a discrete site investigation of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) concentrations, the continuous surfaces of carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk caused by these heavy metals were estimated and mapped. Source apportionment analysis using geographical detector methods further revealed that these risks were primarily attributed to As, according to the power of the determinant and its associated synergic actions with other heavy metals. Concentrations of critical As and Cd, and the associated exposed CRs are closed to the safe thresholds after remediating the risk areas identified by the integrated H-G scheme. Therefore, the integrated H-G scheme provides an effective approach to support decision-making for regional contaminated soil remediation at fine spatial resolution with limited sampling data over a large geographical extent.

  20. Operational risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Vicky L

    2017-06-01

    In the world of risk management, which encompasses the business continuity disciplines, many types of risk require evaluation. Financial risk is most often the primary focus, followed by product and market risks. Another critical area, which typically lacks a thorough review or may be overlooked, is operational risk. This category encompasses many risk exposure types including those around building structures and systems, environmental issues, nature, neighbours, clients, regulatory compliance, network, data security and so on. At times, insurance carriers will assess internal hazards, but seldom do these assessments include more than a cursory look at other types of operational risk. In heavily regulated environments, risk assessments are required but may not always include thorough assessments of operational exposures. Vulnerabilities may linger or go unnoticed, only to become the catalyst for a business disruption at a later time, some of which are so severe that business recovery becomes nearly impossible. Businesses may suffer loss of clients as the result of a prolonged disruption of services. Comprehensive operational risk assessments can assist in identifying such vulnerabilities, exposures and threats so that the risk can be minimised or removed. This paper lays out how an assessment of this type can be successfully conducted.

  1. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  2. Risk assessment [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis S. Ojima; Louis R. Iverson; Brent L. Sohngen; James M. Vose; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; David L. Peterson; Jeremy S. Littell; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters; Gary W. Yohe; Megan M. Friggens

    2014-01-01

    What is "risk" in the context of climate change? How can a "risk-based framework" help assess the effects of climate change and develop adaptation priorities? Risk can be described by the likelihood of an impact occurring and the magnitude of the consequences of the impact (Yohe 2010) (Fig. 9.1). High-magnitude impacts are always...

  3. Chemical Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course is aimed at providing an overview of the fundamental guiding principles and general methods used in chemical risk assessment. Chemical risk assessment is a complex and ever-evolving process. These principles and methods have been organized by the National Research Cou...

  4. Overview of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimington, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits

  5. Overview of risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimington, J D [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits.

  6. An integrated risk assessment approach: Risk assessment in the programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The following paper is an informal summary of salient points made in the presentation entitled open-quotes An Integrated Risk Assessment Approach: Risk Assessment in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS).close quotes. This presentation was given at the U.S. DOE Integrated Planning Workshop in Denver, Colorado on June 2, 1994. Integrated decision analysis is very important in environmental restoration and waste management in the evaluation of such things as land use planning, waste load forecasting, cost analyses, and technology development activities. Integrated risk assessment is an approach that addresses multiple components of risk, including: risks from surplus facilities as well as typical environmental restoration sites, risks to the public, risks to workers, ecological risk, risks before, during and after remediation activities, and others

  7. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Remediation of at-risk medical students: theory in action

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, K.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that a programme that draws on a blend of theories makes a positive difference to outcomes for students who fail and repeat their first semester at medical school. Exploration of student and teacher perspectives revealed that remediation of struggling medical students can be achieved through a cognitive apprenticeship within a small community of inquiry. This community needs expert teachers capable of performing a unique combination of roles (facilitator, n...

  11. Selection of monitoring times to assess remediation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueper, B.H.; Mundle, K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Geoengineering Centre

    2007-07-01

    Several factors determine the time needed for a plume to respond to non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone remediation. Most spills of NAPLs (fuels, chlorinated solvents, PCB oils, creosote and coal tar) require mass removal in order to implement remediation technologies such as chemical oxidation, thermal treatments, alcohol flushing, surfactant flushing and hydraulic displacement. While much attention has been given to the development of these remediation technologies, little attention has been given to the response of the plume downstream of the treatment zone and selection of an appropriate monitoring time scale to adequately evaluate the impacts of remediation. For that reason, this study focused on the prevalence of diffusive sinks, the mobility of the contaminant and the hydraulic conductivity of subsurface materials. Typically, plumes in subsurface environments dominated by diffusive sinks or low permeability materials need long periods of time to detach after source removal. This paper presented generic plume response model simulations that illustrated concentration rebound following the use of in-situ chemical oxidation in fractured clay containing trichloroethylene. It was determined that approximately 2 years are needed to reach peak rebound concentration after cessation remedial action. It was concluded that downgradient monitoring well concentrations may be greatly reduced during remedial action due to the fact that oxidant occupies the fracture and because oxidant diffuses into the clay matrix, creating a short period of contaminant reduction in the area of flowing groundwater. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Selection of monitoring times to assess remediation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueper, B.H.; Mundle, K.

    2007-01-01

    Several factors determine the time needed for a plume to respond to non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone remediation. Most spills of NAPLs (fuels, chlorinated solvents, PCB oils, creosote and coal tar) require mass removal in order to implement remediation technologies such as chemical oxidation, thermal treatments, alcohol flushing, surfactant flushing and hydraulic displacement. While much attention has been given to the development of these remediation technologies, little attention has been given to the response of the plume downstream of the treatment zone and selection of an appropriate monitoring time scale to adequately evaluate the impacts of remediation. For that reason, this study focused on the prevalence of diffusive sinks, the mobility of the contaminant and the hydraulic conductivity of subsurface materials. Typically, plumes in subsurface environments dominated by diffusive sinks or low permeability materials need long periods of time to detach after source removal. This paper presented generic plume response model simulations that illustrated concentration rebound following the use of in-situ chemical oxidation in fractured clay containing trichloroethylene. It was determined that approximately 2 years are needed to reach peak rebound concentration after cessation remedial action. It was concluded that downgradient monitoring well concentrations may be greatly reduced during remedial action due to the fact that oxidant occupies the fracture and because oxidant diffuses into the clay matrix, creating a short period of contaminant reduction in the area of flowing groundwater. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  13. Assessment of international remedial technologies for application to Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanning, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents some of the logical arguments for conducting research on remedial technologies for contaminated land and groundwater at an international level. It gives information on many of the international organizations that are involved in environmental programs, but it especially gives emphasis to the NATO-CCMS pilot study on Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater. The purpose of the study is to field demonstrate and evaluate new/innovative technologies for remedial action at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. This study is a logical international extension of the US EPA SITE program. It offers the opportunity to obtain a multiple data base on various remedial action unit processes without any single country having to commit a disproportionate amount of its internal resources to any specific activity. Each participating country provides the necessary resources for those demonstrations which they are contributing to the study. Sites are selected by a majority vote of all participating countries (no country is permitted to vote for its own sites). The study is a 5 year program with participants from Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and the US. The need for cost-effective remedial action technologies for hazardous waste sites is a problem of all industrialized countries. The need to build a knowledge base of emerging remedial technologies was the impetus behind the USEPA's lead role and commitment to this pilot study

  14. State of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.

    1978-03-01

    In view of the growing importance assumed in recent years by scientific work on the calculation, quantification, evaluation and acceptance as well as behavior in the face of risks in general and more specifically, the risks of large industrial plants, the report attempts to provide a survey of the current situation, results and evaluation of this new branch of research, risk assessment. The emphasis of the report is on the basic discussion and criticism of the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the field of risk assessment (section 3). It is concerned above all with - methodical problems of determining and quantifying risks (3.1) - questions of the possibility of risk evaluation and comp arison (3.1, 3.2) - the premises of normative and empirical studies on decision making under risk (3.2, 3.3) - investigations into society's acceptance of risks involved in the introduction of new technologies (3.4) - attempts to combine various aspects of the field of risk assessment in a unified concept (3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Because risk assessment is embedded in the framework of decision theory and technology assessment, it can be implicitly evaluated at a more general level within this framework, as far as its possibilities and weaknesses of method and application are concerned (section 4). Sections 2 and 5 deal with the social context of origin and utilization of risk assessment. Finally, an attempt is made at a summary indicating the possible future development of risk assessment. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Risk-based analyses in support of California hazardous site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringland, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    The California Environmental Enterprise (CEE) is a joint program of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Its goal is to make DOE laboratory expertise accessible to hazardous site cleanups in the state This support might involve working directly with parties responsible for individual cleanups or it might involve working with the California Environmental Protection Agency to develop tools that would be applicable across a broad range of sites. As part of its initial year's activities, the CEE supported a review to examine where laboratory risk and risk-based systems analysis capabilities might be most effectively applied. To this end, this study draws the following observations. The labs have a clear role in analyses supporting the demonstration and transfer of laboratory characterization or remediation technologies. The labs may have opportunities in developing broadly applicable analysis tools and computer codes for problems such as site characterization or efficient management of resources. Analysis at individual sites, separate from supporting lab technologies or prototyping general tools, may be appropriate only in limited circumstances. In any of these roles, the labs' capabilities extend beyond health risk assessment to the broader areas of risk management and risk-based systems analysis

  16. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  17. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  18. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ''baseline'' risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site

  19. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  20. Comprehensive Assessment of Struggling Learners Referred to a Graduate Medical Education Remediation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Karen M; Goren, Eric; Dine, C Jessica

    2017-12-01

    Implementation of the Next Accreditation System has provided a standardized framework for identifying learners not meeting milestones, but there is as yet no corresponding framework for remediation. We developed a comprehensive assessment process that allows correct diagnosis of a struggling learner's deficit(s) to promote successful remediation. At the University of Pennsylvania, resident learners within the Department of Medicine who are not meeting milestones are referred to the Early Intervention Remediation Committee (EIRC). The EIRC, composed of 14 faculty members with expertise in remediation, uses a standardized process to assess learners' deficits. These faculty members categorize primary deficits as follows: medical knowledge, clinical reasoning, organization and efficiency, professionalism, and communication skills. The standardized process of assessment includes an analysis of the learner's file, direct communication with evaluators, an interview focused on learner perception of the problem, screening for underlying medical or psychosocial issues, and a review of systems for deficits in the 6 core competencies. Participants were surveyed after participating in this process. Over a 2-year period, the EIRC assessed and developed remediation plans for 4% of learners (14 of a total 342). Following remediation and reassessment, the identified problems were satisfactorily resolved in all cases with no disciplinary action. While the process was time intensive, an average of 45 hours per learner, the majority of faculty and residents rated it as positive and beneficial. This structured assessment process identifies targeted areas for remediation and adds to the tools available to Clinical Competency Committees.

  1. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  2. At-risk high school seniors: Science remediation for Georgia's High School Graduation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carolyn M.

    State departments of education have created a system of accountability for the academic achievement of students under the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The Georgia Department of Education established the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) as their method of evaluating the academic achievement of high school students. The GHSGT consist of five sections and students must pass all five sections before students they are eligible to receive a diploma. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of teacher-lead and computer based remediation for a group of high school seniors who have been unsuccessful in passing the science portion of the GHSGT. The objectives of this study include (a) Identify the most effective method of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of the GHSGT, and (b) evaluate the methods of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of GHSGT available to high school students. The participants of this study were at-risk seniors enrolled in one high school during the 2007-2008 school year. The findings of this research study indicated that at-risk students who participated in both types of remediation, teacher-led and computer-based, scored significantly higher than the computer-based remediation group alone. There was no significant relationship between the test scores and the number of times the students were tested.

  3. Sovereign default risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, H.A.; Altman, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach toward assessing sovereign risk by examining rigorously the health and aggregate default risk of a nation's private corporate sector. Models can be utilised to measure the probability of default of the non-financial sector cumulatively for five years, both as an absolute

  4. Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria--remedies or risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Popoola, T D; Amadi, K C; Coker, H A B; Akintonwa, A

    2013-11-25

    Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Critical review of decision support tools for sustainability assessment of site remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysegoms, Lies; Cappuyns, Valérie

    2017-07-01

    In Europe alone, there are more than 2,5 million potentially contaminated sites of which 14% are expected to require remediation. Contaminated soil and groundwater can cause damage to human health as well as to valuable ecosystems. Globally more attention has been paid to this problem of soil contamination in the past decades. For example, more than 58 000 sites have been remediated in Europe between 2006 and 2011. Together with this increase in remediation projects there has been a surge in the development of new remediation technologies and decision support tools to be able to match every site and its specific characteristics to the best possible remediation alternative. In the past years the development of decision support tools (DST) has evolved in a more sustainable direction. Several DSTs added the claim not only to denote effective or technologically and economically feasible remediation alternatives but also to point out the more or most sustainable remediation alternatives. These trends in the evaluation of site remediation options left users with a confusing clew of possibly applicable tools to assist them in decision making for contaminated site remediation. This review provides a structured overview on the extent decision support tools for contaminated site remediation, that claim to assist in choosing the most sustainable remediation alternative, actually include the different elements of sustainability proposed in our assessment framework. The review contains an in-depth analysis of thirteen tools specifically developed to assess the sustainability of site remediation alternatives. This analysis is based on six criteria derived from the definition of sustainable development of the Brundtland report. The six criteria were concretized by using the three pillars of sustainability, applied to site remediation according to the SuRF-UK framework, two criteria derived from Life Cycle Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, and an 'User friendly' criterion

  6. Hanford Site's Integrated Risk Assessment Program: No-intervention risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Stenner, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    The long-term goal of the Integrated Risk Assessment program (IRAP) is to estimate risks to workers, the public, organizations, and groups with reserved rights to Site access, the ecosystem, and natural resources to aid in managing environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site. For each of these, information is needed about current risks, risks during cleanup, and endstate risks. The objective is three-fold: to determine if and when to remediate, and to what extent; to identify information unavailable but needed to make better cleanup decisions; to establish technology performance criteria for achieving desired cleanup levels; to understand costs and benefits of activities from a Site-wide perspective. The no-intervention risk, assessment is the initial evaluation of public health risks conducted under IRAP. The objective is to identify types of activities that the US Department of Energy (DOE) must accomplish for closure of the Hanford Site, defined as no further DOE intervention. There are two primary conclusions from the no-intervention risk assessment. First, some maintenance and operations activities at Hanford must be continued to protect the public from grave risks. However, when large Hanford expenditures are compared to cleanup progress, funds expended for maintenance and operations must be put in proper perspective. Second, stakeholder's emphasis on public risks at Hanford, as indicated by remediation priorities, are not in line with those estimated. The focus currently is on compliance with regulations, and on dealing with issues which are visible to stakeholders

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

  8. Assessment of slope stability and remedial measures around Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A road constructed from Fofa town to Gilgel Gibe-II powerhouse in south-western Ethiopia passes through an extremely rugged terrain characterized by steep hill slopes and deep valleys. The present study has been carried out to identify potentially unstable slope sections and to work out proper remedial measures. In order ...

  9. Engaging with residents' perceived risks and benefits about technologies as a way of resolving remediation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jason; Rai, Tapan

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades the diversity of remediation technologies has increased significantly, with the breadth of technologies ranging from dig and dump to emergent technologies like phytoremediation and nanoremediation. The benefits of these technologies to the environment and human health are believed to be substantial. However, they also potentially constitute risks. Whilst there is a growing body of knowledge about the risks and benefits of these technologies from the perspective of experts, little is known about how residents perceive the risks and benefits of the application of these technologies to address contaminants in their local environment. This absence of knowledge poses a challenge to remediation practitioners and policy makers who are increasingly seeking to engage these affected local residents in choosing technology applications. Building on broader research into the perceived benefits and risks of technologies, and data from a telephone survey of 2009 residents living near 13 contaminated sites in Australia, regression analysis of closed-ended survey questions and coding of open-ended questions are combined to identify the main predictors of resident's perceived levels of risk and benefit to resident's health and to their local environment from remediation technologies. This research identifies a range of factors associated with the residents' physical context, their engagement with institutions during remediation processes, and the technologies which are associated with residents' level of perceived risk and benefit for human health and the local environment. The analysis found that bioremediation technologies were perceived as less risky and more beneficial than chemical, thermal and physical technologies. The paper also supports broader technology research that reports an inverse correlation between levels of perceived risks and benefits. In addition, the paper reveals the types of risks and benefits to human health and the local environment that

  10. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    de O. Pinto, Tatiana; Garc?a, Andr?s C.; Guedes, Jair do N.; do A. Sobrinho, Nelson M. B.; Tavares, Orlando C. H.; Berbara, Ricardo L. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-c...

  11. Friends or foes? Monetized Life Cycle Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis of the site remediation of a former gas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysegoms, Lies; Rousseau, Sandra; Cappuyns, Valérie

    2018-04-01

    Site contamination is a global concern because of the potential risks for human health and ecosystem quality. Every contaminated site has its own specific characteristics and the increased availability and efficiency of remediation techniques makes the choice of remediation alternative increasingly complicated. In this paper an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the secondary environmental impacts of a site remediation is performed and its results are monetized using two different monetization techniques, namely Stepwise 2006 and Ecovalue 08. Secondly, we perform a social Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) on the same case study using the same data sources. The case study used in this paper entails the soil and groundwater remediation of a tar, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cyanide contamination of a school ground by a former gas plant. The remediation alternative chosen in this case study is excavation with off-site thermal treatment of the contaminated soil. The outcome of the social CBA, stating that the remediation project is socially beneficial in the long term, is critically compared to the outcome of the different LCA monetization methods. This comparison indicates that monetized LCA is a good complement to social CBA when it comes to the assessment of secondary environmental impacts. Combining the two methods provides decision makers with a more extensive and detailed assessment of the soil remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Scientific Opportunity to Reduce Risk in Groundwater and Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Looney, Brian B.; Zachara, John M.; Liang, Liyuan; Lesmes, D.; Chamberlain, G. M.; Skubal, Karen L.; Adams, V.; Denham, Miles E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-08-25

    In this report, we start by examining previous efforts at linking science and DOE EM research with cleanup activities. Many of these efforts were initiated by creating science and technology roadmaps. A recurring feature of successfully implementing these roadmaps into EM applied research efforts and successful cleanup is the focus on integration. Such integration takes many forms, ranging from combining information generated by various scientific disciplines, to providing technical expertise to facilitate successful application of novel technology, to bringing the resources and creativity of many to address the common goal of moving EM cleanup forward. Successful projects identify and focus research efforts on addressing the problems and challenges that are causing “failure” in actual cleanup activities. In this way, basic and applied science resources are used strategically to address the particular unknowns that are barriers to cleanup. The brief descriptions of the Office of Science basic (Environmental Remediation Science Program [ERSP]) and EM’s applied (Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program) research programs in subsurface science provide context to the five “crosscutting” themes that have been developed in this strategic planning effort. To address these challenges and opportunities, a tiered systematic approach is proposed that leverages basic science investments with new applied research investments from the DOE Office of Engineering and Technology within the framework of the identified basic science and applied research crosscutting themes. These themes are evident in the initial portfolio of initiatives in the EM groundwater and soil cleanup multi-year program plan. As stated in a companion document for tank waste processing (Bredt et al. 2008), in addition to achieving its mission, DOE EM is experiencing a fundamental shift in philosophy from driving to closure to enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation.

  13. Tank Waste Remediation System Characterization Project Programmatic Risk Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list

  14. Radiological risk assessment of a radioactively contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted at a radioactively contaminated site under current site use conditions and based on the available preliminary radiological characterization data for the site. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Tank waste remediation system tank waste retrieval risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimper, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This Risk Management Plan defines the approach to be taken to manage programmatic risks in the TWRS Tank Waste Retrieval program. It provides specific instructions applicable to TWR, and is used to supplement the guidance given by the TWRS Risk Management procedure

  16. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  17. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE's preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public's role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy

  18. Risk assessment - The future trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Many organizations today are faced with cleaning a site or facility, selecting appropriate remedial alternatives, or explaining the potential effects on human health and the environment caused by the releases of toxic compounds into the air, soil, and water, The use of risk assessment (RA) as a management tool is increasing because it offers an integrated approach to the analysis of toxicological, geological, physio-chemical, meteorological, statistical, and biological parameters that must be evaluated in the assessment of potential impacts to human health. The regulatory atmosphere in the 1990s is leaning toward the adoption of further laws requiring the completion of the RA process. Any industry involved in submitting permit applications to Air Quality Management Districts or complying with California's Proposition 65 and AB 2588 will be required to prepare RAs. Several guidance documents are available that support the RA process including the California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual published by the State Department of Health Services (DHS), which bases its approach on developing cleanup objectives (Applied Action Levels) on RA. This presentation focuses on the applications RA can have to the petroleum industry and the kinds of data that each case should develop to make maximum use of the RA process

  19. Chlorine transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautkaski, Risto; Mankamo, Tuomas.

    1977-02-01

    An assessment has been made on the toxication risk of the population due to the bulk rail transportation of liquid chlorine in Finland. Fourteen typical rail accidents were selected and their probability was estimated using the accident file of the Finnish State Railways. The probability of a chlorine leak was assessed for each type of accident separately using four leak size categories. The assessed leakage probability was dominated by station accidents, especially by collisions of a chlorine tanker and a locomotive. Toxication hazard areas were estimated for the leak categories. A simple model was constructed to describe the centring of the densely populated areas along the railway line. A comparison was made between the obtained risk and some other risks including those due to nuclear reactor accidents. (author)

  20. Decision support for large-scale remediation strategies by fused urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohms, Pernille; Andersen, Camilla; Landgren, Mathilde

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to identify the most environmental friendly way of conducting a refurbishment of Broendby Strand, with focus on PCB remediation. The actual identification is conducted by comparing four remediation techniques using urban metabolism fused with life cycle assessment (UM......-LCA) in combination with information relating to cost and efficiency of the compared techniques. The methodological goal of our paper is to test UM-LCA as a decision support tool and discuss application of the method in relation to large refurbishment projects. Methods: To assess the environmental performance of PCB......-remediation techniques, the UM-LCA method was applied. By combining UM and LCA methodologies, the total environmental impact potentials of the remediation techniques were calculated. To build an inventory for each technique, we contacted and interviewed experts and studied existing literature, cases, and projects...

  1. Assessment of fracture risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanis, John A.; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V.

    2009-01-01

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  2. Assessment of technologies for the remediation of radioactively contaminated Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The report is a screening evaluation of information needs for the development of generic treatability studies for the remediation of Superfund Radiation Sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). It presents a categorization of the 25 radiation sites currently proposed or listed on the NPL, and provides a rating system for evaluating technologies that may be used to remediate these sites. It also identifies gaps in site assessment and technology data and provides information about and recommendations for technology development

  3. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  4. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  5. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, John; Keil, Karen; Staten, Jane; Miller, Neil; Barker, Michelle [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY (United States); MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Chang, Young-Soo; Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed

  6. Mentoring At-Risk Students in a Remedial Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    A peer mentoring program has been implemented to support a group of at-risk students enrolled in two sections of an elementary algebra course at an urban community college. Peer mentors were recruited from advanced mathematics classes and trained to provide individualized tutoring and mentoring support to at-risk students. The results show that…

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service

  9. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckle, F.

    1991-01-01

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. A new risk and stochastic analysis of monitoring and remediation in subsurface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetridis, K.; Paleologos, E.

    2012-04-01

    risk analyses; contemporary risk analyses consider the cost of alternative remediation procedures by assuming that the contamination area to be remediated coincides with the area calculated at the time of detection. However, there is always a considerable lag between the time that a plume is detected and the time when remediation commences. This time lag constitutes a random variable that depends on available resources and technologies, as well as efficiency of administration decision-making. An expression is proposed that accounts for the delay between detection and remedial action in order to provide a correction to decision analyses that evaluate the economic worth of well monitoring. This expression illustrates that delays over 3 years are equivalent to reducing the monitoring performance of 12 wells to that of a much lower number of wells, or equally, having to consider higher failure costs than those assumed in current risk analyses.

  11. Overview of technology modeling in the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Chan, T.C.; Lamar, D.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Skeen, R.S.

    1994-08-01

    There are numerous hazardous waste sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist the cleanup of these sites in a more consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). RAAS is a software tool designed to automate the initial technology selection within the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The software does several things for the user: (1) provides information about available remedial technologies, (2) sorts possible technologies to recommend a list of technologies applicable to a given site, (3) points out technical issues that may prevent the implementation of a technology, and (4) provides an estimate of the effectiveness of a given technology at a particular site. Information from RAAS can be used to compare remediation options and guide selection of technologies for further study

  12. The Department of Energy's Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Decision support tools for performing streamlined feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces the major task of cleaning up hundreds of waste sites across the nation, which will require completion of a large number of remedial investigation/feasibility studies (RI/FSs). The intent of each RI/FS is to characterize the waste problems and environmental conditions at the operable unit level, segment the remediation problem into manageable medium-specific and contaminant-specific pieces, define corresponding remediation objectives, and identify remedial response actions to satisfy those objectives. The RI/FS team can then identify combinations of remediation technologies that will meet the remediation objectives. Finally, the team must evaluate these remedial alternatives in terms of effectiveness, implementability, cost, and acceptability. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support DOE in this effort

  13. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  14. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the NRAMP project and presents a synopsis of the NRAMP effort which occurred from 1995 to 2000. The primary goals of the DOE in awarding the cooperative agreement establishing NRAMP were to (I) use a risk-based approach to evaluate the consequences of alternative actions in DOE's Environmental Remediation Programs at sites in Nevada and (2) use a neutral and credible institution outside the DOE to perform the risk assessments and contribute to public education about environmental management issues at the Nevada Test Site. (author)

  15. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.

  16. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  17. Advanced multivariate analysis to assess remediation of hydrocarbons in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deborah S; Taylor, Peter; Tibbett, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Accurate monitoring of degradation levels in soils is essential in order to understand and achieve complete degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. We aimed to develop the use of multivariate methods for the monitoring of biodegradation of diesel in soils and to determine if diesel contaminated soils could be remediated to a chemical composition similar to that of an uncontaminated soil. An incubation experiment was set up with three contrasting soil types. Each soil was exposed to diesel at varying stages of degradation and then analysed for key hydrocarbons throughout 161 days of incubation. Hydrocarbon distributions were analysed by Principal Coordinate Analysis and similar samples grouped by cluster analysis. Variation and differences between samples were determined using permutational multivariate analysis of variance. It was found that all soils followed trajectories approaching the chemical composition of the unpolluted soil. Some contaminated soils were no longer significantly different to that of uncontaminated soil after 161 days of incubation. The use of cluster analysis allows the assignment of a percentage chemical similarity of a diesel contaminated soil to an uncontaminated soil sample. This will aid in the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and the establishment of potential endpoints for successful remediation.

  18. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.) [de

  19. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford's past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation

  20. Cost considerations in remediation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.T.; Huddleston, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Opportunities for assessing the costs associated with the reclamation and remediation of sites contaminated by oilfield wastes are discussed. The savings can be maximized by paying close attention to five different aspects of the overall site remediation and disposal process. These are: (1) highly focused site assessment, (2) cost control of treatment and disposal options, (3) value added cost benefits, (4) opportunities to control outside influences during the remedial process, and (5) opportunities for managing long-term liabilities and residual risk remaining after the remedial program is completed. It is claimed that addressing these aspects of the process will ultimately lower the overall cost of site remediation and waste disposal

  1. Radon as a remedy - radiobiological and medical aspects, risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.; Nuernberger, E.; Martignoni, K.

    1995-01-01

    For years there have been controversial discussions about the benefit and risk of radon-balneo-therapy. This is particularly true where the inhalation of radon and its daughter products in curative galleries is concerned. Animal experiments and studies on uranium miners have clearly shown that the exposure with radon and its daughter products is connected with an additional risk for lung cancer. Findings on balneo-therapeutic mechanisms are, at best, incomplete and the topic of controversial discussions in radiobiology. This applies specifically to 'hormesis' or 'adaptive response', as indicated in this context. Given the numerous reports of therapeutic results, there appear to be curative effects from radon-balneotherapy for special indications. (orig.) [de

  2. Assessing the remedy: the case for contracts in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah J L

    2011-04-01

    Current orthodoxy in research ethics assumes that subjects of clinical trials reserve rights to withdraw at any time and without giving any reason. This view sees the right to withdraw as a simple extension of the right to refuse to participate all together. In this paper, however, I suggest that subjects should assume some responsibilities for the internal validity of the trial at consent and that these responsibilities should be captured by contract. This would allow the researcher to impose a penalty on the subject if he were to withdraw without good reason and on a whim. This proposal still leaves open the possibility of withdrawing without penalty when it is in the subject's best interests to do so. Giving researchers recourse to legal remedy may now be necessary to protect the science, as existing methods used to increase retention are inadequate for one reason or another.

  3. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  4. Validity of various epidemiological approaches to assessing radon health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrath, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper various epidemiologic study designs are defined and evaluated for their utility in assessing radon health risk. The strengths and limitations of these approaches are addressed. Common pitfalls and errors of epidemiologic method are delineated with examples of causes and remedies

  5. Risk assessment and risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1978-01-01

    With the help of results of investigations and model calculations the risk of nuclear energy in routine operation is shown. In this context it is pointed out that the excellent operation results of reactors all over the world have led to the acceptability of risks from local loads no longer being in question. The attention of radiation protection is therefore focused on the emissions of long-living isotopes which collect in the atmosphere. With LWRs the risk of accidents is so minimal that statistical data is, and never will be available. One has to therefore fall back upon the so-called fault tree analyses. On the subject of risk evalution the author referred to a poll in Austria. From the result of this investigation one might conclude that nuclear energy serves as a crystallization point for a discussion of varying concepts for future development. More attention should be paid to this aspect from both sides, in order to objectify the further expansion of this source of energy. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  7. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  8. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on 90 Sr, 3 H, and 137 Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides

  9. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.G.; Jones, J.L.; Hunt, R.N.; Roush, M.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  10. Health risk assessment for program managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.; Williamson, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a sensitivity analysis into the independent variables that determine the levels of health risks posed by buried plutonium and americium at a typical contaminated site in an arid region. Environmental Restoration Program Managers often must make decisions concerning cleanup levels, remediation alternatives, schedules, cost estimates, etc. based upon extraordinarily safe assumptions about risk assessment calculation inputs. This study reveals to the Program Manager which variables are major drivers to the calculated levels of risk posed by transuranic radionuclides and which ones have second order effects or less. The findings of this study should indicate which inputs should be the focus of attention during negotiations with regulators and of further empirical investigation

  11. N reactor external events probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    An external events probabilistic risk assessment of the N Reactor has been completed. The methods used are those currently being proposed for external events analysis in NUREG-1150. Results are presented for the external hazards that survived preliminary screening. They are earthquake, fire, and external flood. Core damage frequencies for these hazards are shown to be comparable to those for commercial pressurized water reactors. Dominant fire sequences are described and related to 10 CFR 50, Appendix R design requirements. Potential remedial measures that reduce fire core damage risk are described including modifications to fire protection systems, procedure changes, and addition of new administrative controls. Dominant seismic sequences are described. The effect of non-safety support system dependencies on seismic risk is presented

  12. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program, Evaluation and assessment of containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Fayer, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRIP) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements similar ongoing integrated demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISRIP has been conducting baseline assessments on in situ technologies to support program planning. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an assessment and evaluation of subsurface containment barrier technology in support of ISRIP's Containment Technology Subprogram. This report summarizes the results of that activity and provides a recommendation for priortizing areas in which additional research and development is needed to advance the technology to the point of demonstration in support of DOE's site restoration activities

  13. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  14. Environmental assessment for 881 Hillside (High Priority Sites) interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the impact of an interim remedial action proposed for the High Priority Sites (881 Hillside Area) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This interim action is to be conducted to minimize the release of hazardous substances from the 881 Hillside Area that pose a potential long-term threat to public health and the environment. This document integrates current site characterization data and environmental analyses required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or ''Superfund'' process, into an environmental assessment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Characterization of the 881 Hillside Area is continuing. Consequently, a final remedial action has not yet been proposed. Environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim remedial action and reasonable alternatives designed to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, from alluvial groundwater in the 881 Hillside Area are addressed. 24 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  15. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  16. Selected remedy at the Queen City Farms superfund site: A risk management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.F.; Wilson, J.; Kirk, M.; Tochko, S.

    1994-01-01

    A risk management approach at a former industrial waste disposal site in western Washington resulted in a selected remedy that is cost-effective and that meets the CERCLA threshold criterion of protecting human health and the environment. The proposed remedy, which addresses contamination in soil and groundwater, does not require an ARARs waiver and received state and community acceptance. By analyzing the current and potential risk at the site, a proposed remedy was chosen that would control the source and naturally attenuate the groundwater plume. Source control will include removal and treatment of some light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and some soil, followed by isolation of the remaining soil and LNAPL within a slurry wall and beneath a multilayer cap. A contingent groundwater extraction and treatment system was included to address uncertainty in the risk characterization. Implementing source control is predicted to result in a steady decline in volatile organic compound levels in the drinking water aquifer through adsorption, degradation, and dispersion. Exposure to groundwater during the period of natural attenuation will be controlled by monitoring, institutional controls, and a thorough characterization of the plume and receptors. 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  18. An assessment of individual health benefits from a domestic Radon remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; McClatchey, J.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas occurs naturally in the environment and has been shown to cause increased numbers of lung cancers in miners when present at high levels in underground workings. Reviews of the miners' studies suggest that levels found in some homes can give rise to increased lung cancer incidence, and this has been confirmed by recent case control studies in South West England, and Germany. The current scientific consensus, expressed in the BEIR 6. report is that the risk of lung cancer has a linear relation with increasing radon exposure, and that there is no threshold of risk. The distribution of such excessive levels is geographically varied, and many countries have established programmes to identify the homes at risk, and encourage homeowners to remediate to reduce levels. Northamptonshire, in the centre of England, has been declared a radon Affected Area by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and has an average of 6.3 % of homes above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 . Several studies have suggested that theoretically such programmes can be justified on the basis of health benefits and cost effectiveness. Our group was the first to study actual radon remediation programmes - in Northamptonshire, studying first National Health Service properties, schools, and homes. These studies demonstrated that remediation programmes in Northamptonshire could be justified. The domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, once complete, could be favourably compared to other health initiatives such as the UK mammography screening programme for women aged 50 to 65

  19. Environmental compliance assessment findings for Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, C.F.; Levine, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities included the following: review of site records, reports ,and files; inspection of the WSSRAP storage building, other selected buildings, and the adjacent grounds; and interviews with project personnel. This assessment was conducted on August 28-30, 1989. The assessment covered five management areas as set forth in the Checklist: Hazardous Waste Management, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Management; Air Emissions; Wastewater Discharges and Petroleum Management. No samples were collected. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Model testing for the remediation assessment of a radium contaminated site in Olen, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeck, Lieve; Kanyar, Bela; Krajewski, Pawel; Kryshev, Alexander; Lietava, Peter; Nenyei, Arpad; Sazykina, Tatiana; Yu, Charley; Zeevaert, Theo

    2005-01-01

    Environmental assessment models are used as decision-aiding tools in the selection of remediation options for radioactively contaminated sites. In most cases, the effectiveness of the remedial actions in terms of dose savings cannot be demonstrated directly, but can be established with the help of environmental assessment models, through the assessment of future radiological impacts. It should be emphasized that, given the complexity of the processes involved and our current understanding of how they operate, these models are simplified descriptions of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and therefore imperfect. One way of testing and improving the reliability of the models is to compare their predictions with real data and/or the predictions of other models. Within the framework of the Remediation Assessment Working Group (RAWG) of the BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) programme coordinated by IAEA, two scenarios were constructed and applied to test the reliability of environmental assessment models when remedial actions are involved. As a test site, an area of approximately 100 ha contaminated by the discharges of an old radium extraction plant in Olen (Belgium) has been considered. In the first scenario, a real situation was evaluated and model predictions were compared with measured data. In the second scenario the model predictions for specific hypothetical but realistic situations were compared. Most of the biosphere models were not developed to assess the performance of remedial actions and had to be modified for this purpose. It was demonstrated clearly that the modeller's experience and familiarity with the mathematical model, the site and with the scenario play a very important role in the outcome of the model calculations. More model testing studies, preferably for real situations, are needed in order to improve the models and modelling methods and to expand the areas in which the models are applicable

  1. Use of Tunable Whole-Cell Bioreporters to Assess Bioavailable Cadmium and Remediation Performance in Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdae Yoon

    Full Text Available It is important to have tools to measure the bioavailability to assess the risks of pollutants because the bioavailability is defined as the portions of pollutants showing the biological effects on living organisms. This study described the construction of tunable Escherichia coli whole-cell bioreporter (WCB using the promoter region of zinc-inducible operon and its application on contaminated soils. It was verified that this WCB system showed specific and sensitive responses to cadmium rather than zinc in the experimental conditions. It was inferred that Cd(II associates stronger with ZntR, a regulatory protein of zinc-inducible operon, than other metal ions. Moreover, the expression of reporter genes, egfp and mcherry, were proportional to the concentration of cadmium, thereby being a quantitative sensor to monitor bioavailable cadmium. The capability to determine bioavailable cadmium was verified with Cd(II amended LUFA soils, and then the applicability on environmental systems was investigated with field soils collected from smelter area in Korea before and after soil-washing. The total amount of cadmium was decreased after soil washing, while the bioavailability was increased. Consequently, it would be valuable to have tools to assess bioavailability and the effectiveness of soil remediation should be evaluated in the aspect of bioavailability as well as removal efficiency.

  2. Use of Tunable Whole-Cell Bioreporters to Assess Bioavailable Cadmium and Remediation Performance in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Youngdae; Kim, Sunghoon; Chae, Yooeun; Kang, Yerin; Lee, Youngshim; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to have tools to measure the bioavailability to assess the risks of pollutants because the bioavailability is defined as the portions of pollutants showing the biological effects on living organisms. This study described the construction of tunable Escherichia coli whole-cell bioreporter (WCB) using the promoter region of zinc-inducible operon and its application on contaminated soils. It was verified that this WCB system showed specific and sensitive responses to cadmium rather than zinc in the experimental conditions. It was inferred that Cd(II) associates stronger with ZntR, a regulatory protein of zinc-inducible operon, than other metal ions. Moreover, the expression of reporter genes, egfp and mcherry, were proportional to the concentration of cadmium, thereby being a quantitative sensor to monitor bioavailable cadmium. The capability to determine bioavailable cadmium was verified with Cd(II) amended LUFA soils, and then the applicability on environmental systems was investigated with field soils collected from smelter area in Korea before and after soil-washing. The total amount of cadmium was decreased after soil washing, while the bioavailability was increased. Consequently, it would be valuable to have tools to assess bioavailability and the effectiveness of soil remediation should be evaluated in the aspect of bioavailability as well as removal efficiency.

  3. Regional risk assessment of environmental contamination from oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelmulder, S.D.; Eguchi, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the risk of environmental contamination from oil pipeline leaks due to earthquakes. Risk is measured both as volume of oil released and remediation cost. The methodology was developed for use on a regional scale and thus relies on a limited amount of input data. Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate earthquake events, while a deterministic model is used to estimate the volume of oil released at a particular site. A library of cost models is used to estimate the contamination and resulting remediation cost based on the volume of oil released and the general site conditions. This methodology has been implemented in a computer program, OILOSS, and the results are presented as annual frequency of exceedence curves for volume of oil released and cost of remediation

  4. Expeditious Methods for Site Characterization and Risk Assessment at Department of Defense Hazardous Waste Sites in the Republic of Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Dean

    1999-01-01

    ...) with preferred innovative site characterization technologies and risk assessment methods to meet their needs in obtaining hazardous waste site data and then prioritizing those sites for remediation based upon risk...

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ''may affect'' the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA)

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  7. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  8. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  9. Multi-criteria assessment tool for sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives for a contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bondgård, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve and support decision-making for the selection of remedial techniques for contaminated sites, a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) method has been developed. The MCA framework is structured in a decision process actively involving stakeholders, and compares...

  10. Implementation of Personalized E-Assessment for Remedial Teaching in an E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Yu; Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This research explored how different models of Web-based dynamic assessment in remedial teaching improved junior high school student learning achievement and their misconceptions about the topic of "Weather and Climate." This research adopted a quasi-experimental design. A total of 58 7th graders participated in this research.…

  11. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety inspection and assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This plan provides a management approved procedure for inspections and assessments of sufficient depth to validate that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) facility complies with the requirements of the Project Hanford criticality safety program, NHF-PRO-334, ''Criticality Safety General, Requirements''

  12. Safety Assessment Approach for Decision Making Related to Remedial Measures and Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalka, Nataliia; Kondratyev, Sergiy; Alekseeva, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: At each particular case of “legacy” radioactive waste management facilities the optimized remedial measures should be justified taken into account: • results of facility investigations; • site status and characteristics; • safety assessment; • economical reasons; • societal factors; • timeframes; • available technologies and techniques

  13. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  14. Assessment of technical risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions.

  15. The impact of occupancy patterns on the assessment of the value of domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Gulliver, J.; Kennedy, C.A.; Briggs, D.; Phillips, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    -sievert, but at 72% occupancy the saving would be 3.12 man-sieverts. As a consequence the greater the average occupancy, the better the estimated cost effectiveness of the remediation programme. Occupancy patterns can have a significant effect on the risk from radon, and so need to be taken into account when assessing the efficacy of radon remediation programmes. (author)

  16. Post-Remediation Radiological Dose Assessment, Linde Site, Tonawanda, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Durham, Lisa A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A post-remediation radiological dose assessment was conducted for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Linde Site by using the measured residual concentrations of the radionuclides of concern following the completion of the soils remedial action. The site’s FUSRAP-related contaminants of concern (COCs) are radionuclides associated with uranium processing activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) in support of the Nation’s early atomic energy and weapons program and include radium-226 (Ra-226), thorium-230 (Th-230), and total uranium (Utotal). Remedial actions to address Linde Site soils and structures were conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision for the Linde Site, Tonawanda, New York (ROD) (USACE 2000a). In the ROD, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) determined that the cleanup standards found in Title 40, Part 192 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 192), the standards for cleanup of uranium mill sites designated under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards for decommissioning of licensed uranium and thorium mills, found in 10 CFR Part 40, Appendix A, Criterion 6(6), are Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for cleanup of MED-related contamination at the Linde Site. The major elements of this remedy will involve excavation of the soils with COCs above soil cleanup levels and placement of clean materials to meet the other criteria of 40 CFR Part 192.

  17. Biosensor-based diagnostics of contaminated groundwater: assessment and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Jessica; Read, David; Amos, Sean; Dooley, Stephen; Killham, Kenneth; Paton, Graeme I.

    2005-01-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath a former airfield site in southern England has been heavily contaminated with a wide range of chlorinated solvents. The feasibility of using bacterial biosensors to complement chemical analysis and enable cost-effective, and focussed sampling has been assessed as part of a site evaluation programme. Five different biosensors, three metabolic (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens 10568 and Escherichia coli HB101) and two catabolic (Pseudomonas putida TVA8 and E. coli DH5α), were employed to identify areas where the availability and toxicity of pollutants is of most immediate environmental concern. The biosensors used showed different sensitivities to each other and to the groundwater samples tested. There was generally a good agreement with chemical analyses. The potential efficacy of remediation strategies was explored by coupling sample manipulation to biosensor tests. Manipulation involved sparging and charcoal treatment procedures to simulate remediative engineering solutions. Sparging was sufficient at most locations. - Luminescent bacteria complement chemical analysis and support remediation technology

  18. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  19. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited....... CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting...

  20. Methods of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  1. Determining priorities of a remediation plan at urban scale by assessing the risk of metals and POPs for local population: The Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Rezza, Carmela; Qi, Shihua; Qu, Chengkai; Chen, Wei; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the URGE (Urban Geochemistry) project aiming at depicting the environmental conditions of several cities in Europe, the north-eastern sector of the Naples metropolitan area (Italy), namely the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano area (with ~160.000 inhabitants), has undergone a geochemical characterization based on topsoil sampling (145 samples over an area of 90 sqkm). The conurbation includes 6 municipalities (Acerra, Pomigliano D'Arco, Castello di Cisterna, Brusciano, Mariglianella and Marigliano) and considering the total extension of the urbanized areas (18-20 sqkm) the average population density could be corrected to 6-7000 inhabitants/sqkm. Soils of the area are mostly originated by the pedogenenesis of the original pyroclastics produced by the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano on the south-western side of the study area. The area has been selected because of both the presence of an historical industrial settlement on it (mainly devoted to plastic materials and synthetic fibers production) and of an incinerator which came into operation in March 2009. The main objective of the study was 1) to define the local geochemical baselines both for 53 elements (among which the toxic ones) and for some organic compounds, including PAHs, PCBs and OCPs and 2) to assess the environmental risk generated by polluted soils. Furthermore, the study aimed at supporting epidemiological researches and at establishing a record of the environmental status quo ante to evaluate in the future the impact of the incinerator on life quality and on health of local population. Obtained results showed that most of the urbanized areas of the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbations are characterized by concentrations of Pb, Zn and V exceeding the intervention limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006). Agricultural soils, in the surroundings of the urbanized areas, are enriched in Cu, Co, Cd, Be and Ni, and the probable presence of illegal waste disposals

  2. A survey of ecological risk assessment at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Bascietto, J.; Joseph, T.; Bilyard, G.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Risk-Based Standards Working Group is studying standard-setting and remedial action based on realistic estimates of human health and ecological risks. Federal and state regulations require DOE to assess ecological risks due to present and past operation of DOE facilities and ecological damage caused by remedial actions. Unfortunately, little technical guidance has been provided by regulatory agencies about how these assessments should be performed or what constitutes an adequate assessment. Active ecological research, environmental characterization, and ecological risk assessment programs are already underway at many locations. Some of these programs were established more than 30 years ago. Because of the strength of its existing programs and the depth of expertise available within the DOE complex, the agency is in a position to lead in developing ecological risk assessment procedures that are fully consistent with the general principles defined by EPA and that will ensure environmentally sound and cost-effective restoration of its sites. As a prelude to guidance development, the working group conducted a survey of ecological risk assessment activities at a subset of major DOE facilities. The survey was intended to (1) identify approaches now being used in ecological risk assessments performed by DOE staff and contractors at each site, (2) record successes and failures of these approaches, (3) identify new technical developments with potential for general application to many DOE facilities, and (4) identify major data needs, data resources, and methodological deficiencies

  3. Radiological risk assessment for radioactive contamination at landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted for a landfill site where radioactive residues resulting from past uranium ore processing operations are present. Potential radiation doses to an individual under different scenarios have been predicted using the RESRAD computer code. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site that is currently underway. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Risk assessments ensure safer power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-19

    A growth industry is emerging devoted to the study and comparison of the economic, social and health risks posed by large industrial installations. Electricity generation is one area coming under particularly close scrutiny. Types of risk, ways of assessing risk and the difference between experts' analyses and the public perception of risk are given. An example of improved risk assessment helping to reduce deaths and injuries in coal mining is included.

  5. Temporal patterns of lung cancer risk from radon and smoking - consequences to remediation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of uranium miners conducted since the late 1960s demonstrated that the risk depends on cumulated exposure in terms of working level months (WLM) integrating both duration of exposure and concentration of radon. It has been also demonstrated that the risk from radon decreases with time since exposure. The present analysis of temporal changes of relative risk is based on a model where the total individual exposure is partitioned into components in dependence on time. Exposure to radon is studied in a cohort of 9411 Czech uranium miners with 766 cases of lung cancer and in a residential study of 11 803 inhabitants exposed to radon in houses with 218 cases. In addition, temporal patterns of the risk from smoking are analyzed in a case-control study of patients from a major Prague hospital including 566 cases. For both carcinogens, the relative risk decreases with time since exposure. The risk from exposures before 20-34 years is 36% and 34% in comparison to period 5-19 for smoking and radon, respectively. The effect of exposures from more distant periods 35-49 is only 5% for smoking and 14% for radon in comparison to 5-19 years. This substantial decrease of relative risk with time may contribute to a better evaluation of remediation measures taken in houses and in the cost effectiveness of remediation. Combined effect of smoking and radon is studied by a nested case-control approach including 434 cases and 962 controls. Analyses of the joint effects of smoking and radon, conducted in the occupational and the residential studies, suggest a sub-multiplicative interaction. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers is higher by a factor of 2-3 in comparison to smokers, suggesting different patterns of lung deposition and clearance among smokers and non-smokers. (author)

  6. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  7. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O Pinto, Tatiana; García, Andrés C; Guedes, Jair do N; do A Sobrinho, Nelson M B; Tavares, Orlando C H; Berbara, Ricardo L L

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+.

  8. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de O Pinto

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+ within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC, vermicompost solid residue (VCR and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+.

  9. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site-generic...... assessments poorly reflect the fate of frequent soil contaminants such as chloroethenes as they exclude the groundwater compartment and assume that the main part escapes to the atmosphere. Another important limitation of the generic impact assessment models is that they do not include the formation......The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities...

  10. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  11. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  12. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

  13. Need for realistic risk assessments at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    Widespread environmental contamination has been documented at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Human health risk assessments are increasingly being used to support decisions concerning remediation at these sites. Current methods for assessing risk at DOE facilities are generally excessively conservative or simplistic. Generic models, conservative parameter default values, and assumptions are often used, and unrealistic exposure and land-use scenarios are embedded in the analyses. These approaches are appropriate only as first-level screening analyses and identify contaminants or pathways that are not important in terms of risk to human health

  14. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silady, F.A.; Everline, C.J.; Houghton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  15. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  16. Causes and remedies for the dominant risk factors in Enterprise System implementation projects: the consultants' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the causes of the dominant risk factors, affecting Enterprise System implementation projects and propose remedies for those risk factors from the perspective of implementation consultants. The study used a qualitative research strategy, based on e-mail interviews, semi-structured personal interviews with consultants and participant observation during implementation projects. The main contribution of this paper is that it offers viable indications of how to mitigate the dominant risk factors. These indications were grouped into the following categories: stable project scope, smooth communication supported by the project management, dedicated, competent and decision-making client team, competent and engaged consultant project manager, schedule and budget consistent with the project scope, use of methodology and procedures, enforced and enabled by the project managers, competent and dedicated consultants. A detailed description is provided for each category.

  17. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART)

  18. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Reservation in southern Utah. The site covers 235 acres and contains 69 acres of tailings and several of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Navajo Nation. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings within the present tailings site by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier of compacted earth would be constructed over the pile, and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document. 240 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

  3. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional economic impact assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Hogan, Dylan; Edwards, Deborah A; Smith, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    The present paper describes a methodology for evaluating impacts of Superfund remedial alternatives on the regional economy in the context of a broader sustainability evaluation. Although economic impact methodology is well established, some applications to Superfund remedial evaluation have created confusion because of seemingly contradictory results. This confusion arises from failure to be explicit about 2 opposing impacts of remediation expenditures: 1) positive regional impacts of spending additional money in the region and 2) negative regional impacts of the need to pay for the expenditures (and thus forgo other expenditures in the region). The present paper provides a template for economic impact assessment that takes both positive and negative impacts into account, thus providing comprehensive estimates of net impacts. The paper also provides a strategy for identifying and estimating major uncertainties in the net impacts. The recommended methodology was applied at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, located along the Lower Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, USA. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed remedial alternatives that it estimated would cost up to several billion dollars, with construction durations possibly lasting decades. The economic study estimated regional economic impacts-measured in terms of gross regional product (GRP), personal income, population, and employment-for 5 of the USEPA alternatives relative to the "no further action" alternative. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:32-42. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  5. Risk assessment and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The approach to determining how safe is safe for the nuclear industry is to ensure that the risks are comparable with or less than those of other safe industries. There are some problems in implementing such an approach, because the effects of low levels of radiation are stochastic and assumptions are required in estimating the risks. A conservative approach has generally been adopted. Risk estimates across different activities are a useful indication of where society may be overspending or underspending to reduce risk, but the analysis has to take account of public preferences. Once risks have been estimated, limits may be chosen which the industry is expected to meet under normal and postulated accident conditions. Limits have been set so that nuclear risks do not exceed those in safe industries, and under normal conditions nuclear facilities operate at levels far below these specified limits

  6. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site

  7. Remedial action assessment system (RAAS) - A computer-based methodology for conducting feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; White, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the great complexity and number of potential waste sites facing the US Department of Energy (DOE) for potential cleanup, the DOE is supporting the development of a computer-based methodology to streamline the remedial investigation/feasibility study process required for DOE operable units. DOE operable units are generally more complex in nature because of the existence of multiple waste sites within many of the operable units and the presence of mixed radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. Consequently, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS), which is aimed at screening, linking, and evaluating established technology process options in support of conducting feasibility studies under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). It is also intended to do the same in support of corrective measures studies required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the greatest attributes of the RAAS project is that the computer interface with the user is being designed to be friendly, intuitive, and interactive. Consequently, the user interface employs menus, windows, help features, and graphical information while RAAS is in operation. During operation, each technology process option is represented by an open-quotes objectclose quotes module. Object-oriented programming is then used to link these unit processes into remedial alternatives. In this way, various object modules representing technology process options can communicate so that a linked set of compatible processes form an appropriate remedial alternative. Once the remedial alternatives are formed, they can be evaluated in terms of effectiveness, implementability, and cost

  8. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  9. Using risk assessment in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Alan J

    2014-08-01

    Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession.

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-11-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, A.; Hoopes, J.; Morycz, D.; Bone, M.; Cox, S.; Jones, D.; Lechel, D.; Meyer, C.; Nelson, M.; Peel, R.; Portillo, R.; Rogers, L.; Taber, B.; Zelle, P.; Rice, G.

    1984-12-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated [vicinity] properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachrach, A.; Hoopes, J.; Morycz, D. (Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Bone, M.; Cox, S.; Jones, D.; Lechel, D.; Meyer, C.; Nelson, M.; Peel, R.; Portillo, R.; Rogers, L.; Taber, B.; Zelle, P. (Weston (Roy F.), Inc., Washington, DC (USA)); Rice, G. (Sergent, Hauskins and Beckwith (USA))

    1984-12-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated (vicinity) properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed.

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document

  14. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  15. Use of toxicity assessment to develop site specific remediation criteria for oil and gas facilities : guidance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The results of a two year study into the evaluation of toxicity-based methods to develop site-specific, risk-based cleanup objectives for the decommissioning of oil and gas facilities were compiled into a manual of guidance. The two basic approaches used in determining remediation criteria for contaminated sites are: (1) comparison of the concentrations of chemicals found on-site with broad regional or national soil and water quality objectives developed for the chemicals involved, and (2) site-specific risk assessment. Toxicity tests are used to test organisms such as earthworms, lettuce seeds, or larval fish directly in the soil, water or sediment suspected of being contaminated. The effects of any contamination on the survival, growth, reproduction, and behaviour of the test organisms are then evaluated. The manual provides guidance in: (1) using toxicity assessments within the regulatory framework of site decommissioning, (2) performing a toxicity assessment, and (3) developing site-specific criteria for a risk assessment. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Sediment Remediation at the London Olympic Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there is an emerging 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) movement. It is drawing increasing attention from both the government and the industry, because this GSR movement is promising in accelerating process in addressing the contaminated land issue, by overcoming regulatory barriers, encouraging technological innovation, and balancing life cycle environmental stewardship with economic vitality and social well-being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used by both researchers and industrial practitioners in an initiative to make environmental remediation greener and more sustainable. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), aiming at expanding the traditional LCA model in both breadth and depth (e.g. to incorporate both environmental and social-economic sustainability), is an important research direction in the existing LCA research field. The present study intends to develop a LCSA method based on a hybrid LCA model and economic input-output (EIO) data. The LCSA method is applied to a contaminated sediment remediation project conducted at the London Olympic Park site.

  17. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  18. Heavy Metal Phytoremediation: Microbial Indicators of Soil Health for the Assessment of Remediation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Ma Becerril, José; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    Phytoremediation is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, promising phytotechnology for the remediation of polluted soils. The objective of any soil remediation process must be not only to remove the contaminant(s) from the soil but, most importantly, to restore the continued capacity of the soil to perform or function according to its potential (i.e., to recover soil health). Hence, indicators of soil health are needed to properly assess the efficiency of a phytoremediation process. Biological indicators of soil health, especially those related to the size, activity and diversity of the soil microbial communities, are becoming increasingly used, due to their sensitivity and capacity to provide information that integrates many environmental factors. In particular, microbial indicators of soil health are valid tools to evaluate the success of metal phytoremediation procedures such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization processes.

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  20. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of

  1. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Patricia M., E-mail: pmg24@drexel.edu [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States); Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  2. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Patricia M.; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Project Building limited scope risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, D.J.; Lindberg, S.E.; Reardon, M.F.; Wilson, G.P.

    1992-10-01

    A limited scope risk assessment was performed on the preliminary design of a high-level waste interim storage facility. The Canister Storage Building (CSB) facility will be built to support remediation at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State. The CSB will be part of the support facilities for a high level Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The limited scope risk assessment is based on a preliminary design which uses forced air circulation systems to move air through the building vault. The current building design calls for natural circulation to move air through the building vault

  4. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  5. Implications of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, M.C.; Shah, S.M.; Gittus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is an analytical process that quantifies the likelihoods, consequences and associated uncertainties of the potential outcomes of postulated events. Starting with planned or normal operation, probabilistic risk assessment covers a wide range of potential accidents and considers the whole plant and the interactions of systems and human actions. Probabilistic risk assessment can be applied in safety decisions in design, licensing and operation of industrial facilities, particularly nuclear power plants. The proceedings include a review of PRA procedures, methods and technical issues in treating uncertainties, operating and licensing issues and future trends. Risk assessment for specific reactor types or components and specific risks (eg aircraft crashing onto a reactor) are used to illustrate the points raised. All 52 articles are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  6. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  7. Integrated climate change risk assessment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models...... to address the complex linkages between the different kinds of data required in assessing climate adaptation. It emphasizes that the availability of spatially explicit data can reduce the overall uncertainty of the risk assessment and assist in identifying key vulnerable assets. The usefulness...... of such a framework is demonstrated by means of a risk assessment of flooding from extreme precipitation for the city of Odense, Denmark. A sensitivity analysis shows how the presence of particularly important assets, such as cultural and historical heritage, may be addressed in assessing such risks. The output...

  8. Assessing the potential of brachiaria decumbens as remediation agent for soil contaminated wit oil sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah Norddin; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Hazlina Abdullah; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2005-01-01

    Bioremediation is a method of treatment of soil or water contaminated with toxic materials, involving the use of living organisms. Oil or petroleum sludge is a waste product of the petroleum refining industry, and is now accumulating at a fast rate at petroleum refinery sites in the country. Common components of oil sludge are mud and sand, containing toxic materials from hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radioactive elements from the seabed. In the present study, the oil sludge samples were obtained from barrels of the materials stored at the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre, MINT. The samples were analysed of their compounds, elemental and radioactive contents. Trials on microbial degradation of the sludge materials were ongoing. This paper discusses the potential of a grass to remediate soils contaminated with petroleum sludge. Remediation of soils contaminated with organic compounds and heavy metals using plants, including grasses, including Vetiver, Lolium and Agrostis have been carried out in many countries. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to assess the suitability of the pasture grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. and its mutant Brachiaria decumbens KLUANG Comel as a remediation agent for oil sludge contaminated soil. Samples of grasses and soils before planting, during growth stage and at end of experiment were analysed for the different toxicity. Although the grasses were promoted for use in pasture, and KLUANG Comel has good potential as an ornamental plant, too, their other potentials, including as phytoremediation agents need to be explored. (Author)

  9. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinaishin, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains 158 papers presented at the International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Risk Assessment held by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS) in Port Chester, New York in 1981. The meeting was second in a series of three. The main focus of the meeting was on the safety of light water reactors. The papers discuss safety goals and risk assessment. Quantitative safety goals, risk assessment in non-nuclear technologies, and operational experience and data base are also covered. Included is an address by Dr. Chauncey Starr

  13. Risk assessment in maritime transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Teixeira, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    A review is presented of different approaches to quantify the risk in maritime transportation. The discussion of several accident statistics provides a global assessment of the risk levels and its differentiation in ship types and main types of ship losses. Early studies in the probability of ship loss by foundering and capsizing are reviewed. The approaches used to assess the risk of structural design are addressed. Finally a brief account is given of recent development of using formal safety assessments to support decision making on legislation applicable internationally to maritime transportation

  14. Framework for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, D.; Norton, S.

    1992-02-01

    Increased interest in ecological issues such as global climate change, habitat loss, acid deposition, reduced biological diversity, and the ecological impacts of pesticides and toxic chemicals prompts this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment ('Framework Report'). The report describes basic elements, or a framework, for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical and chemical stressors on the environment. The framework offers starting principles and a simple structure as guidance for current ecological risk assessments and as a foundation for future EPA proposals for risk assessment guidelines

  15. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Molnar, D.L.

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate existing proven technologies for the monitoring of hazardous waste sites during remediation activities and to protect the health and safety of all related entities while complying with government regulations. The study began with a literature search to determine manufacturers and related instrumentation which would be applicable to the most complex (in terms of toxicity and mediums affected) sites. Criteria for monitoring and analyses were established and a functional analysis was performed to select the most appropriate instrumentation available. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry is the most widely accepted method for generating quantitative data given the characterization of the Winfield site. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, while not a new technology, has the distinct advantage of measuring simultaneously hundreds of gaseous pollutants which can also be sparged from water and this technology received the highest score as per the functional analysis. To protect workers and the public surrounding remediation sites which are known to contain VOCs, on site monitoring prior to, and during the excavation operations, is recommended until enough data are obtained to assess the health risks to workers. The conclusion of this study is to recommend evaluation of both the mobile GC/MS and FTIR systems simultaneously in identical operating conditions

  16. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  17. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  18. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  19. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K C [Exxon International (United States)

    1992-07-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime.

  20. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  1. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  2. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  3. Risk assessment in international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-01-01

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently

  4. Assessment and perception of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J

    1981-01-01

    A recent two-day meeting was called by the Royal Society to discuss all types of risks, but symptomatic of the concerns of most of those present, the discussion centred mainly on the risks inherent in energy production and use. Among the subjects considered were public perception of differing risks, and how these are ranked, and risks versus benefits. Quotations from and summaries of many of the papers presented show that it was generally felt that scientists must be very careful in the way that they use numerical assessments of risk and that they should pay more attention than they have to social and political factors.

  5. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  6. 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE). Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER 201326

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    USER GUIDE 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in...Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER-201326 OCTOBER 2017 Rob Hinchee Integrated Science...Technology, Inc. 1509 Coastal Highway Panacea, FL 32346 8/8/2013 - 8/8/2018 10-2017 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening

  7. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  8. Risk assessment future cash flows

    OpenAIRE

    Chachina H. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.

  9. Test reactor risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R.H.; Rawlins, J.K.; Stewart, M.E.

    1976-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplified by a determination of risks to a loss of primary coolant flow in the Engineering Test Reactor

  10. Anthropic Risk Assessment on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piragnolo, M.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.; Salogni, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed for Veneto Region, in order to simplify and improve the quality of EIA procedure (VINCA). Habitats and species, animals and plants, are protected by European Directive 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC but they are subject at hazard due to pollution produced by human activities. Biodiversity risks may conduct to deterioration and disturbance in ecological niches, with consequence of loss of biodiversity. Ecological risk assessment applied on Natura 2000 network, is needed to best practice of management and monitoring of environment and natural resources. Threats, pressure and activities, stress and indicators may be managed by geodatabase and analysed using GIS technology. The method used is the classic risk assessment in ecological context, and it defines the natural hazard as influence, element of risk as interference and vulnerability. Also it defines a new parameter called pressure. It uses risk matrix for the risk analysis on spatial and temporal scale. The methodology is qualitative and applies the precautionary principle in environmental assessment. The final product is a matrix which excludes the risk and could find application in the development of a territorial information system.

  11. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  12. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  13. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0254) on the proposed remedial action at the inactive uranium milling site near Riverton, Wyoming. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required

  14. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0254) on the proposed remedial action at the inactive uranium milling site near Riverton, Wyoming. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required.

  15. The development of assessment and remediation guidelines for contaminated soils, a review of the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Gaudet, C.; Sheppard, M.I.; Cureton, P.M.; Wong, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Soil contamination is no longer restricted to isolated incidents and locations; it is a general and contentious problem. However, the problem is complex, starting with the very definition of what level and type of contamination is unacceptable. A myriad of regulatory and de facto guidelines have emerged, and they are extremely fragmented, inconsistent and incomplete. This review attempts to summarize the historical development of assessment and remediation guidelines, to highlight the unique difficulties of the problem, and then to discuss the scientific information that exists and that is needed to improve guidelines. This is an unlimited scope for research on this subject. (author)

  16. Evaluation of thermal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.J.; Perry, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Risk assessment was done in 1983 to estimate the ecological hazard of increasing the generating load and thermal output of an electric generating station. Subsequently, long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the station allowed verification of the predictions made in the risk assessment. This presentation will review the efficacy of early risk assessment methods in producing useful predictions from a resource management point of view. In 1984, the Chalk Point Generating facility of the Potomac Electric Power Company increased it's median generating load by 100%. Prior to this operational change, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia synthesized site specific data, model predictions, and results from literature to assess the risk of additional waste heat to the Patuxent River subestuary of Chesapeake Bay. Risk was expressed as the number of days per year that various species of fish and the blue crab would be expected to avoid the discharge vicinity. Accuracy of these predictions is assessed by comparing observed fish and crab distributions and their observed frequencies of avoidance to those predicted. It is concluded that the predictions of this early risk assessment were sufficiently accurate to produce a reliable resource management decision

  17. Green Chemistry and Engineering Opportunity Assessment (GC&EOA) to US Army. A Case Study in Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    transport of airborne contaminants and dust o Use heavy equipment efficiently (e.g. diesel emission reduction plan) o Maximize use of machinery equipped...remediation) Design for Energy Efficiency Favor low-energy technologies ( bioremediation , phytoremediation) where possible and effective; Use...Selection of a Remediation Scenario for a Diesel - Contaminated Site Using LCA. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12(4), 239-251

  18. Assessing the capacity of zero valent iron nanofluids to remediate NAPL-polluted porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakiroglou, Christos, E-mail: ctsakir@iceht.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou street, Platani, 26504 Patras (Greece); Terzi, Katerina; Sikinioti-Lock, Alexandra [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou street, Platani, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Hajdu, Kata; Aggelopoulos, Christos [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou street, Platani, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2016-09-01

    A variety of aqueous suspensions (nanofluids) of zero-valent nano-particles (nZVI) are prepared by wet chemistry techniques, their stability and longevity is evaluated by physic-chemical methods of characterization, and their reactivity toward the dechlorination of per-chloro-ethylene (PCE) is examined with tests in batch reactors. For assessing the mobility, longevity and reactivity of nZVI suspensions (nanofluids), under flow-through conditions, visualization multiphase flow and transport tests are performed on a glass-etched pore network. The nZVI breakthrough curves are constructed by measuring the transient variation of the iron concentration in the effluent with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The capacity of nZVI to remediate the bulk phase of PCE is quantified by detecting the mass loss rate of PCE ganglia trapped in glass-etched pore networks during the continuous injection of nZVI suspension or pure water. The nZVI injection in porous media is simulated as an advection- dispersion process by accounting for the attachment/detachment of nanoparticles on the pore-walls, and describing the kinetics of PCE dissolution and reaction by 1st order equations. Visualization experiments reveal that the gradual elimination of PCE ganglia by the injected nZVI is associated with the preferential “erosion” of the upstream interfacial regions. The step controlling the overall process kinetics might be either (i) the enhanced PCE dissolution or (ii) the direct reaction of bulk PCE with the nZVI deposited upon the ganglia interfaces. Inverse modeling of the experiments under the simplifying assumption of one active mechanism indicates that the estimated kinetic coefficients are increasing functions of the flow rate. - Highlights: • The PCE remediation by nZVI is studied with visualization tests on pore networks. • The remediation of PCE ganglia by nZVI follows a non-uniform “erosion” pattern. • The preferential erosion of the upstream interfacial regions of

  19. Pathology and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Programs for providing basic data for use in evaluating the hazard to man from exposure to radiation and other energy-related pollutants are reviewed. A computer program was developed that takes the existing mortality and fertility data on a given population and applies dose-response coefficients and estimated increments of exposure to chemical or radioactive effluents and derives the excess deaths by age and sex for 5-year intervals. The program was used in an analysis of the health effects of airborne coal combustion effluents. Preliminary results are reported from a study of the influence of products of fossil fuel combustion on the spontaneous activity patterns and daily metabolic cycles of mice as a factor of age, environment, and genetic constitution. Preliminary results are reported from studies on the early and late effects of polycyclic hydrocarbons on the immune competence of mice. Studies to determine the risk to human populations from radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear energy facilities use relative toxicity and dose response data from laboratory animals of different body size and life span and comparisons of the effects of internal exposure with those of external exposure to fission neutrons or gamma sources

  20. Taking the Risk Out of Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The ability to understand risks and have the right strategies in place when risky events occur is essential in the workplace. More and more organizations are being confronted with concerns over how to measure their risks or what kind of risks they can take when certain events transpire that could have a negative impact. NASA is one organization that faces these challenges on a daily basis, as effective risk management is critical to the success of its missions especially the Space Shuttle missions. On July 29, 1996, former NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin charged NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance with developing a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tool to support decisions on the funding of Space Shuttle upgrades. When issuing the directive, Goldin said, "Since I came to NASA [in 1992], we've spent billions of dollars on Shuttle upgrades without knowing how much they improve safety. I want a tool to help base upgrade decisions on risk." Work on the PRA tool began immediately. The resulting prototype, the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) Version 1.0, was jointly developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, its Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, and researchers at the University of Maryland. QRAS software automatically expands the reliability logic models of systems to evaluate the probability of highly detrimental outcomes occurring in complex systems that are subject to potential accident scenarios. Even in its earliest forms, QRAS was used to begin PRA modeling of the Space Shuttle. In parallel, the development of QRAS continued, with the goal of making it a world-class tool, one that was especially suited to NASA s unique needs. From the beginning, an important conceptual goal in the development of QRAS was for it to help bridge the gap between the professional risk analyst and the design engineer. In the past, only the professional risk analyst could perform, modify, use, and perhaps even adequately understand PRA. NASA wanted

  1. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  2. Competing risk theory and radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    New statistical procedures are applied to estimate cumulative distribution functions (c.d.f.), force of mortality, and latent period for radiation-induced malignancies. It is demonstrated that correction for competing risks influences the shape of dose response curves, estimates of the latent period, and of the risk from ionizing radiations. The equivalence of the following concepts is demonstrated: force of mortality, hazard rate, and age or time specific incidence. This equivalence makes it possible to use procedures from reliability analysis and demography for radiation risk assessment. Two methods used by reliability analysts - hazard plotting and total time on test plots - are discussed in some detail and applied to characterize the hazard rate in radiation carcinogenesis. C.d.f.'s with increasing, decreasing, or constant hazard rate have different shapes and are shown to yield different dose-response curves for continuous irradiation. Absolute risk is shown to be a sound estimator only if the force of mortality is constant for the exposed and the control group. Dose-response relationships that use the absolute risk as a measure for the effect turn out to be special cases of dose-response relationships that measure the effect with cumulative incidence. (H.K.)

  3. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  4. Assessing Risk of Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgood, GO

    2001-01-01

    Today's manufacturing systems and equipment must perform at levels thought impossible a decade ago. Companies must push operations, quality, and efficiencies to unprecedented levels while holding down costs. In this new economy, companies must be concerned with market shares, equity growth, market saturation, and profit. U.S. manufacturing is no exception and is a prime example of businesses forced to adapt to constant and rapid changes in customer needs and product mixes, giving rise to the term ''Agile Manufacturing''. The survival and ultimate success of the American Manufacturing economy may depend upon its ability to create, innovate, and quickly assess the impact that new innovations will have on its business practices. Given the need for flexibility, companies need proven methods to predict and measure the impact that new technologies and strategies will have on overall plant performance from an enterprise perspective. The Value-Derivative Model provides a methodology and approach to assess such impacts in terms of energy savings, production increases, quality impacts, emission reduction, and maintenance and operating costs as they relate to enabling and emerging technologies. This is realized by calculating a set of first order sensitivity parameters obtained from expanding a Taylor Series about the system's operating point. These sensitivity parameters are invariant economic and operational indicators that quantify the impact of any proposed technology in terms of material throughput, efficiency, energy usage, environmental effects, and costs. These parameters also provide a mechanism to define metrics and performance measures that can be qualified in terms of real economic impact. Value-Derivative Analysis can be applied across all manufacturing and production segments of our economy and has found specific use in steel and textiles. Where economic models give the cost of conducting a business, Value-Derivative Analysis provides the cost to conduct

  5. Risk assessment research and technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albach, H.; Schade, D.; Sinn, H.

    1991-01-01

    The concepts and approaches for technology assessment, the targets and scientific principles, as well as recognizable deficits and recommendations concerning purposeful strategies for the promotion of this research field require a dialog between those concerned. Conception, deficits, and the necessary measures for risk assessment research and technology assessment were discussed as well as ethical aspects. The problematic nature of using organisms altered through genetic engineering in the open land, traffic and transport, site restoration, nuclear energy, and isotope applications were subjects particularly dealt with. (DG) [de

  6. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  7. Risk assessment for transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Miles, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The world-wide safety of the transport of radioactive material is based on the IAEA Transport Regulations. Risk assessment can provide quantitative data to help in the demonstration, understanding and improvement of the effectiveness of the Regulations in assuring safety. In this Paper the methodology, data and computer codes necessary and available for transport risk assessment are reviewed. Notable examples of assessments carried out over the past 15 years are briefly described along with current research, and the benefits and limitations of the techniques are discussed. (author)

  8. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE's Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ''demonstration'' version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing

  9. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D. [Enserch Environmental Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  10. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  11. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  12. Risk assessment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change

  13. Risk assessment and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D J [Department of the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change.

  14. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Resources Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using ... risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along ...

  15. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  16. Risk assessment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1982-01-01

    The range of risk perceptions involving nuclear power is so great that there is little hope of bridging extreme positions, but a consensus based upon reasoned discussion among uncommitted people could determine a sensible path. Our concerns over the uncertainties of risk assessment have made it increasingly difficult to make responsible decisions fast enough to deal with modern needs. The result is an immobility in energy matters that can point to a 2% reduction in oil use as its only triumph. The risk of nuclear war as a result of military action over energy issues suggests to some that the solution is to abolish nuclear power (however impractical) and to others that a rapid spread of nuclear power will eliminate energy as an incentive for war. If nuclear war is the major risk to consider, risk assessments need to include the risks of war, as well as those of carbon dioxide buildup and socio-economic disruptions, all of which loom larger than the risks of nuclear-plant accidents. Energy choices should be aimed at diminishing these major risks, even if they include the use of nuclear power. 26 references

  17. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  18. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  19. Human reliability assessment and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Lucas, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) is used within Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to identify the human errors (both omission and commission) which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. There exist a variey of HRA techniques and the selection of an appropriate one is often difficult. This paper reviews a number of available HRA techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. The techniques reviewed include: decompositional methods, time-reliability curves and systematic expert judgement techniques. (orig.)

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment: Number 219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. A historical overview of plants in the US is provided, and past, present, and future nuclear safety and risk assessment are discussed. A primer on nuclear power plants is provided with a discussion of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR) and their operation and containment. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), utilizing both event-tree and fault-tree analysis, is discussed as a tool in reactor safety, decision making, and communications. (FI)

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of stabilization on site of the contaminated materials at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site. The Lowman site is 0.5 road mile northeast of the unincorporated village of Lowman, Idaho, and 73 road miles from Boise, Idaho. The Lowman site consists of piles of radioactive sands, an ore storage area, abandoned mill buildings, and windblown/waterborne contaminated areas. A total of 29.5 acres of land are contaminated and most of this land occurs within the 35-acre designated site boundary. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings and other contaminated materials on the site. A radon barrier would be constructed over the consolidated residual radioactive materials and various erosion control measures would be implemented to ensure the long-term stability of the disposal cell. Radioactive constituents and other hazardous constituents were not detected in the groundwater beneath the Lowman site. The groundwater beneath the disposal cell would not become contaminated during or after remedial action so the maximum concentration limits or background concentrations for the contaminants listed in the draft EPA groundwater protection standards would be met at the point of compliance. No significant impacts were identified as a result of the proposed remedial action at the Lowman site

  2. Remediation workers' exposure assessment feasibility study at the Department of Energy's Mound Site: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.W.; Back, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), subsequent to the implementation of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Health and Human Services, conducts a program of independent occupational and environmental research studies with funding from DOE. This document on the DOE Mound site represents the second background site document prepared for the development of the NIOSH project entitled: Exposure Assessment of Hazardous Waste (HW), Decontamination (De), Dismantlement (Di), and Clean Up Workers (CW). The purpose of this document is to assemble information relevant to Remediation Workers performing HW, De, Di, and CW task activities at the DOE Mound site addressing four primary objectives. The objectives are: identification of Remediation Workers performing HW, De, Di, and CW task activities anticipated or in progress from the recent past through the next five to 10 years; demographic definition of the workforce performing these activities; identification of the technologies in use or proposed to be used (including considerations regarding health and safety impact upon the workforce); and assembly of summary information for potential chemical, mixed, and radiological contaminant exposure that may be encountered during these processes

  3. Risk communication and trust in decision-maker action: a case study of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Jardine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development and implementation of a remediation plan for the residual arsenic trioxide stored at the former Giant Mine site in the Canadian Northwest Territories has raised important issues related to trust. Social and individual trust of those responsible for making decisions on risks is critically important in community judgements on risk and the acceptability of risk management decisions. Trust is known to be affected by value similarity and confidence in past performance, which serve as interacting sources of cooperation in acting toward a common goal. Objective. To explore the elements of trust associated with the development and implementation of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan. Design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight purposively selected key informants representing both various interested and affected parties and the two government proponents. Results. Five primary issues related to trust were identified by the participants: (1 a historical legacy of mistrust between the community (particularly Aboriginal peoples and government; (2 barriers to building trust with the federal government; (3 limited community input and control over the decision-making process; (4 the conflicted and confounded role of the government agencies being both proponent and regulator, and the resulting need for independent oversight; and (5 distrust of the government to commit to the perpetual care required for the remediation option selected. Conclusions. The dual-mode model of trust and confidence was shown to be a useful framework for understanding the pivotal role of trust in the development of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan. Failure to recognize issues of trust based on value dissimilarity and lack of confidence based on past performance have resulted in a lack of cooperation characterized by delayed remediation and a prolonged and expensive consultation process. Government recognition of the importance of trust to these

  4. Risk assessment using probabilistic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.

    2004-01-01

    A core element of risk is uncertainty represented by plural outcomes and their likelihood. No risk exists if the future outcome is uniquely known and hence guaranteed. The probability that we will die some day is equal to 1, so there would be no fatal risk if sufficiently long time frame is assumed. Equally, rain risk does not exist if there was 100% assurance of rain tomorrow, although there would be other risks induced by the rain. In a formal sense, any risk exists if, and only if, more than one outcome is expected at a future time interval. In any practical risk assessment we have to deal with uncertainties associated with the possible outcomes. One way of dealing with the uncertainties is to be conservative in the assessments. For example, we may compare the maximal exposure to a radionuclide with a conservatively chosen reference value. In this case, if the exposure is below the reference value then it is possible to assure that the risk is low. Since single values are usually compared; this approach is commonly called 'deterministic'. Its main advantage lies in the simplicity and in that it requires minimum information. However, problems arise when the reference values are actually exceeded or might be exceeded, as in the case of potential exposures, and when the costs for realizing the reference values are high. In those cases, the lack of knowledge on the degree of conservatism involved impairs a rational weighing of the risks against other interests. In this presentation we will outline an approach for dealing with uncertainties that in our opinion is more consistent. We will call it a 'fully probabilistic risk assessment'. The essence of this approach consists in measuring the risk in terms of probabilities, where the later are obtained from comparison of two probabilistic distributions, one reflecting the uncertainties in the outcomes and one reflecting the uncertainties in the reference value (standard) used for defining adverse outcomes. Our first aim

  5. Comparison of models used for ecological risk assessment and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryti, R.T.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Models are used to derive action levels for site screening, or to estimate potential ecological or human health risks posed by potentially hazardous sites. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is RCRA-regulated, the human-health screening action levels are based on hazardous constituents described in RCRA Subpart S and RESRAD-derived soil guidelines (based on 10 mRem/year) for radiological constituents. Also, an ecological risk screening model was developed for a former firing site, where the primary constituents include depleted uranium, beryllium and lead. Sites that fail the screening models are evaluated with site-specific human risk assessment (using RESRAD and other approaches) and a detailed ecological effect model (ECOTRAN). ECOTRAN is based on pharmacokinetics transport modeling within a multitrophic-level biological-growth dynamics model. ECOTRAN provides detailed temporal records of contaminant concentrations in biota, and annual averages of these body burdens are compared to equivalent site-specific runs of the RESRAD model. The results show that thoughtful interpretation of the results of these models must be applied before they can be used for evaluation of current risk posed by sites and the benefits of various remedial options. This presentation compares the concentrations of biological media in the RESRAD screening runs to the concentrations in ecological endpoints predicted by the ecological screening model. The assumptions and limitations of these screening models and the decision process where these are screening models are applied are discussed

  6. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ames, Arlo Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment as an aid to risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments are providing important insights into nuclear power plant safety. Their value is two-fold: first as a means of quantifying nuclear plant risk including contributors to risk, and second as an aid to risk management. A risk assessment provides an analytical plant model that can be the basis for performing meaningful decision analyses for controlling safety. It is the aspect of quantitative risk management that makes probabilistic risk assessment an important technical discipline of the future

  8. Methodology for technical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for and applied to the assessment of the technical risks associated with an evolving technology. This methodology, originally developed for fusion by K. W. Billman and F. R. Scott at EPRI, has been applied to assess the technical risk of a fuel system for a fusion reactor. Technical risk is defined as the risk that a particular technology or component which is currently under development will not achieve a set of required technical specifications (i.e. probability of failure). The individual steps in the technical risk assessment are summarized. The first step in this methodology is to clearly and completely quantify the technical requirements for the particular system being examined. The next step is to identify and define subsystems and various options which appear capable of achieving the required technical performance. The subsystem options are then characterized regarding subsystem functions, interface requirements with the subsystems and systems, important components, developmental obstacles and technical limitations. Key technical subsystem performance parameters are identified which directly or indirectly relate to the system technical specifications. Past, existing and future technical performance data from subsystem experts are obtained by using a Bayesian Interrogation technique. The input data is solicited in the form of probability functions. Thus the output performance of the system is expressed as probability functions

  9. Strategy for integrated CERCLA/NEPA risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Blunt, D.A.; Fingleton, D.J.; Picel, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a policy whereby, for remedial actions, the procedural and documentational requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) are integrated with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. However, the objectives of risk assessment under NEPA and CERCLA differ somewhat. Until its recent application at contaminated sites, NEPA analysis has typically been applied to impacts from taking actions at clean sites (e.g., for construction activities), and a somewhat loosely structured process has historically been used to estimate relative risks for NEPA analyses. Decisions such as cleanup levels were not made on the basis of the risk estimates, and they therefore tended to be conservative and were not discussed in detail. In contrast, risks estimated for Superfund (CERCLA) sites are used to focus the decision-making process for those sites and support national prioritization for cleanup, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a detailed framework for preparing baseline health risk assessments for these sites. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to intergrating the CERCLA and NEPA approaches into the risk assessments that have been prepared for a DOE remedial action project at the Weldon Spring site near St. Charles, Missouri. These issues are grouped into three basic categories: general assumptions for the impact evaluation, data management, and presentation of the methodology and results. This paper is not intended to represent DOE policy and guidance, nor does it represent the only approach that can be used for integrated risk assessments. It merely discusses the process that was used for the Weldon Spring project, articulating the issues that were encountered and how they were addressed

  10. Ecological risk assessment: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This conference was held November 14--18, 1993 in Houston, Texas for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on ecological risk assessment. This book is comprised of the abstracts of the presentations at this symposium. Individual abstracts have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Where You Live: Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where you live page shows visitors to the risk assessment website how to contact their local regional office by state. Since these link to pages maintained by the local offices they will have the most up-to-date contact information.

  12. An approach to risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    1998-01-01

    of Ministers with the task to propose criteria for neurotoxicity. Functional effects on the nervous system, such as reduction in memory and learning ability, decrease in attention, and alteration of behavior due to toxic chemicals in the environment is now being acknowledged as an important public health...... indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge...... in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc....

  13. Preventive use of Bach flower Rescue Remedy in the control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Margarida Maria de Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Eduardo de Carvalho; Gardona, Rodrigo Galvão Bueno; Araújo, Rochilan Godinho; Mundim, Fiorita Gonzales Lopes; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of Bach flower Rescue Remedy on the control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats. A randomized longitudinal experimental study. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each and orogastrically dosed with either 200 μl of water (group A, control), or 100 μl of water and 100 μl of Bach flower remedy (group B), or 200 μl of Bach flower remedy (group C) every 2 days, for 20 days. All animals were fed standard rat chow and water ad libitum. Urine volume, body weight, feces weight, and food intake were measured every 2 days. On day 20, tests of glycemia, hyperuricemia, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol were performed, and the anatomy and histopathology of the heart, liver and kidneys were evaluated. Data were analyzed using Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. No significant differences were found in food intake, feces weight, urine volume and uric acid levels between groups. Group C had a significantly lower body weight gain than group A and lower glycemia compared with groups A and B. Groups B and C had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglycerides than controls. Animals had mild hepatic steatosis, but no cardiac or renal damage was observed in the three groups. Bach flower Rescue Remedy was effective in controlling glycemia, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol and may serve as a strategy for reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats. This study provides some preliminary "proof of concept" data that Bach Rescue Remedy may exert some biological effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of humic compounds for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals: the benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuzova, Galina; Barsova, Natalia; Stepanov, Andrey; Kiseleva, Violetta; Kolchanova, Ksenia; Starkova, Irina; Karpukhin, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    found to contain only 3-9% of copper. The content of free Cu2+ ions in the sample extract was negligible. The samples used for field experiments were tested in laboratory to estimate their sorption capacity for Cu. For this purpose, 300 g of substrate (loam and mixed organic substrate) with addition of water (control) and humic preparation (same dose as in the field experiment) were kept in the laboratory for 1 week. Soil samples were then dried and brought into equilibrium with the solution of copper sulfate at concentration of 50 mg/l. The concentration of copper in the solution in equilibrium with HC was 2.5-4 times higher than in the control variant; absorption of copper by solid phase decreased by 5-6%. Results of the laboratory study were in good agreement with the results of the field experiment. Addition of HC increased the content of soluble organic matter and copper complexation by an order of magnitude and thus reduced the activity of copper ions in the liquid phase that was treated as a possible remediation effect of the humic compound for plants and biota. However the increased total metal content mainly in a migration-capable form (negatively charged complexes with organic matter) may increase the risk of contaminating ground waters with heavy metals. Therefore, application of the artificial humic compounds for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals requires monitoring and further development of means to prevent their migration.

  15. Qualitative risk assessment for 100-DR-1 source operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE), signatories to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order have developed the Hanford site Past-Practice Strategy to emphasize initiating and completing waste site cleanups with a bias for action. This strategy relies, in part, upon the use of a qualitative risk assessment (QRA) to assist in decision-making. The QRA is performed using the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (HSBRAM) as guidance (DOE-RL 1993a). The results will be used, along with other considerations, to make a recommendation for or against an interim remedial measure (IRM) at each high-priority waste site. The objective of conducting IRMs at Hanford, is to achieve cleanup and reduce risk in the shortest time possible and in a cost effective manner

  16. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites.

  17. The role of performance assessment in the evaluation of remedial action alternatives for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; Case, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is involved in nuclear research and development. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL serves as a disposal facility for low level radioactive wastes generated onsite. Transuranic (TRU) wastes received from other DOE sites are currently stored at the RWMC, but were buried at the facility from 1952 until 1970. Recent findings of the Subsurface Investigations Program have determined that migration of TRU nuclides and hazardous materials from the RWMC has occurred. The primary source of organics in the buried TRU waste was generated by the Rocky Flats Plant. The INEL has proposed an aggressive four-year action plan for buried TRU waste. As a part of this plan, a task has been identified to evaluate existing remedial technologies for preventing further contaminant migration or removing the source of TRU radionuclides and nonradioactive hazardous material from the RWMC. A systems approach is being applied to evaluate, compare and recommend technologies or combinations of technologies. One criterion used in the evaluation is the net risk reduction afforded by each proposed remedial action. The method used to develop the criterion relies on models to assess the potential pathways and scenarios for the migration of radioactive and nonradioactive materials and the subsequent exposure of individuals to those materials. This paper describes the approach used to assess the performance of various remedial actions and the results obtained to date

  18. Student Self-Assessment and Multisource Feedback Assessment: Exploring Benefits, Limitations, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    It has become common practice for management students to participate in some sort of self-assessment or multisource feedback assessment (MSF; also called 360-degree assessment or multirater assessment) during their management degree program. These assessments provide students invaluable feedback about themselves and assist students in their…

  19. 24 CFR 35.315 - Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment. 35.315 Section 35... Provided by a Federal Agency Other Than HUD § 35.315 Risk assessment. Each owner shall complete a risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Each risk assessment shall be completed in accordance with...

  20. Caresoil: A multidisciplinar Project to characterize, remediate, monitor and evaluate the risk of contaminated soils in Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Antón, Loreto; Granja, Jose Luis; Villarroya, Fermín; Montero, Esperanza; Rodríguez, Vanesa

    2016-04-01

    Soil contamination can come from diffuse sources (air deposition, agriculture, etc.) or local sources, these last being related to anthropogenic activities that are potentially soil contaminating activities. According to data from the EU, in Spain, and particularly for the Autonomous Community of Madrid, it can be considered that heavy metals, toxic organic compounds (including Non Aqueous Phases Liquids, NAPLs) and combinations of both are the main problem of point sources of soil contamination in our community. The five aspects that will be applied in Caresoil Program (S2013/MAE-2739) in the analysis and remediation of a local soil contamination are: 1) the location of the source of contamination and characterization of soil and aquifer concerned, 2) evaluation of the dispersion of the plume, 3) application of effective remediation techniques, 4) monitoring the evolution of the contaminated soil and 5) risk analysis throughout this process. These aspects involve advanced technologies (hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry,...) that require new developing of knowledge, being necessary the contribution of several researching groups specialized in the fields previously cited, as they are those integrating CARESOIL Program. Actually two cases concerning hydrocarbon spills, as representative examples of soil local contamination in Madrid area, are being studied. The first is being remediated and we are monitoring this process to evaluate its effectiveness. In the second location we are defining the extent of contamination in soil and aquifer to define the most effective remediation technique.

  1. Risk assessment of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    2012-01-01

    This commentary describes the radiation cancer risk assessed by international organizations other than ICRP, assessed for radon and for internal exposure, in the series from the aspect of radiation protection of explaining the assessments done until ICRP Pub. 103. Statistic significant increase of cancer formation is proved at higher doses than 100-200 mSv. At lower doses, with use of mathematical model, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reported the death probability due to the excess lifetime risk (ELR) at 100 mSv of 0.36-0.77% for solid tumors and 0.03-0.05% for leukemia, and NRC in US, the risk of exposure-induced prevalence and death (REID) per 100 thousands persons of 800 (male)/1,310 (female) and 410/610, respectively. Both are essentially based on findings in A-bomb survivors. The assessment for Rn is described here not on dose. UK and US analyses of pooled raw data in case control studies revealed the significant increase of lung cancer formation at as low level as 100 Bq Rn/m3. Their analyses also showed the significance of smoking, which had been realized as a confounding factor in risk analysis of Rn for uranium miners. The death probability until the age of 85 y was found to be 1.2 x 10 -4 in non-smokers and 24 x 10 -4 in smokers/ Working Level Month (WLM). Increased thyroid cancer incidence has been known in Chernobyl Accident, which is realized as a result of internal exposure of radioiodine; however, the relationship between the internal dose to thyroid and its cancer prevalence resembles that in the case of external exposure. There is no certain evidence against the concept that risk of internal exposure is similar to and/or lower than, the external one although assessment of the internal exposure risk accompanies uncertainty depending on the used model and ingested dose. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations hitherto have been important and precious despite

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  4. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 1: Introduction and background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.B.; Suter, G.W. II; Sain, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy initiated a remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system Superfund Site in 1989. This site, located in eastern Tennessee near Oak Ridge, consists of 70 river kilometers and 40 km 2 of surface area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, perform an ecological and human health risk assessment, and evaluate possible remedial alternatives. This introductory article summarizes the environmental setting, the contamination history, and the study approach and provides some general results of the site characterization. Subsequent papers in this series describe the ecological risks to fish, piscivorous and insectivorous wildlife, and benthic invertebrates

  5. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana G. Feoktistova; Igor K. Turkin; Sergey V. Barinov

    2017-01-01

    The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate pre...

  6. Risk assessment and societal choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otway, H J

    1975-02-15

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  7. Risk assessment and societal choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  8. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  9. Hydrocarbons pipeline transportation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, A. V.; Milke, A. A.; Kvasov, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    The pipeline transportation applying risks assessment issue in the arctic conditions is addressed in the paper. Pipeline quality characteristics in the given environment has been assessed. To achieve the stated objective, the pipelines mathematical model was designed and visualized by using the software product SOLIDWORKS. When developing the mathematical model the obtained results made possible to define the pipeline optimal characteristics for designing on the Arctic sea bottom. In the course of conducting the research the pipe avalanche collapse risks were examined, internal longitudinal and circular loads acting on the pipeline were analyzed, as well as the water impact hydrodynamic force was taken into consideration. The conducted calculation can contribute to the pipeline transport further development under the harsh climate conditions of the Russian Federation Arctic shelf territory.

  10. Accounting for land-use efficiency and temporal variations between brownfield remediation alternatives in life-cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beames, A.; Broekx, S.; Heijungs, R.; Lookman, R.; Boonen, K.; van Geert, Y.; Dendoncker, K.; Seuntjes, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The latest life-cycle assessment methods account for land use, due to the production, use and disposal of products and services, in terms of ecosystem damage. The process of brownfield remediation converts otherwise idle urban space into productive space. The value to ecosystems in this

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment of HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Houghton, W.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovic, V.

    1980-08-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment methods have been applied to gas-cooled reactors for more than a decade and to HTGRs for more than six years in the programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Significant advancements to the development of PRA methodology in these programs are summarized as are the specific applications of the methods to HTGRs. Emphasis here is on PRA as a tool for evaluating HTGR design options. Current work and future directions are also discussed

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment of HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Houghton, W.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovic, V.

    1981-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment methods have been applied to gas-cooled reactors for more than a decade and to HTGRs for more than six years in the programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Significant advancements to the development of PRA methodology in these programs are summarized as are the specific applications of the methods to HTGRs. Emphasis here is on PRA as a tool for evaluating HTGR design options. Current work and future directions are also discussed. (author)

  13. Nationwide Risk-Based PCB Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about Nationwide Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

  14. The review of ISTC/STCU 'On the environmental assessment for long term monitoring and remediation in and around Fukushima'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, S.

    2017-01-01

    An international project ISTC/STCU 'On the Environmental Assessment for Long Term Monitoring and Remediation in and Around Fukushima' was conducted for 4 years. The project was involved by ISTC/STCU, DOE in the United State, IAEA/JAEA, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and technology Japan, and the other institutions. The objectives were to remedy for radioactive contamination in soil after the Fukushima One nuclear power plant accident in 2011, where the scientific experiences to recover farming and forest area in Chernobyl were applied. This review summarizes the exploration results. (author)

  15. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanomaterials: a challenge for toxicological risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Andrea; Tentschert, Jutta; Luch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the central technologies in the twenty-first century. This judgment becomes apparent by considering the increasing numbers of people employed in this area; the numbers of patents, of scientific publications, of products on the market; and the amounts of money invested in R&D. Prospects originating from different fields of nanoapplication seem unlimited. However, nanotechnology certainly will not be able to meet all of the ambitious expectations communicated, yet has high potential to heavily affect our daily life in the years to come. This might occur in particular in the field of consumer products, for example, by introducing nanomaterials in cosmetics, textiles, or food contact materials. Another promising area is the application of nanotechnology in medicine fueling hopes to significantly improve diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases. In addition, novel technologies applying nanomaterials are expected to be instrumental in waste remediation and in the production of efficient energy storage devices and thus may help to overcome world's energy problems or to revolutionize computer and data storage technologies. In this chapter, we will focus on nanomaterials. After a brief historic and general overview, current proposals of how to define nanomaterials will be summarized. Due to general limitations, there is still no single, internationally accepted definition of the term "nanomaterial." After elaborating on the status quo and the scope of nanoanalytics and its shortcomings, the current thinking about possible hazards resulting from nanoparticulate exposures, there will be an emphasis on the requirements to be fulfilled for appropriate health risk assessment and regulation of nanomaterials. With regard to reliable risk assessments, until now there is still the remaining issue to be resolved of whether or not specific challenges and unique features exist on the nanoscale that have to be tackled and distinctively

  17. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  18. Vicinity Property Assessments at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Project Sites in the New York District - 13420

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewy, Ann; Hays, David [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) has addressed sites across the nation for almost 4 decades. Multiple stake holder pressures, multiple regulations, and process changes occur over such long time periods. These result in many challenges to the FUSRAP project teams. Initial FUSRAP work was not performed under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Records of Decision (ROD). The ROD identifies the remedy decision and ultimately the criteria to be used to release a site. Early FUSRAP projects used DOE Orders or the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) standards. Under current RODs, regulations may differ, resulting in different cleanup criteria than that used in prior Vicinity Property (VP) remediation. The USACE, in preparation for closeout of Sites, conducts reviews to evaluate whether prior actions were sufficient to meet the cleanup criteria specified in the current ROD. On the basis of these reviews, USACE has conducted additional sampling, determined that prior actions were sufficient, or conducted additional remediation consistent with the selected remedy in the ROD. As the public pressures, regulations, and processes that the FUSRAP encounters continue to change, the program itself continues to evolve. Assessment of VPs at FUSRAP sites is a necessary step in the life cycle of our site management. (authors)

  19. Vicinity Property Assessments at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Project Sites in the New York District - 13420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewy, Ann; Hays, David

    2013-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) has addressed sites across the nation for almost 4 decades. Multiple stake holder pressures, multiple regulations, and process changes occur over such long time periods. These result in many challenges to the FUSRAP project teams. Initial FUSRAP work was not performed under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Records of Decision (ROD). The ROD identifies the remedy decision and ultimately the criteria to be used to release a site. Early FUSRAP projects used DOE Orders or the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) standards. Under current RODs, regulations may differ, resulting in different cleanup criteria than that used in prior Vicinity Property (VP) remediation. The USACE, in preparation for closeout of Sites, conducts reviews to evaluate whether prior actions were sufficient to meet the cleanup criteria specified in the current ROD. On the basis of these reviews, USACE has conducted additional sampling, determined that prior actions were sufficient, or conducted additional remediation consistent with the selected remedy in the ROD. As the public pressures, regulations, and processes that the FUSRAP encounters continue to change, the program itself continues to evolve. Assessment of VPs at FUSRAP sites is a necessary step in the life cycle of our site management. (authors)

  20. Follow-up Assessment of Cognitive Remediation Therapy in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrich, Laura; van Noort, Betteke; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Winter, Sibylle; Kappel, Viola

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a specialized treatment approach targeting cognitive weaknesses in anorexia nervosa (AN). Regarding follow-up effects of CRT, there are only few studies available; for adolescents, there are no data. Forty-eight adolescents with AN were assigned to receive either CRT and treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Assessments were performed at baseline (n = 48) and compared with assessments at a 6-month follow-up (n = 33). Outcome measures were set-shifting, central coherence, eating disorder and general psychopathology. The completion rate was higher in CRT compared with TAU. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological and clinical variables. Changes in body mass index percentile showed a trend towards significance for CRT. Dropout analyses revealed no significant predictors. Results provide a first insight into follow-up-assessments of CRT in adolescent AN. More randomized controlled studies are needed to clarify the long-term effects of CRT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Importance of language skill learning of dental undergraduates: need assessment and remediation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati

    2016-03-01

    For students entering health education, it is essential to learn the languages that are native to the place of education. The study is undertaken with purpose to assess language skill of undergraduate students at Sharad Pawar Dental College in India so that remedying can be planned at their entry to the new course. This cross-sectional study was done from September 2014 to February 2015. The 157 dental undergraduates were subjected to structured questionnaire that has items on their assessment of three languages i.e., Marathi, Hindi and English. Later, the need assessment to develop language skills of students was done through focus group discussions. Students` perception about language classes was obtained through interviews. The correct response rate of study participants to test items on three languages ranged from 69.4%-81.05% and 82.5%-91.59% for first and second year, respectively. There were significant differences in response rate among three language item groups. The language classes brought out appreciable changes in their understanding of local languages. Study brought out need to address language gaps to aid to smooth out their transitions in new institute.

  2. Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Groundwater: The Role of Geologic Heterogeneity, Exposure and Cancer Risk in Determining the Performance of Aquifer Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.M.; Carle, S.F.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of aquifer remediation is typically expressed in terms of a reduction in contaminant concentrations relative to a regulated maximum contaminant level (MCL), and is usually confined by sparse monitoring data and/or simple model calculations. Here, the effectiveness of remediation is examined from a risk-based perspective that goes beyond the traditional MCL concept. A methodology is employed to evaluate the health risk to individuals exposed to contaminated household water that is produced from groundwater. This approach explicitly accounts for differences in risk arising from variability in individual physiology and water use, the uncertainty in estimating chemical carcinogenesis for different individuals, and the uncertainties and variability in contaminant concentrations within groundwater. A hypothetical contamination scenario is developed as a case study in a saturated, alluvial aquifer underlying a real Superfund site. A baseline (unremediated) human exposure and health risk scenario, as induced by contaminated groundwater pumped from this site, is predicted and compared with a similar estimate based upon pump-and-treat exposure intervention. The predicted reduction in risk in the remediation scenario is not an equitable one-that is, it is not uniform to all individuals within a population and varies according to the level of uncertainty in prediction. The importance of understanding the detailed hydrogeologic connections that are established in the heterogeneous geologic regime between the contaminated source, municipal receptors, and remediation wells, and its relationship to this uncertainty is demonstrated. Using two alternative pumping rates, we develop cost-benefit curves based upon reduced exposure and risk to different individuals within the population, under the presence of uncertainty

  3. The Risk of Goods in International Sales. An Approach from the Breach of Contract and Remedies of the Buyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vidal Olivares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the regime risks in the CISG with the aim of showing that the regime that it is incorporated, is based on functional criteria to the interests of the parties to solve the problems that originated in the loss and prior to the transfer of risk to the buyer will have recourse to remedies system and thus achieve the connection with the breach of contract. In its development we used the dogmatic method, from the systematic analysis of the rules of the CISG, doctrine and case law.

  4. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Remedial Reading Courses at San Antonio College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Charles Bernard

    This study investigates the effectiveness of remedial reading courses for nontraditional students in San Antonio College, a large, urban, and public community college in Texas. The subjects were students who enrolled the fall semester of 1972 and persisted through the fall semester of 1973. The remedial reading courses were described in terms of…

  5. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, L.M.; Leenarts, L.E.W.; Born, M.P.; Oosterveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the

  6. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  7. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  8. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  9. A Bayesian Approach to Integrate Real-Time Data into Probabilistic Risk Analysis of Remediation Efforts in NAPL Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors) without doing extensive modeling. Importantly, the method is further capable to incorporate the inherent uncertainty that often exist in the exact location where the dissolved NAPL plume leaves the source zone. This is achieved by describing the failure of the system as a function of this source zone exit location, parameterized in terms of a vector of parameters. Using a Bayesian interpretation of the system and by means of the posterior multivariate distribution, the failure of the

  10. [Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemicals in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-yu; Zhou, Yun-qiao; Li, Qi-feng; Lü, Yong-long

    2016-02-15

    Risk assessment and risk management have been increasingly approved as an effective approach for appropriate disposal and scientific management of chemicals. This study systematically analyzed the risk assessment methods of chemicals from three aspects including health risk, ecological risk and regional risk. Based on the current situation of classification and management towards chemicals in China, a specific framework of risk management on chemicals was proposed by selecting target chemicals, predominant industries and related stakeholders as the objects. The results of the present study will provide scientific support for improving risk assessment and reasonable management of chemicals in China.

  11. Risk communication and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a broad context for consideration of appropriate risk communication approaches. It examines the basis of public concerns and in particular the non-risk dimensions. The latter are so important in any risk decision that means of communication which can deal with them are required which extend beyond understanding how to present risk estimates. These means relate to (a) the decision processes themselves and the extent to which they provide for involvement of the public in decisions, (b) the communication skills of experts, and (c) the robustness of the risk information which is available. (Author)

  12. Molecular radiobiology and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Attitudes towards the radiation protection standards on in Europe and the world largely depends on scientific knowledge, periodically published by the United Nations Scientific Committee (UNSCEAR) and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), which also comply with the research. The new scientific evidence by conducting an additional research is a crucial element in the process of protection of people, workers and patients in medicine from the adverse health effects. Although these standards are clear and easy to apply, there is serious doubt from a scientific perspective about the level of health risk at low doses, which keep up a fierce debate, both eight scientific and political society. The answer to this question requires the integrated efforts of many scientific disciplines. Increasingly rapid advances in biological and medical knowledge provide the necessary conditions for achieving this aim. This lecture tries to shed light on the current state of knowledge, the main unresolved problems in science in the context of radiation protection and risk assessment, and on those lines of research that have the greatest potential to address the issues. They mainly concern issues of doses and biological effects of different types of ionisation radiation, biological effects in cells/tissues which initiate health effects at low doses, individual variability and direct health risk assessment by epidemiological studies of groups exposed to lower doses irradiation

  13. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document

  14. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  15. Assessment and remedy strategy for year 2000 (Y2K) problems in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Jung, H. S.; Lee, B. J.; Choi, Y. S.

    1999-06-01

    This report is intended to address the Y2K assessment activities, which is required to evaluate the Y2K compliance for digital computers and microprocessor-based digital equipment currently used in HANARO. The Y2K assessment has been carried out and it indicates that only the radiation monitoring computer system was identified as a non-compliant products. An upgrades to the existing system have been completed by KAERI's own techniques. Through validation and commissioning, the upgraded system proved to be satisfactory and it is now in test operation. As for the programmable controller system, although it has been verified Y2K-compliant, considering its importance in the reactor power control, on-site Y2K test was performed and its compliance was certified. Under the inspection by regulatory body, it has been acknowledged by the integral Y2K simulation test that HANARO have successfully completed the Y2K remediation. A contingency planning was set up to deal with an unexpected situation that may occur at the specific dates and time relative to the Y2K problems. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs

  16. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, D.J.

    1982-12-01

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or expected ranges of impacts where possible), suggested mitigation measures, and some key sources of information. The major topical areas covered are physical and biological impacts, radiological impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Some project-related issues were beyond the scope of this document, including dollar costs, specific accident scenarios, project funding and changes in Congressional mandates, and project management (contracts, labor relations, quality assurance, liability, emergency preparedness, etc.). These issues will be covered in other documents supporting the decision-making process. Although the scope of this document covers property-cleanup and interim-storage actions, it is applicable to other similar remedial actions. For example, the analyses discussed herein for cleanup activities are applicable to any FUSRAP action that includes site cleanup

  17. Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W.; Phifer, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) begin with the characterization of inactive hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste disposal areas by a combined Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (Rl) followed by evaluation of remedial alternatives in a RCRA Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/CERCLA Feasibility Study (FS). A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed during the RFVRI characterization to determine if there are any potential risks to human health or the environment from the waste unit. If it is determined that there is need for remedial action, a Risk Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives (RERA) is performed as part of the CMS/FS to provide a basis for selecting a remedy that is protective of human health and the environment. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFI/RI and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the seeping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using

  18. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  19. Concept of risk: risk assessment and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dissertation is a critical examination of risk assessment and its role in public policy. Nuclear power safety safety issues are selected as the primary source of illustrations and examples. The dissertation examines how risk assessment studies develop a concept of risk which becomes decisive for policy choices. Risk-assessment techniques are interpreted as instruments which secure an evaluation of risk which, in turn, figures prominently in technical reports on nuclear power. The philosophical critique is mounted on two levels. First, an epistemological critique surveys distinctions between the technical concept of risk and more familiar senses of risk. The critique shows that utilization of risk assessment re-structures the concept of risk. The technical concept is contrasted to the function of risk within a decision-maker's conceptual agenda and hierarchy of values. Second, an ethical critique exposes the value commitments of risk assessment recommendations. Although some of these values might be defended for policy decisions, the technical character of risk assessment obfuscates normative issues. Risk assessment is shown to be a form of factual enquiry which, nonetheless, represents a commitment to a specific selection of ethical and social values. Risk assessment should not be interpreted as a primary guide to decision unless the specific values incorporated into its concept of risk are stated explicitly and justified philosophically. Such a statement would allow value questions which have been sublimated by the factual tone of the analytic techniques to be debated on clear, social and ethical grounds

  20. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2010-01-01

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  1. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  2. Establishing a comprehensive risk assessment document for Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.A.; Janke, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    While in active operation from 1952 until 1989, the Feed Material Production Center (FMPC),currently referred to as the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), produced highly purified uranium metal for ultimate use in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. In 1986 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the DOE entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. In response to the FFCA, a sitewide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated. Production was permanently suspended at the facility in 1989, and the focus has since shifted to environmental restoration and waste management activities. The original RI/FS work plan identified 39 units, but these were later categorized and grouped into 5 larger, more manageable units as follows: (1) operable unit 1 - waste pit area; (2) operable unit 2 - other solid waste units; (3) operable unit 3 - former production area; (4) operable unit 4- silos I through 4; and (5) operable unit 5 - environmental media. On June 29, 1990, a consent agreement (under Sec. 120 and 106[a] of CERCLA) between the DOE and EPA became effective. The purpose of this agreement was to achieve consistency between the operable units and ensure commitments to the RI/FS program without altering the underlying objectives. The consent agreement was amended the following year to revise the schedules for completing the remediation of the five operable units and to direct operable unit integration to ensure compliance with the residual risk requirements of the National Hazardous Substances and Oil Contingency Plan. This Amended Consent Agreement (ACA) was signed on September 20, 1991, and became effective on December 19, 1991. In accordance with provisions of the ACA, a methodology has been prepared for performing risk assessments and establishing risk-based remedial action goals at the FEMP

  3. Summary performance assessment of in situ remediation technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.D.; Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, K.H.; Travis, B.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is investigating new technologies for ''better, faster, cheaper, safer'' environmental remediation. A program at DOE's Savannah River site was designed to demonstrate innovative technologies for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at nonarid sites. Two remediation technologies, in situ air stripping and in situ bioremediation--both using horizontal wells, were demonstrated at the site between 1990--1993. This brief report summarizes the conclusions from three separate modeling studies on the performance of these technologies

  4. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  7. In situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media fate/transport, in situ control technologies, and risk reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In this project, in situ remediation technologies are being tested and evaluated for both source control and mass removal of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds in low permeability media (LPM). This effort is focused on chlorinated solvents (e.g., trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) in the vadose and saturated zones of low permeability, massive deposits, and stratified deposits with inter-bedded clay lenses. The project includes technology evaluation and screening analyses and field-scale testing at both clean and contaminated sites in the US and Canada. Throughout this project, activities have been directed at understanding the processes that influence DNPAL compound migration and treatment in LPM and to assessing the operation and performance of the remediation technologies developed and tested. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Peterson, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10 -4 to 10 -6 incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA's cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented

  9. NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, James

    2013-01-01

    NASA is committed to finding solutions to agency cleanup problems that are better, cheaper, and more effective than the status quo. Unfortunately, some potential solutions involve innovative technologies for which NASA remediation managers may not have a high level of understanding or confidence. Since 2004, NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Mississippi has been pumping groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC) from their cleanup location designated "Area G" through extraction wells to an aboveground treatment system. Over time, however, the effectiveness of this treatment strategy has diminished and an alternative approach is needed. In 2012, professionals from NASA's Principal Center for Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) introduced SSC managers to an innovative technology for enhancing the performance of SSC's existing pump and treat system. The technology, generally referred to as in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), involves slowly and continuously injecting a strong but safe chemical oxidant into the groundwater. Treatment is enhanced by a "surfactant-type effect" which causes residual contamination from saturated soil to be released into the dissolved-phase where it can be readily oxidized. Any dissolved-phase contamination that was not oxidized can be collected by the extraction well network and treated aboveground. SSC was not familiar with the technology so to increase their confidence, TEERM identified a contractor who was willing to demonstrate their product and process at a significantly reduced price. An initial, small-scale demonstration of ISCO began at sse in March 2012 and completed in August 2012. This successful demonstration was followed by three larger-scale ISCO demonstrations between August and December 2012. The contractor's innovative Continuous Injection System (CIS) incorporated "green" and sustainable technologies and practices. A slow

  10. Remediation Strategies for Learners at Risk of Failure: A Course Based Retention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Agnes; Mather, Meera

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and discussion of a course based remediation model developed to enhance student learning and increased retention based on literature. This model focuses on course structure and course delivery in a compressed semester format. A comparative analysis was applied to a pilot study of students enrolled in a course…

  11. Scaffolding Mathematics Remediation for Academically At-Risk Students Following Developmental Education Reform in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Rebecca L.; Woods, Chenoa S.; Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Park, Toby J.; Hu, Shouping; Tandberg, David A.; Nix, Amanda N.; Rahming, Sophia G.; Martindale, Sandra K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand how educational scaffolding may explain changing patterns of student success in mathematics in the era of developmental education (DE or remediation) reform in Florida College System (FCS) institutions. Specifically, we apply the concept of scaffolding to underprepared FCS students who are at…

  12. RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Alina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the ‘top 8-12’ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in the area and the professional expertise, this article outlines an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management reporting processes, by separating the risk in two main categories: strategic and operational risks. The focus is on risk prioritization and scoring; the final output will comprise a mix of strategic and operational (‘top 8-12’ risks, which should be used to establish the annual Internal Audit plan. Originality/value: By using an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management will eliminate the need for a separate Internal Audit risk assessment over prevailing risks. It will reduce the level of risk assessment overlap by different functions (Tax, Treasury, Information System over the same risk categories as a single methodology, is used and will align timings of risk assessment exercises. The risk prioritization by usage of risk and control scoring criteria highlights the combination between financial and non-financial impact criteria allowing risks that do not naturally lend themselves to a financial amount to be also assessed consistently. It is emphasized the usage of score method to prioritize the risks included in the annual audit plan in order to increase accuracy and timelines.

  13. Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model (PRISM) For Environmental Remediation and Waste Management - 12097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentz, David L.; Stoll, Ralph H.; Greeves, John T. [Predicus LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Miller, R. Ian [GoldSim Technology Group, LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Nutt, W. Mark [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    that is widely used for risk and performance assessment calculations. PRISM can be run in a deterministic mode, which quickly provides an estimate of the most likely results of a given plan. Alternatively, the model can be run probabilistically in a Monte Carlo mode, exploring the risks and uncertainties in the system and producing probability distributions for the different performance measures. The PRISM model demonstrates how EM can evaluate a portfolio of ELOs, and transform the ELOs from their current conditions to acceptable conditions, utilizing different strategic approaches. There are many types of ELOs - contaminated soils and groundwater plumes, disused facilities awaiting D and D, and various types of wastes waiting for processing or disposal. This scope of work for the PRISM process and the development of a dynamic simulation model are a logical extension of the GoldSim simulation software used by the OCRWM to assess the long-term performance for the Yucca Mountain Project and by NNSA to assess project risk at its sites. Systems integration modeling will promote better understanding of all project risks, technical and nontechnical, and more defensible decision-making for complex projects with significant uncertainties. It can provide effective visual communication and rapid adaptation during interactions with stakeholders (Administration, Congress, State, Local, and NGO). It will also allow rapid assessment of alternative management approaches. (authors)

  14. Assessment of Corrosion Characteristics and Development of Remedial Technologies in Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Lim, Y. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    In general, materials having superior resistance to corrosion are used for main components and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) to improve their safety. During long-term operations in the high temperature and pressure environment, however, localized-corrosion related degradations occur frequently in those materials, leading to unexpected shutdown of the plants. The unexpected shutdowns may lower the operating efficiency of the power generation and expand the repair period, which results in a huge economical loss. Moreover, since the damages may cause a leakage of the primary coolant that brings about a contamination by radioactive substances, the corrosion related degradations of structural materials have become a menace to the safety of NPPs. The steam generator tubes forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs are one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion. Therefore, it is strongly required to verify the degradation mechanisms of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 materials used in the steam generator tubes and primary systems, to establish remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, (1) the assessment techniques of corrosion damages were improved and the database of the obtained results were established. (2) The basic technologies of the management of corrosion damages were developed for the practical use. (3) The fundamental technologies for inhibition and repair of corrosion damages were also developed. The results of this project are applicable to the assessment, failure analysis and life estimation of the materials against corrosion damages. The assessment data obtained in this work are available for the technical references of the corrosion failures of components in NPPs during operation. Furthermore, it is applicable to establish materials design requirements, to establish the optimum operation condition and to

  15. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlmann, Ralf; Horvath, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage) assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems. PMID:26195922

  16. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlmann, Ralf; Horvath, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage) assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  17. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  18. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James; Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince; Leullen, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  19. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James (PNNL); Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince (PNNL); Leullen, Jon (AECOM)

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  20. Management assessment of tank waste remediation system contractor readiness to proceed with phase 1B privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeyman, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    This Management Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Contractor Readiness to Proceed With Phase 1B Privatization documents the processes used to determine readiness to proceed with tank waste treatment technologies from private industry, now known as TWRS privatization. An overall systems approach was applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and disposal mission of the TWRS Project. The systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. Since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farms organizational structure and configurations, work scope, and costs has become part of the culture within the TWRS Project. An analysis of the programmatic, management, and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, personnel, and hardware will be on-line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team to support initiation of waste processing by the private contractors in June 2002 and to receive immobilized waste shortly thereafter. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the private contractor Requests for Proposal were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined

  1. Characterization and Remediation of Contaminated Sites:Modeling, Measurement and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.; Poyer, I. C.; Christ, J. A.; Zhang, C. Y.; Jawitz, J. W.; Werth, C. J.; Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.

    2008-05-01

    small computation time and their inclusion of spatially integrated parameters that can be measured in the field using tracer tests. Analytical models that couple source depletion to plume transport were used for optimization of source and plume treatment. These models are being used for the development of decision and management tools (for DNAPL sites) that consider uncertainty assessments as an integral part of the decision-making process for contaminated site remediation.

  2. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify

  3. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify

  4. The assessment of technical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, T.A.

    1978-01-01

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Preliminary assessments the shortcut to remediation (category III-surplus facility assessments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the preliminary assessments for the shortcut of decontamination of surplus nuclear facilities. Topics discussed include: environment, health and safety concerns; economic considerations; reduction of transition time; preliminary characterization reports; preliminary project plan; health and safety plan; quality assurance plan; surveillance and maintenance plan; and waste management plan

  6. Final Work Plan for a Remedial Action Plan in Support of the Risk-Based Approach to Remediation at KC-135 Crash Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    ... receptor exposure to fuel-hydrocarbon- contaminated environmental media at the KC-135 Crash Site. The second goal is to implement any necessary and appropriate remedial technologies at the KC-135 Crash Site...

  7. Risk-based systems analysis for emerging technologies: Applications of a technology risk assessment model to public decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Fowler, K.M.; Cameron, R.; Treat, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.; Cruse, J.

    1995-01-01

    The risk-based systems analysis model was designed to establish funding priorities among competing technologies for tank waste remediation. The model addresses a gap in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) ''toolkit'' for establishing funding priorities among emerging technologies by providing disciplined risk and cost assessments of candidate technologies within the context of a complete remediation system. The model is comprised of a risk and cost assessment and a decision interface. The former assesses the potential reductions in risk and cost offered by new technology relative to the baseline risk and cost of an entire system. The latter places this critical information in context of other values articulated by decision makers and stakeholders in the DOE system. The risk assessment portion of the model is demonstrated for two candidate technologies for tank waste retrieval (arm-based mechanical retrieval -- the ''long reach arm'') and subsurface barriers (close-coupled chemical barriers). Relative changes from the base case in cost and risk are presented for these two technologies to illustrate how the model works. The model and associated software build on previous work performed for DOE's Office of Technology Development and the former Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration, and complement a decision making tool presented at Waste Management 1994 for integrating technical judgements and non-technical (stakeholder) values when making technology funding decisions

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  9. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use

  14. Transformation of zinc-concentrate in surface and subsurface environments: Implications for assessing zinc mobility/toxicity and choosing an optimal remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Yang, Jung-Seok; Lee, Seunghak; Hwang, Yun Ho; Lee, Ju Yeon; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Kemner, Kenneth M.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS). Imported Zn-concentrate (ZnS) was deposited in a receiving facility and dispersed over time to the surrounding roadside areas and rice-paddy soils. Subsequent physical and chemical weathering resulted in dispersal into the subsurface. The species identified in the contaminated areas included Zn-sulfide, Zn-carbonate, other O-coordinated Zn-minerals, and Zn species bound to Fe/Mn oxides or clays, as confirmed by XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction. The observed transformation from S-coordinated Zn to O-coordinated Zn associated with minerals suggests that this contaminant can change into more soluble and labile forms as a result of weathering. For the purpose of developing a soil washing remediation process, the contaminated samples were extracted with dilute acids. The extraction efficiency increased with the increase of O-coordinated Zn relative to S-coordinated Zn in the sediment. This study demonstrates that improved understanding of Zn speciation in contaminated soils is essential for well-informed decision making regarding metal mobility and toxicity, as well as for choosing an appropriate remediation strategy using soil washing. - Graphical abstract: Graphical Abstract. Conceptual model of the apparent physical and geochemical processes controlling surface-subsurface partitioning of Zn in the study area. - Highlights: • Zn-concentrate accumulated in soils transformed to Zn species of various stability. • Zn species at our

  15. Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Clerc, Jean-Jacques; Aitaliev, Anarkul

    2006-01-01

    The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a -1 and 5 mSv a -1 , at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10-30 mSv a -1 ). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions ( -1 ). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a -1 for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River valley were proposed (translocation

  16. Remediation of BTEX contaminated groundwater: best technology assessment between pump&treat and bioremediation by oxygen injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Baldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX dissolved in the groundwater and migrated from a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL source in an alluvial aquifer required a remedial action to be taken by the responsible party as established by the Italian regulation (Legislative Decree 152/06 and subsequent amendments. For such purpose, field investigations were conducted on site in order to define the site conceptual model and to identify the appropriate remediation technology to be applied. The remediation design was developed by means of a flow and reactive transport mathematical model, applied to saturated media, using the numerical codes MODFLOW and RT3D. Groundwater field observations showed evidence of occurring BTEX biodegradation processes by bacteria naturally present in the aquifer. Since such specific bacterial activity would be significantly enhanced by the injection of free oxygen in the aquifer, the performance of traditional pump and treat systems (P&T was assessed and compared with cost/efficiency of reactive oxygen bio-barrier technology (OD. The results showed a clear advantage in terms of cost/efficiency with the application of the OD. This presents an overall cost of about 30% of the P&T installation and maintenance, and it reaches remedial target in a shorter timeframe. Moreover, the system is also applicable as a bioremediation technology in case of Environmental Emergency Measures (MISE. The site examined is part of an industrial plant located in Central Italy.

  17. In situ remediation and phytotoxicity assessment of lead-contaminated soil by biochar-supported nHAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhangmei; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Fang, Jianzhang; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a kind of biochar-supported nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP@BC) material was used in in-situ remediation of lead-contaminated soil. Column experiments were performed to compare the mobility of nHAP@BC and Bare-nHAP. The immobilization, accumulation and toxic effects of Pb in the after-amended soil were assessed by the in vitro toxicity tests and pot experiments. The column experiments showed a significant improvement in the mobility of nHAP@BC. The immobilization rate of Pb in the soil was 74.8% after nHAP@BC remediation. Sequential extraction procedures revealed that the residual fraction of Pb increased by 66.6% after nHAP@BC remediation, which greatly reduced the bioavailability of Pb in the soil. In addition, pot experiments indicated that nHAP@BC could effectively reduce the upward translocation capacity of Pb in a soil-plant system. The concentration of Pb in the aerial part of the cabbage mustard was 0.1 mg/kg, which is lower than the tolerance limit (0.3 mg/kg). nHAP@BC can remediate Pb-contaminated soil effectively, which can restore soil quality for planting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-05-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs.

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs

  20. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... of the causal chain from the proposal through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The stepwise analysis, systematic prioritization and consideration of horizontal interactions between the causal pathways make it feasible to use widely recognized risk assessment methods in the HIA......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...

  1. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Mac Farlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  2. Getting fire risk assessment right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, David

    2012-06-01

    The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures.

  3. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  4. Social aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Linnerooth, J.; Niehaus, F.

    1977-01-01

    Plans for technological development have often been met by demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks and the consideration of social values in public planning and decision processes. A theoretical framework for inter-disciplinary risk assessment studies is presented to aid the balancing of technical data with social values in decision making. Methods for obtaining value measures are reviewed and an attitude-based method is developed in detail; this model allows identification of the relative importance of the technical, psychological and social factors which underlie attitudes and indicates which factors differentiate between social groups. Results of a pilot application to nuclear power are summarized. For these subjects, different attitudes between pro and con were primarily due to strongly differing beliefs about the benefits of nuclear power. Preliminary results are reported of an application of this model with a heterogeneous sample drawn from the general public. The cognitive limitations which affect rationality in intuitive decision making are summarized as background to introduce formal decision methodologies for the use of attitude data in public decision making

  5. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  7. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  8. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document

  9. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim

    2005-03-01

    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  10. Radiological safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.C.; Baird, R.D.; Card, D.H.; de Souza, F.; Elder, J.; Felthauser, K.; Jensen, C.; Winkler, V.

    1982-02-01

    A brief radiological safety and risk assessment of a nuclear power generation center with an adjacent on-site waste disposal facility at a specific site in the State of Utah is presented. The assessment was conducted to assist in determining the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in Utah consisting of nine 1250 MWe nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) electrical generating units arranged in 3 clusters of 3 units each known as triads. The site selected for this conceptual study is in the Horse Bench area about 15 miles directly south of the town of Green River, Utah. The radiological issues included direct radiation exposures to on-site workers and the off-site population, release of radioactive material, and effects of these releases for both normal operations and accidental occurrences. The basic finding of this study is that the concept of an NEC in the Green River area, specifically at the Horse Bench site, is radiologically feasible

  11. Gender differences in risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Harris

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of

  12. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  13. Risk assessment and risk management in managed aquifer recharge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents the methodologies used for risk assessment and risk management in MAR in Australia and the European Union, qualitative and quantitative approaches adopted within the RECLAIM Water project and case studies where the outcomes...

  14. Regional scale ecological risk assessment: using the relative risk model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landis, Wayne G

    2005-01-01

    ...) in the performance of regional-scale ecological risk assessments. The initial chapters present the methodology and the critical nature of the interaction between risk assessors and decision makers...

  15. Dose assessment of remedial action for uranium tailing impoundment of a nuclear factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xutong; Ma Ruwei; Guo Zede

    2000-01-01

    A large uranium tailing impoundment in China will be closure and remedial action have been planned. The remedial action will include shaping and covering the dam and beach in order to prevent the impoundment from damage and restrict spread of tailing sands and emission of radon. The author presents the analysis and estimation of the exposure to workers for remedial action and to public after the remedial action. To estimate the exposure to workers, the pathway of inhalation of radon, tailing sands in suspension and external γ exposure were taken into consideration. The exposure scenario is considered as probably maximum exposure to the workers who work on the tailing pile without any protection measures, the dose is 6.0 mSv/a. Two situation for the exposure to public after remedial action were considered: normal and abnormal condition. For the normal condition, inhalation of radon emitted from impoundment is only the pathway to public for the exposure, and individual dose for critical group of public is 0.053 mSv/a, collective dose for population within 80 km is 1.0 man·Sv/a. For the abnormal conditions, four scenarios were considered, i.e. dwelling on tailing pile, farming on tailing pile, living in a house built by contaminated materials and some temporal activities on the pile. The scenarios of dwellings is living in a house on the pile and drinking contaminated water. The maximum individual dose is 27 mSv/a

  16. Guide for developing conceptual models for ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W., II.

    1996-05-01

    Ecological conceptual models are the result of the problem formulation phase of an ecological risk assessment, which is an important component of the Remedial Investigation process. They present hypotheses of how the site contaminants might affect the site ecology. The contaminant sources, routes, media, routes, and endpoint receptors are presented in the form of a flow chart. This guide is for preparing the conceptual models; use of this guide will standardize the models so that they will be of high quality, useful to the assessment process, and sufficiently consistent so that connections between sources of exposure and receptors can be extended across operable units (OU). Generic conceptual models are presented for source, aquatic integrator, groundwater integrator, and terrestrial OUs

  17. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  20. D and D alternatives risk assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Alternatives Risk Assessment (DARA) performed on Building 3515 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of the risk evaluation process is to provide risk information necessary to assist decision making for Environmental Restoration (ER) Program D and D facilities. This risk information is developed in the baseline risk assessment (BRA) and in the DARA. The BRA provides risk information necessary for determining whether or not a facility represents an unacceptable risk and requires remediation. In addition, the BRA also provides an estimation of the risks associated with the no-action alternative for use in the DARA. The objective of this Level 3 DARA is to evaluate and document the potential risks to human health, human safety, and the environment associated with the proposed remedial action at Building 3515. A Level 3 assessment is the least rigorous type of DARA. The decision to conduct a Level 3 DARA was based on the fact that characterization data from the facility are limited, and currently only one remedial alternative (complete dismantlement) is being evaluated in addition to the no-action alternative. The results of the DARA along with cost and engineering information may be used by project managers in making decisions regarding the final disposition of Building 3515. This Level 3 assessment meets the requirements of the streamlined risk assessment necessary for an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA)

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  3. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  4. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D ampersand D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report

  5. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...... improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend...

  6. A critical assessment of asphalt batching as a viable remedial option for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, E.J.; Brashears, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt production equipment has been successfully utilized in the remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper reports that there are two major ways in which this equipment can be used to remediate the petroleum contaminated soils; by incorporating the contaminated soil in the hot mix asphalt product or by using the equipment to clean the soil thermally of the contaminant, leaving a clean soil material. Both of these processes have limitations encompassing technical, political, and certainly liability problems. The remediation of contaminated soil in hot mix asphalt facilities is primarily a physical phenomenon relying on laws of heat and mass transfer. Although chemical changes do occur, the primary function of the process is to cause a physical separation of the contaminant from the soils

  7. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  8. Model of MSD Risk Assessment at Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sekulová; M. Šimon

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders risk assessment model at workplace. In this model are used risk factors that are responsible for musculoskeletal system damage. Based on statistic calculations the model is able to define what risk of MSD threatens workers who are under risk factors. The model is also able to say how MSD risk would decrease if these risk factors are eliminated.

  9. Risk assessment and management in IOR projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, S.G.; Gregory, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The application of IOR techniques is one of the investment opportunities open to Exploration and Production companies. A project will only go forward if the perceived balance between the rewards and the risks is acceptable. IOR projects may be ruled out because they are considered to involve significantly higher risks than conventional developments. Therefore, some means of evaluating the actual level of risk may be required if the full economic benefits from IOR techniques are to be realized. Risk assessment is a key element in safety cases, where a well-established methodology for quantifying risk exists. This paper discusses the extension of these methods to IOR project risk assessment. Combining reservoir and IOR technique uncertainties with their impact on project performance allows project risk to be better quantified. The results of the risk assessment are presented in terms of a risk-reward diagram that plots the probability surface for possible project outcomes as a function of NPV (reward) and exposure (risk)

  10. Contaminated site risk and uncertainty assessment for impacts on surface and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak

    available between sites and choosing between the need for further investigation or remediation. This is a question of prioritizing the sites that pose the greatest risk, and it is a matter of making decisions under uncertainty. Both tasks require a structured assessment of the risk posed by the contaminated...... sites. In a conventional risk assessment of a contaminated site, risk is evaluated by assessing whether a concentration guideline is exceeded at a specific point of compliance in the water resource of interest. If the guideline is exceeded, it is concluded that the site poses a risk. However......, a contaminated site may pose a threat to multiple water resources, or multiple contaminated sites may threaten a single water resource. For more advanced risk assessments, it is therefore relevant to develop methods that can handle this challenge. In this thesis, four contributions are made to the field...

  11. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  12. Model environmental assessment for a property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action at a formerly utilized site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1982-07-01

    This document has been prepared as a model for the preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) for a property-cleanup/interim-storage type of remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). For major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) must be prepared to aid DOE in making its decision. However, when it is not clear that an action is major and the impacts are significant, an EA may be prepared to determine whether to prepare an EIS or a finding of no significant impact (FONSI). If it is likely that an action may be major and the impacts significant, it is usually more cost-effective and timely to directly prepare an EIS. If it is likely that a FONSI can be reached after some environmental assessment, as DOE believes may be the case for most property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial actions, preparation of site-specific EAs is an effective means of compliance with NEPA

  13. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  14. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment

  15. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  16. Apperception and assessment of technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, C.; Hauke, G.

    1986-01-01

    Risk is defined to be the possibility to induce damage or loss. Any person confronted with risk in his activities has to assess the risk in every case. The author explains a number of actions and events that have been worked out to train people in better management of risk, especially in the working environment. (DG) [de

  17. Performing the lockout/tagout risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W Jon

    2007-03-01

    Lockout/tagout provides the greatest level routine, repetitive, and integral to the production process, a risk assessment should be performed. If the task performed poses an unacceptable risk, acceptable risk reduction methods should be implemented to reduce the risk to acceptable levels.

  18. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  19. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  20. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  1. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  2. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  3. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  4. INCORPORATING NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk assessment paradigm has begun to shift from assessing single chemicals using "reasonable worst case" assumptions for individuals to considering multiple chemicals and community-based models. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is examination of all stressors a...

  5. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi

    2014-03-01

    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  6. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  7. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  8. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  9. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses program to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  10. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1984-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses progress to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  11. Risk assessment - black art or science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of risk can be divided into two categories, those that observe or calculate the risk of a process or project, and those that rely on the level of risk as perceived by the people during the assessment. Collection of data of accidents (where cause and effect are obvious) and experiments on animals which can then be extrapolated to humans, are two ways of risk assessment. Mathematical models and computerized simulations, using either fault tree analysis or Monte Carlo methods are explained simply. Using these methods, experts are able to perceive risk fairly realistically. However, the general public's perception of risk is often quite different, as potential risk is assessed in different ways. The concept of tolerable risk is considered, particularly with reference to nuclear reactors such as Sizewell-B. The need to inform the public of safeguards and safety procedures so they have a better understanding of the risks of nuclear power is stressed. (U.K.)

  12. Kinetics as a tool to assess the immobilization of soil trace metals by binding phase amendments for in situ remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrault, Gilles; Bermond, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Assessment of the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment. → Use of a kinetic fractionation method to assess trace metal mobility in amended soils. → Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation. → IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. → Advantages of kinetic fractionation vs. extraction schemes performed at equilibrium. - Abstract: Many soil remediation techniques consist in decreasing the mobility of trace metals by means of adding trace metal binding phases. For this study, whose aim is to assess the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment, a kinetic fractionation method that provides the labile and slowly labile trace metal amounts in soil has been introduced. Manganese oxides (vernadite) and insolubilized humic acids (IHA) have been used as binding phases for the remediation of four heavily polluted soils. Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation, whereas IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. In most cases, the labile metal fractions decrease dramatically in amended soils (up to 50%); on the other hand, the amounts of total extracted metal near the point of thermodynamic equilibrium often show no significant difference between the amended soil and the control soil. These results highlight the utility of kinetic fractionation in assessing the efficiency of soil remediation techniques and, more generally, in evaluating trace metal mobility in soils and its potential advantages compared to extraction schemes performed under equilibrium conditions. In the future, this kinetic method could be considerably simplified so as to consume much less time allowing its routine use.

  13. Facts and values in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Frank B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk, as commonly understood, is a complex melange of facts, values, and fears. While this complexity of public risk perception is now broadly recognized, its implications are insufficiently explored. Public risk perceptions offer p poor guide for public policymaking. Popular assessments of risk are tainted by misinformation and unreliable heuristics. While subjective considerations, often called values, play a role in public perception of risk, those 'values' are often inappropriate for government decisionmaking. Reliance on public perceptions of risk means more premature deaths. Public risk perception also is systematically skewed contrary to the interests of the disadvantaged. Strict probabilistic risk measures generally provide a superior guide for government regulatory policy

  14. Quantitative risk assessment using the capacity-demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, M.; Donnelly, C.R.; Westermann, G.D.; Huang, J.H.S.; Lam, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The hydroelectric industry's recognition of the importance of avoiding unexpected failure, or forced outages, led to the development of probabilistic, or risk-based, methods in order to attempt to quantify exposures. Traditionally, such analysis has been carried out by qualitative assessments, relying on experience and sound engineering judgment to determine the optimum time to maintain, repair or replace a part or system. Depending on the nature of the problem, however, and the level of experience of those included in the decision making process, it is difficult to find a balance between acting proactively and accepting some amount of risk. The development of a practical means for establishing the probability of failure of any part or system, based on the determination of the statistical distribution of engineering properties such as acting stresses, is discussed. The capacity-demand analysis methodology, coupled with probablistic, risk-based analysis, permits all the factors associated with a decision to rehabilitate or replace a part, including the risks associated with the timing of the decision, to be assessed in a transparent and defendable manner. The methodology does not eliminate judgment altogether, but does move it from the level of estimating the risk of failure to the lower level of estimating variability in material properties, uncertainty in loading, and the uncertainties inherent in any engineering analysis. The method was successfully used in 1998 to carry out a comprehensive, economic risk analysis for the entire water conveyance system of a 90 year old hydropower station. The analysis included a number of diverse parts ranging from rock slopes and aging steel and concrete conduits, and the method allowed a rational assessment of the risks associated with reach of these varied parts to be determined, permitting the essential remedial works to be prioritized. 14 refs., 4 figs

  15. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... cycle. The models for assessing toxic impacts in LCA are to a large extent based on those developed for RA, e.g. EUSES, and require basic information about the inherent properties of the emissions like solubility, LogKow,ED50 etc. Additionally, it is a prerequisite to know how to characterize...

  16. Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program scientific peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.; O'Hora, T.D.; Chen, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The 1,350 square-mile Nevada Test Site and additional sites in Nevada served as the continental sites for US nuclear weapons testing from 1951 to 1992. The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is a currently on-going effort of the Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and the firm of E. J. Bentz and Associates, Inc., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Program. Argonne National Laboratory is one of several public and private organizations supporting personnel appointed by the NRAMP to the NRAMP Scientific Peer Review Panel. The NRAMP is part of a national effort by the DOE to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication, and public outreach relevant to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous materials management and site remediation activities. This paper describes the development, conduct, and current results of the scientific peer review process which supports the goals of the NRAMP

  17. Modeling for operational event risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattison, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been using risk models to evaluate the risk significance of operational events in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants for more seventeen years. During that time, the models have evolved in response to the advances in risk assessment technology and insights gained with experience. Evaluation techniques fall into two categories, initiating event assessments and condition assessments. The models used for these analyses have become uniquely specialized for just this purpose

  18. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  19. Risk Assessment in the Maritime Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a well-developed field which many operators are currently applying to improve their operations and reduce their risk exposure. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the risk assessment for mariners in the Maritime transportation. The risks addressed are primarily those affecting the safety of a vessel, facility or operation. The concept of risk is defined, and the methods available to assess the risks associated with an operation are described. Regulatory requirements that have prompted the development of modern risk assessment practices are described, and future regulatory trends are discussed. There are many different analysis techniques and models that have been developed to aid in conducting risk assessments. A key to any successful risk analysis is choosing the right method (or combination of methods for the situation at hand. This is achieved through critical analysis of the available data concerning marine crises. This paper provides a brief introduction to some of the analysis methods available and suggests risk analysis approaches to support different types of decision making within the maritime transportation to cope with crises. Finally, as awareness of risk assessment increases, the benefits which can be realized through its application will continue to increase. Organizations in both the public and the private sector are becoming more and more familiar with the benefits associated with risk-based approaches to managing safety and consequently reducing crisis in maritime transportation.

  20. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana G. Feoktistova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to