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Sample records for rise time desensitization

  1. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  2. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  3. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  4. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  5. Aspirin Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Decompression Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Aspirin Desensitization Kevin C. Welch, MD Zara Patel, MD Introduction The term "aspirin-sensitive asthma" (also known as "aspirin triad" or " ...

  6. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  7. THE RISE TIME OF NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. george Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Graham, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Fourmanoit, N.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Palanque-Delabrouille, N., E-mail: gonzalez@astro.utoronto.ca [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2012-01-20

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02{sup +0.18}{sub -0.28} (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s {<=} 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57{sup +0.47}{sub -0.50} (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s {<=} 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03{sup +0.81}{sub -1.37} (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve.

  8. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform

  9. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-06-03

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  10. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Vigtlin, G.

    1983-06-01

    A fast rise, low impedance pulse generator developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is described. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  11. Should a carbon tax rise or fall over time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulph, Alistair; Ulph, David; Pezzey, John

    1991-01-01

    A carbon tax has been proposed as one possible way of reducing the emissions of ''greenhouse gases''. Much of the recent work on carbon taxation has concentrated on analysing the effects of introducing such a tax at a level which would meet certain emission targets at some fixed date. Less attention has been devoted to the time profile of this tax. Yet in securing international agreement on the introduction of a carbon tax it could matter greatly whether what is being proposed is a tax which is initially low but rising, or initially high but falling. We show that in a wide class of cases the optimal time path of the tax will be that it initially rises and then falls as the exhaustion constraint starts to bite. However there are few general conclusions, and much depends on more detailed modelling assumptions on which the scientific evidence gives no firm guidance. (author)

  12. Neural processing of amplitude and formant rise time in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Varghese; Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate how children with dyslexia weight amplitude rise time (ART) and formant rise time (FRT) cues in phonetic discrimination. Passive mismatch responses (MMR) were recorded for a/ba/-/wa/contrast in a multiple deviant odd-ball paradigm to identify the neural response to cue weighting in 17 children with dyslexia and 17 age-matched control children. The deviant stimuli had either partial or full ART or FRT cues. The results showed that ART did not generate an MMR in either group, whereas both partial and full FRT cues generated MMR in control children while only full FRT cues generated MMR in children with dyslexia. These findings suggest that children, both controls and those with dyslexia, discriminate speech based on FRT cues and not ART cues. However, control children have greater sensitivity to FRT cues in speech compared to children with dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Measures to reduce construction time of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchedantsev, Leonid; Adamtsevich, Aleksey; Stupakova, Olga; Drozdov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The organizational and technological solutions for high-rise buildings construction efficiency increase are considered, primarily - decrease of typical floor construction time and improvement of bearing structures concrete quality. The essence of offered technology is: a concrete mixing station and a polygon mainly for load-bearing wall panels with starter bars casting are located on the building site; for reinforced concrete components manufacturing and butt joints grouting the warmed-up concrete mixtures are used. The results of researches and elaborations carried out by the SPSUACE in area of a preliminary warming-up of concrete mixtures are presented. The possibility and feasibility of their usage in high-rise buildings and of excess height buildings construction including cast-in-place and precast execution are shown. The essence of heat-vibro treating of concrete mixture is revealed as a kind of prior electroresistive curing, and the achieved results are: accelerated concrete strength gain, power inputs decrease, concrete quality improvement. It is shown that the location of a concrete mixing station on the building site enables to broaden possibilities of the "thermos" method use and to avoid concrete mixtures warming up in medium-mass structures erection (columns, girders) during the high-rise buildings construction. It is experimentally proved that the splice between precast elements encased with warmed-up concrete mixture is equal with conjugated elements in strength.

  14. Neutron spectrum measurement using rise-time discrimination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiping; Suzuki, C.; Kosako, T.; Ma Jizeng

    2009-01-01

    PSD method can be used to measure the fast neutron spectrum in n/γ mixed field. A set of assemblies for measuring the pulse height distribution of neutrons is built up,based on a large volume NE213 liquid scintillator and standard NIM circuits,through the rise-time discrimination method. After that,the response matrix is calculated using Monte Carlo method. The energy calibration of the pulse height distribution is accomplished using 60 Co radioisotope. The neutron spectrum of the mono-energetic accelerator neutron source is achieved by unfolding process. Suggestions for further improvement of the system are presented at last. (authors)

  15. In Vivo Desensitization: An Alternative to Systematic Desensitization with College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    It is the thesis of this article that college counselors would make more economical and efficacious use of their time and would greatly reduce the risk of turning off'' students if they employed in vivo desensitization rather than systematic desensitization when dealing with anxious clients. (Author)

  16. Fast rise time IR detectors for lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, A.; Bini, S.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostics is a fundamental issue for accelerators whose demands are continuously increasing. In particular bunch-by-bunch diagnostics is a key challenge for the latest generation of lepton colliders and storage rings. The Frascati Φ-factory, DAΦNE, colliding at 1.02 GeV in the centre of mass, hosts in the main rings few synchrotron radiation beamlines and two of them collect the synchrotron radiation infrared emission: SINBAD from the electron ring and 3+L from the positron ring. At DAΦNE each bucket is 2.7 ns long and particles are gathered in bunches emitting pulsed IR radiation, whose intensity in the long wavelength regime is directly proportional to the accumulated particles. Compact uncooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been tested in both beamlines using dedicated optical layouts. Actually, the fast rise time of HgCdTe semiconductors give us the chance to test bunch-by-bunch devices for both longitudinal and transverse diagnostics. For the longitudinal case, single pixel detectors have been used, while for the transverse diagnostics, multi-pixel array detectors, with special custom design, are under test. This contribution will briefly describe the status of the research on fast IR detectors at DAΦNE, the results obtained and possible foreseen developments.

  17. Active, Passive, and Vicarious Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Douglas R.

    1974-01-01

    Two variations of desensitization therapy for reducing test anxiety were studied, active desensitization in which the client describes his visualizations of the scenes and vicarious desensitization in which the client merely observes the desensitization treatment of another test anxious client. The relaxation treatment which emphasized application…

  18. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoudi, A. K.; Poff, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of desensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 micromoles m-2 s-1. At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 micromole m-2 s-1 than at 0.3 micromole m-2 s-1. In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs.

  19. GABAB receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelfinger, L; Turecek, R; Ivankova, K

    2014-01-01

    released from the G-protein. Receptor-activated K+ currents desensitize in the sustained presence of agonist to avoid excessive effects on neuronal activity. Desensitization of K+ currents integrates distinct mechanistic underpinnings. GABAB receptor activity reduces protein kinase-A activity, which...... reduces phosphorylation of serine-892 in GABAB2 and promotes receptor degradation. This form of desensitization operates on the time scale of several minutes to hours. A faster form of desensitization is induced by the auxiliary subunit KCTD12, which interferes with channel activation by binding to the G......-protein βγ subunits. Here we show that the two mechanisms of desensitization influence each other. Serine-892 phosphorylation in heterologous cells rearranges KCTD12 at the receptor and slows KCTD12-induced desensitization. Likewise, protein kinase-A activation in hippocampal neurons slows fast...

  20. Desensitization with oxaliplatin in patients intolerant of carboplatin desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter G; Metz, Carol; Link, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    The tolerance and efficacy of oxaliplatin desensitization in patients who were intolerant of carboplatin desensitization were determined. We retrospectively reviewed the Gynecologic Oncology patients who received carboplatin or oxaliplatin from December 2007 until August 2014. The number of treatments and number of patients of carboplatin standard infusions, carboplatin desensitizations, and oxaliplatin desensitizations were determined. Carboplatin infusions (2294) were administered to 281 patients. Twenty-eight (10%) of these patients developed carboplatin hypersensitivity and were treated with 205 carboplatin desensitizations. Nine (29%) patients were subsequently treated with 61 oxaliplatin desensitizations due to intolerance of carboplatin desensitization. Nine of the 10 patients tolerated this infusion well. Four of 9 evaluable patients had an objective response, 2 complete and 2 partial. Oxaliplatin desensitization seems well tolerated and effective in most patients who are intolerant of carboplatin desensitization.

  1. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoudi, A.K.; Poff, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of densensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 μmol m -2 s -1 . At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 μmol m -2 s -1 than at 0.3 μmol m -2 s -1 . In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs. 11 refs., 6 figs

  2. Time Impact of Scheduling Simulation for High Rise Building

    OpenAIRE

    Asmadi Ismail; Mohamad Ibrahim Mohamad; Muhamad Azani Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Although the long-introduced Industrialised Building System (IBS) has promised to solve and improve the current construction method and scenario in our country, but the IBS method has not gained enough popularity. One of the reasons is due to lack of research works done to quantifying the benefit of IBS especially in construction time saving. In lieu with such scenario, this study conducted to quantify evidence of time saving in IBS application. The methodology adopted for this study is by mo...

  3. Generation of fast-rise time, repetitive, (sub) nanosecond, high-voltage pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we present our fast-rise time nanosecond pulse generator, capable of generating up to 50 kV (positive and negative) rectangular pulses at a repetition rate of up to 1 kHz and with a rise time of less than 200 picoseconds. We focus on the general concepts involved in the design

  4. Comparing the effects of rise time and inspiratory cycling criteria on 6 different mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joshua F; Russian, Christopher J; Gregg Marshall, S; Collins, Kevin P

    2013-03-01

    Inspiratory rise time and cycling criteria are important settings in pressure support ventilation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of minimum and maximum rise time and inspiratory cycling criteria settings on 6 new generation ventilators. Our hypothesis was there would be a difference in the exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow among 6 different ventilators, based, on change in rise time and cycling criteria. The research utilized a breathing simulator and 4 different ventilator models. All mechanical ventilators were set to a spontaneous mode of ventilation with settings of pressure support 8 cm H2O and PEEP of 5 cm H2O. A minimum and maximum setting for rise time and cycling criteria were examined. Exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow measurements were recorded for each simulation. Significant (P ventilator. Significant differences in exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow were observed by adjusting rise time and cycling criteria. This research demonstrates that during pressure support ventilation strategy, adjustments in rise time and/or cycling criteria can produce changes in inspiratory parameters. Obviously, this finding has important implications for practitioners who utilize a similar pressure support strategy when conducting a ventilator wean. Additionally, this study outlines major differences among ventilator manufacturers when considering inspiratory rise time and cycling criteria.

  5. Recovery from desensitization of IgE-dependent responses in human lung mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A; MacGlashan, D W; Suvarna, S K; Peachell, P T

    2017-08-01

    Clinical desensitization and oral food immunotherapy are therapeutic interventions that allow individuals who react adversely to an allergen (drug or food) to be made tolerant to the allergen. However, tolerance is brief, and allergen hypersensitivity can recur within days following allergen withdrawal. We hypothesize that the reason these treatments are temporary reflects rapid recovery of mast cells from a desensitized state. We sought to test this. Desensitization of IgE-mediated histamine release from human lung mast cells was explored by methods that partially replicate the pattern of treatment during clinical desensitization. Specific and non-specific desensitization and changes in surface IgE were examined following desensitization. Recovery from desensitization was also studied. Desensitization of mast cell responses was readily induced with concentrations of antigen or anti-IgE that were suboptimal for secretion. There was little or no non-specific desensitization when lung mast cells were exposed to antigens. There was no loss of cell surface IgE following desensitization. Removing the desensitizing stimulus from the media following desensitization allowed the cells to recover with half-point of recovery of ~1.5 days and complete recovery after 5 days. Both the functional response and histamine content recovered within this time frame. The recovery appeared possible because both antigens and anti-IgE dissociated rapidly from cells after washing to remove excess stimulus. Human lung mast cells readily recover from a desensitized state following removal of desensitizing antigen. This finding provides a potential explanation for the ephemeral nature of clinical desensitization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Amplitude and rise time compensated timing optimized for large semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyczkowski, J.J.; Bialkowski, J.

    1976-01-01

    The ARC timing described has excellent timing properties even when using a wide range e.g. from 10 keV to over 1 MeV. The detector signal from a preamplifier is accepted directly by the unit as a timing filter amplifier with a sensitivity of 1 mV is incorporated. The adjustable rise time rejection feature makes it possible to achieve a good prompt time spectrum with symmetrical exponential shape down to less than 1/100 of the peak value. A complete block diagram of the unit is given together with results of extensive tests of its performance. For example the time spectrum for (1330+-20) keV of 60 Co taken with a 43 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector has the following parameters: fwhm = 2.2ns, fwtm = 4.4 ns and fw (0.01) m = 7.6 ns and for (50 +- 10) keV of 22 Na the following was obtained: fwhm = 10.8 ns, fwtm = 21.6 ns and fw (0.01) m = 34.6 ns. In another experiment with two fast plastic scintillations (NE 102A) and using a 20% dynamic energy range the following was measured: fwhm = 280 ps, fwtm = 470 ps and fw (0.01) m = 70ps. (Auth.)

  7. Effect of rising time of rectangular pulse on inactivation of staphylococcus aureus by pulsed electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Liang, Dapeng; Zheng, Nanchen; Xiao, Jianfu; Mo, Mengbin; Li, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel non-thermal food processing technology that involves the electric discharge of high voltage short pulses through the food product. In PEF study, rectangular pulses are most commonly used for inactivating microorganisms. However, little information is available on the inactivation effect of rising time of rectangular pulse. In this paper, inactivation effects, electric field strength, treatment time and conductivity on staphylococcus aureus inactivation were investigated when the pulse rising time is reduced from 2.5 μs to 200 ns. Experimental results showed that inactivation effect of PEF increased with electric field strength, solution conductivity and treatment time. Rising time of the rectangular pulse had a significant effect on the inactivation of staphylococcus aureus. Rectangular pulses with a rising time of 200 ns had a better inactivation effect than that with 2 μs. In addition, temperature increase of the solution treated by pulses with 200 ns rising time was lower than that with 2 μs. In order to obtain a given inactivation effect, treatment time required for the rectangular pulse with 200 ns rise time was shorter than that with 2 μs.

  8. Effect of rising time of rectangular pulse on inactivation of staphylococcus aureus by pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Liang, Dapeng; Xiao, Jianfu; Mo, Mengbin; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanchen

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel non-thermal food processing technology that involves the electric discharge of high voltage short pulses through the food product. In PEF study, rectangular pulses are most commonly used for inactivating microorganisms. However, little information is available on the inactivation effect of rising time of rectangular pulse. In this paper, inactivation effects, electric field strength, treatment time and conductivity on staphylococcus aureus inactivation were investigated when the pulse rising time is reduced from 2.5 μs to 200 ns. Experimental results showed that inactivation effect of PEF increased with electric field strength, solution conductivity and treatment time. Rising time of the rectangular pulse had a significant effect on the inactivation of staphylococcus aureus. Rectangular pulses with a rising time of 200 ns had a better inactivation effect than that with 2 μs. In addition, temperature increase of the solution treated by pulses with 200 ns rising time was lower than that with 2 μs. In order to obtain a given inactivation effect, treatment time required for the rectangular pulse with 200 ns rise time was shorter than that with 2 μs.

  9. Influence of voltage rise time on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), although the slow wave structure (SWS) and electron beam determine the main characteristics of beam-wave interaction, many other factors can also significantly affect the microwave generation process. This paper investigates the influence of voltage rise time on beam-wave interaction in RBWOs. Preliminary analysis and PIC simulations demonstrate if the voltage rise time is moderately long, the microwave frequency will gradually increase during the startup process until the voltage reaches its amplitude, which can be explained by the dispersion relation. However, if the voltage rise time is long enough, the longitudinal resonance of the finitely-long SWS will force the RBWO to work with unwanted longitudinal modes for a while and then gradually hop to the wanted longitudinal mode, and this will lead to an impure microwave frequency spectrum. Besides, a longer voltage rise time will delay the startup process and thus lead to a longer microwave saturation time. And if unwanted longitudinal modes are excited due to long voltage rise time, the microwave saturation time will be further lengthened. Therefore, the voltage rise time of accelerators adopted in high power microwave technology should not be too long in case unwanted longitudinal modes are excited

  10. Influence of the Gilbert damping constant on the flux rise time of write head fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times

  11. Rituximab desensitization in three patients with severe rituximab allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Erman; Özyiğit, Leyla Pur; Öztürk, Ayşe Bilge; Akay, Meltem Olga; Çetiner, Mustafa; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan

    Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 positive B cells and has a positive effect on both overall and progression-free survival in B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Combination rituximab with chemotherapy treatment provide survival improvement. Although rituximab is an important treatment option in hematological malignancies, the risk of allergic reactions is high. These reactions are usually IgE-mediated and can be varied in regard of severity from urticaria to anaphylaxis. It is an option to interrupt the treatment and ommit rituximab therapy who had allergic reactions. Drug desensitization is another option and successful results have been reported by applying desensitization to such reactions. Drug desensitization alters the immune response to induce a state of temporary clinical tolerance to the allergic drug by giving gradual increasing of doses of drug at fixed time intervals. Herein, we present 3 cases successfully treated with rituximab desensitization. The cases were using rituximab with the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma, respectively. Two cases had grade 2 and 1 case had grade 3 systemic allergic reaction with rituximab. There was no known allergy history in all 3 cases. All patients tolerated the desensitization protocol. The subsequent treatments of the patients were also given by desensitization protocol. A total of 12 desensitizations were administered to 3 cases. No severe or life-threating reactions were observed in subsequent applications. To date applying desensitization protocols ensure rituximab treatment safely. Rituximab desensitization can be performed at trained allergy centers, and it may be an appropriate option for rituximab allergic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. X-ray polarimetry with a conventional gas proportional counter through rise-time analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashida, K; Tsunemi, H; Torii, K; Murakami, H; Ohno, Y; Tamura, K

    1999-01-01

    We have performed an experiment on the signal rise time of a Xe gas proportional counter using a polarized X-ray beam of synchrotron orbital radiation with energies from 10 to 40 keV. When the counter anode is perpendicular to the electric vector of the incident X-ray photons, the average rise time becomes significantly longer than that for the parallel case. This indicates that the conventional gas proportional counters are useful for X-ray polarimetry. The moderate modulation contrast of this rise-time polarimeter (M=0.1 for 10 keV X-rays and M=0.35 for 40 keV X-rays), with capability of the simultaneous measuring X-ray energies and the timing, would be useful for applications in X-ray astronomy and in other fields.

  13. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val

    2014-07-30

    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  14. A microchannel plate X-ray multiplier with rising-time less than 170 ps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shicheng; Ouyang Bin

    1987-01-01

    The time reponse of a microchannel plate X-ray multiplier has been improved considerably by using a coupling construction of coaxial tapers. The experimental calibration results with laser plasma X-ray source show that the rising-time of the multiplier is less than 170 ps

  15. Systematic Desensitization and the Reduction of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Suinn, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides detailed information on systematic desensitization, describing in detail the procedures of imaginal desensitization. Briefly describes variants of group, in vivo, massed, and self-administered desensitization. Outlines guidelines for appropriate selection and use of desensitization and presents sampling of research findings with diversity…

  16. Measurement of the Rise-Time in a Single Sided Ladder Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this note we report on the measurement of the preamplifier output rise time for a SVXII chip mounted on a D0 single sided ladder. The measurements were performed on the ladder 001-883-L, using the laser test stand of Lab D. The rise time was measured for different values of the response (or bandwidth) of the preamplifier. As a bigger bandwidth results in longer rise times and therefore in less noise, the largest possible bandwidth consistent with the time between bunch crossings should be chosen to operate the detectors. The rise time is defined as the time elapsed between 10% and 90% of the charge is collected. It is also interesting to measure the time for full charge collection and the percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. The results are shown in table 1, for bandwidths between 2 and 63 (binary numbers). The uncertainty on the time measurement is considered to be ∼ 10 ns. Figure 1 schematically defines the four quantities measured: rise time, time of full charge collection, and percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. Figures 2 to 8 are the actual measurements for bandwidths of 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32 and 63. Figure 9 is a second measurement for BW=24, used as a consistency check of the system and the time measurement performed on the plots. The data indicate that the single sided ladders can be operated at BW=63 for 396 ns and BW=12 for 132 ns, achieving full charge collection. This will result in smaller noise than originally anticipated.

  17. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  18. [Adaptive desensitization for acetylsalicylic acid hypersensitivity: A success story?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmeier, G; Hausch, R; Maier, H

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive desensitization still remains the only causative therapy for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) hypersensitivity and is carried out nearly worldwide. To date there are hardly any data available on disease development under current desensitization therapy and longitudinal data in particular are missing. Out of a large collective of patients with proven hypersensitivity to ASA, 194 patients with initiated desensitization treatment were observed for periods up to 5 years (average 32 months). Patients with immediate reactions to systemic challenge tests revealed a response rate of 77% after 12 months of therapy. In this period 12% reached complete remission, 38% showed a clear reduction in symptoms, 32% reached partial remission, 13% remained unchanged and 5% suffered from disease progression. Adaptive desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity to ASA has been shown to be an effective causative therapy and chronic hyperplastic sinusitis as well as bronchial asthma could be improved. For the determination of maintenance dosages and required time periods more data are needed.

  19. Development of a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanxia; Zhu Jie; Li Xianyou

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the attenuation of the system, a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator is required for the fast pulse signal measurement. The paper presents the development of the generator. More emphasis is paid on the discussion of the difficulties occurring in the circuit debugging and their resolutions. The output rise-time of the generator is 700 ps, the amplitude is adjustable in the range of 0 to 500 V, the pulse-width is adjustable in the range of 4ns to 1μs. (authors)

  20. Desensitization to clopidogrel: a tailor-made protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, P; Cadinha, S; Malheiro, D; Moreira da Silva, J P

    2014-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug widely used for treatment and prevention of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. We report a successful desensitization to clopidogrel in a 70-year-old Caucasian man with delayed hypersensitivity (HS) reaction. He developed lip, hand and foot swelling, erythematous papular non-pruritic lesions and arthralgias 2 weeks after starting treatment with clopidogrel 75 mg/d. A 3-hour desensitization protocol was started, achieving a cumulative dose of 154 mg without any reaction, and a daily dose of 75 mg was recommended. On the 4th day, the patient developed skin lesions similar to the previously described. He was treated with topical steroids and oral antihistamines, and the daily dose of clopidogrel was reduced to 20 mg. A new desensitization protocol was established, with a slow dose increment, according to the patient's response. It was only possible to achieve the dose of 75 mg/d after 2 months. Although well tolerated by most patients, HS reactions with clopidogrel may occur and desensitization is rising as a safe alternative in those patients. In delayed reactions with cutaneous lesions, a slower desensitization protocol may be necessary, as in this case.

  1. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  2. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  3. SPS Injection and Beam Quality for LHC Heavy Ions With 150 ns Kicker Rise Time

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Brennan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kotzian, Gerd; Uythoven, Jan; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHC heavy ions, the SPS injection kicker system rise time needs reduction below its present 225 ns. One technically challenging option under consideration is the addition of fast Pulse Forming Lines in parallel to the existing Pulse Forming Networks for the 12 kicker magnets MKP-S, targeting a system field rise time of 100 ns. An alternative option is to optimise the system to approach the existing individual magnet field rise time (2-98%) of 150 ns. This would still significantly increase the number of colliding bunches in LHC while minimising the cost and effort of the system upgrade. The observed characteristics of the present system are described, compared to the expected system rise time, together with results of simulations and measurements with 175 and 150 ns injection batch spacing. The expected beam quality at injection into LHC is quantified, with the emittance growth and simulated tail population taking into account expected jitter and synchronisatio...

  4. Probing the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Chakraborty, Sovan; Fischer, Tobias; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2012-04-01

    The rise time of a Galactic supernova (SN) ν¯e light curve, observable at a high-statistics experiment such as the Icecube Cherenkov detector, can provide a diagnostic tool for the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ13. Thanks to the combination of matter suppression of collective effects at early post-bounce times on one hand and the presence of the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the outer layers of the SN on the other hand, a sufficiently fast rise time on O(100)ms scale is indicative of an inverted mass hierarchy. We investigate results from an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, providing a first exploration of the astrophysical robustness of these features. We find that for all the models analyzed (sharing the same weak interaction microphysics) the rise times for the same hierarchy are similar not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, with the signals for the two classes of hierarchies significantly separated. We show via Monte Carlo simulations that the two cases should be distinguishable at IceCube for SNe at a typical Galactic distance 99% of the time. Finally, a preliminary survey seems to show that the faster rise time for inverted hierarchy as compared to normal hierarchy is a qualitatively robust feature predicted by several simulation groups. Since the viability of this signature ultimately depends on the quantitative assessment of theoretical/numerical uncertainties, our results motivate an extensive campaign of comparison of different code predictions at early accretion times with implementation of microphysics of comparable sophistication, including effects such as nucleon recoils in weak interactions.

  5. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  6. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  7. Effect of rise-time patterns on dynamics of sheath expansion during plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongxian; Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin; Fu Ricky; Paul, C.K.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been developed as a low-cost and efficient surface modification technique of irregularly-shaped objects. The effect of six pulse waves with different rise-time patterns on the spatio-temporal evolution of plasma sheath,energy and dose of ion implantation has been simulated by particle-in-cell modeling. Statistical results may be obtained through assuming the Boltzmann distribution of electrons, and solving Poisson and Newton equations for tracing each ion in the plasma sheath. The results show that rise-time pattern has a critical influence on the evolution of plasma sheath. There exists maximum thickness difference of plasma sheath for different waveforms. The acceleration of ions is non-uniform due to the non-uniformity of electrical field strength. The maximum gradient of electrical field appears near the edge of plasma sheath. The results also show that optimization of dose and energy of incident ions may be achieved through modification of rise-time pattern. The numerical simulation of sheath expansion can be effectively used to provide a scientific basis for optimizing the PIII process. (authors)

  8. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  9. Relaxation as a Factor in Semantic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, James E.; McNamara, J. Regis

    1975-01-01

    Relaxation and semantic desensitization were used to alleviate the fear of phobic females. Results showed that semantic desensitization, alone or in combination with relaxation, failed to modify the evaluative meanings evoked by the feared object. (SE)

  10. Sea-level rise and shoreline retreat: time to abandon the Bruun Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Pilkey, Orrin H.

    2004-11-01

    In the face of a global rise in sea level, understanding the response of the shoreline to changes in sea level is a critical scientific goal to inform policy makers and managers. A body of scientific information exists that illustrates both the complexity of the linkages between sea-level rise and shoreline response, and the comparative lack of understanding of these linkages. In spite of the lack of understanding, many appraisals have been undertaken that employ a concept known as the "Bruun Rule". This is a simple two-dimensional model of shoreline response to rising sea level. The model has seen near global application since its original formulation in 1954. The concept provided an advance in understanding of the coastal system at the time of its first publication. It has, however, been superseded by numerous subsequent findings and is now invalid. Several assumptions behind the Bruun Rule are known to be false and nowhere has the Bruun Rule been adequately proven; on the contrary several studies disprove it in the field. No universally applicable model of shoreline retreat under sea-level rise has yet been developed. Despite this, the Bruun Rule is in widespread contemporary use at a global scale both as a management tool and as a scientific concept. The persistence of this concept beyond its original assumption base is attributed to the following factors: Appeal of a simple, easy to use analytical model that is in widespread use. Difficulty of determining the relative validity of 'proofs' and 'disproofs'. Ease of application. Positive advocacy by some scientists. Application by other scientists without critical appraisal. The simple numerical expression of the model. Lack of easy alternatives. The Bruun Rule has no power for predicting shoreline behaviour under rising sea level and should be abandoned. It is a concept whose time has passed. The belief by policy makers that it offers a prediction of future shoreline position may well have stifled much

  11. SN 2008iy: An Unusual Type IIn Supernova with an Enduring 400 Day Rise Time

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, A. A.; Silverman, J. M.; Butler, N. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Klein, C. R.; Li, W.; Nugent, P. E.; Smith, N.; Steele, T. N.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2008iy. SN 2008iy showed an unprecedentedly long rise time of ~400 days, making it the first SN to take significantly longer than 100 days to reach peak optical luminosity. The peak absolute magnitude of SN 2008iy was M_r ~ -19.1 mag, and the total radiated energy over the first ~700 days was ~2 x 10^50 erg. Spectroscopically, SN 2008iy is very similar to the Type IIn SN 1988Z at late times, and, like SN 1988...

  12. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuemei; Pan, Wei; Li, Chao; Weng, Lei; Yao, Mengyun; Chen, Antao

    2017-01-01

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others' pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players' empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others' pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated.

  13. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others’ pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs could change players’ empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others’ pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated.

  14. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuemei; Pan, Wei; Li, Chao; Weng, Lei; Yao, Mengyun; Chen, Antao

    2017-01-01

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others’ pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players’ empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others’ pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated. PMID:28512439

  15. Measuring Sea Level Rise-Induced Shoreline Changes and Inundation in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F.; Waetjen, D.; Grijalva, E.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a method to monitor shoreline inundation and changes in response to sea level rise (SLR) using a network of time-lapse cameras. We found for coastal tidal marshes that this method was sensitive to vertical changes in sea level of 20 cm has occurred in the San Francisco Bay and other US coastal areas and is likely to rise by another 30-45 cm by mid-century, which will flood and erode many coastal ecosystems, highways, and urban areas. This rapid degree of rise means that it is imperative to co-plan for natural and built systems. Many public facilities are adjacent to shoreline ecosystems, which both protect infrastructure from wave and tide energy and are home to regulated species and habitats. Accurate and timely information about the actual extent of SLR impacts to shorelines will be critical during built-system adaptation. Currently, satellite-sourced imagery cannot provide the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to investigate fine-scale shoreline changes, leaving a gap between predictive models and knowing how, where and when these changes are occurring. The method described is feasible for near-term (1 to 10 years) to long-term application and can be used for measuring fine-resolution shoreline changes (organize photographs that could be combined with related external data (e.g., gauged water levels) to create an information mashup. This information could be used to validate models predicting shoreline inundation and loss, inform SLR-adaptation planning, and to visualize SLR impacts to the public.

  16. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  17. Analysis and Compensation of Dead-Time Effect of a ZVT PWM Inverter Considering the Rise- and Fall-Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dead-time effect, as an intrinsic problem of the converters based on the half-bridge unit, leads to distortions in the converter output. Although several dead-time effect compensation or elimination methods have been proposed, they cannot fully remove the dead-time effect of blanking delay error, because the output current polarity is difficult detect accurately. This paper utilizes the zero-voltage-switching (ZVT technique to eliminate the blanking delay error, which is the main drawback of the hard-switching inverter, although the technique initially aims to improve the efficiency. A typical ZVT inverter—the auxiliary resonant snubber inverter (ARSI is analyzed. The blanking delay error is completely eliminated in the ARSI. Another error source caused by the finite rise- and fall-times of the voltage is analyzed, which was not considered in the hard-switching inverter. A compensation method based on the voltage error estimation is proposed to compensate the rise- and fall-error. A prototype was developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the qualities of the output current and voltage in the ARSI are better than that in the hard-switching inverter due to the elimination of the blanking delay error. The total harmonic distortion (THD of the output is further reduced by using the proposed compensation method in the ARSI.

  18. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Desensitization of Fire Bell Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Patricia P.

    1971-01-01

    This case study presents an example of how one school psychologist helped a child and an entire class solve a problem. Although the techniques used are not unique to school psychological practice, the problems presented by their use are. The procedure consisted of a desensitization process lasting ten weeks. (Author)

  20. Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-04-26

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  1. Measuring the diameter of rising gas bubbles by means of the ultrasound transit time technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T., E-mail: Thomas.Richter6@tu-dresden.de; Eckert, K., E-mail: Kerstin.Eckert@tu-dresden.de; Yang, X.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) is applied to the zig-zag raise of gas bubble. • Comparison of bubble diameter and tilt, measured by UTTT, with high-speed imaging. • Uncertainty in the determination of the bubble diameter by UTTT is less than 7%. • UTTT is able to measure dynamic changes in bubble size in opaque liquids and vessels. • UTTT can be applied to liquid metal loops. - Abstract: This study presents ultrasound transit time technique (UTTT) measurements of the diameter variations of single argon bubbles rising in a zig-zag trajectory in water. Simultaneous size measurements with a high-speed camera show that UTTT resolves both the apparent diameter and the tilt of the bubble axis with an accuracy of better than 7%. This qualifies UTTT for the measurement of bubble sizes in opaque liquids, such as liquid metals, or vessels.

  2. Desensitization protocols and their outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kwaku; Lu, Amy; Ling, Min; Akalin, Enver

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, transplantation across previously incompatible barriers has increasingly become popular because of organ donor shortage, availability of better methods of detecting and characterizing anti-HLA antibodies, ease of diagnosis, better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection, and the availability of effective regimens. This review summarizes all manuscripts published since the first publication in 2000 on desensitized patients and discusses clinical outcomes including acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection rate, the new agents available, kidney paired exchange programs, and the future directions in sensitized patients. There were 21 studies published between 2000 and 2010, involving 725 patients with donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) who underwent kidney transplantation with different desensitization protocols. All studies were single center and retrospective. The patient and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively, at a 2-year median follow-up. Despite acceptable short-term patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate was 36% and acute antibody-mediated rejection rate was 28%, which is significantly higher than in nonsensitized patients. Recent studies with longer follow-up of those patients raised concerns about long-term success of desensitization protocols. The studies utilizing protocol biopsies in desensitized patients also reported higher subclinical and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. An association between the strength of DSAs determined by median fluorescence intensity values of Luminex single-antigen beads and risk of rejection was observed. Two new agents, bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and eculizumab, an anti-complement C5 antibody, were recently introduced to desensitization protocols. An alternative intervention is kidney paired exchange, which should be considered first for sensitized patients. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  3. Profilin desensitization: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Eleonora; Aruanno, Arianna; Rizzi, Angela; Pecora, Valentina; Patriarca, Giampiero; Buonomo, Alessandro; Mezzacappa, Simona; Schiavino, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The role of profilin as an allergen has long been questioned. The capacity of profilin to induce respiratory symptoms has recently been demonstrated; moreover, over 50% of patients sensitized to profilin experienced symptoms after the ingestion of plant-derived foods, suggesting that profilin should be considered as a clinically relevant food allergen. We describe the cases of seven allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome and other adverse reactions after eating plant-derived food, that have been undergone to profilin desensitization treatment. The protocol started with a drop of profilin solution (50 µg/mL) diluted 1:1018 in water until the highest dose of 10 drops of undiluted solution three times a week. At the end of the treatment we observed a decreased mean diameter of profilin wheal in skin prick test (SPT) in five of the seven participants and in profilin specific IgE values in six patients that repeated the test. Regarding basophil activation test (BAT) and the detection of IgG4, we do not have significant results because the tests have to be repeated in some patients. Regarding the double-blind placebo-controlled challenges, after about 10 months of induction phase all the patients showed tolerance to several foods that they previously did not tolerate. Moreover, the immunotherapy with profilin has proved to be safe because no serious adverse events have been reported in our patients. In summary, the results of this exploratory study of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for profilin allergy show that it can be a promising therapeutic option that could modify the clinical reactivity of the patients to the intake of plant-derived food. PMID:26684620

  4. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  5. Desensitization to rituximab in a multidisciplinary setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós-Reboredo, Patrícia; Sánchez-López, Jaime; Bastida-Fernández, Carla; do Pazo-Oubiña, Fernando; Borràs-Maixenchs, Núria; Giné, Eva; Valero, Antonio; Creus-Baró, Natàlia

    2015-10-01

    The need to offer first-line therapy to the increasing number of patients who have suffered an hypersensitivity reaction has stimulated the use of rapid desensitization protocols. To present our experience working as a multidisciplinary team using a rituximab rapid desensitization scheme. Patient demographics, allergic reaction, skin tests to rituximab, number of desensitizations, reactions during the desensitization protocol and actions taken, number of administered and completed cycles, were retrospectively collected in patients who received at least one desensitization to rituximab. Number of desensitizations successfully managed. Between 2012 and June 2013 five patients received a total of 19 desensitizations to rituximab using a 12 step rapid desensitization protocol. All patients received the scheduled chemotherapeutic cycles as inpatients, with no delay in administration dates. Three patients presented a hypersensitivity reaction during the first desensitization and in one patient the event occurred again during the second treatment cycle. All reactions occurred in the last step, when the infusion rate reached the maximum speed. The developed protocol for rapid desensitization was successful in five patients receiving rituximab. Patients could receive the full intended dose.

  6. Ulcerative colitis patients with an inflammatory response upon mesalazine cannot be desensitized: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, Dorien J; De Monchy, Jan G R; Schellekens, Reinout C A; van der Waaij, Laurens A; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Mesalazine is a key drug in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Intolerance to mesalazine has been described, including fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Several case reports reported successful desensitization of patients with mesalazine intolerance. The aim was to assess the number of UC patients who are persistently intolerant to mesalazine after single-blinded rechallenge and to test the effectiveness of a rapid desensitization protocol in UC patients demonstrated mesalazine intolerance. This is a prospective, single-blind randomized study in UC patients who discontinued mesalazine because of intolerance. Patients with severe reactions were excluded. Eligible patients underwent a skin patch test with mesalazine followed by a single-blinded randomized crossover rechallenge with 500 mg mesalazine or placebo. Patients with symptoms upon rechallenge were admitted to the hospital for 3 days oral desensitization. Nine of the 37 identified UC patients who discontinued mesalazine because of intolerance were included. All nine patients had negative patch tests, seven patients had symptoms (fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) within 2 h upon rechallenge. Four of these seven patients participated in the desensitization protocol and in none a successful desensitization could be performed. All four had an inflammatory intolerance reaction with rise in C-reactive protein. There were no elevations in serum tryptase or urinary-methylhistamine levels observed and no signs of immediate type allergic reactions, like urticaria, bronchial obstruction or anaphylaxis. We recommend not to rechallenge UC patients with an inflammatory response upon mesalazine and these patients will not benefit from a rapid desensitization protocol.

  7. Timed Rise from Floor as a Predictor of Disease Progression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S Mazzone

    Full Text Available The role of timed items, and more specifically, of the time to rise from the floor, has been reported as an early prognostic factor for disease progression and loss of ambulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible effect of the time to rise from the floor test on the changes observed on the 6MWT over 12 months in a cohort of ambulant Duchenne boys.A total of 487 12-month data points were collected from 215 ambulant Duchenne boys. The age ranged between 5.0 and 20.0 years (mean 8.48 ±2.48 DS.The results of the time to rise from the floor at baseline ranged from 1.2 to 29.4 seconds in the boys who could perform the test. 49 patients were unable to perform the test at baseline and 87 at 12 month The 6MWT values ranged from 82 to 567 meters at baseline. 3 patients lost the ability to perform the 6mwt at 12 months. The correlation between time to rise from the floor and 6MWT at baseline was high (r = 0.6, p<0.01.Both time to rise from the floor and baseline 6MWT were relevant for predicting 6MWT changes in the group above the age of 7 years, with no interaction between the two measures, as the impact of time to rise from the floor on 6MWT change was similar in the patients below and above 350 m. Our results suggest that, time to rise from the floor can be considered an additional important prognostic factor of 12 month changes on the 6MWT and, more generally, of disease progression.

  8. Evaluation of XHVRB for Capturing Explosive Shock Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Leah; Schmitt, Robert; Kittell, Dave; Harstad, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Explosive shock desensitization phenomena have been recognized for some time. It has been demonstrated that pressure-based reactive flow models do not adequately capture the basic nature of the explosive behavior. Historically, replacing the local pressure with a shock captured pressure has dramatically improved the numerical modeling approaches. Models based upon shock pressure or functions of entropy have recently been developed. A pseudo-entropy based formulation using the History Variable Reactive Burn model, as proposed by Starkenberg, was implemented into the Eulerian shock physics code CTH. Improvements in the shock capturing algorithm were made. The model is demonstrated to reproduce single shock behavior consistent with published pop plot data. It is also demonstrated to capture a desensitization effect based on available literature data, and to qualitatively capture dead zones from desensitization in 2D corner turning experiments. This models shows promise for use in modeling and simulation problems that are relevant to the desensitization phenomena. Issues are identified with the current implementation and future work is proposed for improving and expanding model capabilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Desensitization of stainless steels by laser surface heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    1987-11-01

    Laser heating was applied for the desensitization heat-treatment of the surface layer in the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel. The degree of sensitization was examined by EPR technique and the 10 % oxalic acid electrolytic etch test. The CO/sub 2/ laser with maximum power of 1.5 kW was used for heat-treatment. Time-Temperature-Desensitization diagram (TTDS diagram) for sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were developed by calculation assuming the chromium diffusion control for desensitization which might occur when the chromium depleted zone was healed up due to dissolution of chromium carbide and chromium diffusion from the matrix being heated at the solution annealing temperatures. TTDS diagrams calculated agree fairly well with ones determined by corrosion tests. Laser irradiation conditions (e.g., Laser power, beam diameter and traveling velocity) required for desensitization of sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were calculated using additivity rule from the TTDS diagram calculated and theoretical thermal curve of laser heating derived from the heat conduction theory. After laser beam irradiated under an optimum condition predicted by calculation, the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel restored complete resistance to intergranular corrosion.

  10. Time dependent rise and decay of photocurrent in zinc oxide nanoparticles in ambient and vacuum medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Rajkumar; Srivastava, Rajneesh K.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle has been synthesized by cost effective Co-precipitation method and studied its photo-response activity. The synthesized ZnO nanomaterial was characterized by using various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the XRD results, it is confirmed that synthesized ZnO nanomaterial possess hexagonal wurtzite phase structure with an average crystallite size of ∼16–17 nm. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows that it has blue shift compared to their bulk counterparts. Photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanoparticles have a strong violet band at 423 nm and three weak bands at 485 nm (blue), 506 nm (green), and 529 nm (green). The presence of hydroxyl group was confirmed by FTIR. The photo-response analysis was studied by the time-dependent rise and decay photocurrent of ZnO nanoparticle was tested in the air as well as vacuum medium.

  11. Relativistic rise measurement by cluster counting method in time expansion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walenta, A.H.

    1979-10-01

    A new approach to the measurement of the ionization energy loss for the charged particle identification in the region of the relativistic rise was tested experimentally. The method consists of determining in a special drift chamber (TEC) the number of clusters of the primary ionization. The method gives almost the full relativistic rise and narrower landau distribution. The consequences for a practical detector are discussed

  12. Comparison of vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Keun; Miller, Kevin M

    2009-08-01

    To compare vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification machines. Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. The vacuum rise time under normal and enhanced aspiration modes, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of the Infiniti Vision System, Stellaris Vision Enhancement System, and WhiteStar Signature Phacoemulsification System were tested. Vacuum rise time and limit accuracy were measured at limit settings of 400 mm Hg and 600 mm Hg. Surge area was recorded at vacuum limit settings of 200 mm Hg, 300 mm Hg, 400 mm Hg, and 500 mm Hg. The Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise times under normal and enhanced aspiration modes. At 4 seconds, the vacuum limit accuracy was greatest with the Infiniti at the 400 mm Hg limit and the Signature at the 600 mm Hg limit. The Stellaris did not reach either vacuum target. The Infiniti performed better than the other 2 machines during testing of occlusion break surge at all vacuum limit settings above 200 mm Hg. Under controlled laboratory test conditions, the Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time, greatest vacuum limit accuracy at 400 mm Hg, and least occlusion break surge. These results can be explained by the lower compliance of the Infiniti system.

  13. Relationship Factors in Desensitization: A Persistent Trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawas, M. Mike; Pucel, John C.

    1971-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relevance to the outcome of desensitization of same-sex and opposite-sex pairings of subjects and experimenters. It was concluded that desensitization is independent of the sex pairing of subject and experimenter. (Author)

  14. Group Vicarious Desensitization of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmaier, Elizabeth Mitchell; Woodward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Studied test-anxious college students (N=43) who received either vicarious desensitization, study skills training, or both treatments; there was also a no-treatment control condition. Self-report measures indicated that vicarious desensitization resulted in lower test and trait anxiety than study skills training alone or no treatment. (Author)

  15. Endogenous Opiate System and Systematic Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kelly J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered intravenous infusions to phobic patients prior to systematic desensitization. Saline-infused subjects significantly demonstrated the predicted symptom decrease in response to systematic desensitization, whereas naloxone-infused subjects showed no change. Subject reports and psychophysiological measures of arousal indicated no…

  16. Guided Mastery and Performance Desensitization Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Lloyd; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared desensitization and self-efficacy models of phobia treatment in height phobics. Self-efficacy treatment proved to be significantly more effective than desensitization treatment in restoring subjects' behavioral functioning, in raising their perceptions of self-efficacy, and in reducing their anticipated anxiety and thoughts of danger.…

  17. Comment on the Status of Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, F. Dudley; Smitherman, Todd A.; Gothard, Kelly D.

    2004-01-01

    Articles about systematic desensitization that appeared in mainstream behavior therapy journals between the years 1970 and 2002 were counted. Graphic displays of the data point to a sudden and lasting decline of interest in systematic desensitization among academics and researchers. A questionnaire concerning clinical use of orthodox systematic…

  18. Effects of agonist efficacy on desensitization of phosphoinositide hydrolysis mediated by m1 and m3 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Wang, S.Z.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1991-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor agonist-induced desensitization of phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and loss of receptors were studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the m1 and m3 muscarinic receptor genes. Long-term exposure to the full agonist carbamylcholine (CBC) resulted in a time-dependent attenuation of the maximal PI response and a decrease in agonist potency. This desensitization was accompanied by a parallel loss of maximal ligand binding without an alteration of the binding affinity. The time course of both receptor desensitization and down-regulation was similar in m1 and m3 CHO cells. The PI response to the partial agonist McN-A-343 (McN) in m1 cells was more sensitive to desensitization by CBC than the response to the latter agonist, and this desensitization was faster than receptor down-regulation. Desensitization of the PI response to McN was reflected as a decrease in the maximal response without a marked change in potency. McN induced slow desensitization of the PI response to CBC but a much faster desensitization of its own response. Our data provide evidence that although muscarinic agonist-induced desensitization of PI hydrolysis in CHO cells is due mainly to loss of receptors, there are other important factors which play a role in this process, e.g., receptor-effector uncoupling. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms depends on the efficacy of the agonists used for the receptor desensitization and activation steps

  19. Time to PSA rise differentiates the PSA bounce after HDR and LDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Wojciech; Skowronek, Janusz

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce (PB) after high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) or low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) brachytherapy alone in prostate cancer patients. Ninety-four patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2cN0), age ranged 50-81 years, were treated with brachytherapy alone between 2008 and 2010. Patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, Gleason score ≤ 7. The LDR-BT total dose was 144-145 Gy, in HDR-BT - 3 fractions of 10.5 or 15 Gy. The initial PSA level (iPSA) was assessed before treatment, then PSA was rated every 3 months over the first 2 years, and every 6 months during the next 3 years. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Mean iPSA was 7.8 ng/ml. In 58 cases, PSA decreased gradually without PB or biochemical failure (BF). In 24% of patients, PB was observed. In 23 cases (24%), PB was observed using 0.2 ng/ml definition; in 10 cases (11%), BF was diagnosed using nadir + 2 ng/ml definition. The HDR-BT and LDR-BT techniques were not associated with higher level of PB (26 vs. 22%, p = 0.497). Time to the first PSA rise finished with PB was significantly shorter after HDR-BT then after LDR-BT (median, 10.5 vs. 18.0 months) during follow-up. Predictors for PB were observed only after HDR-BT. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and higher Gleason score decreased the risk of PB (HR = 0.11, p = 0.03; HR = 0.51, p = 0.01). The higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB (HR 3.46, p = 0.02; HR 1.04, p = 0.04). There was no predictors for PB after LDR-BT. HDR-BT and LDR-BT for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer had similar PB rate. The PB occurred earlier after HDR-BT than after LDR-BT. ADT and higher Gleason score decreased, and higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB after HDR-BT.

  20. Aspirin Allergy Desensitization in Cerebrovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization. PMID:24556294

  1. Correction of incomplete charge collection in CdTe detectors using the correlation with the rise time distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, Yossi.

    1994-01-01

    Experimentally and theoretically it was found that there is a correlation between tile pulse rise time and the amount of charge that is collected in the detector contacts. As the rise time becomes longer less charge is collected. In this thesis it has been proven that one can find from this correlation, with the aid of a mathematical function, the theoretical amount of charge that has to be collected in the contacts if no trapping took place. This mathematical function called the correction function, f(t), is dependent on the rise time and the material quality (the trap concentration). In order to find the correction function, a computer, simulation was written. This computer program simulates, based on a phenomenological theoretical model, the charge collection in the detector. This model depends on three parameters (for the holes and for the electrons) that characterized the charge collection quality of the detector. The parameters are: the mean free time to be trapped, the detrapping time and the transit time that depends on the electric field. By a comparison between the simulation output and experimental data, these parameters were found. The correction function was found to be linear with rise time. This conclusion is confirmed experimentally. In this work experiments have been carried out that measured the correlation between two parameters. These experiments measured, for each photon that interacts with the detector, the pulse rise time and the pulse amplitude. A computer program accepts these spectra and substitute each element in the correction function and corrects for the incomplete charge collection. It was found that the correction function does not depend on the energy of the radiation source and source-detector geometry but depends on the material quality. The application of the correction function to the two dimensional spectra gives a correction of tens of percents in charge collection and provides an improvement in the resolution and the peak

  2. Timing and mechanism of the rise of the Shillong Plateau in the Himalayan foreland.

    OpenAIRE

    Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Copley, Alex; Millar, Ian; Van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Grujic, Djordje; Davenport, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Shillong Plateau (northeastern India) constitutes the only significant topography in the Himalayan foreland. Knowledge of its surface uplift history is key to understanding topographic development and unraveling tectonic–climate–topographic coupling in the eastern Himalaya. We use the sedimentary record of the Himalayan foreland basin north of the Shillong Plateau to show that the paleo-Brahmaputra river was redirected north and west by the rising plateau at 5.2–4.9 Ma. We suggest that on...

  3. Immune Profiles to Predict Response to Desensitization Therapy in Highly HLA-Sensitized Kidney Transplant Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabu, Julie M; Siebert, Janet C; Maecker, Holden T

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage kidney disease. Sensitization, the formation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, remains a major barrier to successful kidney transplantation. Despite the implementation of desensitization strategies, many candidates fail to respond. Current progress is hindered by the lack of biomarkers to predict response and to guide therapy. Our objective was to determine whether differences in immune and gene profiles may help identify which candidates will respond to desensitization therapy. Single-cell mass cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) phenotyping, gene arrays, and phosphoepitope flow cytometry were performed in a study of 20 highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization therapy. Responders to desensitization therapy were defined as 5% or greater decrease in cumulative calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) levels, and non-responders had 0% decrease in cPRA. Using a decision tree analysis, we found that a combination of transitional B cell and regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies at baseline before initiation of desensitization therapy could distinguish responders from non-responders. Using a support vector machine (SVM) and longitudinal data, TRAF3IP3 transcripts and HLA-DR-CD38+CD4+ T cells could also distinguish responders from non-responders. Combining all assays in a multivariate analysis and elastic net regression model with 72 analytes, we identified seven that were highly interrelated and eleven that predicted response to desensitization therapy. Measuring baseline and longitudinal immune and gene profiles could provide a useful strategy to distinguish responders from non-responders to desensitization therapy. This study presents the integration of novel translational studies including CyTOF immunophenotyping in a multivariate analysis model that has potential applications to predict response to desensitization, select candidates, and personalize

  4. Antibiotic Desensitization Therapy in Secondary Syphilis and Listeria Infection: Case Reports and Review of Desensitization Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magpantay, Gil; Madar, Cristian S; Hsue, Gunther; Belnap, Conrad

    2011-01-01

    Two adult cases, one of secondary syphilis and one of Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia, in which antibiotic desensitization therapy was utilized to assist treatment of active infection in the face of severe penicillin allergy. Clinical considerations are discussed that led to the decision to employ a formal desensitization procedure. Antibiotic desensitization protocols can facilitate optimal and safe antibiotic therapy in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:22187514

  5. the use of systematic desensitization in psychotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relaxation inhibits anxiety-their concurrent expression is physiologically impossible. ..... fifth-floor balcony without discomfort. Four months after her return ... specific rather than 'free-floating' anxiety is present, systematic ,. 6. desensitization is ...

  6. Desensitization of Children to Television Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    To find if children do become desensitized to violence, a test for a measurable physiological difference in emotional response to filmed violence was administered to children who are high exposure and low exposure television viewers. (Author/KM)

  7. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  8. Behavior Modification Through Covert Semantic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Hamid; Vanian, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    Results support the hypothesized relationship between meaning and phobia. Semantic desensitization techniques based on counter conditioning of meaning were significantly effective in altering the semantic value of the word from unpleasantness to neutrality. (Author)

  9. Systematic Desensitization Of Test Anxiety: A Comparison Of Group And Individual Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scissons, Edward H.; Njaa, Lloyd J.

    1973-01-01

    The results indicate the effectiveness of both individual desensitization and group desensitization in the treatment of high test anxiety. More research is needed in comparing the effectiveness of group desensitization and individual desensitization with intratreatment variables. (Author)

  10. Rise time reduction of thermal actuators operated in air and water through optimized pre-shaped open-loop driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, T; Doll, J C; Loizeau, F; Pruitt, B L; Hosseini, N; Fantner, G E; Peng, A W; Ricci, A J

    2017-01-01

    Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10–90% rise time of 85 μ s in air and 234 μ s in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10–90% rise time from 85 μ s to 3 μ s in air and from 234 μ s to 5 μ s in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate. (paper)

  11. Rise Time Reduction of Thermal Actuators Operated in Air and Water through Optimized Pre-Shaped Open-Loop Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Doll, J C; Loizeau, F; Hosseini, N; Peng, A W; Fantner, G; Ricci, A J; Pruitt, B L

    2017-01-01

    Electrothermal actuators have many advantages compared to other actuators used in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). They are simple to design, easy to fabricate and provide large displacements at low voltages. Low voltages enable less stringent passivation requirements for operation in liquid. Despite these advantages, thermal actuation is typically limited to a few kHz bandwidth when using step inputs due to its intrinsic thermal time constant. However, the use of pre-shaped input signals offers a route for reducing the rise time of these actuators by orders of magnitude. We started with an electrothermally actuated cantilever having an initial 10-90% rise time of 85 μs in air and 234 μs in water for a standard open-loop step input. We experimentally characterized the linearity and frequency response of the cantilever when operated in air and water, allowing us to obtain transfer functions for the two cases. We used these transfer functions, along with functions describing desired reduced rise-time system responses, to numerically simulate the required input signals. Using these pre-shaped input signals, we improved the open-loop 10-90% rise time from 85 μs to 3 μs in air and from 234 μs to 5 μs in water, an improvement by a factor of 28 and 47, respectively. Using this simple control strategy for MEMS electrothermal actuators makes them an attractive alternative to other high speed micromechanical actuators such as piezoelectric stacks or electrostatic comb structures which are more complex to design, fabricate, or operate.

  12. Carboplatin hypersensitivity: evaluation and successful desensitization protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Ilan; Goldberg, Arnon; Fishman, Ami; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Carboplatin-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions are relatively common among patients with gynecological malignancies. Once this occurs, the patient might be at risk for future carboplatin-induced reactions. This study evaluated the efficacy of allergic consultation, carboplatin skin testing and desensitization as a single intervention strategy in this population. Patients with a well-documented immediate reaction to carboplatin were offered allergy consultation, carboplatin skin testing and a desensitization plan in a single visit between scheduled chemotherapy sessions. Fifty-five patients with an immediate reaction were evaluated. After allergist assessment, 44 (89%) of 49 patients skin tested had a positive result. A total of 207 carboplatin desensitization cycles were administered to 49 women. Among them, 10 patients had a mild immediate hypersensitivity reaction during desensitization. Five patients subsequently tolerated carboplatin administered in the prolonged desensitization protocol. In the data presented, we propose a strategy that is both cost effective and very convenient for the patient. The diagnostic procedure, including allergist consultation and skin test, can be completed in less than 2 h. In most cases where carboplatin is indispensable, desensitization can be administered without overnight hospitalization.

  13. Investigation on the Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overrun for High-Rise Building Projects In Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haslinda, A.; Xian, T. Wei; Norfarahayu, K.; Muhamad Hanafi, R.; Fikri, H. Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Time and cost overruns have become one prominent issue for most construction projects around the world. Project costing and timeframe extension had been causing a lot of wastage and loss of opportunity for many parties involved. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the factors influencing time and cost overruns for high-rise construction projects in Penang, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey was distributed to the project managers who had been or currently involved in the high-rise building projects in Penang to get their input and perceptions for each factor identified as well as its frequency of occurrence. In order to rank all the factors gathered, the mean index of the most distinguishing factors and its frequency of occurrence were multiplied to get the severity index. The results revealed that for time overrun, the most predominant causes were due to design changes, inadequate planning and scheduling and poor labor productivity. Meanwhile, the predominant causes of cost overrun were poor pre-construction budget and material cost planning, inaccurate quantity take-off and materials cost increased by inflation. The significance of establishing the issues related to time and cost overruns for the high-rise building construction project is to provide a greater insight and understanding on the causes of delays, particularly among the main project players: contractors, client, and consultants.

  14. The Rise of Euroscepticism in Times of Crisis. Evidence from the 2008–2013 Eurobarometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic turmoil within the European Union has significantly impacted upon the way in which the European citizens assess the advantages of EU membership and the future of the integration process. Intensely preoccupied with the economic problems, the EU leadership has lost sight of the constant decrease of public support and the increasing lack of citizens’ confidence in the Union. This paper seeks to show the dynamics of public opinion between 2008 and 2013 with a special focus on the rise of Euroscepticism, using secondary data analysis of standard Eurobarometers. Our longitudinal analysis reveals the dynamics of EU-related attitudes and perceptions before, during, and after most of events that are usually labeled under the rather generic term “crisis”.

  15. Antibody Desensitization Therapy in Highly Sensitized Lung Transplant Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L. D.; Gray, A. L.; Reynolds, J. M.; Arepally, G. M.; Bedoya, A.; Hartwig, M. G.; Davis, R. D.; Lopes, K. E.; Wegner, W. E.; Chen, D. F.; Palmer, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    As HLAs antibody detection technology has evolved, there is now detailed HLA antibody information available on prospective transplant recipients. Determining single antigen antibody specificity allows for a calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA) value, providing an estimate of the effective donor pool. For broadly sensitized lung transplant candidates (cPRA ≥ 80%), our center adopted a pretransplant multimodal desensitization protocol in an effort to decrease the cPRA and expand the donor pool. This desensitization protocol included plasmapheresis, solumedrol, bortezomib and rituximab given in combination over 19 days followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Eight of 18 candidates completed therapy with the primary reasons for early discontinuation being transplant (by avoiding unacceptable antigens) or thrombocytopenia. In a mixed-model analysis, there were no significant changes in PRA or cPRA changes over time with the protocol. A sub-analysis of the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) change indicated a small decline that was significant in antibodies with MFI 5000–10 000. Nine of 18 candidates subsequently had a transplant. Posttransplant survival in these nine recipients was comparable to other pretransplant-sensitized recipients who did not receive therapy. In summary, an aggressive multi-modal desensitization protocol does not significantly reduce pretransplant HLA antibodies in a broadly sensitized lung transplant candidate cohort. PMID:24666831

  16. Desensitization of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor from rat brain: two distinguishable receptors on the same membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, D.J.; Subbarao, K.

    1987-01-01

    Transmembrane chloride flux mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor can be measured with a mammalian brain homogenate preparation containing sealed membrane vesicles. The preparation can be mixed rapidly with solutions of defined composition. Influx of 36 Cl - tracer initiated by mixing with GABA was rapidly terminated by mixing with bicuculline methiodide. The decrease in the isotope influx measurement due to prior incubation of the vesicle preparation with GABA, which increased with preincubation time and GABA concentration, was attributed to desensitization of the GABA receptor. By varying the time of preincubation with GABA between 10 ms and 50 s with quench-flow technique, the desensitization rates could be measured over their whole time course independently of the chloride ion flux rate. Most of the receptor activity decreased in a fast phase of desensitization complete in 200 ms at saturation with GABA. Remaining activity was desensitized in a few seconds. These two phases of desensitization were each kinetically first order and were shown to correspond with two distinguishable GABA receptors on the same membrane. The receptor activities could be estimated, and the faster desensitizing receptor was the predominant one, giving on average ca. 80% of the total activity. The half-response concentrations were similar, 150 and 114 μM for the major and minor receptors, respectively. The dependence on GABA concentration indicated that desensitization is mediated by two GABA binding sites. The fast desensitization rate was approximately 20-fold faster than previously reported rates while the slower desensitization rate was slightly faster than previously reported rates

  17. Effects of drive current rise-time and initial load density distribution on Z-pinch characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Yao-Yong; Guo Yong-Hui; Wang Wen-Sheng; Qiu Ai-Ci

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional, three-temperature radiation magneto-hydrodynamics model is applied to the investigation of evolutional trends in x-ray radiation power, energy, peak plasma temperature and density as functions of drive current rise-time and initial load density distribution by using the typical experimental parameters of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch on the Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator. The numerical results show that as the drive current rise-time is shortened, x-ray radiation peak power, energy, peak plasma density and peak ion temperature increase approximately linearly, but among them the x-ray radiation peak power increases more quickly. As the initial plasma density distribution in the radial direction becomes gradually flattened, the peak radiation power and the peak ion-temperature almost exponentially increase, while the radiation energy and the peak plasma density change only a little. The main effect of shortening drive current rise-time is to enhance compression of plasma, and the effect of flattening initial load density distribution in the radial direction is to raise the plasma temperature. Both of the approaches elevate the x-ray peak radiation power.

  18. Immune Desensitization Allows Pediatric Blood Group Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Jelena; Adamusiak, Anna; Kessaris, Nicos; Chandak, Pankaj; Ahmed, Zubir; Sebire, Neil J; Walsh, Grainne; Jones, Helen E; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-06-01

    Blood group incompatible transplantation (ABOi) in children is rare as pretransplant conditioning remains challenging and concerns persist about the potential increased risk of rejection. We describe the results of 11 ABOi pediatric renal transplant recipients in the 2 largest centers in the United Kingdom, sharing the same tailored desensitization protocol. Patients with pretransplant titers of 1 or more in 8 received rituximab 1 month before transplant; tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were started 1 week before surgery. Antibody removal was performed to reduce titers to 1 or less in 8 on the day of the operation. No routine postoperative antibody removal was performed. Death-censored graft survival at last follow-up was 100% in the ABOi and 98% in 50 compatible pediatric transplants. One patient developed grade 2A rejection successfully treated with antithymocyte globulin. Another patient had a titer rise of 2 dilutions treated with 1 immunoadsorption session. There was no histological evidence of rejection in the other 9 patients. One patient developed cytomegalovirus and BK and 2 others EBV and BK viremia. Tailored desensitization in pediatric blood group incompatible kidney transplantation results in excellent outcomes with graft survival and rejection rates comparable with compatible transplants.

  19. Systematic Desensitization as Training in Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfried, Marvin R.

    1971-01-01

    A description of a mediational model to explain the effectiveness of desensitization and a discussion of the available corroborative research findings for this alternative explanation are given. Also, specific procedural modifications for systematic desensitization are suggested. (Author)

  20. Rate of Homologous Desensitization and Internalization of the GLP-1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Ghina; Oriowo, Mabayoje; Al-Sabah, Suleiman

    2016-12-26

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an important target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of agonist stimulated desensitization and internalization of GLP-1R. To this end, an N-terminally myc-tagged GLP-1R was stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. Homologous desensitization was assessed by measuring the cAMP response to agonist stimulation following pre-incubation with agonist for up to 120 min. Receptor internalization was monitored using an indirect ELISA-based method and confocal microscopy. Pre-incubation with GLP-1 resulted in a time-dependent loss of response to a second stimulation. Washing cells following pre-incubation failed to bring cAMP levels back to basal. Taking this into account, two desensitization rates were calculated: "apparent" (t 1/2 = 19.27 min) and "net" (t 1/2 = 2.99 min). Incubation of cells with GLP-1 also resulted in a time-dependent loss of receptor cell surface expression (t 1/2 = 2.05 min). Rapid agonist-stimulated internalization of GLP-1R was confirmed using confocal microscopy. Stimulation of GLP-1R with GLP-1 results in rapid desensitization and internalization of the receptor. Interestingly, the rate of "net" desensitization closely matches the rate of internalization. Our results suggest that agonist-bound GLP-1R continues to generate cAMP after it has been internalized.

  1. Playing violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk

    2015-01-01

    This article examines current research linking exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence. Data from questionnaire, behavioral, and psychophysiologic research are reviewed to determine if exposure to violent video games is a risk factor for desensitization to violence. Real-world implications of desensitization are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug Hypersensitivity and Anaphylaxis in Cancer and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: The Role of Desensitizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Castells

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug allergy is a rising problem in the twenty-first century which affects all populations and races, children, and adults, and for which the recognition, diagnosis, management, and treatment is still not well standardized. Classical and new chemotherapy drugs, monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs, and small molecules to treat cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases are aimed at improving quality of life and life expectancy of patients, but an increasing number of reactions including anaphylaxis precludes their use in targeted populations. Women are more affected by drug allergy and up to 27% of women with ovarian and breast cancer develop carboplatin allergy after multiple cycles of treatment. Carriers of BRCA genes develop drug allergy after fewer exposures and can present with severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. Atopic patients are at increased risk for chemotherapy and MoAbs drug allergy and the current patterns of treatment with recurrent and intermittent drug exposures may favor the development of drug allergies. To overcome drug allergy, desensitization has been developed, a novel approach which provides a unique opportunity to protect against anaphylaxis and to improve clinical outcomes. There is evidence that inhibitory mechanisms blocking IgE/antigen mast cell activation are active during desensitization, enhancing safety. Whether desensitization modulates drug allergic and anaphylactic responses facilitating tolerance is currently being investigated. This review provides insight into the current knowledge of drug allergy and anaphylaxis to cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases drugs, the mechanisms of drug desensitization and its applications to personalized medicine.

  3. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Desensitization strategies in adult heart transplantation-Will persistence pay off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Sharon; Patel, Jignesh

    2016-08-01

    Strategies are needed to enable successful heart transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Immunologic challenges from sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) reduce access to compatible donors, extend waiting times to transplant, and increase the risks of antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy after transplant. The prime goal of desensitization is to increase access to transplantation through expansion of the donor organ pool. Existing therapies are directed at key components of the humoral immune response with newer biologically based regimens able to target plasma cells as the source of antibody production, as well as complement activation that has a central role in antibody-mediated injury. Despite the emergence of early promising results for these agents, a significant knowledge gap remains with the current data for desensitization, extrapolated mostly from non-heart solid-organ transplants and small observational studies. Notably, no approach has demonstrated significant and sustainable reductions in HLA antibody pre-transplant, and the ideal desensitization strategy remains elusive. In addition, clinical tools to evaluate the humoral response and efficacy of therapy are limited, focusing almost exclusively on HLA antibody detection. Importantly, desensitization is associated with significant costs and potential risks, and overall long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness have not been sufficiently evaluated. Investigation is ongoing into the development of a clinically effective desensitization strategy in heart transplantation. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  6. RF and dc desensitized electroexplosive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainiak, John W.; Speaks, Paul D.; Cornett, Michael S.

    1989-07-01

    This patent application relates to electroexplosive devices (EEDs) such as detonators, blasting caps and squibs, in particular to a method and device for desensitizing EEDs to electromagnetic radiation and electrostatic charges with the added ability to desensitize the device to essentially dc currents. An insensitive electroexplosive device to electrically ignite explosive is disclosed. This device is inherently immune to radio frequency (RF) radiation, and also provides protection against dc or very low frequency RF induced by arcing. A central feature is use of zeners and capacitors to form a reactively balanced bridge circuit. When constructed in semiconductor form, as described in this application, the device is capable of incorporation in small caliber ordnance.

  7. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steelman, Ryan; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  8. On postirradiation desensitization of the organism to adrenaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, M.V.; Petrova, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel rats weighing 220-260 g a study was made of the affect of adrenaline on the cyclic nucleotide content of blood plasma at early times following 60 Co gamma-irradiation (75 Gy). The absence of the organism response to adrenaline is perhaps due to the development of post irradiation desensitization of β-adrenergic system and inability to induce cAMP formation in a cell. The data are submitted confirming the affect of levamisole on the cyclic nucleitide level. The level of cGMP decreased in thymocytes and increased in blood plasma after the administration of the drug to irradiated animals

  9. Desensitization Protocol in Recipients of Deceased Kidney Donor With Donor-Specific Antibody-Low Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter Berga, J; Sancho Calabuig, A; Gavela Martinez, E; Puig Alcaraz, N; Avila Bernabeu, A; Crespo Albiach, J; Molina Vila, P; Beltrán Catalan, S; Pallardó Mateu, L

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the better option for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization, the wait times are significantly longer than for patients without antibodies. Many desensitization protocols have been described involving strong immunosuppression, the use of apheresis, and B-cell-modulating therapies. We have designed a desensitization protocol from day 0 for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Our aim was to present our initial experience with five kidney transplant patients. All patients had a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match. The desensitization protocol included five to seven doses of thymoglobulin (1.25 mg/kg) and three sessions of plasmapheresis (PP) within the first week after transplantation, with intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg) after each PP session and one dose of rituximab on day 8. The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) was analyzed by use of Luminex technology; levels between 1000 and 3000 mean fluorescence intensity were considered for desensitization. The median age was 44 years and median renal replacement therapy time was 9 years. All recipients presented 1 to 3 DSA specificities. There were no severe side effects related to PP, infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, or rituximab. The median follow-up period was 19.3 months. Median serum creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.7 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed in all patients. Graft and patient survival was 100%. Until now, few data are available concerning whether HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation after desensitization would benefit patients with ERSD. The desensitization strategy using the combination of PP, low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab at our center resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of desensitizing agents on dentin permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihata, Hiroshi; Kanehira, Masafumi; Nagai, Tomoko; Finger, Werner J; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro efficacy of two dentin desensitizing products at reducing liquid permeability through human dentin discs. The tested hypothesis was that the products, in spite of different chemical mechanisms were not different at reducing or eliminating flow through dentin discs. Dentin slices (1 mm thick) were prepared from 16 extracted human third molars and their permeability was indirectly recorded in a split chamber model, using a chemiluminescence technique, after EDTA treatment (control), after soaking with albumin, and after desensitizer application. Two products were studied: MS Coat, a self-curing resin-containing oxalate product, and Gluma Desensitizer, a glutaraldehyde/HEMA-based agent without initiator. The dentin slices were mounted between an upper chamber, filled with an aqueous solution of 1% potassium ferricyanide and 0.3% hydrogen peroxide, and a lower chamber filled with 1% sodium hydroxide solution and 0.02% luminol. The upper solution was pressurized, and upon contact with the luminol solution a photochemical signal was generated and recorded as a measure of permeability throughout two consecutive pressurizing cycles at 2.5 and 13 kPa (26 and 133 cm H2O), respectively. The permeability of the control and albumin-soaked samples was similarly high. After application of the desensitizing agents, dentin permeability was reduced to virtually zero at both pressure levels (P < 0.001).

  11. Clinical practice - Drug desensitization in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.; Mulder, W.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate type allergic reactions to medication are potentially life threatening and can hamper drug therapy of several medical conditions. Exact incidence and prevalence data for these reactions in children are lacking. If no alternative drug treatment is available, a desensitization procedure may

  12. An Aversion-Desensitization Treatment for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Richard V.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A six-to nine-month interview follow-up showed that five of the seven traceable Ss given the interpersonal aversion-systematic desensitization treatment had been abstinent, compared with only one of seven treated by the interpersonal aversion-control procedure. (Author)

  13. Endemic Images and the Desensitization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.; Antoun, Fouad T.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of endemic images on levels of anxiety and achievement of 48 high school students. Results suggested that a combination of endemic images and study skills training was as effective as desensitization plus study skills training. Includes the endemic image questionnaire. (JAC)

  14. Role Of Expectancy Manipulation In Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Alan

    1973-01-01

    Expectancy, relaxation, and hierarchy content were manipulated. Findings did not support the hypothesis that expectancy was the only factor in desensitization, but did clarify the role of expectancy vis-a-vis the counterconditioning elements typically discussed in the literature. (Author)

  15. Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-09-07

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  16. High-voltage isolation transformer for sub-nanosecond rise time pulses constructed with annular parallel-strip transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A novel annular parallel-strip transmission line was devised to construct high-voltage high-speed pulse isolation transformers. The transmission lines can easily realize stable high-voltage operation and good impedance matching between primary and secondary circuits. The time constant for the step response of the transformer was calculated by introducing a simple low-frequency equivalent circuit model. Results show that the relation between the time constant and low-cut-off frequency of the transformer conforms to the theory of the general first-order linear time-invariant system. Results also show that the test transformer composed of the new transmission lines can transmit about 600 ps rise time pulses across the dc potential difference of more than 150 kV with insertion loss of -2.5 dB. The measured effective time constant of 12 ns agreed exactly with the theoretically predicted value. For practical applications involving the delivery of synchronized trigger signals to a dc high-voltage electron gun station, the transformer described in this paper exhibited advantages over methods using fiber optic cables for the signal transfer system. This transformer has no jitter or breakdown problems that invariably occur in active circuit components.

  17. Prospective iterative trial of proteasome inhibitor-based desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodle, E S; Shields, A R; Ejaz, N S; Sadaka, B; Girnita, A; Walsh, R C; Alloway, R R; Brailey, P; Cardi, M A; Abu Jawdeh, B G; Roy-Chaudhury, P; Govil, A; Mogilishetty, G

    2015-01-01

    A prospective iterative trial of proteasome inhibitor (PI)-based therapy for reducing HLA antibody (Ab) levels was conducted in five phases differing in bortezomib dosing density and plasmapheresis timing. Phases included 1 or 2 bortezomib cycles (1.3 mg/m(2) × 6-8 doses), one rituximab dose and plasmapheresis. HLA Abs were measured by solid phase and flow cytometry (FCM) assays. Immunodominant Ab (iAb) was defined as highest HLA Ab level. Forty-four patients received 52 desensitization courses (7 patients enrolled in multiple phases): Phase 1 (n = 20), Phase 2 (n = 12), Phase 3 (n = 10), Phase 4 (n = 5), Phase 5 (n = 5). iAb reductions were observed in 38 of 44 (86%) patients and persisted up to 10 months. In Phase 1, a 51.5% iAb reduction was observed at 28 days with bortezomib alone. iAb reductions increased with higher bortezomib dosing densities and included class I, II, and public antigens (HLA DRβ3, HLA DRβ4 and HLA DRβ5). FCM median channel shifts decreased in 11/11 (100%) patients by a mean of 103 ± 54 mean channel shifts (log scale). Nineteen out of 44 patients (43.2%) were transplanted with low acute rejection rates (18.8%) and de novo DSA formation (12.5%). In conclusion, PI-based desensitization consistently and durably reduces HLA Ab levels providing an alternative to intravenous immune globulin-based desensitization. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Receptor downregulation and desensitization enhance the information processing ability of signalling receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Haluk

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to initiating signaling events, the activation of cell surface receptors also triggers regulatory processes that restrict the duration of signaling. Acute attenuation of signaling can be accomplished either via ligand-induced internalization of receptors (endocytic downregulation or via ligand-induced receptor desensitization. These phenomena have traditionally been viewed in the context of adaptation wherein the receptor system enters a refractory state in the presence of sustained ligand stimuli and thereby prevents the cell from over-responding to the ligand. Here we use the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR as model systems to respectively examine the effects of downregulation and desensitization on the ability of signaling receptors to decode time-varying ligand stimuli. Results Using a mathematical model, we show that downregulation and desensitization mechanisms can lead to tight and efficient input-output coupling thereby ensuring synchronous processing of ligand inputs. Frequency response analysis indicates that upstream elements of the EGFR and GPCR networks behave like low-pass filters with the system being able to faithfully transduce inputs below a critical frequency. Receptor downregulation and desensitization increase the filter bandwidth thereby enabling the receptor systems to decode inputs in a wider frequency range. Further, system-theoretic analysis reveals that the receptor systems are analogous to classical mechanical over-damped systems. This analogy enables us to metaphorically describe downregulation and desensitization as phenomena that make the systems more resilient in responding to ligand perturbations thereby improving the stability of the system resting state. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in addition to serving as mechanisms for adaptation, receptor downregulation and desensitization can play a critical role in temporal information

  19. Medication Desensitization: Characterization of Outcomes and Risk Factors for Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Taryn S; Rice, Todd W; Wheeler, Arthur P; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Dworski, Ryszard T; Stollings, Joanna L

    2016-03-01

    Although its mechanisms are poorly understood, desensitization has been used to induce a temporary state of immune unresponsiveness in patients who have IgE-, non-IgE-, or pharmacologically mediated reactions when a drug has no alternatives. The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcomes and identify risk factors for reactions during drug desensitization. A retrospective review of electronic medical records of adult patients undergoing drug desensitization from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, was conducted in 2 intensive care units at a tertiary medical center. We used multivariate analysis to determine if specified risk factors were associated with reacting during the desensitization. Reactions were classified according to the pretest probability prior to desensitization, and then, reactions during desensitization were classified based on the occurrence of cutaneous reactions as follows: successful with no reaction, mild reaction, moderate reaction, or failed. Failure could result from any systemic allergic or cutaneous reaction resulting in procedure termination. The desensitizations were also assessed to determine if the patient required de-escalation secondary to a reaction. A total of 88 desensitizations were performed in 69 patients. Desensitization was completed with no cutaneous reaction in 85% of patients. No baseline characteristic, medication class (P = 0.46), or indication for desensitization (P = 0.59) was associated with having a reaction. Reported histories of urticaria (P desensitization. However, neither history of urticaria nor labored breathing was independently associated with having a reaction in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.979, 95% CI = 0.325-2.952, P = 0.970, and OR = 1.626, 95% CI = 0.536-4.931, P = 0.739, respectively). Drug desensitization is safe for patients who have no alternative for therapy. Reported allergy histories of urticaria and labored breathing are both associated with having a reaction during the

  20. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  1. Desensitization: Overcoming the Immunologic Barriers to Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jua; Vo, Ashley; Peng, Alice; Jordan, Stanley C.

    2017-01-01

    HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigen) sensitization is a significant barrier to successful kidney transplantation. It often translates into difficult crossmatch before transplant and increased risk of acute and chronic antibody mediated rejection after transplant. Over the last decade, several immunomodulatory therapies have emerged allowing for increased access to kidney transplantation for the immunologically disadvantaged group of HLA sensitized end stage kidney disease patients. These include IgG inactivating agents, anti-cytokine antibodies, costimulatory molecule blockers, complement inhibitors, and agents targeting plasma cells. In this review, we discuss currently available agents for desensitization and provide a brief analysis of data on novel biologics, which will likely improve desensitization outcomes, and have potential implications in treatment of antibody mediated rejection. PMID:28127571

  2. Desensitization of parathyroid hormone receptors on cultured bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pun, K.K.; Ho, P.W.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Administration of excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the treatment of osteoporosis can reverse the beneficial effects of a low-dose, intermittent regime. To investigate the direct actions and the possible cellular mechanisms of PTH in inducing desensitization of PTH receptors, we studied the effects of desensitization on rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. When the osteoblasts were preincubated with bPTH-(1-34), complete refractoriness to a subsequent challenge with the hormone developed within 1 h and at hormone concentrations as low as 5 nM. When osteoblasts thus desensitized were incubated in hormone-free medium, recovery of the cAMP responses began within 2 h and reached maximum after 16 h. Cycloheximide did not affect the process of desensitization. [Nle8,Nle18,Tyr34]bPTH-(3-34)amide significantly impaired the desensitization process by PTH-(1-34) but did not have stimulatory effect on cAMP responses. No significant heterologous desensitization was obvious after preincubation with isoprenaline (50 microM), prostaglandin E1 (50 microM), or prostaglandin E2 (50 microM) for 2 h. Binding experiments with [125I]PLP-(1-36)amide after desensitization revealed that there was an approximate twofold decrease in receptor affinities as analyzed by Scatchard analysis, showing that the decrease in affinity was prominent in the process of desensitization. When the cells were treated with monensin during desensitization, PTH challenge after desensitization produced significantly lower cyclic AMP responses. Recovery after desensitization occurred over a period of 16 h. Inclusion of monensin, but not cycloheximide, impaired the recovery. The results show that homologous desensitization of rat osteoblasts to PTH is brought about by the occupancy of receptors by PTH-(1-34) but not by cAMP generation itself

  3. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  4. Effects of a Dicalcium and Tetracalcium Phosphate-Based Desensitizer on In Vitro Dentin Permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhou

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer in reducing dentin permeability in vitro. Dentin fluid flow was measured before and after treatment of dentin with patent dentinal tubules using 1 or 3 applications of the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate containing agent TeethmateTM (TM and comparing the results with two sodium fluoride varnishes VellaTM (VLA and VanishTM (VAN, after storage in artificial saliva for 24 h, 48 h and 7 days. Significant differences were observed among the 4 methods employed for reducing dentin permeability (p < 0.001 and the 3 post-treatment times (p < 0.001. VLA and VAN never achieved 50% permeability reductions consistently in any of the 3 time periods. Only the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer applied for 3 times consistently reduced dentin permeability by 50% after 24 h. When applied once, the permeability reduction of TM increased progressively over the 3 time periods. After 7 days, only one and three applications of the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer consistently reduced dentin permeability by more than 50%. Permeability reductions corresponded well with scanning electron microscopy examination of dentinal tubule orifice occlusion in dentin specimens treated with the agents. Overall, the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer is effective in reducing dentin permeability via a tubule occlusion mechanism. The ability of the agent to reduce dentin permeability renders it to be potentially useful as a clinical dentin desensitizing agent, which has to be confirmed in future clinical studies. By contrast, the two sodium fluoride varnishes are not effective in dentin permeability reduction and should be considered as topical fluoride delivering agents rather than tubular orifice-blocking agents.

  5. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO4 and Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillation crystals

    CERN Document Server

    E. Auffray; A. Borisevich; V. Gulbinas; A. Fedorov; M. Korjik; M.T. Lucchini; V. Mechinsky; S. Nargelas; E. Songaila; G. Tamulaitis; A. Vaitkevičius; S. Zazubovich

    2016-01-01

    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study two promising scintillators: self-activated lead tungstate (PWO, PbWO4) and Ce-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG, Gd3Al2Ga3O12). A sub-picosecond PL rise time is observed in PWO, while longer processes in the PL response in GAGG:Ce are detected and studied. The mechanisms responsible for the PL rise time in self-activated and doped scintillators are under discussion.

  6. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T

    2013-12-01

    Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. To examine the safety and efficacy of oral desensitization in peanut-allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE mAb (omalizumab [Xolair]). We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut-allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered before and during oral peanut desensitization. We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE level of 229 kU(A)/L and a median total serum IgE level of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge at peanut flour doses of 100 mg or less. After pretreatment with omalizumab, all 13 subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. Twelve subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4000 mg peanut flour per day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4000 mg peanut flour per day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions, 5 subjects had grade 2 reactions, and 2 subjects had grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization and qualitatively improve the desensitization process. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspirin desensitization in aspirin-sensitive asthma: failure to maintain a desensitized state during prolonged therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankner, R E; Wedner, H J

    1983-11-01

    A patient with a history of asthma induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was found to be ASA sensitive when orally challenged with ASA. She was successfully desensitized using incremental doses of ASA given orally and maintained on ASA or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory (NSAI) agents for the treatment of arthritis. After 6 months of uninterrupted therapy the patient developed asthmatic symptoms that were related to ASA and NSAI drug therapy. Although desensitization may be achieved in patients with ASA-sensitive asthma, sensitivity may recur despite continuous therapy.

  8. Replica of human dentin treated with different desensitizing agents: a methodological SEM study in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Jose Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary study to determine a methodological sequence in vitro which may allow the reproduction of dentin for SEM analysis, after the use of different desensitizing agents. Dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were etched with 6% citric acid, an artificial smear layer was created and the surface dentin discs were divided into four quadrants. Quadrants 2, 3 and 4 of each disc were conditioned with 6% citric acid. The desensitizing agents (Oxa-Gel®, Gluma Desensitizer and an experimental agent were applied to quadrants 3 and 4. To evaluate the acid resistance of the treatment, quadrant 4 was etched again with 6% citric acid. An impression was then taken with Aquasil ULV. After a setting period of 6 min, each disc was removed from the impression and stored in a moist-free environment for 24 h at 37ºC. After that time, a low-viscosity epoxy resin (Araltec GY 1109 BR was poured into the impression and cured for 24 h. All specimens were metal-coated for SEM analysis. Comparison of the photomicrographs of dentin discs with their respective impressions and resin replicas showed that this technique can reproduce the characteristics of the dentin surface treated with desensitizing agents.

  9. Desensitization to Oxcarbazepine: Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Park, Eu Gene; Lee, Munhyang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Antiepileptic drug (AED)-associated cutaneous adverse drug reactions can lead to the discontinuation of medications. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of performing desensitization to oxcarbazepine. Methods This study involved 20 patients who exhibited cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with oxcarbazepine use between July 2009 and March 2016 at Samsung Medical Center. All of the participants had to discontinue oxcarbazepine despite presenting initially positive responses. Human leukocyte antigen genotyping was performed to detect the genetic predisposition to Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The desensitization to oxcarbazepine was performed with a starting dosage of 0.1 mg/day. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing the frequency of seizures before and at 1 and 3 years after desensitization. Adverse events occurring during desensitization and the retention rate after desensitization were also investigated. Results Nineteen patients (95%) safely completed the desensitization protocol. One withdrew owing to emotional problems that appeared to be associated with oxcarbazepine. The follow-up period was 4.6±1.2 years (mean±SD), and oxcarbazepine was maintained for more than 3 years after desensitization in 15 patients (83.3%). The response rates were 84.2% and 77.8% at 1 and 3 years after desensitization, respectively. Eight patients remained seizure-free for 3 years, and two discontinued all AEDs. Transient adverse reactions such as mild rash and itching were reported by five patients during desensitization. Conclusions This study has demonstrated the long-term efficacy and safety of desensitization to oxcarbazepine in patients exhibiting cutaneous adverse drug reactions. This favorable outcome should encourage the implementation of desensitization in patients presenting with hypersensitivity to oxcarbazepine as an alternative strategy in clinical practice. PMID:27730770

  10. Evaluating the impact of pre-transplant desensitization utilizing a plasmapheresis and low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin protocol on BK viremia in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, S; Townsend, K; Martin, S T; Chandraker, A

    2013-08-01

    A correlation exists between polyomavirus BK (BKV) viremia in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and the degree of immunosuppression. However, the impact of pre-transplant desensitization on the incidence of BKV viremia is unknown. This retrospective study evaluated living-donor RTR between January 2004 and December 2008 receiving routine BKV viral load monitoring. Patients were divided into those who underwent pre-transplant desensitization (n = 20) and those who did not (n = 71). The primary endpoint was the incidence of BKV viremia at 1 year post transplant. All demographic data were similar, except for more female patients (65% vs. 36.6%; P = 0.0392) in the desensitized group. More desensitized patients had a previous transplant (75% vs. 12.7%; P < 0.0001) and were more likely to be induced with basiliximab (75% vs. 35.2%; P = 0.0021). Following transplantation, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) rates were highest in the desensitized group (55% vs. 1.4%; P < 0.0001). The incidence of BKV viremia at 1 year post transplant was significantly higher in desensitized patients (45% vs. 19.7%; P = 0.0385). Desensitization was also associated with a higher prevalence of BKV viremia at any time post transplant (50% vs. 22.5%; P = 0.0245), polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (20% vs. 2.8%; P = 0.0198) and BKV-related allograft loss (10% vs. 0%; P = 0.0464). Also of note, in a subgroup analysis of only our desensitized patients, it did not appear that development of AMR significantly impacted the incidence of BKV viremia in these individuals. This analysis reveals that pre-transplant desensitization significantly increases the risk for BKV viremia and nephropathy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Minimization of the external heating power by long fusion power rise-up time for self-ignition access in the helical reactor FFHR2m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, O.; Sagara, A.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imagawa, S.; Shishkin, A.A.; Motojima, O.

    2006-10-01

    Minimization of the external heating power to access self-ignition is advantageous to increase the reactor design flexibility and to reduce the capital and operating costs of the plasma heating device in a helical reactor. In this work we have discovered that a larger density limit leads to a smaller value of the required confinement enhancement factor, lower density limit margin reduces the external heating power, and over 300 s of the fusion power rise-up time makes it possible to reach a minimized heating power. While the fusion power rise-up time in a tokamak is limited by the OH transformer flux or the current drive capability, any fusion power rise-up time can be employed in a helical reactor for reducing the thermal stresses of the blanket and shields, because the confinement field is generated by the external helical coils. (author)

  12. Application of the pulse-rise-time discriminator for background noise decreasing in proportional x-ray counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goganov, D.A.; Guslina, A.G.; Korolev, V.F.; Lozinskij, B.S.; Sklyankin, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The intrinsic background of commercial rising edge discriminator - based proportional counters has been measured. The block-diagram of the experimental apparatus comprises the detector to be tested, a charge-sensitive amplifier with an amplitude analyzer, a rising edge discriminator (RED) and a scaling device. The rising edges have been analyzed in the range between 0.2 to 0.7 of the pulse amplitude. The RED threshold has been preset to cut off all the edges longer than those of 55 Fe (to register 87% of the 55 Fe quanta). It has been found that by limiting the amplitude discriminator window to +-20% and using a RED the background of commercial counters can be reduced by about an order

  13. From RISING to the DESPEC fast-timing project within NUSTAR at FAIR: Sub-nanosecond nuclear timing spectroscopy with LaBr3 scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises a presentation given at the IRRMA8 conference in June 2011 which reviewed briefly the topic of current research studies in the evolution of nuclear structure with changing proton and neutron numbers. A short review of relevant contemporary spectroscopic studies of the structure of nuclei with highly exotic N/Z ratios using projectile fragmentation and fission reactions is given, together with an overview of some of the physics research aims to be attacked using the proposed Decay Spectroscopy (DESPEC) LaBr 3 Fast-Timing gamma-ray array for the NUSTAR project at the upcoming Facility for Anti-Proton and Ion Research (FAIR). Examples of recent results using both ‘isomer’ and β − -delayed gamma-ray decay measurements with the Stopped RISING hyper-pure germanium array at GSI are summarised and used to highlight some of the fundamental physics studies which are expected to become available in this area of research in the coming decade. Examples of the performance of cerium-doped LaBr 3 detectors from ‘in-beam’ test experiments are presented together with initial plans for the geometry of the planned multi-detector LaBr 3 (Ce) array for DESPEC. - Highlights: ► The paper presents an overview of nuclear excitation systematics in even–even nuclei. ► The paper gives a description of the Stopped RISING gamma-ray spectrometer. ► This paper gives some of the recent scientific results in nuclear spectroscopy of exotic nuclei. ► The paper shows the use of halide scintillation detectors for gamma-ray decay studies of nuclei. ► This paper shows the use of LaBr 3 detectors to nuclear excited state lifetimes in the ns regime.

  14. EMG Biofeedback Training Versus Systematic Desensitization for Test Anxiety Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Cabianca, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Biofeedback training to reduce test anxiety among university students was investigated. Biofeedback training with systematic desensitization was compared to an automated systematic desensitization program not using EMG feedback. Biofeedback training is a useful technique for reducing test anxiety, but not necessarily more effective than systematic…

  15. Transfer, Behavioral Improvement, and Anxiety Reduction in Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Thomas D.; Kimura, Harry K.

    1974-01-01

    Degree of transfer and fear change associated with four levels of desensitization, pseudodesensitization, and no treatment were assessed in snakephobic students. Desensitization subjects reported significantly less anxiety than no-treatment controls when repeating their highest pretreatment responses, but were no different from either control…

  16. Hypnosis Versus Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Joseph; Russell, Ronald W.

    1976-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and the directed experience hypnotic technique in reducing self-reported test anxiety and increasing the academic performance of test-anxious undergraduates (N=36). The results are discussed as evidence for systematic desensitization as the more effective treatment in reducing…

  17. Galvanic Skin Response and Reported Anxiety During Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Edward T.; Gale, Elliot N.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the GSR during systematic desensitization. Three groups of females each were preselected for high snake fear. Outcome measures indicated that the desensitization group reduced phobic behavior most, followed by the relaxation group, and then the exposure groups. (Author)

  18. Therapist Warmth: Necessary or Sufficient Condition in Behavioral Desensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowitz, Howard Martin

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the Morris and Suckerman report on experimental studies testing the Rogerian hypothesis that phobic desensitization occurs as a function of therapist warmth versus the behavioral explanation that desensitization is a function of reciprocal inhibition. Morris and Suckerman respond to the critique. (Author/EJT)

  19. Effects of Modeling and Desensitation in Reducing Dentist Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David W.; Thoresen, Carl E.

    1974-01-01

    Many persons avoid dentists and dental work. The present study explored the effects of systematic desensitization and social-modeling treatments with placebo and assessment control groups. Modeling was more effective than desensitization as shown by the number of subjects who went to a dentist. (Author)

  20. Semantics Desensitization: A Paradigmatic Intervention Approach to Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Hamid; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assigned speech-anxious clients (N=30) to one of the following treatment conditions: (1) semantic desensitization; (2) attention placebo and (3) waiting list control. Results indicated that semantic desensitization therapy reduced both the affective and behavioral components of anxiety as compared to the two controls. (LLL)

  1. Desensitization to Mycofenolate Mofetil: a novel 12 step protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Gonzalez-Estrada, A; Fernandez, J; Subramanian, A

    2016-07-01

    The use of MMF has become standard practice in many solid organ transplant recipients due its efficacy and favorable risk profile compared to other immunosuppressants. There has been a single case report of successful MMF desensitization. However, this protocol did not follow current Drug practice parameters. We report a successful desensitization to MMF in a double heart-kidney transplant recipient.

  2. In Vitro Desensitization of Human Skin Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Gomez, Gregorio; Macey, Matthew; Kepley, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Desensitization is a clinical procedure whereby incremental doses of a drug are administered over several hours to a sensitive patient until a therapeutic dose and clinical tolerance are achieved. Clinical tolerance may occur in part by attenuating the mast cell response. In the present study, primary human skin mast cells were used to establish and characterize an in vitro model of desensitization. Mast cells in culture were armed with allergen-specific (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylacety and Der p2) and non-specific IgE antibodies, and then desensitized by incremental exposures to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacety-BSA. This desensitization procedure abrogated the subsequent degranulation response to the desensitizing allergen, to an unrelated allergen, and to IgG anti-FcεRI, but not to C5a, substance P, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore. Desensitized cells regained their FcεRI-dependent degranulation capability by 24–48 h after free allergen had been removed. Therefore, sensitized human skin mast cells are reversibly desensitized in vitro by exposure to incremental doses of that allergen, which also cross-desensitizes them to an unrelated allergen. PMID:22009002

  3. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cow's Milk Desensitization in Anaphylactic Patients: A New Personalized-dose Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Delara; Nabavi, Mohammad; Arshi, Saba; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Bemanian, Mohammad Hasan; Tafakori, Mitra; Amirmoini, Mehrdad; Esmailzadeh, Hosein; Molatefi, Rasoul; Rekabi, Mahsa; Akbarpour, Nadieh; Masoumi, Farimah; Fallahpour, Morteza

    2017-02-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most frequent food allergy in children and oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising approach for treatment of patients. The most challenging cases are anaphylactic with coexisting asthma and proposing safe protocols is crucial especially in high risk groups. Considering that CMA varies among patients, an individualized OIT protocol would be beneficial to achieve a safer and more efficient method of desensitization. 18 children more than 3 years of age with IgE-mediated CMA were enrolled. CMA was confirmed by positive skin prick test (SPT) and positive oral food challenge (OFC) and 60% of individuals had a convincing history of persistent asthma. SPT with milk extracts, whole fresh milk and serially diluted milk concentrations were performed.  The dilution of milk that induced 3-5 mm of wheal in each individual was selected as the starting dilution for OIT. Desensitization began by 1 drop of the defined dilution and continued increasingly. Overall, 16 out of 18 children (88.8%) achieved the daily intake of 120 mL of milk. Four out of these 16 children accomplished the protocol without any adverse allergic reactions. 12 patients experienced mild to severe reactions. Wheal and erythema in SPT (p≤0.001), and sIgE (p≤0.003) to most milk allergens were significantly decreased following desensitization. We successfully desensitized 16 of 18 children with IgE-mediated CMA by individualized desensitization protocol. Individualizing the OIT protocol would be helpful to save time and perhaps to relieve the allergic symptoms after ingesting cow's milk intake.

  5. Desensitization in patients with beta-lactam drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusin, J S; Klaustermeyer, W; Simmons, C W; Baum, M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with a history of beta-lactam antibiotic allergy are often admitted to the hospital with severe or life-threatening infections requiring beta-lactam antibiotics. Strict avoidance of beta lactams to such patients may prevent them from getting adequate coverage and can lead to an increase in the use of alternative antibiotics, which can predispose to antibiotic resistance. Past studies revealed a lower incidence of pen allergy then patients' histories suggest. Fortunately today, there are three options for patients presenting with a history of beta-lactam allergy. Penicillin skin testing, beta-lactam challenge or beta-lactam desensitization. Recently Pre Pen has been FDA re-approved and when combined with Pen G is a valid way to determine if patients are able to tolerate beta-lactam antibiotic. When these agents are not available one must decide about desensitization or challenge. When a patient has a positive penicillin skin test, desensitization or beta-lactam avoidance are the only options. This paper reviews the safety of beta-lactam desensitization. To perform a chart review on patients desensitised with beta lactam to determine if desensitizations can be performed safely without minimal complications. A retrospective chart review was performed on allergy and immunology inpatient consultations for beta-lactam desensitization between September 2003 and August 2006 at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles. Patient data and outcomes of desensitization were analysed. A total of 13 intravenous desensitizations were performed on 12 patients. The patients consisted of eight females and four males with an average age of 65 years. Age range was 36-92 years old. All 13 intravenous desensitizations were completed without complications. No patient required a slower rate of desensitization or discontinuance of the desensitization. Patients were able to tolerate the initial therapeutic dose of their beta-lactam antibiotic and were then able to complete full

  6. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization in otolaryngic allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulec, Jack L

    2002-03-01

    This is a preliminary report of a new method of treating otolaryngic allergy with enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD). The nature of EPD and its use in otolaryngology are described. Thirty-six patients have been treated and followed in a private medical practice since February 1997. This article reviews the clinical features of EPD and provides six cases as examples; the clinical features described include allergic rhinitis, serous otitis media, asthma, dermatitis, fixed food allergy, and Ménière's disease. EPD is an effective technique for the treatment of otolaryngic allergy and offers advantages over conventional techniques.

  7. Green's function for a switched plasma medium and a perturbation technique for the study of wave propagation in a transient plasma with a small rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalluri, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The main effect of switching a medium (creating a temporal discontinuity in the properties of a medium) is the splitting of the source (incident) wave into new waves whose frequencies are different. Lightning induced effects in the ionosphere cause a temporary enhancement of ionization. Such transient plasmas have a time-varying plasma frequency ω p (t) with a rise time T r . If the period t 0 of a source wave existing before the transient effect begins is much larger than the rise time, the ionization change may be idealized as a sudden switching of the medium. The solution to this initial value problem with a step-change in the electron density profile is known and this profile will be considered as a reference profile. The topic of this paper is the solution of the initial value problem when t 0 is comparable to the rise time T r . The initial motivation for investigating the problem is given below. There is considerable interest in the ionospheric physics community to investigate the recently discovered Sprites phenomenon which are red emissions in the lower D region induced by the lightning discharges from a cloud to the ground. The preliminary indications are that the Sprite is a plasma with electron density enhanced by about 10 1 to 10 3 /cc in a rise time of about 100 micros

  8. An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Summerville, Jessica R.; Cullis, Bethia L.; Druker, Eric R.; Rutledge, Gabriel B.; Braxton, Peter J.; Coleman, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Since the end of the Cold War, the perceived need for Navy ships has dropped, and so the shipbuilding budget has dropped. Seemingly coincidental with this budgetary pressure, and perversely aggravating the problem, ship costs began to rise steeply. We will set aside that ships have grown in weight by about three percent per year since World War II and that ever-more weapon systems are being put into them, and confine ourselves to discu...

  9. Effect of desensitizing toothpastes on dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelon Cristina Souza Pinto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of toothbrushing with desensitizing toothpastes on dentin permeability and dentinal tubule occlusion. Fifty rats provided two hundred incisor teeth divided into five groups: DW, brushed with distilled water (control; FT, brushed with fluoride toothpaste; SCT, brushed with strontium chloride toothpaste; PCT, brushed with potassium citrate toothpaste; and PNT, brushed with potassium nitrate toothpaste. Cavities were prepared to expose the dentinal tubules, and the incisor teeth were brushed using the experimental agents. After each treatment, Evans blue dye solution was applied to the teeth. Dentin permeability was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX. There were significant differences (p < 0.0001, ANOVA among the groups regarding dentin permeability, number of dentinal tubules, diameter of dentinal tubules, and opened tubular area. In the SCT, PCT and PNT groups, opened and partially occluded tubules, deposits, and a few smear layers were observed. In the DW and FT groups, most of the dentinal tubules were open, with no deposits or smear layers on the dentin. EDX revealed peaks of calcium and phosphorus in all of the groups, as well as traces of strontium in the SCT group and of potassium in the PCT and PNT groups. Desensitizing toothpaste decreased dentin permeability, although it produced only partial dentin tubule occlusion.

  10. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  11. Aspirin challenge and desensitization: how, when and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Gabriele; Caruso, Cristiano; Romano, Antonino

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the current approach to aspirin challenge (drug provocation) and/or desensitization in patients with histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it, particularly in those with cardiovascular diseases. The literature indicates that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), including those with an acute coronary syndrome, may safely undergo low-dose aspirin challenge and/or desensitization. Recently, flowcharts regarding challenge/desensitization procedures with aspirin in patients with CAD and histories of aspirin hypersensitivity reactions have become available. Aspirin desensitization and continuous aspirin therapy constitute an effective option in patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory diseases (NERD) who have suboptimally controlled asthma or rhinosinusitis, or require multiple revision polypectomies. The use of aspirin has proven to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with CAD. There is a general consensus on aspirin's effectiveness in secondary prevention of CAD. Therefore, aspirin desensitization is necessary in patients with CAD and histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it. The effectiveness of aspirin desensitization and continuous therapy in patients with NERD has been shown in numerous studies. However, shared selection criteria of candidates for aspirin challenge/desensitization procedures, and simple and homogeneous protocols are necessary. Moreover, preventive safety measures are still needed in order to reduce the potential risks of these procedures.

  12. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut allergic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C.; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of oraldesensitization in peanut allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab, Xolair). Methods We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered prior to and during oral peanut desensitization. Results We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo controlled food challenge at doses 100 mg peanut flour. After pre-treatment with omalizumab, all subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. 12 subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4,000 mg peanut flour/day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4,000 mg peanut flour/day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8,000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions; 6 subjects had Grade 2, and 2 subjects Grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Conclusions Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization, and qualitativelyimprove the desensitization process. PMID:24176117

  13. Outpatient desensitization in selected patients with platinum hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, David M; Vetter, Monica Hagan; Cohn, David E; Khan, Ambar; Hays, John L

    2017-06-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies are a standard treatment for both initial and recurrent gynecologic cancers. Given this widespread use, it is important to be aware of the features of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the subsequent treatment of these reactions. There is also increasing interest in the development of desensitization protocols to allow patients with a history of platinum hypersensitivity to receive further platinum based therapy. In this review, we describe the management of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the desensitization protocols utilized at our institution. We also describe the clinical categorizations utilized to triage patients to appropriate desensitization protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Different effects of pentobarbital on two γ-aminobutyrate receptors from rat brain: channel opening, desensitization, and an additional conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, D.J.; Subbarao, K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pentobarbital on the responses of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor from rat brain was studied in quantitative measurements of GABA-mediated chloride-exchange rates (reflecting channel-opening equilibrium) and receptor desensitization rates by using 36 Cl - tracer ion with negative membrane vesicles. Pentobarbital effected the two phases of 36 Cl - influx in different ways, supporting previous evidence that these are mediated by two different receptors. Both the chloride-exchange rate and the desensitization rate of the faster desensitizing receptor were increased by pentobarbital at concentrations above 20 μM by an allosteric effect shifting the response curve to lower GABA concentrations. A similar enhancement of the responses of the slower desensitizing receptor occurred up to 200 μM pentobarbital. Two pentobarbital effector sites were involved in the allosteric mechanism. Above 500 μM pentobarbital, both the initial chloride-exchange rate and the desensitization rate of the slower desensitizing receptor were decreased. This inhibition, which was immediate, occurred with saturating as well as low GABA concentrations and therefore was not attributed to decreased GABA binding but to inhibitory sites for pentobarbital, different from the allosteric activating sites and the GABA binding sites. The chloride ion exchange activity was seen to recover with time, at concentrations above 1000 μM pentobarbital, in a process with a very steep dependence on pentobarbital concentration. This reactivation was attributed to the conversion of an initial form of the receptor to a final form that was less inhibited by pentobarbital. Comparisons of the effects of pentobarbital on desensitization and on high-affinity ligand binding measurements suggest that increased GABA binding at equilibrium reflects an increased conversion to the desensitized state

  16. Effect of liquid gate bias rising time in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion sensitive field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jungkyu; Choi, Sungju; Kim, Jungmok; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Dae Hwan; Mo, Hyun-Sun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of rising time (TR) of liquid gate bias (VLG) on transient responses in pH sensors based on Si nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs). As TR becomes shorter and pH values decrease, the ISFET current takes a longer time to saturate to the pH-dependent steady-state value. By correlating VLG with the internal gate-to-source voltage of the ISFET, we found that this effect occurs when the drift/diffusion of mobile ions in analytes in response to VLG is delayed. This gives us useful insight on the design of ISFET-based point-of-care circuits and systems, particularly with respect to determining an appropriate rising time for the liquid gate bias.

  17. Desensitization to darunavir in a pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of HIV infection requires the combination of multiple antiretroviral drugs, known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; however, up to 84% of patients experience adverse drug effects that lead to discontinuation within first months of treatment. Skin manifestations are reported to 22% of patients. The severity of these is variable, such as erythema multiforme, rash, hives and severe skin reactions at less than 2%. Mild rashes, usually transient and self-limiting, while severe reactions require immediately remove the drug involved to prevent progression of the reaction. Only in those cases where the offending drug does not have another alternative and documented the reaction is mediated type I hypersensitivity mechanisms, can be performed desensitization protocol.

  18. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  19. A Comparison of Traditional and Self-Control Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Parks, Donald H.

    1979-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of counterconditioning and self-control models of systematic desensitization in reducing targeted and nontargeted anxieties. Treatments were equally effective in reducing and maintaining reduction of targeted anxiety, debilitating test anxiety. (Author)

  20. Systematic Versus Semantic Desensitization and Implosive Therapy: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1973-01-01

    In this study, both the semantic and systematic desensitization methods were found to be significantly more effective than the implosive therapy and the control treatments in the modification of phobic behavior among the college student population. (Author)

  1. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization effectively reduced debilitating test anxiety and increased facilitating test anxiety. Follow-up demonstrated maintenance of debilitating test anxiety reduction. Subjects receiving treatment had significantly higher psychology grades. (Author)

  2. Contribution of Pretesting to Several Measures of Semantic Desensitization Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Allen C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Snake- or spider-phobic subjects (N=32) were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Subjects receiving semantic desensitization therapy showed less posttest anxiety on the semantic differential than control subjects regardless of testing condition. (Author)

  3. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Braskett, Melinda; Carino, Arvie

    2016-02-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic agents can cause the discontinuation of first-line therapies. Chemotherapy desensitization is a safe, but labor-intensive, process to administer these important medications. A desensitization protocol can enable a patient to receive the entire target dose of a medication, even if the patient has a history of severe infusion reactions. In this article, the authors explain the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and describe the recent development of desensitization protocols in oncology. In part II of this article, which will appear in the April 2016 issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, the authors will give a detailed account of how a desensitization protocol is performed at an academic medical center.
.

  4. [Castleman's disease: Rapid desensitization for hypersensitivity reaction to rituximab].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boin, C; Lambert, S; Thomann, P; Aujoulat, O; Kieffer, P

    2016-06-01

    Rapid desensitization allows secure administration of a drug and is indicated when there is no therapeutic alternative. We report a 49-year-old patient who presented with a hypersensitivity reaction following an infusion of rituximab (375mg/m(2)) in the context of a Castleman's syndrome. After a clinical flare (splenomegaly, adenopathies) despite treatment with tocilizumab, anakinra and valganciclovir, the reintroduction of rituximab was decided, according to the rapid desensitization protocol. Four full dose desensitizations were successfully performed allowing immediate clinical improvement (apyrexia, loss of sweating and lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly partial regression) and biological (negativation of HHV8 viral load, and disappearance of neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia). Rapid desensitization is a promising method for the pursuit of rituximab therapy after a hypersensitivity reaction and should be considered in patients with no acceptable therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Crotalphine desensitizes TRPA1 ion channels to alleviate inflammatory hyperalgesia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bressan, E.; Touška, Filip; Vetter, I.; Kistner, K.; Kichko, T. I.; Teixeira, N. B.; Picolo, G.; Cury, Y.; Lewis, R. J.; Fischer, M. J. M.; Zimmermann, K.; Reeh, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 11 (2016), s. 2504-2516 ISSN 0304-3959 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Crotalphine * desensitization * TRPA1 * CGRP * Ciguatoxin * Bradykinin * Zymosan Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.445, year: 2016

  6. SPHINX: a generator based on 1 microsecond current rise time LTD stages. Status and first results for production of soft X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeant, Ch.; Roques, B.; Cadiergues, R.

    2005-01-01

    SPHINX is the new name of the facility developed for soft X-ray production. This facility is based on the ECF2 generator which was designed as a 1-3 MJ, 1 μs rise time, 5-10 MA current driver. We present a detailed view of the technology used for the capacitor bank, for the central vacuum part and for the Z-pinch loads [ru

  7. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Jacek; Flieger, Rafał; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles ( n = 60) of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups ( n = 15). Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1), 400 mJ (G2), piezosurgery unit (G3), and a saw (G4). The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ), and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  8. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Matys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles (n=60 of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups (n=15. Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1, 400 mJ (G2, piezosurgery unit (G3, and a saw (G4. The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ, and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  9. Linezolid desensitization for a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Autumn D; Stollings, Joanna L; White, Katie D; Fadugba, Olajumoke O; Choi, Jane J

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case in which a linezolid desensitization protocol was successfully used for a polymicrobial surgical wound infection in a patient with multiple drug hypersensitivity reactions. A 24-year-old woman with vocal cord dysfunction requiring tracheostomy was admitted for a surgical wound infection following a tracheostomy fistula closure procedure. The patient reported multiple antibiotic allergies including penicillins (rash), sulfonamides (rash), vancomycin (anaphylaxis), azithromycin (rash), cephalosporins (anaphylaxis), levofloxacin (unspecified), clindamycin (unspecified), and carbapenems (unspecified). Gram stain of the purulent wound drainage demonstrated mixed gram-negative and gram-positive flora, and bacterial cultures were overgrown with Proteus mirabilis, which precluded identification of other pathogens. Following failed test doses of linezolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin, all of which resulted in hypersensitivity reactions, a 16-step linezolid desensitization protocol was developed and successfully implemented without adverse reactions. The patient completed a 2-week course of antibiotic therapy that included linezolid upon finishing the desensitization protocol. Linezolid is useful in treating complicated and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. With precautions, including premedication, a monitored nursing unit, and immediate availability of an emergency anaphylaxis kit, drug desensitization allows patients the ability to safely use medications to which they may have an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Minimal data exist on linezolid desensitization protocols. Linezolid desensitization can be a viable option in patients requiring antimicrobial therapy for complicated gram-positive skin infections.

  10. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-03-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. © 2014 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. GnRH signalling pathways and GnRH-induced homologous desensitization in a gonadotrope cell line (alphaT3-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, B; Rich, N; Mas, J L; Kordon, C; Enjalbert, A; Drouva, S V

    1998-07-25

    Exposure of the gonadotrope cells to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) reduces their responsiveness to a new GnRH stimulation (homologous desensitization). The time frame as well as the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are yet unclear. We studied in a gonadotrope cell line (alphaT3-1) the effects of short as well as long term GnRH pretreatments on the GnRH-induced phospholipases-C (PLC), -A2 (PLA2) and -D (PLD) activities, by measuring the production of IP3, total inositol phosphates (IPs), arachidonic acid (AA) and phosphatidylethanol (PEt) respectively. We demonstrated that although rapid desensitization of GnRH-induced IP3 formation did not occur in these cells, persistent stimulation of cells with GnRH or its analogue resulted in a time-dependent attenuation of GnRH-elicited IPs formation. GnRH-induced IPs desensitization was potentiated after direct activation of PKC by the phorbol ester TPA, suggesting the involvement of distinct mechanisms in the uncoupling exerted by either GnRH or TPA on GnRH-stimulated PI hydrolysis. The levels of individual phosphoinositides remained unchanged under any desensitization condition applied. Interestingly, while the GnRH-induced PLA2 activity was rapidly desensitized (2.5 min) after GnRH pretreatments, the neuropeptide-evoked PLD activation was affected at later times, indicating an important time-dependent contribution of these enzymatic activities in the sequential events underlying the GnRH-induced homologous desensitization processes in the gonadotropes. Under GnRH desensitization conditions, TPA was still able to induce PLD activation and to further potentiate the GnRH-evoked PLD activity. AlphaT3-1 cells possess several PKC isoforms which, except PKCzeta, were differentially down-regulated by TPA (PKCalpha, betaII, delta, epsilon, eta) or GnRH (PKCbetaII, delta, epsilon, eta). In spite of the presence of PKC inhibitors or down-regulation of PKC isoforms by TPA, the desensitizing effect of the neuropeptide on

  12. Effect of Apheresis for ABO and HLA Desensitization on Anti-Measles Antibody Titers in Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Schönermarck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desensitization strategies for ABO-incompatible renal transplants with plasma exchange (PE or specific immunoadsorption (IA decrease immunoglobulin levels. After recent measles outbreak and decreasing vaccination rates, we studied the impact of apheresis on anti-measles antibodies. Anti-measles antibodies were measured before desensitization, before transplantation and during followup in 12 patients with ABO incompatibility (2x PE only, 8x IA only, and 2x IA and PE and 3 patients with donor-specific HLA antibodies (all PE. Patients received rituximab, IVIG, and standard immunosuppressive therapy. All patients had detectable anti-measles antibodies before desensitization (mean 3238 mU/l, range 560–8100. After 3–6 PE sessions, titers decreased significantly to 1710 mU/l (<0.05, in one patient to nondetectable values, while IA only maintained protective titers. After a median followup of 64 days, anti-measles antibodies returned to baseline in all patients. Immunity against measles was temporarily reduced by apheresis but remained detectable in most patients at time of transplantation. Desensitization maintains long-term protective immunity against measles.

  13. Timing of breast cancer surgery in relation to the menstrual cycle the rise and fall of a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that the timing of surgery in relation to the menstrual cycle can significantly influence the prognosis among premenopausal women with primary breast cancer. The literature on the subject is reviewed. The results are heterogeneous, and the quality of the studies is in general...

  14. Emerging Approaches to Food Desensitization in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ahmad; Burks, Wesley A

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in food desensitization in children with food allergy. Recent advancements in epicutaneous, sublingual, and oral immunotherapy for food allergy in the future may offer children with food allergy and their families a viable option to reduce risk or severity of anaphylaxis with phase III trials ongoing for two of these treatment modalities. Food allergy prevalence in children is estimated to be up to 8%. These children are at risk of significant allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Food avoidance and use of antihistamines or epinephrine has been the standard of care for these patients. This approach also has a significant socioeconomic effects on patients and their families. Recent advancements in understanding food allergy have allowed for exploring new methods of treatment. There is an increasing interest in oral immunotherapy, epicutaneous immunotherapy, or sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy. There have been also innovative approaches to immunotherapy by modification of food allergens (to make them less allergenic while maintain their immunogenicity) or adding adjunctive treatments (probiotics, anti-IgE, etc.) to increase efficacy or safety.

  15. Improvement in limit of detection in particle induced X-ray emission by means of rise time and pulse shape discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, Tibor E-mail: tibpapp@netscape.nettibpapp@yahoo.ca; Lakatos, Tamas; Nejedly, Zdenek; Campbell, John L

    2002-04-01

    A digital signal processor, based upon high-rate sampling of the preamplifier output, and equipped with rise time and pulse shape discrimination, has been tested in three situations. This processor provided significant improvement of particle induced X-ray emission and X-ray fluorescence detection limits over the state of the art analog processors, depending on the energy and intensity distribution of the X-ray spectra. Additionally it had a superior performance when measurements were performed in an environment of large electronic noise and in large nuclear background environment. It has also improved the reduction of several artifacts in X-ray spectra.

  16. Progress in Desensitization of the Highly HLA Sensitized Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S C; Choi, J; Kahwaji, J; Vo, A

    2016-04-01

    The presence of HLA antibodies remains a significant and often impenetrable barrier to kidney transplantation, leading to increased morbidity and mortality for patients remaining on long-term dialysis. In recent years, a number of new approaches have been developed to overcome these barriers. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) remains the lynchpin of HLA desensitization therapy and has been shown in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to improve transplantation rates. In addition, IVIG used in low doses with plasma exchange is a reliable protocol for desensitization. Another significant advancement was the addition of rituximab (anti-B-cell therapy) to IVIG and plasma exchange-based desensitization. This approach has significantly improved rates of transplantation and outcomes. There is limited experience with bortezomib (anti-plasma cell therapy) and eculizumab (complement inhibition) for desensitization. However, recent data from a completed trial of eculizumab failed to show a significant benefit for prevention of antibody-mediated rejection compared with standard therapy plus placebo, and bortezomib produced inconsistent results. There is a growing interest in developing new therapeutic agents for desensitization. Newer approaches that address antibody reduction with B-cell depletion are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-03-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted.

  18. A Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy of Totally Self-Administered Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Highly anxious self-referred snake phobics received either (a) therapist-administered desensitization, (b) self-administered desensitization with weekly therapist phone calls, (c) totally self-administered desensitization, (d) self-administered double-blind placebo control, or (e) no treatment. Pretreatment to posttreatment measures revealed…

  19. [The reasons and background for the rise of college education of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-jie; Huang, Ying; Li, Jie

    2009-09-01

    With western learning spreading throughout the orient, the survival and development of TCM was restrained to a large degree due to the medical administrative policy, educational system and diffusion of western medicine at different social levels. Facing this adversity, the TCM sector complied with the changing times and survived through persistent efforts as well as wide and solid popular foundations, striving actively for the legitimacy status of TCM education and establishing several TCM colleges. During the course of running the colleges, the TCM sector was brave in changing ideas and giving and accepting new knowledge, it explored a comprehensive educational syllabus, which not only promoted the development of TCM education in the Republican period of China, but also laid a foundation for TCM education in the new period.

  20. Microfossil measures of rapid sea-level rise: Timing of response of two microfossil groups to a sudden tidal-flooding experiment in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.P.; Milker, Yvonne; Dura, T.; Wang, Kelin; Bridgeland, W.T.; Brophy, Laura S.; Ewald, M.; Khan, Nicole; Engelhart, S.E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake microfossils in tidal sequences are accurate means to measure coastal subsidence during past subduction earthquakes, but the amount of subsidence is uncertain, because the response times of fossil taxa to coseismic relative sea-level (RSL) rise are unknown. We measured the response of diatoms and foraminifera to restoration of a salt marsh in southern Oregon, USA. Tidal flooding following dike removal caused an RSL rise of ∼1 m, as might occur by coseismic subsidence during momentum magnitude (Mw) 8.1–8.8 earthquakes on this section of the Cascadia subduction zone. Less than two weeks after dike removal, diatoms colonized low marsh and tidal flats in large numbers, showing that they can record seismically induced subsidence soon after earthquakes. In contrast, low-marsh foraminifera took at least 11 months to appear in sizeable numbers. Where subsidence measured with diatoms and foraminifera differs, their different response times may provide an estimate of postseismic vertical deformation in the months following past megathrust earthquakes.

  1. Children's exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-07-01

    Desensitization to violence is cited frequently as being an outcome of exposure to media violence and a condition that contributes to increased aggression. This article initiates the development of a conceptual model for describing possible relationships among violent video games, brain function, and desensitization by using empathy and attitudes toward violence as proxy measures of desensitization. More work is needed to understand how specific game content may affect brain activity, how brain development may be affected by heavy play at young ages, and how personality and lifestyle variables may moderate game influence. Given the current state of knowledge, recommendations are made for clinicians to help parents monitor and limit exposure to violent video games and encourage critical thinking about media violence.

  2. Desensitization of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice: suppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katsura

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a preimmunized animal results in transient unresponsiveness of cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon is known as desensitization. Serum interleukin 2 (IL-2 activity was found transiently in desensitized mice at 3 h after the antigen challenge. These mice could not reveal antigen nonspecific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH 1 d after the challenge. Specific suppression of DTH was observed at later stages. Sera from 3 h desensitized mice showed suppressive effects on DTH in preo immunized mice. Administration of recombinant IL-2 into preimmunized mice led to the failure of development of DTH to antigens. These observations suggest that IL-2 plays an important role in the suppressive environment.

  3. An Empirical Fitting Method to Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. III. A Three-parameter Relationship: Peak Magnitude, Rise Time, and Photospheric Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the relationship between three parameters of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia): peak magnitude, rise time, and photospheric velocity at the time of peak brightness. The peak magnitude is corrected for extinction using an estimate determined from MLCS2k2 fitting. The rise time is measured from the well-observed B-band light curve with the first detection at least 1 mag fainter than the peak magnitude, and the photospheric velocity is measured from the strong absorption feature of Si II λ6355 at the time of peak brightness. We model the relationship among these three parameters using an expanding fireball with two assumptions: (a) the optical emission is approximately that of a blackbody, and (b) the photospheric temperatures of all SNe Ia are the same at the time of peak brightness. We compare the precision of the distance residuals inferred using this physically motivated model against those from the empirical Phillips relation and the MLCS2k2 method for 47 low-redshift SNe Ia (0.005 Ia in our sample with higher velocities are inferred to be intrinsically fainter. Eliminating the high-velocity SNe and applying a more stringent extinction cut to obtain a “low-v golden sample” of 22 SNe, we obtain significantly reduced scatter of 0.108 ± 0.018 mag in the new relation, better than those of the Phillips relation and the MLCS2k2 method. For 250 km s‑1 of residual peculiar motions, we find 68% and 95% upper limits on the intrinsic scatter of 0.07 and 0.10 mag, respectively.

  4. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eAllouche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization and post-endocytic fate of the receptor.

  5. A two-level model of rise time in quantum cascade laser materials applied to 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2014-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulation of a two-level rate equation model for quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials is used to study the turn on delay and rise time for three QCLs with 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths. In order to do this it is necessary that the model can deal with large signal responses and not be restricted to small signal responses; the model used here is capable of this. The effect of varying some of the characteristic times in the model is also investigated. The comparison of the terahertz wave QCL with the others is particularly important given the increased interest in terahertz sources which have a large range of important applications, such as in medical imaging

  6. Parental desensitization to violence and sex in movies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romer, D.; Jamieson, P.E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bleakley, A.; Wang, A.; Langleben, D.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess desensitization in parents' repeated exposure to violence and sex in movies. METHODS: A national US sample of 1000 parents living with at least 1 target child in 1 of 3 age groups (6 to 17 years old) viewed a random sequence of 3 pairs of short scenes with either violent or

  7. The effect of calcium phosphate-containing desensitizing agent on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate containing desensitizing pretreatments on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and microleakage of the multimode adhesive agent to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this study, twelve noncarious, freshly extracted human third molar teeth ...

  8. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John

    2016-11-01

    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  10. Effects of a traditional chinese medicine based desensitizing gel on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Bamboo salt, Calcined oyster, Drynaria fortunei, Indigo naturalis and Rehmannia glutinosa have been the main ingredients of many formulations in Chinese medicine for the treatment of toothache. This study evaluated the effect of a new desensitizing gel on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials ...

  11. Counselor-Subject Sex Variables in Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Carol A.; Hurst, James C.

    1976-01-01

    A Sex of Subject x Sex of Counselor interaction in the desensitization of test anxiety among 44 college students suggested consideration of the sex variable. Results showed significant treatment effects by both male and female counselors and a significant interaction effect by the male counselor with female subjects. (Author)

  12. Treatment of Nightmares via Relaxation and Desensitization: A Controlled Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; DiPilato, Marina

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the role of relaxation training as a component of desensitization to nightmares in adults (N=32). Results showed an 80 percent reduction in nightmares reported by 20 clients, of whom 12 reported total elimination of symptoms at 25-week follow-up, suggesting the effectiveness of a behavioral approach in treating nightmares. (LLL)

  13. The Process of Fear Reduction Through Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Harold E.; Rich, Alex R.

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the process of fear change during a course of systematic desensitization therapy. Behavioral, subjective, and physiological measures of fear were taken following each of eight therapy sessions. Changes in one fear system did not appear to be primary in initiating changes in the other fear systems. (Author)

  14. Group Insight Versus Group Desensitization in Treating Speech Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichenbaum, Donald H.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study indicated that the insight group was as effective as the desensitization group in significantly reducing speech anxiety over control group levels as assessed by behavioral, cognitive, and self-report measures given immediately after posttreatment and later at a three-month follow-up. (Author)

  15. Effect of Systematic Desensitization on the Training of Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monke, Robert H.

    1971-01-01

    In determining whether the technique of desensitization would reduce the initial anxiety experienced by the beginning counselor trainee, analyses of the data revealed significantly less self-reported anxiety in the experimental group. No differences were found in heart rate, skin resistance, and tape-evaluation measures. (Author/CG(

  16. Emotionally Numb: Desensitization to Community Violence Exposure among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Traci M.; Ceballo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Community violence exposure (CVE) is associated with numerous psychosocial outcomes among youth. Although linear, cumulative effects models have typically been used to describe these relations, emerging evidence suggests the presence of curvilinear associations that may represent a pattern of emotional desensitization among youth exposed to…

  17. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents’ Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N=704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence. PMID:25684447

  18. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.

  19. Effects Of Desensitization Treatment On Core-Condition Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Pre- and posttest ratings on measures of helping skills such as empathy, respect, concreteness, and genuineness were obtained in the preliminary and advanced training. A significant training effect was obtained for both groups. Desensitization treatment was a significant source of variance for the experimental subjects in training. (Author/LA)

  20. Delayed Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Reactions to Antibiotics: Management with Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Caitlin M G; Park, Miguel A

    2017-11-01

    Successful desensitization to mild to moderate delayed cutaneous adverse reaction to antibiotics has been described in a limited number of antibiotics and found to be safe. However, there are ample opportunities to standardize protocols for delayed cutaneous adverse reactions to antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  2. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Maria Elisabetta; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Mori F, Pucci N, Rossi ME, de Martino M, Azzari C, Novembre E. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose! Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e450–e453. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S A renewed interest in oral desensitization as treatment for food allergy has been observed in the last few years. We studied a novel method based on the end point skin prick test procedure to establish the starting dose for oral desensitization in a group of 30 children higly allergic to milk. The results (in terms of reactions to the first dose administered) were compared with a group of 20 children allergic to milk as well. Such control group started to swallow the same dose of 0.015 mg/ml of milk. None reacted to the first dose when administered according to the end point skin prick test. On the other side, ten out of 20 children (50%) from the control group showed mild allergic reactions to the first dose of milk. In conclusion the end point skin prick test procedure results safe and easy to be performed in each single child in order to find out the starting dose for oral desensitization to milk, also by taking into account the individual variability. PMID:19624618

  3. Luminescence rise time in self-activated PbWO{sub 4} and Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} scintillation crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffray, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Augulis, R. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Borisevich, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Gulbinas, V. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Lucchini, M.T. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mechinsky, V. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Bobruiskaya str. 11, Minsk (Belarus); Nargelas, S. [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Songaila, E. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių av. 231, Vilnius (Lithuania); Tamulaitis, G. [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vaitkevičius, A., E-mail: augustas.vaitkevicius@ff.vu.lt [Vilnius University, Universiteto str. 3, Vilnius (Lithuania); Zazubovich, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-10-15

    The time resolution of scintillation detectors of ionizing radiation is one of the key parameters sought for in the current and future high-energy physics experiments. This study is encouraged by the necessity to find novel detection methods enabling a sub-10-ps time resolution in scintillation detectors and is focused on the exploitation of fast luminescence rise front. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques have been used to study two promising scintillators: self-activated lead tungstate (PWO, PbWO{sub 4}) and Ce-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG, Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12}). A sub-picosecond PL rise time is observed in PWO, while longer processes in the PL response in GAGG:Ce are detected and studied. The mechanisms responsible for the PL rise time in self-activated and doped scintillators are under discussion. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence rise time is studied in two scintillators: PWO and GAGG:Ce. • Sub-picosecond photoluminescence rise time in PWO is observed for the first time. • A multicomponent luminescence rise edge is observed in GAGG:Ce. • The mechanisms behind luminescence kinetics in the crystals are under discussion.

  4. The changing timing of births in Iran: an explanation of the rise and fall in fertility after the 1979 Islamic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Amir; McQuillan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring the course of period fertility in Iran after the 1979 Islamic Revolution have not examined systematically the role played by changes in the timing of births. Using retrospective data from the 2000 Iran Demographic and Health Survey and frailty hazard models, this study finds that the rise in fertility in the early 1980s was due to faster transitions to the first birth among all social groups of women and to the fourth birth largely among illiterate and less educated women. In contrast, the rapid fertility decline after 1985 is attributed to slower transition to successive births, especially to the second, third, and fourth births. These findings point to the importance of education and contraceptive use (measured by length of previous birth interval) as key determinants of birth timing in Iran. Interaction between age at marriage and education positively influenced the timing of births, with stronger effects among highly educated women, suggesting that the onset of rapid fertility decline was likely driven by these highly educated women. Another interaction between the gender of prior children and education shows that birth timing, even among highly educated women, appears to have been influenced by son preference in Iran.

  5. Acute activation, desensitization and smoldering activation of human acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara G Campling

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained "smoldering activation" occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membrane potential to examine the effects of acute activation and chronic desensitization by nicotinic AChR agonists on cell lines expressing human α4β2, α3β4 and α7 AChRs. We examined the effects of acute and prolonged application of nicotine and the partial agonists varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A on these AChRs. The range of concentrations over which nicotine causes smoldering activation of α4β2 AChRs was centered at 0.13 µM, a level found in smokers. However, nicotine produced smoldering activation of α3β4 and α7 AChRs at concentrations well above levels found in smokers. The α4β2 expressing cell line contains a mixture of two stoichiometries, namely (α4β22β2 and (α4β22α4. The (α4β22β2 stoichiometry is more sensitive to activation by nicotine. Sazetidine-A activates and desensitizes only this stoichiometry. Varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A were partial agonists on this mixture of α4β2 AChRs, but full agonists on α3β4 and α7 AChRs. It has been reported that cytisine and varenicline are most efficacious on the (α4β22α4 stoichiometry. In this study, we distinguish the dual effects of activation and desensitization of AChRs by these nicotinic agonists and define the range of concentrations over which smoldering activation can be sustained.

  6. Emotional and Physiological Desensitization to Real-Life and Movie Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Cook, Edwin W.; Wright, Rex A.

    2014-01-01

    Youth are exposed to large amounts of violence in real life and media, which may lead to desensitization. Given evidence of curvilinear associations between exposure to violence and emotional distress, we examined linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to real-life and movie violence with PTSD symptoms, empathy, and physiological arousal, as well emotional and physiological reactivity to movie violence. College students (N=209; mean age=18.74) reported on their exposure to real-life and televised violence, PTSD symptoms, and empathy. Then, students were randomly assigned to view a series of violent or nonviolent high-action movie scenes, providing ratings of emotional distress after each clip. Blood pressure was measured at rest and during video viewing. Results showed that with increasing exposure to real-life violence, youth reported more PTSD symptoms and greater identification with fictional characters. Cognitive and emotional empathy increased from low to medium levels of exposure to violence, but declined at higher levels. For males, exposure to higher levels of real-life violence was associated with diminishing (vs. increasing) emotional distress when viewing violent videos. Exposure to televised violence was generally unrelated to emotional functioning. However, those with medium levels of exposure to TV/movie violence experienced lower elevations of blood pressure when viewing violent videos compared to those with low exposure, and those with higher levels of exposure evidenced rapid increase in blood pressure that quickly declined over time. The results point to diminished empathy and reduced emotional reactivity to violence as key aspects of desensitization to real-life violence, and more limited evidence of physiological desensitization to movie violence among those exposed to high levels of televised violence. PMID:25326900

  7. Hydrodynamic properties of the gonadotropin receptor from a murine Leydig tumor cell line are altered by desensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebois, R.V.; Bradley, R.M.; Titlow, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The murine Leydig tumor cell line 1 (MLTC-1) contains gonadotropin receptors (GR) that are coupled to adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G/sub s/). The binding of human choriogonadotropin (hGC) causes MLTC-1 cells to accumulate cAMP. With time, the ability of MLTC-1 cells to respond to hCG is attenuated by a process called desensitization. The hydrodynamic properties of GR from control and desensitized MLTC-1 cells were studied. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation in H 2 O and D 2 O and gel filtration chromatography were used to estimate the Stokes radius (a), partial specific volume (v/sub c/), sedimentation coefficient (s/sub 20,w/), and molecular weight (M/sub r/) of the detergent-solubilized hormone-receptor complex (hCG-GR). [ 125 I]hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells under conditions that allow (37 0 C) or prevent (0 0 C) desensitization, and hCG-GR was solubilized in Triton X-100. In the absence of desensitization, control hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 213,000, whereas desensitized hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 158,000. Deglycosylated hCG (DG-HCG) is an antagonist that binds to GR with high affinity but fails to stimulate adenylate cyclase or cause desensitization. [ 125 I]DG-hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells and DG-hCG-GR solubilized in Triton X-100. The hydrodynamic properties of DG-hCG-GR were the same as that for control hCG-GR. There was no evidence for the association of adenylate cyclase or G/sub s/ with GR in Triton X-100 solubilized preparations. When hCG was cross-linked to GR and solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the M/sub r/ was found to be 116,000, which was similar to that determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and less than that of the Triton X-100 solubilized control hCG-GR

  8. Perbedaan Penggunaan Bahan Desensitizing dan Tanpa Desensitizing Pasca Bleaching Ekstra-Koronal terhadap Kekerasan Email

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wignyo Hadriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Pada bleaching ekstrakoronal diketahui terjadi proses demineralisasi sehingga terjadi hiersensitivitas dentin. UltraEZ salah satu bahan desensitizing yang dapat mengurangi hipersensitivitas akibat demineralisasi email pasca bleaching ekstrakoronal terkini. Tujuan penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kekerasan email pasca pemutihan gigi ekstra-koronal dengan aplikasi bahan desensitizing dan tanpa aplikasi bahan desensitizing. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan 20 gigi premolar permanen pasca pencabutanyang masih utuh dan direndam dalam saliva buatan, kemudian dilakukan pemolesan pada bagian bukal dengan menggunakan pasta profilaksis kemudian gigi dicuci dan dikeringkan. Bahan pemutih Opalescence Xtra Boost diaplikasikan pada semua permukaan bukal gigi premolar kemudian dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok I, II, masing-masing kelompok sebanyak 10 gigi. Kelompok I sebagai kelompok control setelah dilakukan pemutihan, tidak dilakukan aplikasi Ultra-EZ, dimasukkan dalam wadah botol dan direndam dalam saliva buatan kemudian disimpan dalam incubator. Mahkota dan akar gigi,kemudian ditanam dalam resin akrilik sesuai kelompok sebelumnya dengan permukaan bukal menghadap ke atas. Semua sampel diuji kekerasannya dengan uji kekerasan Vickers menggunakan beban 100 g selama 15 detik. Permukaan bukal menghadap ke atas, kemudian dijepit dengan alat penjepit pada meja alat Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. Sampel diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga akan terlihat gambar yang dapat diukur panjang diagonalnya langsung dengan micrometer yang ada pada lensa okuler. Nilai kekerasan email dalam Vickers hardness number (VHN juga dapat diperoleh dari table setelah mengetahui rata-rata panjang diagonal, berat badan yang digunakan dan waktu yang digunakan untuk uji kekerasan. Pengujian ini dilakukan pada setiap kelompok. Selanjutnya diuji dengan uji-t. hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara aplikasi ultraEZ lima menit

  9. Desensitization protocol enabling pediatric crossmatch-positive renal transplantation: successful HLA-antibody-incompatible renal transplantation of two highly sensitized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamusiak, Anna M; Stojanovic, Jelena; Shaw, Olivia; Vaughan, Robert; Sebire, Neil J; Drage, Martin; Kessaris, Nicos; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-02-01

    Renal transplantation improves quality of life (QoL) and survival in children requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Sensitization with development of a broad-spectrum of anti-HLA antibodies as a result of previous transplantation or after receiving blood products is an increasing problem. There are no published reports of desensitization protocols in children allowing renal transplantation from HLA-antibody-incompatible living donors. We adopted our well-established adult desensitization protocol for this purpose and undertook HLA antibody-incompatible living donor renal transplants in two children: a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. After 2 and 1.5 years of follow-up, respectively, both patients have stable renal allograft function despite a rise in donor-specific antibodies in one case. HLA-incompatible transplantation should be considered in selected cases for sensitized children.

  10. Plant ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric CO2: applying a "two-timing" approach to assess alternative hypotheses for mechanisms of nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlyn, B.; Jiang, M.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-12-01

    There is now ample experimental evidence that the response of terrestrial vegetation to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration is modified by soil nutrient availability. How to represent nutrient cycling processes is thus a key consideration for vegetation models. We have previously used model intercomparison to demonstrate that models incorporating different assumptions predict very different responses at Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiments. Careful examination of model outputs has provided some insight into the reasons for the different model outcomes, but it is difficult to attribute outcomes to specific assumptions. Here we investigate the impact of individual assumptions in a generic plant carbon-nutrient cycling model. The G'DAY (Generic Decomposition And Yield) model is modified to incorporate alternative hypotheses for nutrient cycling. We analyse the impact of these assumptions in the model using a simple analytical approach known as "two-timing". This analysis identifies the quasi-equilibrium behaviour of the model at the time scales of the component pools. The analysis provides a useful mathematical framework for probing model behaviour and identifying the most critical assumptions for experimental study.

  11. Enhancement of acetylcholine-induced desensitization of guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle in Ca2+-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, S; Nagare, T; Moritoki, H

    1999-10-01

    1. To determine the role of cellular Ca2+ in desensitization, acetylcholine(ACh)-induced desensitization was studied under Ca2+-free condition in guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle. 2. Pretreatment of the tissue with 10(-4) M ACh (desensitizing treatment) in normal Tyrode solution caused desensitization of the responses both to ACh and histamine. The desensitizing treatment performed in Ca2+-free solution enhanced desensitization of the responses to ACh and histamine significantly. 3. The desensitizing treatment with ACh caused suppression of the responses to high K+ (tonic component) and Bay K 8644. The desensitizing treatment performed in Ca2+-free solution potentiated the suppression of the responses to high K+ and Bay K 8644 significantly. 4. ACh-induced desensitization was enhanced significantly in the presence of a protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine(H-7, 10(-4) M) to a similar extent as desensitization obtained under Ca2+-free condition, but not in the presence of a non-specific and less potent kinase inhibitor, N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (HA1004, 10(-4) M). 5. These results suggested that voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were involved in ACh-induced desensitization and that intracellular Ca2+, which was increased during the stimulation with ACh, inhibited desensitization through the activation of protein kinase C. This kinase could have activated or protected Ca2+ channels during the desensitization process to reduce desensitization.

  12. Omalizumab facilitates rapid oral desensitization for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinnitie, Andrew J; Rachid, Rima; Gragg, Hana; Little, Sara V; Lakin, Paul; Cianferoni, Antonella; Heimall, Jennifer; Makhija, Melanie; Robison, Rachel; Chinthrajah, R Sharon; Lee, John; Lebovidge, Jennifer; Dominguez, Tina; Rooney, Courtney; Lewis, Megan Ott; Koss, Jennifer; Burke-Roberts, Elizabeth; Chin, Kimberly; Logvinenko, Tanya; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Umetsu, Dale T; Spergel, Jonathan; Nadeau, Kari C; Schneider, Lynda C

    2017-03-01

    Peanut oral immunotherapy is a promising approach to peanut allergy, but reactions are frequent, and some patients cannot be desensitized. The anti-IgE medication omalizumab (Xolair; Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif) might allow more rapid peanut updosing and decrease reactions. We sought to evaluate whether omalizumab facilitated rapid peanut desensitization in highly allergic patients. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to omalizumab (n = 29) or placebo (n = 8). After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects underwent a rapid 1-day desensitization of up to 250 mg of peanut protein, followed by weekly increases up to 2000 mg. Omalizumab was then discontinued, and subjects continued on 2000 mg of peanut protein. Subjects underwent an open challenge to 4000 mg of peanut protein 12 weeks after stopping study drug. If tolerated, subjects continued on 4000 mg of peanut protein daily. The median peanut dose tolerated on the initial desensitization day was 250 mg for omalizumab-treated subjects versus 22.5 mg for placebo-treated subject. Subsequently, 23 (79%) of 29 subjects randomized to omalizumab tolerated 2000 mg of peanut protein 6 weeks after stopping omalizumab versus 1 (12%) of 8 receiving placebo (P omalizumab versus 1 subject receiving placebo passed the 4000-mg food challenge. Overall reaction rates were not significantly lower in omalizumab-treated versus placebo-treated subjects (odds ratio, 0.57; P = .15), although omalizumab-treated subjects were exposed to much higher peanut doses. Omalizumab allows subjects with peanut allergy to be rapidly desensitized over as little as 8 weeks of peanut oral immunotherapy. In the majority of subjects, this desensitization is sustained after omalizumab is discontinued. Additional studies will help clarify which patients would benefit most from this approach. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  14. The clinical dilemma of "silent desensitization" in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Bosso, John V; Stevenson, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization is a treatment option for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Some patients with an excellent history of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions have negative aspirin challenges/desensitization. This study discusses the clinical entity of silent desensitization in AERD and the dilemma that this presents to the practicing allergist/immunologist. We discuss a series of patients with a strong history of NSAID reactions who initially underwent a negative challenge/silent desensitization. These patients were subsequently proven to have AERD after a second positive aspirin challenge. Silent desensitization is an uncommon but important outcome to recognize in AERD. Clinicians performing aspirin desensitization should understand that this can occur and consider a second confirmatory aspirin challenge in some patients.

  15. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  16. Desensitization for ABO incompatible kidney transplantation: Experience of a single center in Brazil. ABO incompatible kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Ribeiro Castro

    2017-12-01

    Objective: To analyze the patient and the graft survival of the first cohort of Brazilian patients receiving ABO-incompatible transplants. Patients and Methods: From October 2012 to June 2016, we performed 10 ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KT procedures from a living donor. The desensitization protocol was based on rituximab and PP. All patients received induction with Thymoglobulin and long-term steroids. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate sodium were initiated at the time of desensitization and continued after the transplant. Pre-transplant agglutinin titers varied from 1/32 to 1/512. Five patients also presented anti-HLA specific antibodies, being three T and B positive FCXM at baseline. Results: After a mean follow-up of 30 ( ± 13 months, all patients are alive. One patient lost the graft due to cellular rejection that occurred after reduction of immunosuppressive therapy for an aggressive HPV-related vulvar cancer. The mean serum creatinine concentration is 1.4 ± 0.5 mg/dl. Three episodes of rejection occurred in 3 patients: two cellular and one anti-HLA mediated. Conclusion: Desensitization with Rituximab and PP allowed us to perform transplants from living donors to ABO incompatible recipients in a Brazilian population with good results, even in highly-sensitized patients and in those presenting high anti-ABO agglutinin titers.

  17. Origin, development, and evolution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in 1989. The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day. With this purpose a search was carried out on MEDLINE and PsycINFO with the entry "eye movement desensitization". After revising the resulting 797 articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder (PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas. Only 14% of the articles found account for controlled studies. Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion.

  18. Psychodynamic Emotional Regulation in View of Wolpe's Desensitization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Merav

    2016-01-01

    The current research belongs to the stream of theoretical integration and establishes a theoretical platform for integrative psychotherapy in anxiety disorders. Qualitative metasynthesis procedures were applied to 40 peer-reviewed psychoanalytic articles involving emotional regulation. The concept of psychodynamic emotional regulation was found to be connected with the categories of desensitization, gradual exposure, containment, and transference. This article presents a model according to which psychoanalytic psychotherapy allows anxiety to be tolerated while following the core principles of systematic desensitization. It is shown that despite the antiresearch image of psychoanalytic psychotherapy, its foundations obey evidence-based principles. The findings imply that anxiety tolerance might be a key goal in which the cumulative wisdom of the different therapies can be used to optimize psychotherapy outcomes.

  19. ABO-Incompatible Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Under the Desensitization Protocol With Rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G-W; Lee, S-G; Hwang, S; Kim, K-H; Ahn, C-S; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Jung, D-H; Park, G-C; Kim, W-J; Sin, M-H; Yoon, Y-I; Kang, W-H; Kim, S-H; Tak, E-Y

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatibility is no longer considered a contraindication for adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) due to various strategies to overcome the ABO blood group barrier. We report the largest single-center experience of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) ALDLT in 235 adult patients. The desensitization protocol included a single dose of rituximab and total plasma exchange. In addition, local graft infusion therapy, cyclophosphamide, or splenectomy was used for a certain time period, but these treatments were eventually discontinued due to adverse events. There were three cases (1.3%) of in-hospital mortality. The cumulative 3-year graft and patient survival rates were 89.2% and 92.3%, respectively, and were comparable to those of the ABO-compatible group (n = 1301). Despite promising survival outcomes, 17 patients (7.2%) experienced antibody-mediated rejection that manifested as diffuse intrahepatic biliary stricture; six cases required retransplantation, and three patients died. ABOi ALDLT is a feasible method for expanding a living liver donor pool, but the efficacy of the desensitization protocol in targeting B cell immunity should be optimized. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Parental desensitization to violence and sex in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E; Bushman, Brad J; Bleakley, Amy; Wang, Anli; Langleben, Daniel; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-11-01

    To assess desensitization in parents' repeated exposure to violence and sex in movies. A national US sample of 1000 parents living with at least 1 target child in 1 of 3 age groups (6 to 17 years old) viewed a random sequence of 3 pairs of short scenes with either violent or sexual content from popular movies that were unrestricted to youth audiences (rated PG-13 or unrated) or restricted to those under age 17 years without adult supervision (rated R). Parents indicated the minimum age they would consider appropriate to view each film. Predictors included order of presentation, parent and child characteristics, and parent movie viewing history. As exposure to successive clips progressed, parents supported younger ages of appropriate exposure, starting at age 16.9 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8 to 17.0) for violence and age 17.2 years (95% CI, 17.0 to 17.4) for sex, and declining to age 13.9 years (95% CI, 13.7 to 14.1) for violence and 14.0 years (95% CI, 13.7 to 14.3) for sex. Parents also reported increasing willingness to allow their target child to view the movies as exposures progressed. Desensitization was observed across parent and child characteristics, violence toward both human and non-human victims, and movie rating. Those who frequently watched movies were more readily desensitized to violence. Parents become desensitized to both violence and sex in movies, which may contribute to the increasing acceptance of both types of content by both parents and the raters employed by the film industry. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Adolescent Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-01-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-re...

  2. Aplikasi eye moving desensitization dan reprocessing dalam konseling post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengki Satrianta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Akhir-akhir ini banyak peristiwa yang berpotensi memunculkan efek traumatik yang jika tidak ditangani akan menimbulkan gangguan stres pascatrauma. Olehnya itu, dibutuhkan upaya-upaya untu menangani masalah ini. Salah satu upaya yang dimaksud adalah penggunaan eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Artikel ini ditulis dengan fokus pada penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma melalui eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran umum pelaksanaan eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Eye moving desensitization and reprocessing mampu menjadi salah satu teknik dalam penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma. Oleh karena itu disarankan bagi praktisi konseling di Indonesia mampu menjadikan “terapi unik” ini sebagai teknik penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma.

  3. Agonist-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.F.; Tsao, J.; Pon, D.J.; Schimmer, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells (Y1DS) and Y1 mutants resistant to ACTH-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase (Y1DR) were transfected with a gene encoding the mouse beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2-AR). Transfectants expressed beta 2-ARs that were able to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and steroid biosynthesis. These transfectants were used to explore the basis for the DR mutation in Y1 cells. The authors demonstrate that beta-adrenergic agonists desensitize the adenylyl cyclase system in transfected Y1DS cells whereas transfected Y1DR cells are resistant to desensitization by beta-adrenergic agonists. The fate of the beta 2-ARs during desensitization was evaluated by photoaffinity labelling with [125I]iodocyanopindolol diazerine. Desensitization of Y1DS transfectants was accompanied by a modest loss in receptor density that was insufficient to account for the complete loss of responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonists. The extent of receptor loss induced by beta-adrenergic agonists in Y1DR transfectants exceeded that in the Y1DS transfectants indicating that the mutation which protects Y1DR cells from agonist-induced desensitization is prior to receptor down-regulation in the desensitization pathway. From these results we infer that ACTH and isoproterenol desensitize adenylyl cyclase by a common pathway and that receptor loss is not a major component of the desensitization process in these cells

  4. Successful drug desensitization in patients with delayed-type allergic reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaecho Siripassorn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of anti-tuberculosis drug desensitization. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >18 years, documented tuberculosis infection, a previous cutaneous allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs, and having undergone drug desensitization between January 2003 and March 2014. The definition of allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs included (1 a temporal relationship between drug use and the allergic reaction; (2 improvement in the allergic reaction after drug withdrawal; (3 recurrence of the allergic reaction after reintroduction of only the offending drug; and (4 absence of other causes. Results: A total of 19 desensitization procedures were performed. The drugs used for these procedures were isoniazid (n = 7, rifampicin (n = 6, or ethambutol (n = 6. Of note, severe allergic reactions (Stevens–Johnson syndrome (n = 4, erythema multiforme (n = 3, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (n = 1 were included. All patients underwent resolution of the previous allergic reactions before desensitization. The median duration of desensitization was 18 days. The success rate was 78.9%. The allergic reactions following failed desensitization were not severe; most were maculopapular rashes. Conclusions: The desensitization protocol for anti-tuberculosis drugs was associated with a high success rate, and the individuals who failed desensitization experienced mild allergic reactions. Keywords: Desensitization, Antituberculosis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, Allergic drug reaction, Tolerance induction, Drug allergy

  5. Desensitization with plasmapheresis and anti-Cd20 for ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from living donor: experience of a single center in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, C; Furian, L; Marson, P; Tison, T; Valente, M; Marchini, F; Rossi, B; Bonfante, L; Valerio, F; Cozzi, E; Rigotti, P

    2014-09-01

    Blood group incompatibility in kidney transplants from a living donor can be successfully overcome by using various desensitization protocols: intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis (PP), immunoadsorption, and double filtration PP. From July 2010 to October 2013, we performed 10 ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KT) procedures from a living donor. The desensitization protocol was based on rituximab and PP+cytomegalovirus immune globulin. All patients received induction with basiliximab, except 1 case treated with Thymoglobuline® (ATG) for the simultaneous presence of donor-specific antibody. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were initiated at the time of desensitization and continued after the transplant. After a mean follow-up of 11.6±10.4 months, all patients are alive with a functioning graft. The mean serum creatinine concentration at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year was 1.48±0.29, 1.47±0.18, 1.47±0.27, and 1.5±0.27 mg/dl. Three episodes of acute cellular rejection occurred in 2 patients. There was only 1 case of BK virus infection, treated with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. The protocol biopsy specimens at 1, 3, and 6 months were C4d positive in the absence of acute rejection. Desensitization with rituximab, PP, and anti-cytomegalovirus immune globulin allowed us to perform transplants from living donors to ABO incompatible recipients with excellent results and reduced costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Desensitizing Addiction : Using Eye Movements to Reduce the Intensity of Substance-Related Mental Imagery and Craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, M.; van den Hout, M.A.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall traumatic memories while making horizontal eye movements (EM). Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories but also positive

  7. Uncoupling of the beta-adrenergic receptor as a mechanism of in vitro neutrophil desensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galant, S.P.; Britt, S.

    1984-01-01

    Human leukocytes have been useful in studying desensitization phenomena to beta-adrenergic agonists in a number of clinical conditions. In the present in vitro study the authors have explored the mechanism for beta-adrenergic desensitization and have compared conditions for homologous and heterologous desensitization, using the intact PMN model. PMN preincubated with isoproterenol (10 -4 M), washed thoroughly, then restimulated, desensitized rapidly so that within 10 min 80% of control isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP stimulation is lost. Cells washed free of isoproterenol recover full responsiveness in 1 to 2 hr. The estimated isoproterenol desensitization EC 50 in cells washed and then restimulated is 1 x 10 -5 M, and EC 50 in unwashed cells that are restimulated is 9 x 10 -8 M. Rank-order potency studies of catecholamine desensitization show isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepinephrine, a beta-2 pattern. Isoproterenol-induced desensitization results in a small reduction in [ 3 H]DHA binding sites, which becomes statistically significant (p 50 of 6.6 +/- 2.6 x 10 - (M, which is significantly different (p 50 of 38.1 +/- 9.1 x 10 -1 M found when cells are previously desensitized with isoproterenol for 10 min. GTP does not affect the EC 50 of desensitized cells. Finally, prolonged (3 hr) isoproterenol preincubation results in a small but significant (p 1 (59.3% +/- 7.4), suggesting heterologous desensitization. These studies suggest that the human PMN is a suitable model to study both homologous and heterologous desensitization in vitro. 22 references. 6 figures. 3 tables

  8. Cytokine expression before and after aspirin desensitization therapy in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ayse; Kurt, Emel; Gulbas, Zafer

    2013-12-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and/or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Effects of desensitization on many mediators have been examined previously, but few studies addressed the influence of desensitization on T lymphocytes and T lymphocyte-derived cytokines. This study was performed to examine peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytokine expression in aspirin-sensitive patients who have asthma before and after aspirin desensitization. In this study, the release of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4+ T lymphocytes prior to aspirin desensitization were also measured at intracellular levels, and expression of these cytokines after 1 month aspirin desensitization was evaluated. Twelve patients with AERD were included in the study. Two different control groups were formed, one consisted of 15 healthy people and second 12 aspirin tolerant asthmatic (ATA) patients using aspirin. A blood sample was collected prior to desensitization, and the tests were repeated by taking a second blood sample 1 month after the 4-day desensitization treatment. The proportion of lymphocytes secreting IFN-γ in the study group was 15.61 ± 4.40 % before desensitization and 15.08 ± 5.89 % after desensitization. The rate of IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T lymphocytes was 20.51 ± 4.41 % in the normal control group and 16.07 ± 5.7 % in the ATA group (p = 0.021). The ratio of CD4+ T lymphocyte secreting IFN-γ was reduced in patients with AERD before desensitization compared to normal control group (p = 0.040). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and the subsets of lymphocyte were not different before and after desensitization compared to control groups.

  9. Desensitization to inhaled aztreonam lysine in an allergic patient with cystic fibrosis using a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Ditouras, Joanna; Montejo, Jenny

    2012-10-01

    To report the successful desensitization of a highly allergic patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to inhaled aztreonam lysine using the novel approach of intravenous desensitization followed by full-dose inhaled therapy without any adverse reactions. A 19-year-old woman with CF had persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa-positive cultures and a history of type I hypersensitivity reactions to multiple medications, including aztreonam and tobramycin (intravenous and inhaled). To start therapy with an inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotic on a chronic basis, she underwent rapid desensitization to intravenous aztreonam followed by initiation of inhaled aztreonam lysine. Following intravenous desensitization with aztreonam, there was no adverse reaction or decline in lung function noted with inhaled aztreonam lysine and the chronic therapy was continued at home, with a modified regimen to maintain desensitization. Aztreonam lysine has been used for treatment of patients with CF with chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Previous allergic reaction to intravenous aztreonam is considered a contraindication for use of aztreonam lysine. Our patient had a history of hives and facial swelling following administration of intravenous aztreonam (type I hypersensitivity reaction) as well as hypersensitivity to tobramycin. Rapid desensitization can be done for drugs that mediate a type I hypersensitivity reaction, with mast cells and basophils being the cellular targets. There are a few case reports of desensitization to inhaled antibiotics such as tobramycin and colistin, but desensitization to aztreonam lysine has not previously been reported. Desensitization of a patient with CF who is allergic to intravenous aztreonam was successfully accomplished with the novel approach of rapid intravenous desensitization followed by inhaled therapy. As inhaled antibiotics are being increasingly used for patients with CF, this novel strategy can be used for desensitizing allergic patients with CF to

  10. submitter Measurement of intrinsic rise times for various L(Y)SO and LuAG scintillators with a general study of prompt photons to achieve 10 ps in TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, Stefan; Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of scintillator based detectors commonly used in positron emission tomography is well known to be dependent on the scintillation decay time (${{\\tau}_{d}}$ ) and the number of photons detected (${{n}^{\\prime}}$ ), i.e. $CTR\\propto \\sqrt{{{\\tau}_{d}}/{{n}^{\\prime}}}$ . However, it is still an open question to what extent the scintillation rise time (${{\\tau}_{r}}$ ) and other fast or prompt photons, e.g. Cherenkov photons, at the beginning of the scintillation process influence the CTR. This paper presents measurements of the scintillation emission rate for different LSO type crystals, i.e. LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce codoped Ca and LGSO:Ce. For the various LSO-type samples measured we find an average value of 70 ps for the scintillation rise time, although some crystals like LSO:Ce codoped Ca seem to have a much faster rise time in the order of 20 ps. Additional measurements for LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr show a rise time of 535 ps and 251 ps, respectively. For these crystals, promp...

  11. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  12. Detrimental Effects of a Self-reward Contracting Program on Subjects' Involvement in Self-administered Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Manuel Jr.; Rosen, Gerald M.

    1977-01-01

    Assesses a self-reward contracting procedure intended to facilitate completion of self-administered desensitization. Self-referred snake phobics received either (a) self-administered desensitization; (b) self-administered desensitization with self-reward contracting; or (c) a self-administered placebo with self-reward contracting. Results show the…

  13. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  14. Effectiveness of Structured Psychodrama and Systematic Desensitization in Reducing Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A.; Giladi, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    Students with examination anxiety took part in study of effectiveness of two kinds of treatment, structured psychodrama and systematic desensitization, in reducing test anxiety. Results showed that subjects in both treatment groups significantly reduced test-anxiety scores. Structured psychodrama is as effective as systematic desensitization in…

  15. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37 degree C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of [ 3 H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to ∼20% of control values, IP 3 formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to ∼5% of control values, and both IP 3 formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of [ 3 H]IP 3 and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, [D-Pro 2 , D-Try 7,9 ]-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP 3 formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP 3 formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization

  16. Agonist-induced desensitization of human β3-adrenoceptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel-Reher, Martina B.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    β3-Adrenoceptors are resistant to agonist-induced desensitization in some cell types but susceptible in others including transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Therefore, we have studied cellular and molecular changes involved in agonist-induced β3-adrenoceptor desensitization in HEK cells.

  17. Characterization of phosphorylated beta-adrenergic receptors from desensitized turkey erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebar, R.; Crooke, S.T.; Stadel, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Catecholamine-induced desensitization of turkey erythrocyte (TE) adenylate cyclase results in a 40-50 percent decrease in agonist stimulated cyclase activity. Desensitization is accompanied by decreased mobility on SDS-PAGE of beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) proteins photoaffinity labeled with [ 125 I]-p-azidobenzylcarazolol compared to control. Using a low crosslinked gel, the M/sub r/ = 42,000 band of BAR from desensitized TE was further resolved into a doublet compared to a single M/sub r/ = 38,000 band for control. The formation of the doublet appears to correlate with the amount of adenylate cyclase desensitization. Preincubating TE for 20 hr at 37 0 C with 32 P-/sub i/ labels BAR. 32 P-BAR was partially purified by affinity chromatography over alprenolol-Sepharose. Limited digest peptide maps of 32 P-BAR using papain identified a unique peptide (M/sub r/ = 2800) from BAR of desensitized TE which was absent in control. This unique 32 P-peptide was found only in the upper band of the doublet of BAR from desensitized TE. These data indicate that BAR is not uniformly phosphorylated following agonist-induced desensitization of TE and identify a peptide of BAR which is a site of phosphorylation correlating with desensitization of TE adenylate cyclase

  18. Effects of Two Short-Term Desensitization Methods in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Frank C.; Suinn, Richard M.

    1974-01-01

    Accelerated massed desensitization and anxiety management training were compared with standard systematic desensitization in terms of reducing self-reported test anxiety in high test-anxious college students. All three treatments significantly reduced test anxiety as compared with a waiting list control group. (Author)

  19. The Role of Attention-Placebo Influences in the Efficacy of Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, William T.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization was compared with two attention-placebo control treatments--one taken from Paul and one currently devised as an elaborate, highly impressive therapeutic'' experience--and no treatment. It was hypothesized that (a) fear reductions following desensitization would be no greater than those associated with an equally…

  20. A Comparison of Implosive Therapy and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald E.; Nye, S. Lee

    1973-01-01

    Both Desensitization and implosive therapy resulted in significant decreases in scores on Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale. However, the desensitization group also demonstrated a significant reduction in state anxiety assessed during simulated testing sessions and a significant increase in grade point average, while the implosive therapy group showed…

  1. Desensitization And Study-Skills Training As Treatment For Two Types of Test-Anxious Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhouse, Robert A.

    1972-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and training in efficient study methods for reducing test anxiety among subjects selected on the basis of two types of self reported anxiety. Desensitization offered more promise as a treatment method for test anxiety than did training in study skills. (Author)

  2. Flooding and Systematic Desensitization: Efficacy in Subclinical Phobics as a Function of Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Yolanda; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Flooding and systematic desensitization procedures were investigated for possible interactions with subject arousal level on reduction in phobic reactions. No such interaction was found. Behaviorally and on GSR response, both flooding and systematic desensitization were effective, but only the latter was effective on subjective reports. (NG)

  3. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Desensitization in Reducing Test and Other Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shelton, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of systematic desensitization and anxiety management training in reducing test anxiety and generalizing to other anxieties were compared. Both desensitization and anxiety management training produced significant reduction of text anxiety, but by follow-up, anxiety management training produced significantly more test-anxiety reduction on…

  4. Systematic Desensitization as a Method of Teaching a General Anxiety-Reducing Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Robert

    1975-01-01

    College students were treated with either a standard or modified version of systematic desensitization. Relative to a no-treatment control group, both treatment methods produced significant reductions in both the treated and untreated fears. The implications these findings have for two alternative conceptions of systematic desensitization are…

  5. Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization: 15 Months Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Michaels, Ann C.

    1981-01-01

    A 15-month follow-up study found that anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups continued to report significantly less debilitating test anxiety than the control group. Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups also reported significantly less nontargeted anxiety than controls on both measures of…

  6. Cognitive Modification and Systematic Desensitization with Test Anxious High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Lois L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compares the relative effectiveness of cognitive modification and systematic desensitization with test anxious high school students (N=30). The systematic desensitization treatment appeared to be significantly more effective on the performance measure while cognitive modification was more effective on one of the self-report measures. (Author/JAC)

  7. Comparison of Three Methods of Reducing Test Anxiety: Systematic Desensitization, Implosive Therapy, and Study Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Richard D.; Dilley, Josiah S.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization, implosive therapy, and study counseling have all been effective in reducing test anxiety. In addition, systematic desensitization has been compared to study counseling for effectiveness. This study compares all three methods and suggests that systematic desentization is more effective than the others, and that implosive…

  8. Comparison of Relaxation as Self-control and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Arden L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation as self-control and desensitization were compared to a wait-list control in reduction of rest and other anxieties. Active treatments differed significantly from the control treatment. Subjects in both treatments reported less debilitating test anxiety, whereas desensitization subjects showed greater facilitating test anxiety. (Author)

  9. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  10. Self-Desensitization and Meditation in the Reduction of Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving; Henry, David

    1979-01-01

    Speech-anxious students were assigned to self-administered treatment conditions: (1) systematic desensitization, (2) desensitization with meditation replacing progressive relaxation, and (3) meditation only. Treatment manuals included coping-skill instructions. Treatments were equally effective in reducing anxiety and produced a greater reduction…

  11. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  12. A practical and successful desensitization protocol for immediate hypersensitivity reactions to iron salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Semra; Olgac, Muge; Unal, Derya; Gelincik, Asli; Colakoglu, Bahauddin; Buyukozturk, Suna

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered iron salts (OAS) are widely used in the management of iron deficiency anemia and hypersensitivity reactions to OAS are not common. If an offending drug is the sole option or is significantly more effective than its alternatives, it can be readministered by desensitization. The oral desensitization protocols for iron published so far concern either desensitization that was completed only over a long period or did not attain the recommended therapeutic dose. We aimed to develop a more effective protocol. We report here on 2 patients who experienced hypersensitivity reactions to OAS. After confirming the diagnosis, both patients were desensitized to oral ferrous (II) glycine sulfate complex according to a 2-day desensitization protocol. A commercial suspension of oral ferrous glycine sulfate, which contains 4 mg of elemental iron in 1 ml, was preferred. We started with a dose as low as 0.1 ml from a 1/100 dilution (0.004 mg elemental iron) of the original suspension and reached the maximum effective dose in 2 days. Both patients were successfully desensitized and they went on to complete the 6-month iron treatment without any adverse effects. Although hypersensitvity reactions to iron are not common, there is no alternative for iron administration. Therefore, desensitization has to be the choice. This easy desensitization protocol seems to be a promising option. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Effect of Self and In Vivo Desensitization on Counselor Trainee Anxiety and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas V.

    The rationale, planning and implementing of this research is discussed in terms of its three hypotheses: (1) that both self desensitization and in vivo desensitization would result in lower Fear Index and Anxiety Differential scores of counselor trainees just prior to communicating with a role playing client in a counseling room where they are…

  14. Rapid desensitization of adrenaline- and neuropeptide Y-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization in HEL-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. Desensitization of Gs-coupled receptors, the beta 2-adrenoceptor for example, involves rapid and slower components but little is known regarding the existence of rapid desensitization of Gi-coupled receptors and its possible mechanisms. In HEL-cells stimulation of alpha 2A-adrenoceptors by

  15. Safety of aspirin desensitization in patients with reported aspirin allergy and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Kathryn L; Wedner, H James

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is the drug of choice in patients with coronary artery disease for primary and secondary prevention. This poses a problem for those patients reporting hypersensitivity to this drug or class of drugs. Desensitization to ASA may be carried out safely and effectively in patients with reported ASA or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity needing ASA for cardiac indications. Our 7-step protocol is one choice for a rapid desensitization protocol. A retrospective chart review was conducted evaluating ASA desensitization in patients with reported ASA or NSAID hypersensitivity and a cardiac indication for ASA. In 160 evaluations over 15 years, 89 desensitizations were performed in both the inpatient and outpatient setting with only 16 reactions (18%). Eleven of these 16 patients (68.7%) were able to take daily ASA. Twenty-six desensitization procedures were performed with our 7-step rapid desensitization protocol in 10 inpatients and 16 outpatients with 3 reactions (18.75% of reactions). Initial reaction to ASA involving angioedema and reacting to ASA within the past year increased the risk of having a reaction to desensitization. Desensitization may be safely performed in patients with reported ASA or NSAID hypersensitivity and a cardiac indication for ASA. Our 7-step rapid protocol may be used in both the inpatient and outpatient setting to desensitize these patients. Patients who had angioedema with ASA ingestion or a reaction to ASA within the past year are at higher risk for reaction during the desensitization protocol. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Long-term sinonasal outcomes of aspirin desensitization in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Soudry, Ethan; Psaltis, Alkis J; Nadeau, Kari C; McGhee, Sean A; Nayak, Jayakar V; Hwang, Peter H

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess sinonasal outcomes in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) undergoing aspirin desensitization following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Case series with chart review. University hospital. A retrospective review of sinonasal outcomes was conducted for 30 AERD patients undergoing aspirin desensitization and maintenance therapy following ESS. Sinonasal outcomes were prospectively assessed by the Sinonasal Outcomes Test-22 (SNOT-22) and endoscopic polyp grading system. Data were collected preoperatively, 1 and 4 weeks postsurgery (before desensitization), and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after aspirin desensitization. Twenty-eight of 30 patients (93.3%) successfully completed aspirin desensitization, whereas 2 of 30 (6.7%) were unable to complete desensitization due to respiratory intolerance. Of the 21 patients who successfully completed a minimum of 24 weeks of follow-up, 20 (95.2%) patients demonstrated sustained endoscopic and symptomatic improvement for a median follow-up period of 33 months. After surgical treatment but before desensitization, patients experienced significant reductions in SNOT-22 and polyp grade scores. In the first 6 months after aspirin desensitization, patients experienced further significant reductions in SNOT-22 scores, whereas polyp grade remained stable. The improvements in symptom endoscopic scores were preserved throughout the follow-up period after desensitization. No patients required additional sinus surgery. One patient had to discontinue aspirin therapy due to gastrointestinal side effects. No other adverse reactions to aspirin were noted. Aspirin desensitization following ESS appears to be a well-tolerated and effective adjunctive therapy for long-term control of nasal polyposis in patients with AERD. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  17. Efficacy, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of desensitization using IVIG and rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Ashley A; Petrozzino, Jeffrey; Yeung, Kai; Sinha, Aditi; Kahwaji, Joseph; Peng, Alice; Villicana, Rafael; Mackowiak, John; Jordan, Stanley C

    2013-03-27

    Transplantation rates are very low for the broadly sensitized patient (panel reactive antibody [PRA]>80%; HS). Here, we examine the efficacy, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of desensitization using high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab to improve transplantation rates in HS patients. From July 2006 to December 2011, 207 HS (56 living donors/151 deceased donors) patients (donor-specific antibody positive, PRA>80%) were desensitized using IVIG and rituximab. After desensitization, responsive patients proceeded to transplantation with an acceptable crossmatch. Cost and outcomes of desensitization were compared with dialysis. Of the 207 treated patients, 146 (71%) were transplanted. At 48 months, patient and graft survival by Kaplan-Meier were 95% and 87.5%, respectively. The total 3-year cost for patients treated in the desensitization arm was $219,914 per patient compared with $238,667 per patient treated in the dialysis arm. Thus, each patient treated with desensitization is estimated to save the U.S. healthcare system $18,753 in 2011 USD. Overall, estimated patient survival at the end of 3 years was 96.6% for patients in the desensitization arm of the model (based on Cedars-Sinai survival rate) compared with 79.0% for an age, end-stage renal disease etiology, and PRA matched group of patients remaining on dialysis during the study period. We conclude that desensitization with IVIG+rituximab is clinically and cost-effective, with both financial savings and an estimated 17.6% greater probability of 3-year survival associated with desensitization versus dialysis alone. However, the benefits of desensitization and transplantation are limited by organ availability and allocation policies.

  18. Sexual Violence: Psychiatric Healing With Eye Movement Reprocessing and Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    POSMONTIER, BOBBIE; DOVYDAITIS, TIFFANY; LIPMAN, KENNETH

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications. PMID:20623397

  19. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...... experimental groups were demographically comparable and showed reduced anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared with 51 control patients. The 25 HT patients did not differ significantly in numbers of dropouts during training compared with the 30 GT patients or 68 SD patients. For patients completing...... (8/32), but not GT (15/30). Hypnotizability was found to vary from patient to patient, with a direct relationship to time saved. But hypnotizability had an inverse relationship to STAI general anxiety level for those who went on to dentists after 1 year. Transference effects were noted for most HT...

  20. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, Olivier A

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, 26 years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release (TIMER-RIDER)-model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i) activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii) bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  1. An integrative model for the neural mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons why the scientific community is still divided about EMDR. I then slide from psychology to physiology describing eye movements/emotion interaction from the physiological viewpoint, and introduce theoretical and technical tools used in movement research to re-examine EMDR neural mechanism. Using a recent physiological model for the neuropsychological architecture of motor and cognitive control, the Threshold Interval Modulation with Early Release-Rate of rIse Deviation with Early Release – TIMER-RIDER – model, I explore how attentional control and bilateral stimulation may participate to EMDR effects. These effects may be obtained by two processes acting in parallel: (i activity level enhancement of attentional control component; and (ii bilateral stimulation in any sensorimotor modality, both resulting in lower inhibition enabling dysfunctional information to be processed and anxiety to be reduced. The TIMER-RIDER model offers quantitative predictions about EMDR effects for future research about its underlying physiological mechanisms.

  2. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  3. Immunological mechanisms for desensitization and tolerance in food allergy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Rima; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is a major public health concern in westernized countries, estimated to affect 5% of children and 3-4 % of adults. Allergen specific immunotherapy for food allergy is currently being actively evaluated, but is still experimental. The optimal protocol, in terms of the route of administration of the food, target maintenance dose, duration of maintenance therapy and the optimal patient for these procedures are still being worked out. The mechanisms underlying successful food desensitization are also unclear, in part because there is no standard immunotherapy protocol. The mechanisms involved however, may include mast cell and basophil suppression, development of food-specific IgG4 antibodies, reduction in the food specific IgE/IgG4 ratio, up-regulation and expansion of natural or inducible regulatory T cells, a skewing from a Th2 to a Th1 profile and the development of anergy and/or deletion in antigen specific cells. Additional studies are required to elucidate and understand these mechanisms by which desensitization and tolerance are achieved, and which may reveal valuable biomarkers for evaluating and following food allergic patients on immunotherapy. PMID:22821087

  4. Desensitization for Drug Hypersensitivity to Chemotherapy and Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamichi-Santos, Rafael; Castells, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapies drugs and monoclonal antibodies are key components of the treatment of cancer patients and patients with chronic inflammatory conditions to provide increase in life expectancy and quality of life. Their increased use has lead to an increase in drugs hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) worldwide. DHR to those agents prevented their use and promoted the use of second line therapies to protect patients' hypersensitive reactions and anaphylaxis. Second line medications may not fully address the patients' medical condition and it is desirable to keep patients on first line therapy. Drug hypersensitivity symptoms can range from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is a novel approach to the management of drug hypersensitivity reactions which are IgE and non-IgE mediated. Through the diferent desensitization protocols patients can receive the full dose of the medications that they have presented a hypersensitive reaction and been protected against anaphylaxis. This review looks at the current literature on hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to chemotherapy drugs and monoclonal antibodies and the potential use of RDD for their management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Aspirin Desensitization in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the Multicenter ADAPTED Registry (Aspirin Desensitization in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Roberta; Iorio, Annamaria; Pozzi, Roberto; Bianco, Matteo; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Sergio; Lettieri, Corrado; Bossi, Irene; Colombo, Paola; Rigattieri, Stefano; Dossena, Cinzia; Anzuini, Angelo; Capodanno, Davide; Senni, Michele; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on aspirin (ASA) desensitization for patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a standard rapid desensitization protocol in patients with ASA sensitivity undergoing coronary angiography. This is a prospective, multicenter, observational study including 7 Italian centers including patients with a history of ASA sensitivity undergoing coronary angiography with intent to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 330 patients with history of ASA sensitivity with known/suspected stable coronary artery disease or presenting with an acute coronary syndrome, including ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction were enrolled. Adverse effects to aspirin included urticaria (n=177, 53.6%), angioedema (n=69, 20.9%), asthma (n=65, 19.7%), and anaphylactic reaction (n=19, 5.8%). Among patients with urticaria/angioedema, 13 patients (3.9%) had a history of idiopathic chronic urticaria. All patients underwent a rapid ASA (5.5 hours) desensitization procedure. The desensitization procedure was performed before cardiac catheterization in all patients, except for those (n=78, 23.6%) presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent the desensitization after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 235 patients (71%) of the overall study population. The desensitization procedure was successful in 315 patients (95.4%) and in all patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction. Among the 15 patients (4.6%) who did not successfully respond to the desensitization protocol, adverse reactions were minor and responded to treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines. Among patients with successful in-hospital ASA desensitization, 253 patients (80.3%) continued ASA for at least 12 months. Discontinuation of ASA in the 62 patients (19.7%) who had responded to the desensitization protocol was because of medical

  6. Understanding Coastal Wetland Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise Enhanced Inundation Using Real-Time Stage Monitoring, LiDAR, and Monte Carlo Simulation in Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are one of the most productive ecological systems in the world, providing critical habitat area and valuable ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. However, due to their location in low lying areas, coastal wetlands are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR). Everglades National Park (ENP) encompasses the southern-most portion of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, and is the largest subtropical wetland in the USA. Water depths have shown to have a significant relationship to vegetation community composition and organization while also playing a crucial role in vegetation health throughout the Everglades. Live plants play a vital role in maintaining soil structure (i.e. elevation), and decreases in vegetation health can cause peat collapse or wetland loss resulting in dramatic habitat, organic soil, and elevation loss posing concerns for Everglades management and restoration. One suspected mechanism for peat collapse is enhanced inundation due to SLR, thus mapping and modeling water depths is a critical component to understanding the potential impacts of future SLR. Previous research in the Everglades focused on a conventional Water Depth Model (WDM) approach where a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is subtracted from a Water Table Elevation Model (WTEM). In this study, the conventional WDM approach is extended to a more rigorous WDM technique so that the accuracy and precision of the underlying data may be considered. Monte Carlo simulation is used to propagate probability distributions through our SLR depth model using our Random Forest-based LiDAR DEM, Empirical Bayesian Kriging-based WTEMs, uncertainties in vertical datums, soil accretion projections, and regional sea-level rise projections. Water depth maps were produced for the wet and dry seasons in April and October, which successfully revealed the potential spatial and temporal water depth variations due to future SLR. It is concluded that a more rigorous WDM technique helps

  7. Homologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase: the role of β-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibley, D.R.; Strasser, R.H.; Daniel, K.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors utilized the frog erythrocyte (FE) as a β-adreneric receptor (βAR) model system in which to study homologous desensitization. Preincubation with isoproterenol (ISO) leads to a 50% decline in ISO-stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) activity without significant changes in basal, PGE 1 -, NaF-, GppNHp-, forskolin-, or MnCl 2 -stimulated AC activities. ISO treatment also induces the sequestration of βAR from the cell surface as evidenced by a 35% decline in [ 3 H]CGP-12177 binding sites on the surface of intact FE. Treatment of intact FE with ISO also promotes βAR phosphorylation to 2 mol PO 4 /mol of βAR. At 25 0 C, the time courses of ISO-induced AC desensitization, βAR sequestration and βAR phosphorylation are identical occurring without a lag and exhibiting a t 1/2 of 30 min and a maximal response at 2.5 hrs. The sequestered βAR can be partially recovered upon cell lysis in a light membrane fraction (LMF), separable from the plasma membranes using sucrose gradients or differential centrifugation. βAR phosphorylation is reversed in the sequestered LMF exhibiting a PO 4 /βAR stoichiometry of 0.7 mol/mol - similar to that observed under basal conditions. These data suggest that phosphorylation of βAR in the plasma membrane promotes their translocation away from the cell surface into a sequestered membrane domain where the phosphorylation is reversed, thus, enabling the return of βAR back to the cell surface and recoupling with AC

  8. Characterization of the 1H-cyclopentapyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione derivative (S)-CPW399 as a novel, potent, and subtype-selective AMPA receptor full agonist with partial desensitization properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campiani, G; Morelli, E; Nacci, V

    2001-01-01

    (S)-CPW399 (2b) is a novel, potent, and subtype-selective AMPA receptor full agonist that, unlike (S)-willardiine and related compounds, in mouse cerebellar granule cells, stimulated an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), and induced neuronal cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Compound...... 2b appears to be a weakly desensitizing, full agonist at AMPA receptors and therefore represents a new pharmacological tool to investigate the role of AMPA receptors in excitotoxicity and their molecular mechanisms of desensitization....

  9. Rapid drug desensitization for hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells Guitart, M C

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to drugs has risen in the last 10 years owing to increased exposure to better and more allergenic medications including monoclonal antibodies. HSRs prevent patients from using their first-line therapy, leading to decreased quality of life and life expectancy. Although premedication with antihistamines, leukotriene blockers, and corticosteroids can protect against mild-to-moderate HSR, none of these medications has provided protection against anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization is a treatment option for patients with HSR to their first-line medication that protects against anaphylaxis.Although the mechanisms of drug desensitization are not completely understood, in vitro mast cell models of IgE antigen desensitization have led to the design of safe and effective in vivo protocols aimed at protecting highly sensitized patients from hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. This review provides an insight into the mechanisms of IgE/mast cell desensitization, the principles and practice of drug desensitization, and an overview of the different desensitization protocols and their safety and efficacy profiles. Drug desensitization should only be performed by allergists, trained nurses, and experienced pharmacists, since this high-risk procedure involves reintroducing allergenic medication to highly sensitized patients, with the consequent potential for severe or fatal HSRs.

  10. The role of aspirin desensitization in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Jonas Willian; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Cordeiro, Daniel Loiola; de Mendonça, Taís Nociti; Leite, Marcelo Gonçalves Junqueira; Tamashiro, Edwin; Arruda, Luiza Karla; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) consists of a classic tetrad: moderate/severe asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and intolerance to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical control with drugs, surgery, and desensitization are treatment options. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aspirin desensitization in patients with AERD. Periodic symptom assessment and endoscopy in patients with AERD undergoing surgery who were desensitized. Seventeen patients were desensitized. Eight patients completed the desensitization and were followed for a minimum of a one-year period (mean 3.1 years). These patients showed improvement in all symptoms. Moreover, surgical reassessment was not indicated in any of these patients and there was a decrease in costs with medication and procedures. Eight patients did not complete desensitization, mainly due to procedure intolerance and uncontrolled asthma, whereas another patient was lost to follow-up. Aspirin desensitization, when tolerated, was effective in patients with AERD and with poor clinical/surgical response. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  12. DESENSITIZATION PROPERTIES OF P2X3 RECEPTORS SHAPING PAIN SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid eGiniatullin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ATP-gated P2X3 receptors are mostly expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons and participate in transduction of pain signals. P2X3 receptors show a combination of fast desensitization onset and slow recovery. Moreover, even low nanomolar agonist concentrations unable to evoke a response, can induce desensitization via a phenomenon called ‘high affinity desensitization’. We have also observed that recovery from desensitization is agonist-specific and can range from seconds to minutes. The recovery process displays unusually high temperature dependence. Likewise, recycling of P2X3 receptors in peri-membrane regions shows unexpectedly large temperature sensitivity. By applying kinetic modeling, we have previously shown that desensitization characteristics of P2X3 receptor are best explained with a cyclic model of receptor operation involving three agonist molecules binding a single receptor and that desensitization is primarily developing from the open receptor state. Mutagenesis experiments suggested that desensitization depends on a certain conformation of the ATP binding pocket and on the structure of the transmembrane domains forming the ion pore. Further molecular determinants of desensitization have been identified by mutating the intracellular N- and C-termini of P2X3 receptor. Unlike other P2X receptors, the P2X3 subtype is facilitated by extracellular calcium that acts via specific sites in the ectodomain neighboring the ATP binding pocket. Thus, substitution of serine275 in this region (called ‘left flipper’ converts the natural facilitation induced by extracellular calcium to receptor inhibition. Given such their strategic location in nociceptive neurons and unique desensitization properties, P2X3 receptors represent an attractive target for development of new analgesic drugs via promotion of desensitization aimed at suppressing chronic pain.

  13. A successful desensitization protocol for horse-derived antithymocyte globulin in severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Esen; Cigerci Günaydın, Nurşen; Karadaş, Nihal; Gülen, Figen; Tanac, Remziye; Yılmaz, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    Horse antithymocyte globulin (h-ATG) (ATGAM(®) ) is the first choice of treatment in very severe patients with aplastic anemia who do not have any HLA matched sibling donor. h-ATG is a heterologous serum that may cause anaphylaxis. Alternative treatment strategies must be planned in case of hypersensitivity. Desensitization must be considered in patients without an alternative treatment of choice. We aimed to present the h-ATG desensitization protocol and consider its effectiveness in patients with aplastic anemia who are hypersensitized with h-ATG and do not have an alternative treatment of choice. Skin prick tests were performed with non-diluted solution in eight very severe patients with aplastic anemia who are followed up in Ege University Children's Hospital. Although skin prick test was found negative in these eight patients, different dilution h-ATG intradermal tests were performed and found positive in all patients. h-ATG desensitization program was started to these hypersensitized patients. Desensitization program was started to six male and two female very severe patients with aplastic anemia whose ages were between seven and 19 yr (median: 12.9 yr). All of the patients completed the desensitization program. While local reaction was seen in two patients, systemic reaction was seen in one patient and late reaction was seen in one patient during and after desensitization program. A successful desensitization program with h-ATG in children with aplastic anemia is presented. Even though there is not an exposure before to such high allergy potential heterologous serum, skin tests should be performed and desensitization must be started to patients who are hypersensitized to h-ATG. As the expected effectiveness of the treatment is so much, the desensitization protocol can be carried out safely and effectively with trained stuff although allergic reactions can be seen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Drug desensitization in the management of hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzano, Veronica; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Picard, Matthieu; Caiado, Joana; Castells, Mariana

    2014-04-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy, which may vary in severity from mild to life-threatening, can lead to their discontinuation and replacement by alternative agents that are often less effective, more toxic, and/or more expensive. Drug desensitization has emerged as the best treatment modality capable of allowing re-introduction of the hypersensitivity reaction-inducing medication in highly sensitized patients in need of first line therapies. In recent years, the availability of new anti-neoplastic drugs and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies has increased, as has the potential for hypersensitivity reactions. Development of desensitization protocols for these new medications requires a careful assessment of the potential risks and benefits. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the presentation of hypersensitivity reactions amenable to desensitization and to increase awareness of the indications for and outcomes of desensitization protocols. Rapid drug desensitization has proven to be a safe and effective way of administering first line therapy to patients with hypersensitivity reactions, providing an extremely powerful treatment modality for patients for whom alternative drugs are deemed unacceptable. Rapid drug desensitization protocols should be administered only by highly trained allergists and nurses who have experience in determining which reactions are amenable to desensitization, and can identify high risk patients and provide them with appropriate care. Efforts should be made to increase awareness of the remarkable safety and efficacy of rapid drug desensitization among non-allergists, especially in the fields of oncology and rheumatology, so as to favor its universal application. Development of desensitization units to provide state-of-the-art care is possible only through coordinated teamwork.

  15. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  16. AMPA receptor mediated excitotoxicity in neocortical neurons is developmentally regulated and dependent upon receptor desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Schousboe, A; Pickering, D S

    1998-01-01

    with a fast and rapidly desensitizing response, this could explain the relatively low toxicity produced by 500 microM AMPA. This was investigated by blocking AMPA receptor desensitization with cyclothiazide. Using a lower concentration (25 microM) of AMPA, addition of 50 microM cyclothiazide increased...... the AMPA induced excitotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons at all DIV except for DIV 2. This combination of AMPA + cyclothiazide yielded 77% cell death for DIV 12 cultures. In contrast to the results observed with 500 microM AMPA, the neurotoxicity mediated directly by AMPA receptors when desensitization...

  17. [Acetylsalicylic acid desensitization in the new era of percutaneous coronary intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes Ferre, Georgina; Ferrer Gracia, Maria Cruz; Calvo Cebollero, Isabel

    2015-09-21

    Dual antiplatelet therapy is essential in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) limits treatment options. Desensitization to ASA has classically been studied in patients with respiratory tract disease. Over the last years, many protocols have been described about ASA desensitization in patients with ischemic heart disease, including acute coronary syndrome and the need for coronary stent implantation. It is important to know the efficacy and safety of ASA desensitization in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute desensitization of acetylcholine and endothelin-1 activated inward rectifier K+ current in myocytes from the cardiac atrioventricular node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choisy, Stéphanie C M; James, Andrew F; Hancox, Jules C

    2012-07-06

    The atrioventricular node (AVN) is a vital component of the pacemaker-conduction system of the heart, co-ordinating conduction of electrical excitation from cardiac atria to ventricles and acting as a secondary pacemaker. The electrical behaviour of the AVN is modulated by vagal activity via activation of muscarinic potassium current, IKACh. However, it is not yet known if this response exhibits 'fade' or desensitization in the AVN, as established for the heart's primary pacemaker--the sinoatrial node. In this study, acute activation of IKACh in rabbit single AVN cells was investigated using whole-cell patch clamp at 37 °C. 0.1-1 μM acetylcholine (ACh) rapidly activated a robust IKACh in AVN myocytes during a descending voltage-ramp protocol. This response was inhibited by tertiapin-Q (TQ; 300 nM) and by the M2 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist AFDX-116 (1 μM). During sustained ACh exposure the elicited IKACh exhibited bi-exponential fade (τf of 2.0 s and τs 76.9 s at -120 mV; 1 μM ACh). 10 nM ET-1 elicited a current similar to IKACh, which faded with a mono-exponential time-course (τ of 52.6 s at -120 mV). When ET-1 was applied following ACh, the ET-1 activated response was greatly attenuated, demonstrating that ACh could desensitize the response to ET-1. For neither ACh nor ET-1 was the rate of current fade dependent upon the initial response magnitude, which is inconsistent with K+ flux mediated changes in electrochemical driving force as the underlying mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TQ sensitive inwardly rectifying K+ current in cardiac AVN cells, elicited by M2 muscarinic receptor or ET-1 receptor activation, exhibits fade due to rapid desensitization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S

    2001-01-01

    Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gamma......, as opposed to the staining of the (gamma2/alpha1)-containing receptors, which was only slightly higher than background. To explain this, the (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeras may act like alpha1 and gamma2 subunits, respectively, indicating that the extracellular N-terminal segment is important...... for assembly. However, the (alpha1/gamma2) chimeric subunit had characteristics different from the alpha1 subunit, since the (alpha1/gamma2) chimera gave rise to no desensitization after GABA stimulation in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, which was independent of whether the chimera was expressed...

  20. Hypersensitivity and desensitization to antineoplastic agents: outcomes of 189 procedures with a new short protocol and novel diagnostic tools assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Burgaleta, R; Berges-Gimeno, M P; Angel-Pereira, D; Ferreiro-Monteagudo, R; Guillen-Ponce, C; Pueyo, C; Gomez de Salazar, E; Alvarez-Cuesta, E

    2013-07-01

    Desensitization to antineoplastic agents is becoming a standard of care. Efforts to establish and improve these techniques are being made at many institutions. Our aims are to evaluate a new rapid desensitization protocol designed to be shorter (approximately 4 h) and safer (reducing hazardous drugs exposure risks) and to assess the oxaliplatin-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a novel diagnostic tool. Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with patients who, for a 1-year period, suffered reactions to antineoplastic agents and were referred to the Desensitization Program at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital (RCUH). Patients were included or excluded as desensitization candidates after anamnesis, skin testing, risk assessment, and graded challenge. Specific IgE was determined in oxaliplatin-reactive patients. Candidate patients were desensitized using the new RCUH rapid desensitization protocol. Of 189 intravenous rapid desensitizations, 188 were successfully accomplished in the 23 patients who met inclusion criteria for desensitization (of 58 referred patients). No breakthrough reactions occurred in 94% of desensitizations, and most breakthrough reactions were mild. In 10 oxaliplatin-reactive patients, 38 desensitizations were successfully accomplished. Sensitivity for oxaliplatin-specific IgE was 38% (0.35UI/l cutoff point) and 54% (0.10UI/l cutoff point); specificity was 100% for both cutoff points. In the hands of a Desensitization Program, managed by drug desensitization experts, this new protocol has proven an effective therapeutic tool for hypersensitivity to several antineoplastic agents (oxaliplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab); moreover, it improves safety handling of hazardous drugs. We report the first large series of oxaliplatin desensitizations. Oxaliplatin-specific IgE determination could be helpful. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The effect of video game violence on psychological desensitization to real life violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnagey, N.L.; Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game effects on physiological desensitization, defined as

  2. Lymphocyte-mediated regulation of platelet activation during desensitization in patients with hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, E; Pestel, J; Tsicopoulos, A; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    T cells from peripheral blood of hymenoptera sensitive patients were studied before and after venom desensitization. Before treatment, T cells showed a variable but higher proliferative response to allergen than T cells of treated patients or controls. While before desensitization, T cell products, specifically released after in vitro allergen stimulation, were able to amplify the IgE-dependent platelet activity, we showed that after treatment of the same patients, T cell products strongly reduced platelet activation. Considering the modifications in platelet activation previously observed in patients treated by specific immunotherapy, the present results suggest that, through a modification of T cell reactivity to allergen, T cell functions are modulated by desensitization, and emphasize the involvement of T cell products in the desensitization mechanisms. PMID:3263227

  3. Inducing Assertive Behavior in Chronic Schizophrenics: A Comparison of Socioenvironmental Desensitization, and Relaxation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Bernard; And Others

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that systematic desensitization or relaxation therapy is not effective in inducing assertive behavior in the male chronic schizophrenic. The treatment of choice for the older chronic male schizophrenic remains socioenvironmental therapy. (Author)

  4. Rational-Emotive Therapy versus Systematic Desensitization: A Comment on Moleski and Tosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Leslie

    1983-01-01

    Questioned the statistical analyses of the Moleski and Tosi investigation of rational-emotive therapy versus systematic desensitization. Suggested means for lowering the error rate through a more efficient experimental design. Recommended a reanalysis of the original data. (LLL)

  5. A Further Assessment of Attention-Placebo Effects and Demand Characteristics in Studies of Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, William T.; Tori, Christopher

    1972-01-01

    It was predicted that phobic Ss receiving systematic desensitization would show greater reductions on both fear-related behavior measures and simulated fear measures than Ss receiving relaxation treatment or no treatment at all. The prediction was confirmed. (Author)

  6. Applications of Desensitization Procedures for School-Related Problems; A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, H. Thompson; Harvey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of desensitization and counterconditioning procedures have been utilized to deal with school-related problems. These procedures are reviewed with respect to applications for treating school phobia, test anxiety, and other academic anxieties. (Author)

  7. Anaphylactic reaction to polyethylene-glycol conjugated-asparaginase: premedication and desensitization may not be sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Umit M; Yavuz, S Tolga; Gökce, Muge; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Altan, Ilhan; Aytac, Selin; Tuncer, Murat; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2013-08-01

    In hypersensitive reactions to native L-asparaginase, either premedication and desensitization or substitution with polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) is preferred. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is rare. An 8-year-old girl and a 2.5-year-old boy, both diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia, presented with native L-asparaginase hypersensitivity and substitution with PEG-ASP was preferred. They received a premedication (methylprednisolone, hydroxyzine and ranitidine) followed by desensitization with PEG-ASP infusion. Both patients developed anaphylaxis with peg-asparaginase. These are the first reported cases of anaphylactic reaction to PEG-ASP, despite the application of both premedication and desensitization. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is very rare and premedication and desensitization protocols may not prevent these hypersensitive reactions. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Comparing the effect of a desensitizing material and a self-etch adhesive on dentin sensitivity after periodontal surgery: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Hajizadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluated the ability of a desensitizing agent and a self-etch adhesive on cervical dentin sensitivity (CDS after periodontal surgery. Materials and Methods Ninety hypersensitive teeth of 13 subjects were included in the study. After periodontal surgery, the teeth of each posterior sextant treated with one of the following materials: G1: Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental, G2: Gluma Desensitizer (Heraeus Kulzer, and G3: placebo (water. The sensitivity was assessed using evaporative stimuli before treatment (baseline, T0, 1 day after treatment (T1, after 1 week (T2, and after 1 month (T3 according to visual analog scale (VAS. Results Following the treatment, all the 3 groups showed significant reduction of CDS in T1 compared to T0. Reduction of CDS between T1 and T2 was observed only in G1 but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 in this group. Although we observed a significant difference in T3 compared to T1 and T2 in G2 and G3, comparison of treatment groups in each assessment time showed a significant difference only in T3. According to paired comparison, this was due to the difference between G2 and G3. Conclusions Dentin sensitivity following periodontal surgery will decrease spontaneously over time, but treating the sensitive teeth with Gluma Desensitizer and Clearfil S3 Bond can have some benefits.

  9. Successful kidney transplantation across a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch by using C1q assay-directed, bortezomib-assisted desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhan; Park, Borae G.; Jeong, Hyang Sook; Park, Youn Hee; Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Huh, Kyu Ha; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Yu Seun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the major immunologic barrier in kidney transplantation (KT). Various desensitization protocols to overcome the HLA barrier have increased the opportunity for transplantation in sensitized patients. In addition, technological advances in solid-phase assays have permitted more comprehensive assessment of donor-specific antibodies. Although various desensitization therapies and immunologic techniques have been developed, the final transplantation decision is still based on the classic complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatch (XM) technique. Some patients who fail to achieve negative XM have lost their transplant opportunities, even after receiving sufficient desensitization therapies. Patient concerns: A 57-year-old male with end-stage renal disease secondary to chronic glomerulonephritis was scheduled to have a second transplant from his son, but CDC XM was positive. Diagnoses: Initial CDC XM (Initial T-AHG 1:32) and flow-cytometry XM were positive. Anti-HLA-B59 donor specific antibody was detected by Luminex single antigen assay. Interventions: Herein, we report a successful case of KT across a positive CDC XM (T-AHG 1:8 at the time of transplantation) by using C1q assay-directed, bortezomib-assisted desensitization. After confirming a negative conversion in the C1q donor-specific antibody, we decided to perform KT accepting a positive AHG-CDC XM of 1:8 at the time of transplantation. Outcomes: The posttransplant course was uneventful and a protocol biopsy at 3 months showed no evidence of rejection. The patient had excellent graft function at 12 months posttransplant. Lessons: The results of XM test and solid-phase assay should be interpreted in the context of the individual patient. PMID:28953652

  10. Successful kidney transplantation across a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch by using C1q assay-directed, bortezomib-assisted desensitization: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhan; Park, Borae G; Jeong, Hyang Sook; Park, Youn Hee; Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Huh, Kyu Ha; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Yu Seun

    2017-09-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the major immunologic barrier in kidney transplantation (KT). Various desensitization protocols to overcome the HLA barrier have increased the opportunity for transplantation in sensitized patients. In addition, technological advances in solid-phase assays have permitted more comprehensive assessment of donor-specific antibodies. Although various desensitization therapies and immunologic techniques have been developed, the final transplantation decision is still based on the classic complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatch (XM) technique. Some patients who fail to achieve negative XM have lost their transplant opportunities, even after receiving sufficient desensitization therapies. A 57-year-old male with end-stage renal disease secondary to chronic glomerulonephritis was scheduled to have a second transplant from his son, but CDC XM was positive. Initial CDC XM (Initial T-AHG 1:32) and flow-cytometry XM were positive. Anti-HLA-B59 donor specific antibody was detected by Luminex single antigen assay. Herein, we report a successful case of KT across a positive CDC XM (T-AHG 1:8 at the time of transplantation) by using C1q assay-directed, bortezomib-assisted desensitization. After confirming a negative conversion in the C1q donor-specific antibody, we decided to perform KT accepting a positive AHG-CDC XM of 1:8 at the time of transplantation. The posttransplant course was uneventful and a protocol biopsy at 3 months showed no evidence of rejection. The patient had excellent graft function at 12 months posttransplant. The results of XM test and solid-phase assay should be interpreted in the context of the individual patient.

  11. Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Raboni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms, in addition to nightmares, which interfere with sleep continuity. Pharmacologic treatment of these sleep problems improves PTSD symptoms, but very few studies have used psychotherapeutic interventions to treat PTSD and examined their effects on sleep quality. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing therapy on indices of mood, anxiety, subjective and objective sleep. The sample was composed of 11 healthy controls and 13 PTSD patients that were victims of assault and/or kidnapping. All participants were assessed before, and one day after, the end of treatment for depressive and anxiety profile, general well-being and subjective sleep by filling out specific questionnaires. In addition, objective sleep patterns were evaluated by polysomnographic recording. Healthy volunteers were submitted to the therapy for three weekly sessions, whereas PTSD patients underwent five sessions, on average. Before treatment, PTSD patients exhibited high levels of anxiety and depression, poor quality of life and poor sleep, assessed both subjectively and objectively; the latter was reflected by increased time of waking after sleep onset. After completion of treatment, patients exhibited improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms, and in quality of life; with indices that were no longer different from control volunteers. Moreover, these patients showed more consolidated sleep, with reduction of time spent awake after sleep onset. In conclusion, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was an effective treatment of PTSD patients and improved the associated sleep and psychological symptoms.

  12. Aplikasi eye moving desensitization dan reprocessing dalam konseling post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hengki Satrianta

    2017-01-01

    Akhir-akhir ini banyak peristiwa yang berpotensi memunculkan efek traumatik yang jika tidak ditangani akan menimbulkan gangguan stres pascatrauma. Olehnya itu, dibutuhkan upaya-upaya untu menangani masalah ini. Salah satu upaya yang dimaksud adalah penggunaan eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Artikel ini ditulis dengan fokus pada penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma melalui eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran u...

  13. Pitocin and autism: An analysis of oxytocin receptor desensitization in the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Mark M

    2016-02-01

    The risk of Pitocin as a cause of autism attributable to oxytocin receptor desensitization in the brain of the fetus is evaluated in terms of a mathematical model. A composite unit, D, for oxytocin receptor desensitization levels is established with the form ((IU-h)/ml)E-3, where IU is the international unit for oxytocin. The desensitization values for oxytocin receptor desensitization at a concentration of 10 nmol of oxytocin per liter for 3, 4.2 and 6h corresponding to 0%, 50% and 100% desensitization are calculated to be 15 D, 21 D, and 30 D, respectively. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the fetus to oxytocin is discussed, and the upper limit of the concentration of Pitocin in the placenta, and its possible diffusion into the blood and brain of the fetus, is calculated for a routine dose of 6 milli U per minute of Pitocin over a 12h labor. This dose of Pitocin is shown to result in a desensitization value in units of D that is more than a factor of 10 below the 0% desensitization value of 15 D. This indicates that routine doses of Pitocin are not a significant cause of autism attributable to oxytocin receptor desensitization. This is consistent with the findings of a major epidemiological study of the association of Pitocin with autism in Denmark entitled, "Oxytocin-augmented labor and risk for males", Behavioral Brain Research, May 1, 2015; 284:207-212, which found no association between the use of Pitocin during labor and the incidence of autism for females, and a modest association for males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene-Targeted Mice with the Human Troponin T R141W Mutation Develop Dilated Cardiomyopathy with Calcium Desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohun Ramratnam

    Full Text Available Most studies of the mechanisms leading to hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM have been performed in reconstituted in vitro systems. Genetically engineered murine models offer the opportunity to dissect these mechanisms in vivo. We generated a gene-targeted knock-in murine model of the autosomal dominant Arg141Trp (R141W mutation in Tnnt2, which was first described in a human family with DCM. Mice heterozygous for the mutation (Tnnt2R141W/+ recapitulated the human phenotype, developing left ventricular dilation and reduced contractility. There was a gene dosage effect, so that the phenotype in Tnnt2R141W/+mice was attenuated by transgenic overexpression of wildtype Tnnt2 mRNA transcript. Male mice exhibited poorer survival than females. Biomechanical studies on skinned fibers from Tnnt2R141W/+ hearts showed a significant decrease in pCa50 (-log[Ca2+] required for generation of 50% of maximal force relative to wildtype hearts, indicating Ca2+ desensitization. Optical mapping studies of Langendorff-perfused Tnnt2R141W/+ hearts showed marked increases in diastolic and peak systolic intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i, and prolonged systolic rise and diastolic fall of [Ca2+]i. Perfused Tnnt2R141W/+ hearts had slower intrinsic rates in sinus rhythm and reduced peak heart rates in response to isoproterenol. Tnnt2R141W/+ hearts exhibited a reduction in phosphorylated phospholamban relative to wildtype mice. However, crossing Tnnt2R141W/+ mice with phospholamban knockout (Pln-/- mice, which exhibit increased Ca2+ transients and contractility, had no effect on the DCM phenotype. We conclude that the Tnnt2 R141W mutation causes a Ca2+ desensitization and mice adapt by increasing Ca2+-transient amplitudes, which impairs Ca2+ handling dynamics, metabolism and responses to β-adrenergic activation.

  15. Perioperative Desensitization Improves Outcomes Among Crossmatch Positive Recipients of Deceased Donor Renal Transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; King, Anne; Kumar, Dhiren; Behnke, Martha; McDougan, Felecia; Kimball, Pamela M

    2016-06-01

    Graft failure due to chronic rejection is greater among renal transplant patients with donor-specific antibody (DSA) than among DSA-free patients. For patients dependent on deceased donor transplantation, preoperative desensitization to eliminate DSAs may be impractical. We speculated that perioperative desensitization might eliminate preexisting DSAs and prevent de novo DSAs and improve graft outcomes. We report that brief perioperative desensitization using either intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis/IVIG (PP/IVIG) treatment improves clinical outcomes among patients with positive crossmatches. Immediately following deceased donor transplantation, 235 renal recipients were assigned points for PRA and flow crossmatches (FCXM): delayed graft function (DGF) ≤ 1 point received standard therapy; 2 points received high-dose IVIG; and ≥3 points received PP/IVIG. The DSAs were serially monitored by single antigen bead luminex for 1 year. Five-year clinical outcomes were determined from the chart review. All desensitized patients had preoperatively positive FCXM with DSA. Rejection was more common (P desensitized than nonsensitized groups. However, overall graft survivals were similar between the groups (P = not significant) and superior to historic untreated patients (P 90% in all desensitizated patients with DSA elimination as well as PP/IVIG patients with residual DSA. In contrast, IVIG patients with persistent DSA had poorer graft survival (45%, P desensitization improved overall graft survival of sensitized patients compared to historic untreated patients. Plasmapheresis/IVIG had greater impact on DSA eradication and graft survival than IVIG alone. © 2016, NATCO.

  16. An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Buchmiller, Brett L; Khan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization followed by maintenance therapy effectively improves symptom control in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The majority of current desensitization protocols use 3-hour dosing intervals and often require 2 to 3 days to complete. We evaluated hourly dose escalations in a subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma who historically reacted to aspirin within 1 hour or were avoiding aspirin with the goal of developing a safe and efficient desensitization protocol. Fifty-seven aspirin desensitizations were performed under the hourly protocol. All patients had refractory nasal polyposis as an indication for aspirin desensitization. The clinical characteristics of each subject were analyzed in relation to aspects of his or her reactions during the procedure. Ninety-eight percent of study patients were successfully treated under the hourly protocol, including those with a history of severe reactions and intubation. None required further medication than is available in an outpatient allergy clinic. A total of 96% of reactors recorded a bronchial or naso-ocular reaction within 1 hour of the preceding dose. Of the total patients on this protocol, 40% were able to complete the procedure in a single day, and 60% within 2 days. Patients with AERD who have a history of symptoms less than 1 hour after aspirin exposure can be safely desensitized with a 1-hour dose-escalation protocol that can often be completed in a single day. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A SAFE PROTOCOL FOR RAPID DESENSITIZATION IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AND ANTIBIOTIC HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legere, Henry J.; Palis, Ross I.; Bouza, Tito Rodriguez; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Castells, Mariana C.

    2009-01-01

    Background CF patients often demonstrate hypersensitivity to one or multiple antibiotics due to frequent and repeated exposures. Attempts at antibiotic desensitization in this population are historically complicated by higher reaction rates, failure to complete the procedure and consequent withholding of first-line therapy. This study evaluates the outcomes of a rapid desensitization protocol developed at our institution. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 15 patients undergoing 52 rapid antibiotic desensitizations at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Children’s Hospital Boston utilizing our protocol. Results Mean FEV1 % predicted was 44.1 (SD 16.5), with two patients at desensitized during bilateral lung transplantation. Adverse reactions during desensitization occurred in 13.4%, and most were mild. 100% of patients completed the protocol and ultimately tolerated subsequent full-strength antibiotic courses. Conclusions CF patients with antibiotic hypersensitivity can safely receive first-line antibiotics via our rapid desensitization protocol, including those with severe obstructive lung disease. PMID:19740711

  18. Credentialism, Adults, and Part-Time Higher Education in the United Kingdom: An Account of Rising Take Up and Some Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Explains the growing importance of higher-level qualifications for adults in the UK, highlighting statistical trends in commitment to learning and qualifying-the result of taking part-time courses in higher education. Most part-time undergraduates fund their own tuition. Mature students' backgrounds and perspectives partly account for their rising…

  19. Laser desensitization of austenitic stainless steel weld AHZ. Desensibilizacion con Laser de la zona afectada por el calor (ZAC) en aceros inoxidables austeniticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.H.; Kim, K.C.; Chang, R.W. (Welding Research Center Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of))

    1994-01-01

    This paper addressed the fundamental understanding of sensitization phenomena in the weld HAZ of austenitic stainless steel and a method of desensitization utilizing LASER, without degradation of other corrosion resistance (pitting resistance). Sensitization in the weld HAZ was due to a formation of CR depleted zone along grain boundaries and twin boundaries by precipitation of Cr[sub 2]3C[sub 6] which contains 70-80% Cr and a small amount of Fe having a cubic-cubic relationship with the austenite matrix. Common morphologies of carbides were found to be of bar and globular shapes. As the holding time increased, carbides with coarsened globular (iodomorph) and dendrite shapes were also found. However, there was no significant variation in the composition of carbides and width of the Cr depleted zone with morphology. Laser desensitization could be obtained with a proper choice of the beam power and travel speed under a constant beam size. As long as the beam density reached a critical amount, carbides and Cr depleted zone completed zone completely disappeared. The critical travel speed increased with higher beam power, but was constant regardless of the original degree of sensitization. Pitting resistance of the LASER desensitized base metal and HAZ appeared to be far superior to that found in the sensitized condition. The protection potential in the hysteresis loop test was very sensitive to the degree of sensitization, revealing that the protection potential was dependent upon the propagation of the pits through the Cr depleted grain boundaries. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. Factors Predicting Risk for Antibody-mediated Rejection and Graft Loss in Highly Human Leukocyte Antigen Sensitized Patients Transplanted After Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Ashley A; Sinha, Aditi; Haas, Mark; Choi, Jua; Mirocha, James; Kahwaji, Joseph; Peng, Alice; Villicana, Rafael; Jordan, Stanley C

    2015-07-01

    Desensitization with intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab (I+R) significantly improves transplant rates in highly sensitized patients, but antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) remains a concern. Between July 2006 and December 2012, 226 highly sensitized patients received transplants after desensitization. Most received alemtuzumab induction and standard immunosuppression. Two groups were examined: ABMR (n = 181) and ABMR (n = 45, 20%). Risk factors for ABMR, pathology, and outcomes were assessed. Significant risks for ABMR included previous transplants and pregnancies as sensitizing events, donor-specific antibody (DSA) relative intensity scores greater than 17, presence of both class I and II DSAs at transplant and time on waitlist. The ABMR showed a significant benefit for graft survival and glomerular filtration rate at 5 years (P desensitized with I+R who remain ABMR have long-term graft and patient survival. The ABMR patients have significantly reduced graft survival and glomerular filtration rate at 5 years, especially TMA. Severe ABMR episodes benefit from treatment with PLEX + Eculizumab. The DSA-relative intensity scores at transplant was a strong predictor of ABMR. Donor-specific antibody avoidance and reduction strategies before transplantation are critical to avoiding ABMR and improving long-term outcomes.

  1. Decreases in Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise of Smartphone Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Martin, Gabrielle N; Campbell, W Keith

    2018-01-22

    In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991-2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not significantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents' time use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Rapid polyclonal desensitization with antibodies to IgE and FcεRIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodoun, Marat V; Kucuk, Zeynep Yesim; Strait, Richard T; Krishnamurthy, Durga; Janek, Kevin; Lewkowich, Ian; Morris, Suzanne C; Finkelman, Fred D

    2013-06-01

    Rapid desensitization, a procedure in which persons allergic to an antigen are treated at short intervals with increasing doses of that antigen until they tolerate a large dose, is an effective, but risky, way to induce temporary tolerance. We wanted to determine whether this approach can be adapted to suppress all IgE-mediated allergies in mice by injecting serially increasing doses of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to IgE or FcεRIα. Active and passive models of antigen- and anti-IgE mAb-induced IgE-mediated anaphylaxis were used. Mice were desensitized with serially increasing doses of anti-IgE mAb, anti-FcεRIα mAb, or antigen. Development of shock (hypothermia), histamine and mast cell protease release, cytokine secretion, calcium flux, and changes in cell number and FcεRI and IgE expression were evaluated. Rapid desensitization with anti-IgE mAb suppressed IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity; however, some mice developed mild anaphylaxis during desensitization. Rapid desensitization with anti-FcεRIα mAb that only binds FcεRI that is not occupied by IgE suppressed both active and passive IgE-mediated anaphylaxis without inducing disease. It quickly, but temporarily, suppressed IgE-mediated anaphylaxis by decreasing mast cell signaling through FcεRI, then slowly induced longer lasting mast cell unresponsiveness by removing membrane FcεRI. Rapid desensitization with anti-FcεRIα mAb was safer and longer lasting than rapid desensitization with antigen. A rapid desensitization approach with anti-FcεRIα mAb safely desensitizes mice to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis by inducing mast cell anergy and later removing all mast cell IgE. Rapid desensitization with an anti-human FcεRIα mAb may be able to prevent human IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal transplantation across the donor-specific antibody barrier: Graft outcome and cancer risk after desensitization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yao Yang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: When compared to renal transplantation without DSA, desensitization therapy for DSA resulted in equivalent renal transplant outcome but potentially increased risk of urothelial carcinoma after transplantation.

  4. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  5. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  6. Axial compressor blade design for desensitization of aerodynamic performance and stability to tip clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Engin

    region, this approach would entail a nominal performance penalty. Therefore, the chosen rotor design philosophy aims to keep the spanwise loading constant to avoid trading performance for desensitization. The rotor designs that resulted from this exercise are simulated in ANSYS CFX at different tip clearance sizes. The change in their performance with respect to tip clearance size (sensitivity) is compared both on an integral level in terms of pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency, as well as on a detailed level in terms of aerodynamic losses and blockage associated with tip clearance flow. The sensitivity of aerodynamic stability is evaluated either directly through the simulations of the rotor characteristics up to the stall point (expensive in time and resources) for a few designs or indirectly through the position of the interface between the incoming and tip clearance flow with respect to the rotor leading edge plane. The latter approach is based on a generally observed stall criteria in modern axial compressors. The rotor designs are then assessed according to their sensitivity in comparison to that of the reference rotor design to detect features that can explain the trend in sensitivity to tip clearance size. These features can then be validated and the associated flow mechanisms explained through numerical simulations and modelling. Analysis of the database from the rotor parametric study shows that the observed trend in sensitivity cannot be explained by the shifting of the aerodynamic loading along the blade chord, as initially hypothesized based on the literature review. Instead, two flow features are found to reduce sensitivity of performance and stability to tip clearance, namely an increase in incoming meridional momentum in the tip region and a reduction/elimination of double leakage flow. Double leakage flow is the flow that exits the tip clearance of one blade and proceeds into the clearance of the adjacent blade rather than convecting downstream out

  7. A Reduced-Order Controller Considering High-Order Modal Information of High-Rise Buildings for AMD Control System with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-delays of control force calculation, data acquisition, and actuator response will degrade the performance of Active Mass Damper (AMD control systems. To reduce the influence, model reduction method is used to deal with the original controlled structure. However, during the procedure, the related hierarchy information of small eigenvalues will be directly discorded. As a result, the reduced-order model ignores the information of high-order mode, which will reduce the design accuracy of an AMD control system. In this paper, a new reduced-order controller based on the improved Balanced Truncation (BT method is designed to reduce the calculation time and to retain the abandoned high-order modal information. It includes high-order natural frequency, damping ratio, and vibration modal information of the original structure. Then, a control gain design method based on Guaranteed Cost Control (GCC algorithm is presented to eliminate the adverse effects of data acquisition and actuator response time-delays in the design process of the reduced-order controller. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed methodology is applied to a numerical example of a ten-storey frame and an experiment of a single-span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the reduced-order controller with GCC algorithm has an excellent control effect; meanwhile it can compensate time-delays effectively.

  8. REM Desensitization as a New Therapeutic Method for Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate potential efficacy of a new therapeutic approach in posttraumatic stress disorder in comparison with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, a standard treatment approach and controls. Methods: the study was designed using a randomized controlled trial methodology. Participants were recruited from military servicemen aged between 25 to 50 years who were admitting hospitals of Bushehr, Iran, with the final diagnosis of PTSD. Finally 33 male patients were devided into three subgroups: G1: EMDR; G2: REM Desensitization; and group 3: controls who received no therapy. Mississippi Scale for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a 37 item death anxiety questionnaire were used for measures. Results: multiple comparisons showed that intrusive thoughts were significantly more likely to improve with REM Desensitization versus EMDR (P=0.03, while depression was more responsive to EMDR (p=0.03. Among the Pittsburgh scale for the quality of sleep items, sleep quality (p=0.02, sleep duration (p=0.001, and total sleep quality score (p=0.002 were significantly more likely to improve in the REM Desensitization group. Change in the absolute death anxiety scores was not different between subgroups excepting EMDR versus control group (p=0.05. Conclusion: REM, desensitization, the new therapeutic approach to PTSD is a highly effective strategy, even more than EMDR, the standard treatment, in most of the evaluated subjects, with special emphasis on sleep symptoms, and also in the management of intrusive thoughts. Depression is the only factor in which, REM Desensitization was significantly less likely to represent a superior therapeutic effect than EMDR. Key words: post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, new treatment.

  9. Infectious complications in living-donor kidney transplant recipients undergoing multi-modal desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turza, Kristin C; Shafique, Michael; Lobo, Peter I; Sawyer, Robert G; Keith, Douglas S; Brayman, Kenneth L; Agarwal, Avinash

    2014-06-01

    Pre-existing humoral barriers challenge the transplantation of living donor kidneys (LDK) into highly sensitized ABO- and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-incompatible recipients. Conditioning these LDK recipients' immune systems is required before they undergo transplantation. We hypothesized that medical desensitization would yield higher post-transplantation rates of infection. We conducted a study in which matched controls consisting of non-desensitized (NDS) LDK recipients were compared with desensitized (DS) receipients. Pre-transplantation desensitization included treatment with rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil followed by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasmapheresis. All participants in the study underwent induction therapy and maintenance immunosuppression. Primary outcomes included infection (opportunistic, local, systemic) within 12 mo after transplantation. Twenty-five patients underwent desensitization and LDK transplantation. Graft survival in the DS and NDS groups of patients was 96% and 98%, respectively. The mean 3- and 12-mo serum creatinine concentrations in the DS and NDS groups were 1.1±0.2 mg/dL and 1.2±0.3 mg/dL and 0.95±0.4 mg/dL and 0.73±0.8 mg/dL (p=0.3 and p=0.01), respectively. Thirty-six percent of the patients in the DS group had one or more infections, vs. 28% of those in the NDS group (p=0.1). No difference was observed in the frequency of opportunistic or systemic infections in the two groups. Local infections were statistically significantly more frequent in the DS group (60% vs. 30%, respectively; p=0.02). Pre-operative desensitization in highly sensitized LDK recipients is followed by a similar incidence of opportunistic and systemic infections as in NDS patients. Local infections were significantly more frequent in the DS than in the NDS patients in the study. With careful monitoring of infectious complications, pre-transplant desensitization permits LDK transplantation into highly sensitized patients.

  10. Time course of the rise in UV fluorescence intensity following irradiation and experimental conditions for the determination of this parameter in vital Ehrlich-ascitic tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the impulse cytophotometric method of measurement in the UV region of the spectrum has allowed to determine the change of primary fluorescence intensity on vital unstained cells without the influence of UV exposure or other factors affecting the measuring result in an uncontrollable way. The studies on the influence of storage time and -temperature have shown that a storage time of up to 25 min at 20 0 C has no effect on the fluorescence intensity of Ehrlich ascites cells. On day 11 after inoculation the fluorescence level is about 20% higher than on day 8, but is much better reproducible at the latter date. After 600 rads gamma irradiation applied on the 6th day, this parameter starts oscillating around normal values and is stabilized within 20 hrs after irradiation; these values remain constant in the next 40 hrs. Even after exposure to 100, 200 and 300 rads gamma radiation a constant UV fluorescence intensity is registered in this time interval. Measurements of this parameter in the phase of relative constancy allow a clear-cut interpretation of the results of further radiobiological investigations. (author)

  11. Oral desensitization in children with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow's milk allergy--follow-up at 4 yr and 8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Paolo; Giampietro, Paolo G; Gianni, Simona; Galli, Elena

    2008-08-01

    Until now, the basic treatment for food allergy has been to avoid the offending item. This approach is difficult in the case of common foods and in the case where there is a risk of severe reaction after consuming the offending food, even inadvertently. This is the follow-up of a previous study aimed at desensitizing 21 children with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow's milk (CM) allergy. This protocol was totally or partially successful in 85% of cases, but failed in the remaining 15%. Our aims were to study the long-term effectiveness and safety of oral CM desensitization, and the prognostic value of Skin Prick Test (SPT) and specific serum CM IgE. The 21 children were called back (one dropped out). The allergic history and other information on CM intake over the last 4-5 yr were recorded. Children underwent SPT, and end-point SPT, with casein and alpha-lactoalbumin. Specific CM IgE was also measured. At follow-up, 14/20 children totally (n = 13, 65%) or partially (n = 1, 5%) tolerated CM. None of the recalled children reported use of emergency care. SPT positivity to casein and/or alpha-lactoalbumin decreased significantly (p < 0.01), and all the negative SPT referred to the tolerant children. Cutaneous sensitivity to both casein and alpha-lactoalbumin (end-point SPT) significantly decreased after the 6-month desensitization period of the previous study (p < 0.001), but did not decrease significantly at follow-up. A significant reduction of serum-specific CM IgE was also observed (p < 0.05). Clinical tolerance induced by oral CM desensitization persists in time. Negativization of SPT and reduction of specific CM IgE could be considered prognostic indicators of CM tolerance. Oral CM desensitization seems to be a promising method to treat CM food allergy. This protocol is time-consuming but offers the advantage that it can be performed at home. This methodology must only be used by trained staff.

  12. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR as a Neurorehabilitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  13. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  14. [Prolonged desensitization pretreatment for in vitro fertilization in women with polycystic ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyński, W; Czech, R; Redźko, S; Wasilewski, T; Mrugacz, G; Wołczyński, S; Pietrewicz, P; Grochowski, D; Szamatowicz, M

    2000-09-01

    To analyse the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in women with severe polycystic ovary disease (PCD), stimulated after prolonged pituitary desensitization in comparison with regular long protocol therapy. The results of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), fertilization rate, early embryo development parameters and clinical pregnancy rates were compared depending on the duration of pituitary desensitization before gonadotropin administration. A total of 60 patients with severe PCOD were desensitized with GnRH agonist up to 30 days before COH. The results were compared with the group of 213 patients with mild PCOD treated with regular long protocol (control). We observed a slightly higher rate of mature oocytes MII as well as the number of embryos obtained in the control group, however the pregnancy rate in the group with prolonged desensitization was significantly higher (50%) in comparison to the control group (33.8%). The prolonged pituitary desensitization before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation gives better chance for obtaining pregnancy in patients with severe PCOD. It could be recommended facing previous treatment failure.

  15. [Experience of rapid drug desensitization therapy in the treatment of mycobacterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuka; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Morimoto, Kozo; Okumura, Masao; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Gotoh, Hajime; Kudoh, Shoji; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Drugs for tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacterial diseases are limited. In particular, no new drugs for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial disease have been developed in recent years. Antimycobacterial drugs have many adverse reactions, for which drug desensitization therapy has been used. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) therapy, including antituberculosis drugs and clarithromycin, has been implemented in many regions in Europe and the United States. We investigated the validity of RDD therapy in Japan. We report our experience with RDD therapy in 13 patients who developed severe drug allergy to antimycobacterial treatment. The desensitization protocol reported by Holland and Cernandas was adapted. The underlying diseases were 7 cases of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease and 6 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Isoniazid was readministered in 2 (100%) of 2 patients; rifampicin, in 8 (67.7%) of 12 patients; ethambutol, in 4 (67.7%) of 6 patients; and clarithromycin, in 2 (100%) of 2 patients. In Japan, the desensitization therapy recommended by the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have been implemented generally. We think RDD therapy is effective and safe as the other desensitization therapy. We will continue to investigate the efficiency of RDD therapy in patients who had discontinued antimycobacterial treatment because of the drug allergic reaction.

  16. Outcome after Desensitization in HLA or ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauke, Teresa; Klimaschewski, Sandra; Schoenermarck, Ulf; Fischereder, Michael; Dick, Andrea; Guba, Markus; Stangl, Manfred; Werner, Jens; Meiser, Bruno; Habicht, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of deceased donors led to an increase of living donor kidney (LDK) transplantations performed in the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or ABO incompatibility (ABOi) using various desensitization protocols. We herein analyzed 26 ABOi and 8 Luminex positive DSA patients who were successfully desensitized by anti-CD20, antigen-specific immunoadsorption and/or plasmapheresis to receive an LDK transplant. Twenty LDK recipients with non-donor-specific HLA-antibodies (low risk) and 32 without anti-HLA antibodies (no risk) served as control groups. 1-year graft survival rate and renal function was similar in all 4 groups (creatinine: 1.63 ± 0.5 vs 1.78 ± 0.6 vs 1.64 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk group). The incidence of acute T-cell mediated rejections did not differ between the 4 groups (15% vs 12, 5% vs 15% vs 22% in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk), while antibody-mediated rejections were only found in the DSA (25%) and ABOi (7.5%) groups. Incidence of BK nephropathy (BKVN) was significantly more frequent after desensitization as compared to controls (5/34 vs 0/52, p = 0.03). We demonstrate favorable short-term allograft outcome in LDK transplant recipients after desensitization. However, the desensitization was associated with an increased risk of BKVN.

  17. The rise and rise of alternative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Maurice N.

    2011-01-01

    Before scientific medicine appeared on the scene less than 200 years ago, alternative medicine existed side by side with what was considered to be college-certified medical practice. Surgery took a bit longer to become an academic discipline, looked down on by medical doctors and was, for a long time restricted to unqualified barbers. Since then, with the application of the scientific method, medicine has made, and is still making enormous strides. We do no...

  18. Induced desensitization of the insulinotropic effects of antidiabetic drugs, BTS 67 582 and tolbutamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, Neville H; Ball, Andrew J; Flatt, Peter R

    2000-01-01

    Acute and chronic mechanisms of action of novel insulinotropic antidiabetic drug, BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate), were examined in the stable cultured BRIN-BD11 cell line. BTS 67 582 (100–400 μM) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase (PBTS 67 582 in culture time-dependently decreased subsequent responsiveness to acute challenge with 200 μM BTS 67 582 or 200 μM tolbutamide at 12–18 h (PBTS 67 582 and tolbutamide. Culture with 100 μM BTS 67 582 or 100 μM tolbutamide did not affect basal insulin secretion, cellular insulin content, or cell viability and exerted no influence on the secretory responsiveness to 200 μM of the imidazoline, efaroxan. While 18 h BTS 67 582 culture did not affect the insulin-releasing actions (PBTS 67 582 shares a common signalling pathway to sulphonylurea but not imidazoline drugs. Desensitization of drug action may provide an important approach to dissect sites of action of novel and established insulinotropic antidiabetic agents. PMID:10807689

  19. Induced desensitization of the insulinotropic effects of antidiabetic drugs, BTS 67 582 and tolbutamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, N H; Ball, A J; Flatt, P R

    2000-05-01

    Acute and chronic mechanisms of action of novel insulinotropic antidiabetic drug, BTS 67 582 (1, 1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate), were examined in the stable cultured BRIN-BD11 cell line. BTS 67 582 (100 - 400 microM) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase (PBTS 67 582 in culture time-dependently decreased subsequent responsiveness to acute challenge with 200 microM BTS 67 582 or 200 microM tolbutamide at 12 - 18 h (PBTS 67 582 and tolbutamide. Culture with 100 microM BTS 67 582 or 100 microM tolbutamide did not affect basal insulin secretion, cellular insulin content, or cell viability and exerted no influence on the secretory responsiveness to 200 microM of the imidazoline, efaroxan. While 18 h BTS 67 582 culture did not affect the insulin-releasing actions (PBTS 67 582 shares a common signalling pathway to sulphonylurea but not imidazoline drugs. Desensitization of drug action may provide an important approach to dissect sites of action of novel and established insulinotropic antidiabetic agents.

  20. An evaluation of in vivo desensitization and video modeling to increase compliance with dental procedures in persons with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Peterson, Blake; Gubin, Amber; Jurgens, Mandy; Selders, Andrew; Dickinson, Jessica; Barenz, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Fear of dental procedures deters many individuals with mental retardation from accepting dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two procedures, in vivo desensitization and video modeling, for increasing compliance with dental procedures in participants with severe or profound mental retardation. Desensitization increased compliance for all 5 participants, whereas video modeling increased compliance for only 1 of 3 participants.

  1. Comparison of Cue-Controlled Desensitization, Rational Restructuring, and a Credible Placebo in the Treatment of Speech Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of cue-controlled desensitization and systematic rational restructuring was compared with a placebo method and a waiting-list control in reducing public speaking and nontargeted anxieties. Cue-controlled desensitization was generally more effective than the other groups in reducing subjective speech anxiety. (Author)

  2. Influence of Contextual Cues on the Efficacy of Desensitization and a Credible Placebo in Alleviating Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Jeffrey M.; Allen, George J.

    1978-01-01

    After participating in a public speaking situation that allowed collection of self-report, physiological, and behavioral manifestations of anxiety, 67 subjects were randomly assigned to either desensitization, "T scope" therapy, or no treatment. Desensitization reduced public speaking anxiety in both contexts, whereas the placebo was effective…

  3. Comment on the Morris and Suckerman Study of Therapist Warmth as a Factor in Automated Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, F. Dudley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Criticism of the study relating effects of therapist warmth to desensitization include: the use of surrogate, student subjects; nonstandard desensitization procedures; and no control group. Morris and Suckerman respond that the first two criticisms rely on selective reading of the literature and the third is irrelevant. (NG)

  4. Sensory Desensitization Training for Successful Net Application and EEG/ERP Acquisition in Difficult to Test Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Cynthia P.; Flax, Judy; MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Fermano, Zena; Morgan-Byrne, Julie; Benasich, April A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of sensory desensitization training for 12 nonverbal children with autism to facilitate participation in an electrophysiological study assessing linguistic processing. Sensory desensitization was achieved for 10 of the 12 children and thus allowed collection of usable data in a passive linguistic paradigm.…

  5. Muscarinic supersensitivity and impaired receptor desensitization in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainetdinov, R R; Bohn, L M; Walker, J K; Laporte, S A; Macrae, A D; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Premont, R T

    1999-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is a member of a family of enzymes that phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). To address the physiological importance of GRK5-mediated regulation of GPCRs, mice bearing targeted deletion of the GRK5 gene (GRK5-KO) were generated. GRK5-KO mice exhibited mild spontaneous hypothermia as well as pronounced behavioral supersensitivity upon challenge with the nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine. Classical cholinergic responses such as hypothermia, hypoactivity, tremor, and salivation were enhanced in GRK5-KO animals. The antinociceptive effect of oxotremorine was also potentiated and prolonged. Muscarinic receptors in brains from GRK5-KO mice resisted oxotremorine-induced desensitization, as assessed by oxotremorine-stimulated [5S]GTPgammaS binding. These data demonstrate that elimination of GRK5 results in cholinergic supersensitivity and impaired muscarinic receptor desensitization and suggest that a deficit of GPCR desensitization may be an underlying cause of behavioral supersensitivity.

  6. Voltage quality: solutions of desensitization; Qualite de la tension: les solutions de desensibilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    The occurrence of voltage drops and cuts can lead to major malfunctions in electrical installations with sometimes important economical impacts. Thus, the use of solutions of desensitization are needed to avoid such disturbances. This technical paper gives a summary of the basic solutions elaborated by Electricite de France (EdF) with the participation of electrical engineering associations in order to solve the problems encountered in existing installations and to provide specifications for the newly designed installations: the desensitization process (origin of voltage drops, solutions, costs), the diagnosis of industrial installations (identification, quantitative analysis and recording of disturbances, complementary informations, causes, economical impact, solutions, costs, remedial action), the general and specific solutions of desensitization (instrumentation and control systems, switches, relays, motors, speed regulators and variators), specific solutions for computerized and electronic systems, and the role of batteries. (J.S.)

  7. Aspirin allergy desensitization in cerebrovascular disease. A report of two cases, literature review and management guide for the neurointerventionalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization.

  8. Desensitization to ceftaroline in a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin M; Richter, Lisa M; Alonto, Augusto; Leedahl, David D

    2015-02-01

    The case of a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection who underwent desensitization to ceftaroline is reported. A 32-year-old Caucasian woman with asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, heart murmur, and major depression was admitted for MRSA cellulitis with a subcutaneous abscess along the left sternomanubrial joint and clavicular osteomyelitis secondary to port placement after gastric bypass surgery. The patient had an extensive history of hypersensitivity reactions. Pertinent documented allergies were as follows: penicillin (anaphylaxis), daptomycin (anaphylaxis), vancomycin (hives), linezolid (hives), ertapenem (rash), ciprofloxacin (rash), and tigecycline (rash). The patient also reported previous reactions to aztreonam (unknown) and gentamicin (hives). The pharmacy was consulted to develop a desensitization protocol for ceftaroline. The desensitization protocol used three serial dilutions of ceftaroline to make 14 sequential infusions with escalating doses. Intramuscular epinephrine, i.v. diphenhydramine, and i.v. methylprednisolone were ordered as needed for the development of immediate hypersensitivity reactions during or after administration of ceftaroline. The cumulative dose (574.94 mg) was administered intravenously over 225 minutes with no breakthrough symptoms reported during or after the desensitization protocol. Ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg i.v. every 12 hours was continued for six weeks. Desensitization to ceftaroline was conducted for a patient with extensive history of hypersensitivity reactions to other drugs, including penicillin-induced anaphylaxis. Desensitization and subsequent treatment with full doses of ceftaroline were accomplished without apparent adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kidney transplantation after desensitization in sensitized patients: a Korean National Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyu Ha; Kim, Beom Seok; Yang, Jaeseok; Ahn, Jeongmyung; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Jong Man; Chung, Byung-Ha; Kim, Joong Kyung; Kong, Jin Min

    2012-10-01

    The number of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with preformed antibodies waiting for a kidney transplant has been increasing lately. We conducted a nationwide study on the outcomes of kidney transplantation after desensitization in Korea. Six transplant centers have run desensitization programs. The patients who underwent living donor kidney transplantation after desensitization from 2002 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 86 cases were enrolled. Thirty-five of these were cases of re-transplantation (40.7 %). Indications of desensitization were positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) cross-match responses (CDC(+), 36.0 %), positive flow-cytometric cross-match responses (FCX(+), 54.7 %), and positive donor-specific antibodies (DSA(+), 8.1 %). The desensitization protocols used pre-transplant plasmapheresis (95.3 %), intravenous immunoglobulin (62.8 %), and rituximab (67.4 %). Acute rejection occurred in 18 patients (20.9 %), graft failure occurred in 4 patients, and the 3-year graft survival rate was 93.8 %. The presence of DSA increased the acute rejection rate (P = 0.015) and decreased the 1-year post-transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.006). Although rejection-free survival rates did not differ significantly between the CDC(+) and FCX(+) groups, the 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower in the CDC(+) group (P = 0.010). Infectious and significant bleeding complications occurred in 15.5 % and 4.7 % of cases, respectively. Kidney transplantation after desensitization had good graft outcomes and tolerable complications in Korea, and therefore, this therapy can be recommended for sensitized ESRD patients.

  10. Effects of different desensitizing treatments on root dentin permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydsa Raíssa Moura ROSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diode laser and a desensitizing dentifrice on dentin permeability. Fifty-two root dentin fragments were obtained (5 × 5mm and treated with 24% EDTA gel. The samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 13: G1, control (no treatment; G2, diode laser (λ = 908 nm, 1.5 W, continuous mode, 20s; G3, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute (Elmex Sensitive Professional (International Gaba; and G4, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute followed by irradiation with diode laser. Ten samples per group were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 4h. The specimens were washed, longitudinally sectioned, observed under optical microscopy, photographed and assessed based on the degree of dye leakage. The remaining samples were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leakage data were subjected to ANOVA test, followed by Tukey’s t-test (α = 5%. Groups 2, 3 and 4 showed less dye penetration than the control group (p < 0.05, but were similar among each other. SEM images showed that dentinal tubules were open in G1, and fused and occluded in G2. Group 3 showed dentinal tubules that were occluded by the metal ions from the toothpaste. G4 presented similar characteristics to G3, and the presence of fused dentin. The diode laser and the dentifrice were effective in reducing dentinal permeability, and the combination of the two treatments did not show better results than either one used alone.

  11. The oral food desensitization in the Italian allergy centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, P; Caminiti, L; Pajno, G B; Dello Iacono, I; Tripodi, S; Verga, M C; Martelli, A

    2015-05-01

    Attempts aimed at inducing food tolerance through oral food desensitization (OFD) for the treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are increasing. In Italy, a number of allergy centres offer this procedure. To collect information on how these centres are organized, how patients are selected, the methods used to administer OFD and how adverse reactions are managed. A questionnaire was e-mailed to all the Italian allergy centres offering OFD. The survey shows a high degree of variability between centres. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is crucial for selecting patients for OFD. In the Italian allergy centres, oral food challenges are mostly open label (84%), but in 16% of cases they are single-blind (8%) or double-blind (8%). A high proportion of allergy centres (83%) offer OFD to children presenting forms of anaphylaxis triggered by traces--or very low doses--of food allergen. The majority of allergy centres (76%) enroll patients over 3 years of age, with 44% enrolling patients above the age of 5. Not-controlled asthma, unreliability of parents in the management of OFD and/or risk of adverse events, are the main reasons for exclusion from the procedure. Although OFD may sometimes be successful and may be considered a valid alternative to an elimination diet, further randomized controlled trials are needed, in order to clarify some controversial points, such as the characteristics of the child undergoing OFD, and the methods of food preparation and administration. Moreover, further studies should further investigate OFD safety, efficacy and costs.

  12. Pomalidomide desensitization in a patient hypersensitive to immunomodulating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, J.T.; Sakurai, N.; Lam, W.; Reece, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite progressive treatments with tandem stem-cell transplantation, patients with incurable myeloma eventually succumb to relapsed or refractory disease if left untreated. Promising agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulating imide drugs (imids), including the newer-generation agent pomalidomide, in combination with lower-dose dexamethasone, have been shown to be effective and to significantly improve and prolong survival in pretreated patients. Although the incidence of pomalidomide hypersensitivity reaction (hsr) in this class of drugs is not as well known, we have documented cutaneous toxicity (grade 3 by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4) in 2 separate cases (not yet published). Because the imids are chemically, structurally, and pharmacologically similar, it is not unreasonable to consider possible cross-reactivity in pomalidomide recipients who developed hsr when receiving previous lines of imids. As a patient’s advocate, it is only prudent to provide a responsible, and yet practical, means to better address cross-sensitivity for patients. Intervention with the use of a rapid desensitization program (rdp) as a preventive measure should be introduced before initiating pomalidomide. Such a proactive measure for the patient’s safety will ensure a smooth transition into pomalidomide treatment. A hsr can be either related or non-related to immunoglobulin E. As imids become an essential treatment backbone for myeloma and other plasma-cell diseases, an increasing number of patients could experience skin and other life-threatening toxicities, resulting in unnecessary discontinuation of these life-prolonging agents. An extemporaneously prepared pomalidomide suspension developed at our centre enables patients to undergo rdp safely. Patients enjoy a good quality of life and clinical response after the rdp procedure. PMID:28874903

  13. Chinas Rise: A Time for Choosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    use of small surrogate or proxy wars since 1945 to prove their theory. However, sixty-seven years of history is statistically insignificant, given...knowledge this would now be a measure too late, only slowing their growth and possibly doing as much (or more) harm domestically and internationally as...were born from the same mother . Despite a century and a quarter of disputes, there still remained much that was similar between them. Once

  14. Growing Up Amid Ethno-political Conflict: Aggression and Emotional Desensitization Promote Hostility to Ethnic Out-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir

    2016-01-01

    Ethno-political violence impacts thousands of youth and is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Yet little research examines adaptation to ethno-political violence over time or across multiple outcomes simultaneously. The present study examines longitudinal patterns of aggressive behavior and emotional distress as they co-occur among Palestinian (n=600) youth exposed to ethno-political violence over 3 years in 3 age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, 14). Findings indicate distinct profiles of aggressive behavior and emotional distress, and unique joint patterns. Further, youth among key joint profiles (e.g., high aggression-emotional desensitization) are more likely to endorse normative beliefs about aggression toward ethnic out-groups. This study offers a dynamic perspective on emotional and behavioral adaptation to ethno-political violence and the implications of those processes. PMID:27684400

  15. Doxycycline desensitization in chronic Q fever—A critical tool for the clinician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aila Luise Caplunik-Pratsch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45 year old woman with acute Q fever pneumonia who progressed to the chronic phase of the disease despite azithromycin therapy. A trial of doxycycline was halted because of severe allergy and she was put on clarithromycin and later moxifloxacin. Failure of both drugs required desensitization to doxycycline with escalating doses. After two-year treatment with doxycycline-hydroxychloroquine combination, complete recovery was declared. Our case highlights the option of doxycycline desensitization when an acute allergic reaction poses an obstacle to optimal treatment.

  16. Role of desensitization and subunit expression for kainate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity in murine neocortical cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Schousboe, A; Pickering, D S

    1999-01-01

    ) toxicity mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors, and (3) toxicity that can be mediated by kainate receptors when desensitization of the receptors is blocked. The indirect action at NMDA receptors was discovered because (5R, 10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H...... nedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 53655), a selective AMPA receptor antagonist, abolished the remaining toxicity. These results indicated that kainate- and domoate-mediated toxicity involves both the NMDA and the AMPA receptors. Pretreatment of the cultures with concanavalin A to prevent desensitization...

  17. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Does growth hormone releasing factor desensitize the somatotroph? Interpretation of responses of growth hormone during and after 10-hour infusion of GRF 1-29 amide in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J R; Sheppard, M C; Shakespear, R A; Lynch, S S; Clayton, R N

    1986-02-01

    It is unclear whether growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) administration in vivo may desensitize the somatotroph. To investigate this possibility we have examined the effects of 10-h infusion of the equipotent 1-29 amide analogue of hpGRF on serum GH levels and on the subsequent GH response to a bolus dose of GRF (1-29). Four normal adult males received an intravenous infusion of 1-29 GRF (1 microgram/kg/h) from 0800 to 1800 h, with blood samples taken at 10 min intervals. A 100 micrograms intravenous bolus dose of GRF was given at 1800 h, and sampling continued for a further 90 min. GH levels were near or below the limit of detection (0.5 mU/l) throughout the control 10 h period. During GRF infusion there was increased GH release with pulses of irregular frequency and amplitude (up to 80 mU/l) continuing throughout the entire infusion period. There was no apparent reduction in total GH released towards the latter part of the infusion. On the control day, 100 micrograms GRF bolus increased mean (+/- SEM) GH from 0.82 +/- 0.21 mU/l to a peak of 59.0 +/- 44.8 mU/l (P less than 0.002). Following 10-GRF infusion, responses to bolus injection of GRF were reduced, but variable. In two subjects a small rise in GH levels occurred (basal 6.4 and 7.2 rising to peak values of 11.2 and 23.0 mU/l respectively). In the other two subjects, GH levels fell but in these the GRF bolus had coincided with a GH peak. The loss of GRF responsiveness after GRF infusion may be due to 'desensitization'.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  20. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  1. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  2. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP Applied to Caregivers of Patients With Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Passoni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of patients with dementia experience high levels of stress and burden, with effects comparable to those of a traumatic event. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR appear to be effective in recovering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP on the “caregiver syndrome”. Forty-four primary caregivers entered the study. They were randomly assigned to either the “immediate” branch, who received the treatment soon after recruitment, or to the “delayed” branch, who received it two months after recruitment. The treatment consisted of eight group sessions (one per week spanning over two months. Emotional distress was measured before the treatment, immediately after the end of it, and two months later (follow-up, by means of several clinical scales (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R; Caregiver Needs Assessment, CNA; Caregiver Burden Inventory, CBI; Anxiety and Depression Scale-Reduced Form, AD-R. The “immediate” branch improved significantly more than the “delayed” (control branch on The Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Anxiety, and the Depression scales; however, after treatment such an improvement was maintained only in the first scale. The “delayed” branch took less advantage of the treatment, showing significant reduction only on the Depression scale, an effect which disappeared at follow-up. These preliminary results show for the first time that EMDR-IGTP reduces stress-related symptoms, anxiety, and depression in caregivers of patients with dementia. Interestingly, caregivers who were inserted in a waiting list after recruitment showed smaller treatment effects. Larger samples are needed to better interpret such differential clinical profiles.

  3. In vitro dentin permeability after application of Gluma® desensitizer as aqueous solution or aqueous fumed silica dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ishihata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess and to compare the effects of Gluma® Desensitizer (GDL with an experimental glutaraldehyde and HEMA containing fumed silica dispersion (GDG on dentin permeability using a chemiluminous tracer penetration test. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty disc-shaped dentin specimens were dissected from extracted human third molars. The dentin specimens were mounted in a split chamber device for determination of permeability under liquid pressure using a photochemical method. Ten specimens were randomly selected and allocated to the evaluation groups Gluma® Desensitizer as aqueous solution and glutaraldehyde/HEMA as fumed silica dispersion, respectively. Dentin disc permeability was determined at two pressure levels after removal of smear with EDTA, after albumin soaking, and after application of the desensitizing agents. Two desensitizer-treated and rinsed specimens of each group were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM for surface remnants. RESULTS: Comparatively large standard deviations of the mean EDTA reference and albumin soaked samples permeability values refected the differences of the dentin substrates. The mean chemiluminescence values of specimen treated with GDL and GDG, respectively, were signifcantly reduced after topical application of the desensitizing agents on albumin-soaked dentin. The effects of GDL and GDG on permeability were not signifcantly different. Treated specimens showed no surface remnants after rinsing. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental desensitizer gel formulation reduced dentin permeability as effectively as the original Gluma® Desensitizer solution.

  4. Professional and Subprofessional Counselors Using Group Desensitization and Insight Procedures. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Donald R.

    This study compared the effects of professional and subprofessional counselors using group insight and group desensitization techniques with high and low imagery arousal test anxious college students. Two professional and two subprofessional counselors met with groups of three students for five interviews to administer insight and desensitization…

  5. Accelerated Desensitization and Adaptive Attitudes Interventions and Test Gains with Academic Probation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Richard; Holt, Bruce; Hunter, Lori

    2005-01-01

    The study evaluates the test-gain benefits of an accelerated desensitization and adaptive attitudes intervention for test-anxious students. College students were screened for high test anxiety. Twenty anxious students, half of them on academic probation, were assigned to an Intervention or to a minimal treatment Control group. The Intervention was…

  6. Accelerated Desensitization with Adaptive Attitudes and Test Gains with 5th Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melanie; Morton, Jerome; Driscoll, Richard; Davis, Kai A.

    2006-01-01

    The study evaluates an easily-administered test-anxiety reduction program. An entire fifth grade was screened, and 36 students identified as test-anxious were randomly assigned to an Intervention or a non-participant Control group. The intervention was an accelerated desensitization and adaptive attitudes (ADAA) treatment which involved…

  7. Ulcerative colitis patients with an inflammatory response upon mesalazine cannot be desensitized : a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, Dorien J.; De Monchy, Jan G. R.; Schellekens, Reinout C. A.; van der Waaij, Laurens A.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Gerard

    Background and aims. Mesalazine is a key drug in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Intolerance to mesalazine has been described, including fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Several case reports reported successful desensitization of patients with mesalazine intolerance. The aim was to

  8. Homologous histamine H1 receptor desensitization results in reduction of H1 receptor agonist efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, R; Smit, M J; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of the guinea-pig intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle to histamine caused homologous desensitization of the H1 receptor, which led to reduced H1 receptor-mediated production of [3H]inositol phosphates as well as to reduced H1 agonist-induced contractions. [3H]Mepyramine binding

  9. Choline evokes fluid secretion by perfused rat mandibular gland without desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    M and evoked secretory responses comparable with those of acetylcholine (0.05-1.0 microM) administered at similar Na concentrations. Continuous infusion of choline, in contrast to acetylcholine, did not lead to a fall off in the secretory response (desensitization or tachyphylaxis) until the choline...

  10. Treatment of Speech Anxiety by Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Desensitization with Professional and Paraprofessional Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard K.; Wise, Fred

    1976-01-01

    This investigation compared the relative effectiveness of group-administered cue-controlled relaxation and group systematic desensitization in the treatment of speech anxiety. Also examined was the role of professional versus paraprofessional counselors in implementing the treatment program. A description of the cue-controlled relaxation technique…

  11. Comparative Psychotherapy: Rational-Emotive Therapy Versus Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleski, Richard; Tosi, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of rational-emotive psychotherapy and systematic desensitization in the treatment of stuttering. Both therapies, making extensive use of in vivo behavioral assignments, were examined under the presence and absence of in vivo tasks. Results show that rational-emotive therapy was more effective in reducing…

  12. The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Procedure Prevents Defensive Processing in Health Persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a

  13. Expectancy, False Galvanic Skin Response Feedback, and Systematic Desensitization in the Modification of Phobic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, John

    1975-01-01

    This study compared systematic desensitization and two pseudotherapy manipulations with and without false galvanic skin response feedback after every session suggesting improvement in the modification of intense snake and spider fear. The results indicated no consistent differences between the three treatment groups. (Author)

  14. Treatment Outcome and Maintenance in Systematic Desensitization: Professional versus Paraprofessional Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, John L.; Madrazo-Peterson, Rita

    1978-01-01

    Anxious students were randomly assigned to a wait-list control group; to three groups aided by experienced behavior therapists; or to three groups led by paraprofessionals. Results show paraprofessionals can achieve outcome and maintenance effects equivalent to more rigorously trained professionals. Paraprofessionals can conduct desensitization in…

  15. Desensitization and Modeling Treatments of Spider Fear Using Two Types of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Douglas R.; Sullivan, Bernard J.

    1976-01-01

    Three types of therapy were combined with two types of scenes. Spider-phobic subjects were assigned to one of the six treatment conditions or to an untreated control group. In general, (a) Desensitization and modeling therapies were equally effective; (b) modeling alone was more effective than mere exposure to the phobic object. (Author)

  16. A Self-Control Versus a Counterconditioning Paradigm for Systematic Desensitization: An Experimental Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Michael D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A comparison was made between the traditional counterconditioning paradigm and a self-control paradigm of systematic desensitization. College students reporting high test anxiety and indicating interest in receiving treatment were assigned to counterconditioning, self-control, or wait-list control conditions. As predicted, self-control procedures…

  17. Systematic Desensitization and Assertive Training in the Treatment of Speech Anxiety in Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tom; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a procedure of desensitization can be implemented successfully in a typical public-school setting and that it would reduce significantly anxiety related to giving talks in front of class. Also revealed is that an informal and relaxed procedure that involved practice with the anxiety-related activity is equally effective.…

  18. Facilitating and Debilitating Test Anxiety Among College Students and Volunteers for Desensitization Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudesman, John; Wiesner, Ezra

    1978-01-01

    Examines whether the degree of facilitating and debilitating test anxiety is different for students who volunteer for test anxiety desensitization workshops than it is for the general college population, whether test anxiety in urban community college students is correlated, and whether either or both of the AAT scales are predictive of student…

  19. Treatment of Test Anxiety by Cue-Controlled Desensitization and Study-Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Russell, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    Compared relative effectiveness of two multicomponent strategies in the treatment of test anxiety. Test-anxious students were assigned to groups. Within-group changes between pre- and post-testing favored multicomponent treatments. Between groups, both desensitization treatment programs demonstrated significant improvement over no-treatment on…

  20. Vicarious Desensitization of Test Anxiety Through Observation of Video-taped Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jay

    1972-01-01

    Procedural variations were compared for a vicarious group treatment of test anxiety involving observation of videotapes depicting systematic desensitization of a model. The theoretical implications of the present study and the feasibility of using videotaped materials to treat test anxiety and other avoidance responses in school settings are…

  1. Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Systematic Desensitization versus Nonspecific Factors in Treating Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard K.; Lent, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the efficacy of two behavioral anxiety reduction techniques against "subconscious reconditioning," an empirically derived placebo method. Examination of within-group changes showed systematic desensitization produced significant reductions in test and trait anxiety, and remaining treatments and the placebo demonstrated…

  2. Treatment of Test Anxiety by Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard K.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Test-anxious subjects (N=19) participated in an outcome study comparing systematic desensitization, cue-controlled relaxation, and no treatment. The treatment groups demonstrated significant improvement on the self-report measures of test and state anxiety but not on the behavioral indices. The potential advantages of this technique over…

  3. Treatment of Nonphobic Anxiety Disorders: A Comparison of Nondirective, Cognitive, and Coping Desensitization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkovec, T. D.; Mathews, Andrew M.

    1988-01-01

    Compared efficacy of nondirective therapy, coping desensitization, and cognitive therapy in treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Clients received one treatment and 12 sessions of progressive relaxation training. Results indicated that subjects showed significant and continued improvement on self-report questionnaire, daily…

  4. Micro-shear bond strength of resin cement to dentin after application of desensitizing toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, Andac Barkin; Goktas, Baris; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Eskitascioglu, Gurcan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of three desensitizing toothpastes on bonding of resin cements to dentin. The occlusal surfaces of 72 maxillary third molars were ground to obtain flat dentin surfaces and then divided into three groups according to three desensitizing toothpastes used: Sensodyne Rapid Relief (GlaxoSmithKline, SmithKline Beecham Ltd., Slough, UK), Signal Sensitive Expert (Unilever Sanayi ve Ticaret Türk A.Ş., Ümraniye, İstanbul, Turkey) and Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief (Colgate Palmolive, New York, NY). Following bonding of the resin cement (Clearfil™ SA Cement, Kuraray Co, Osaka, Japan) to dentin, the specimens were light cured for 40 s with a LED (Elipar S10, 3M Espe, St. Paul, MN). The strength measurements were accomplished with a micro-shear testing machine (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL) at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until the failure occurs. Failure modes were examined using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). ANOVA revealed that the application of desensitizing toothpastes had significant effects on bond strength of the resin cement tested to dentin (p < 0.05). Mixed failures were observed in all of the groups. The use of a desensitizing toothpaste before cementation might alter the bond strength of adhesively luted restorations.

  5. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Desensitization and Tolerance of Mu Opioid Receptors on Pontine Kölliker-Fuse Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Erica S; Williams, John T

    2018-01-01

    Acute desensitization of mu opioid receptors is thought to be an initial step in the development of tolerance to opioids. Given the resistance of the respiratory system to develop tolerance, desensitization of neurons in the Kölliker-Fuse (KF), a key area in the respiratory circuit, was examined. The activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium current was measured using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from KF and locus coeruleus (LC) neurons contained in acute rat brain slices. A saturating concentration of the opioid agonist [Met 5 ]-enkephalin (ME) caused significantly less desensitization in KF neurons compared with LC neurons. In contrast to LC, desensitization in KF neurons was not enhanced by activation of protein kinase C or in slices from morphine-treated rats. Cellular tolerance to ME and morphine was also lacking in KF neurons from morphine-treated rats. The lack of cellular tolerance in KF neurons correlates with the relative lack of tolerance to the respiratory depressant effect of opioids. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Characterising the mechanism of airway smooth muscle β2 adrenoceptor desensitization by rhinovirus infected bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Van Ly

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus (RV infections account for approximately two thirds of all virus-induced asthma exacerbations and often result in an impaired response to β2 agonist therapy. Using an in vitro model of RV infection, we investigated the mechanisms underlying RV-induced β2 adrenoceptor desensitization in primary human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC. RV infection of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC for 24 hours produced conditioned medium that caused β2 adrenoceptor desensitization on ASMCs without an effect on ASMCs viability. Less than 3 kDa size fractionation together with trypsin digestion of RV-induced conditioned medium did not prevent β2 adrenoceptor desensitization, suggesting it could potentially be mediated by a small peptide or lipid. RV infection of BECs, ASMCs and fibroblasts produced prostaglandins, of which PGE2, PGF2α and PGI2 had the ability to cause β2 adrenoceptor desensitization on ASMCs. RV-induced conditioned medium from HBECs depleted of PGE2 did not prevent ASMC β2 adrenoceptor desensitization; however this medium induced PGE2 from ASMCs, suggesting that autocrine prostaglandin production may be responsible. Using inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin receptor antagonists, we found that β2 adrenoceptor desensitization was mediated through ASMC derived COX-2 induced prostaglandins. Since ASMC prostaglandin production is unlikely to be caused by RV-induced epithelial derived proteins or lipids we next investigated activation of toll-like receptors (TLR by viral RNA. The combination of TLR agonists poly I:C and imiquimod induced PGE2 and β2 adrenoceptor desensitization on ASMC as did the RNA extracted from RV-induced conditioned medium. Viral RNA but not epithelial RNA caused β2 adrenoceptor desensitization confirming that viral RNA and not endogenous human RNA was responsible. It was deduced that the mechanism by which β2 adrenoceptor desensitization occurs was by pattern recognition receptor

  8. Subthreshold Desensitization of Human Basophils Re-capitulates the Loss of syk and FcεRI expression Characterized by Other Methods of Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGlashan, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical desensitization of patients to drugs involves progressive exposure to escalating doses of drug over a period of 24 hours. In prior studies, this method was recapitulated in vitro to also demonstrate loss of mast cell or basophil responsiveness. However, most signaling studies of human basophils have identified changes in signaling by using other methods of inducing cellular desensitization. Objective This study examined two well-described endpoints of basophil desensitization, loss of syk or FcεRI expression, under conditions of subthreshold desensitization. Methods The loss of FceRI and syk was examined in human basophils. Results It was shown that both loss of syk and FcεRI/IgE occurred during an escalating series of stimulation (anti-IgE Ab) and that expression loss occurred despite the presence of little histamine release. If basophils were first cultured for 3 days in 10 ng/ml IL-3, the concentration-dependence of histamine release shifted to 100 fold lower concentrations of stimulus. However, loss of syk did not show any change in its EC50 while loss of FcεRI also shifted 100 fold. From the perspective of early signal element activation, the marked shift in the EC50 for histamine release was not accompanied by similar shifts in the EC50s for several signaling elements. The EC50s for phospho-Src, phospho-SHIP1, phospho-Syk, or phospho-Cbl did not change while the EC50s for phospho-Erk and the cytosolic calcium response did shift 100 fold. Conclusions These studies show that under normal conditions, subthreshold desensitization leads to loss of two critical signaling molecules (FcεRI and syk) but under at least one condition, treatment with IL-3, it is possible to markedly blunt the loss of syk, but not FcεRI, while executing a proper subthreshold titration. These data also suggest that IL-3 modifies only the sensitivity of signaling elements that are downstream of syk activation. PMID:22702505

  9. Radiation-induced segregation in desensitized type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedabadi, Parag; Kain, V.; Arora, K.; Samajdar, I.; Sharma, S.C.; Bhagwat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of overall experimental and results, indicating attack, after the DL-EPR test, on grain boundaries, twin boundaries and pit-like features within grains at the depth of maximum attack. The sensitized specimen also showed severe attack on grain boundaries, however, attack on twin-boundaries and pit-like features were not noticed. Display Omitted Highlights: → Characterization of radiation-induced segregation done by EPR and AFM examination. → Cr depletion adjacent to carbides due to RIS in irradiated desensitized 304 SS. → Effectiveness as defect sink: twins > pit-like features > grain boundary. - Abstract: Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) in desensitized type 304 stainless steel (SS) was investigated using a combination of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Desensitized type 304 SS was irradiated to 0.43 dpa (displacement per atom) using 4.8 MeV protons at 300 deg. C. The maximum attack in the EPR test for the irradiated desensitized SS was measured at a depth of 70 μm from the surface. Grain boundaries and twin boundaries got attacked and pit-like features within the grains were observed after the EPR test at the depth of 70 μm. The depth of attack, as measured by AFM, was higher at grain boundaries and pit-like features as compared to twin boundaries. It has been shown that the chromium depletion due to RIS takes place at the carbide-matrix as well as at the carbide-carbide interfaces at grain boundaries. The width of attack at grain boundaries after the EPR test of the irradiated desensitized specimen appeared larger due to the dislodgement of carbides at grain boundaries.

  10. Radiation-induced segregation in desensitized type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmedabadi, Parag, E-mail: adit@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kain, V. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Arora, K. [PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Samajdar, I. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sharma, S.C.; Bhagwat, P. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-09-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of overall experimental and results, indicating attack, after the DL-EPR test, on grain boundaries, twin boundaries and pit-like features within grains at the depth of maximum attack. The sensitized specimen also showed severe attack on grain boundaries, however, attack on twin-boundaries and pit-like features were not noticed. Display Omitted Highlights: > Characterization of radiation-induced segregation done by EPR and AFM examination. > Cr depletion adjacent to carbides due to RIS in irradiated desensitized 304 SS. > Effectiveness as defect sink: twins > pit-like features > grain boundary. - Abstract: Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) in desensitized type 304 stainless steel (SS) was investigated using a combination of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Desensitized type 304 SS was irradiated to 0.43 dpa (displacement per atom) using 4.8 MeV protons at 300 deg. C. The maximum attack in the EPR test for the irradiated desensitized SS was measured at a depth of 70 {mu}m from the surface. Grain boundaries and twin boundaries got attacked and pit-like features within the grains were observed after the EPR test at the depth of 70 {mu}m. The depth of attack, as measured by AFM, was higher at grain boundaries and pit-like features as compared to twin boundaries. It has been shown that the chromium depletion due to RIS takes place at the carbide-matrix as well as at the carbide-carbide interfaces at grain boundaries. The width of attack at grain boundaries after the EPR test of the irradiated desensitized specimen appeared larger due to the dislodgement of carbides at grain boundaries.

  11. Frequency and severity of reactions to a 325-mg aspirin dose during desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Charles F; Baldwin, James L; Baptist, Alan P

    2017-03-01

    The frequency with which patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) react to 325 mg of aspirin during aspirin desensitization, or fail to react at all, is not fully known. To determine the rate and type of reaction at 325 mg of aspirin during desensitization. A retrospective study of 104 patients who underwent aspirin desensitization from 2010 to 2016 was performed. A standard desensitization protocol (starting at 20-40 mg, progressing through 325 mg, and extinguishing reactions by dose repetition) was used. Reactions were defined by upper respiratory tract symptoms, lower respiratory tract symptoms, and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second decrease of 15% or greater. Patients who did and did not react were compared by logistic regression. Eighty-four patients reacted (81%) and 20 did not (19%). Seventy-seven patients who had a provoking reaction at 162 mg of aspirin or less subsequently extinguished their reactions before they reached a dose of 325 mg and had no problems at that dose; one subsequent 325-mg reaction occurred during a protocol violation. One initial provoking reaction to 325 mg occurred. Both 325-mg reactions were mild, and neither met the forced expiratory volume in 1 second criterion for a clinically meaningful change. The remaining 5 patients could not complete the protocol because of persistent reactions or social reasons. Reactors were more likely to have had asthma for more than 10 years than nonreactors (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-10.3; P = .05). During aspirin desensitization for AERD, provoking reactions at the 325-mg dose are rare (1%) and mild. Patients who react at 162 mg or less and extinguish their reactions may be able to administer the 325-mg dose at home. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Down-regulation of FcεRI-mediated CD63 basophil response during short-term VIT determined venom-nonspecific desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čelesnik Smodiš

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed a desensitization of FcεRI-mediated basophil response after short-term VIT. Our aim was to evaluate the allergen specificity of this desensitization. METHODS: In 11 Hymenoptera-venom double positive subjects, basophil threshold sensitivity (CD-sens to anti-FcεRI, honeybee, and Vespula venom was assessed at the beginning and just before the first maintenance dose (MD of single ultra-rush VIT. In some patients we also monitored CD-sens to rApi m 1 and/or rVes v 5 or other co-sensitizations (i.e., grass pollen. In additional 7 patients, basophils were stripped and sensitized with house dust mite (HDM IgEs at the same time points. RESULTS: We demonstrated a marked reduction of CD-sens to anti-FcεRI and VIT-specific venom before the first MD in all 18 subjects included. Furthermore, in 10 out of 11 double positive subjects, a significant and comparable decrease before the first MD was also evident for non-VIT venom; this nonspecific decrease was further supported by the opposite recombinant species-specific major allergen. In one subject with additional grass pollen allergy, a decrease of CD-sens to grass allergen was also demonstrated. Similarly, in 7 cases of patients with passively HDM-sensitized basophils, a significant reduction of CD-sens was also evident to de novo sensitized HDM allergen. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term VIT induced basophil desensitization to VIT-specific as well as to VIT-nonspecific venom. As opposed to long-term VIT, which induces venom-specific changes, the effect of short-term VIT seems to be venom-nonspecific.

  13. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: clinical and immunologic evidence of desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edwin H; Bird, J Andrew; Kulis, Michael; Laubach, Susan; Pons, Laurent; Shreffler, Wayne; Steele, Pamela; Kamilaris, Janet; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-03-01

    There are no treatments currently available for peanut allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a novel approach to the treatment of peanut allergy. We sought to investigate the safety, clinical effectiveness, and immunologic changes with SLIT in children with peanut allergy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study subjects underwent 6 months of dose escalation and 6 months of maintenance dosing followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Eighteen children aged 1 to 11 years completed 12 months of dosing and the food challenge. Dosing side effects were primarily oropharyngeal and uncommonly required treatment. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the treatment group safely ingested 20 times more peanut protein than the placebo group (median, 1,710 vs 85 mg; P = .011). Mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in skin prick test wheal size (P = .020) and decreased basophil responsiveness after stimulation with 10(-2) μg/mL (P = .009) and 10(-3) μg/mL (P = .009) of peanut. Peanut-specific IgE levels increased over the initial 4 months (P = .002) and then steadily decreased over the remaining 8 months (P = .003), whereas peanut-specific IgG4 levels increased during the 12 months (P = .014). Lastly, IL-5 levels decreased after 12 months (P = .015). No statistically significant changes were found in IL-13 levels, the percentage of regulatory T cells, or IL-10 and IFN-γ production. Peanut SLIT is able to safely induce clinical desensitization in children with peanut allergy, with evidence of immunologic changes suggesting a significant change in the allergic response. Further study is required to determine whether continued peanut SLIT is able to induce long-term immune tolerance. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three desensitizing dentifrices on dentinal hypersensitivity and salivary biochemical characteristics: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Athuluru

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The desensitizing toothpaste containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate was found to be more effective in reducing DH and showed improvement in salivary biochemical characteristics over a period of 12 weeks compared to others.

  15. Comparison of Individualized Covert Modeling, Self-Control Desensitization, and Study Skills Training for Alleviation of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gina; Johhson, Suzanne Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Individualized covert modeling and self-control desensitization substantially reduced self-reported test anxiety. However, the individualized covert modeling group was the only treatment group that showed significant improvement in academic performance. (Author)

  16. Early aspirin desensitization in unstable patients with acute coronary syndrome: Short and long-term efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Soriano, Juan Gabriel; Corbí-Pascual, Miguel; López-Neyra, Isabel; Navarro-Cuartero, Javier; Hidalgo-Olivares, Víctor; Barrionuevo-Sánchez, Maria Isabel; Prieto-Mateos, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Díez, Antonio; Gallardo-López, Arsenio; Fuentes-Manso, Raquel; Gómez-Pérez, Alberto; Lafuente-Gormaz, Carlos; Jiménez-Mazuecos, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is not a rare condition among patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, despite the publication of several successful desensitization protocols, the procedure is not as widespread as expected. We present a cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing aspirin desensitization to evaluate its short- and long-term efficacy and safety and to reinforce data from previous studies. Of 1306 patients admitted to our Coronary Care Unit between February 2011 and February 2013, 24 (1.8%) had a history of aspirin hypersensitivity. All 24 patients underwent an eight-dose aspirin desensitization protocol (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg of aspirin given by mouth every 15 minutes) after premedication with antihistamines and corticosteroids or antileucotrienes. Previously prescribed β blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were not discontinued. All patients were desensitized within 72 hours of admission. Those requiring urgent catheterization (five patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction) were desensitized within 12 hours of catheterization and the remainder before catheterization. All patients were successfully desensitized and only one presented with an urticarial reaction. The five patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction were treated with abciximab until desensitization was complete. All but one patient underwent catheterization and 20 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, most (66%) with the implantation of a bare metal stent. At follow-up (a minimum of 6-24 months), only two patients had discontinued aspirin, both due to gastrointestinal bleeding, and no hypersensitivy reaction had occurred. Aspirin desensitization is effective and safe in unstable patients with acute coronary syndrome in both the short and long term.

  17. 4-step 4-h carboplatin desensitization protocol for patients with gynecological malignancies showing platinum hypersensitivity: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Naoto; Matsumoto, Koji; Onoe, Takuma; Kitao, Akihito; Tanioka, Maki; Kikukawa, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi; Negoro, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Platinum agents are essential for treating gynecological malignancies, particularly ovarian cancer. However, multiple carboplatin doses may cause hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). Carboplatin desensitization prevents life-threatening HSRs and promotes the successful completion of planned chemotherapy. Since January 2010, carboplatin desensitization was performed at our institution. Solutions with 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 dilutions of carboplatin and an undiluted solution were prepared in 250 mL of 5% glucose. Each solution was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion (4-step 4-h protocol). This retrospective analysis was approved by the institutional review board. From January 2010 to December 2013, 20 patients with gynecological malignancies (median age 62 years, range 43-74 years) received desensitization treatment. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages at presentation were I, II, III, and IV in 1, 1, 15, 13 patients, respectively. During first-line and second-line treatments, 3 and 17 patients, respectively, experienced carboplatin-induced HSRs. The median carboplatin cycle number was 11 (range 2-16). In the first desensitization cycle, 17 (85%) patients completed treatment without adverse events, 2 experienced Grade 1 HSRs but completed treatment, and 1 experienced Grade 3 HSR and discontinued treatment. The first desensitization cycle completion rate was 95%. Of 83 desensitization cycles administered, 79 (95.2%) were completed. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Most patients completed the planned chemotherapy. Our protocol could be conducted safely with shorter duration and simpler procedures than previous protocols. Carboplatin desensitization seems beneficial for patients with a history of carboplatin-induced HSRs; however, the risk of HSR recurrence still remains. Desensitization should therefore be performed only by well-trained staff.

  18. Effect of aspirin desensitization on T-cell cytokines and plasma lipoxins in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Kurtuluş; Kurt, Emel; Alatas, Özkan; Gülbas, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is thought to be based on, mainly, overproduction of eicosanoid lipid mediators and on defective anti-inflammatory regulators. Aspirin desensitization treatment, the mainstay of controlling asthma and rhinitis in AERD patients, however, is the least understood aspect of the disease. The study was designed to determine the effect of aspirin desensitization on T-lymphocyte cytokine expression and on plasma lipoxin levels in AERD. Spirometry, skin-prick test and asthma control test were documented and intracellular cytokine expression in T lymphocytes and plasma lipoxin levels were measured in 23 AERD patients, 17 aspirin-tolerant asthmatic (ATA) patients, and 16 healthy controls. In the AERD group nasal symptom and smell scores were assessed. Of the 23 AERD patients 15 accepted to undergo aspirin desensitization protocol and 14 of them were desensitized successfully. In the desensitized AERD group, cytokine and lipoxin measurements were repeated after 1-month aspirin treatment. CD4(+) IL-10 levels were higher in AERD patients than in healthy controls and CD4(+) interferon (IFN) gamma levels were higher in AERD and ATA patients than in controls. Plasma lipoxin-A4 and 15-epi-lipoxin-A4 levels were similar among the three study groups. In the AERD group, subjects underwent aspirin desensitization followed by a 1-month aspirin treatment. Clinical parameters improved and CD4(+) IFN-gamma levels decreased significantly. No significant change in lipoxin levels was recorded. CD4(+) IFN-gamma and CD4(+) IL-10 levels in AERD patients after 1-month aspirin desensitization treatment were similar to the healthy controls. The study confirms aspirin desensitization is effective clinically in AERD patients and suggests that IFN gamma and IL-10 expression in CD4(+) T lymphocytes may be related to the mechanism of action.

  19. B cell repertoires in HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, John F; Fan, H Christina; Sit, Rene; Hutchins, Maria U; Jirage, Kshama; Curtis, Rachael; Hutchins, Edward; Quake, Stephen R; Yabu, Julie M

    2017-01-13

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. Sensitization refers to pre-existing antibodies against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein and remains a major barrier to successful transplantation. Despite implementation of desensitization strategies, many candidates fail to respond. Our objective was to determine whether measuring B cell repertoires could differentiate candidates that respond to desensitization therapy. We developed an assay based on high-throughput DNA sequencing of the variable domain of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin genes to measure changes in B cell repertoires in 19 highly HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization and 7 controls with low to moderate HLA sensitization levels. Responders to desensitization had a decrease of 5% points or greater in cumulated calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) levels, and non-responders had no decrease in cPRA. Dominant B cell clones were not observed in highly sensitized candidates, suggesting that the B cells responsible for sensitization are either not present in peripheral blood or present at comparable levels to other circulating B cells. Candidates that responded to desensitization therapy had pre-treatment repertoires composed of a larger fraction of class-switched (IgG and IgA) isotypes compared to non-responding candidates. After B cell depleting therapy, the proportion of switched isotypes increased and the mutation frequencies of the remaining non-switched isotypes (IgM and IgD) increased in both responders and non-responders, perhaps representing a shift in the repertoire towards memory B cells or plasmablasts. Conversely, after transplantation, non-switched isotypes with fewer mutations increased, suggesting a shift in the repertoire towards naïve B cells. Relative abundance of different B cell isotypes is strongly perturbed by desensitization therapy and transplantation, potentially reflecting changes in the relative

  20. The desensitization gating of the MthK K+ channel is governed by its cytoplasmic amino terminus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Meng-Chiang Kuo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The RCK-containing MthK channel undergoes two inactivation processes: activation-coupled desensitization and acid-induced inactivation. The acid inactivation is mediated by the C-terminal RCK domain assembly. Here, we report that the desensitization gating is governed by a desensitization domain (DD of the cytoplasmic N-terminal 17 residues. Deletion of DD completely removes the desensitization, and the process can be fully restored by a synthetic DD peptide added in trans. Mutagenesis analyses reveal a sequence-specific determinant for desensitization within the initial hydrophobic segment of DD. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR spectroscopy analyses with synthetic peptides and isolated RCK show interactions between the two terminal domains. Additionally, we show that deletion of DD does not affect the acid-induced inactivation, indicating that the two inactivation processes are mutually independent. Our results demonstrate that the short N-terminal DD of MthK functions as a complete moveable module responsible for the desensitization. Its interaction with the C-terminal RCK domain may play a role in the gating process.

  1. Outcomes of Highly Sensitized Patients Undergoing Simultaneous Liver and Kidney Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience With Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggerda, J A; Kang, A; Pan, S-H; Sundaram, V; Nissen, N N; Klein, A S; Todo, T; Annamalai, A; Vo, A; Jordan, S C; Kim, I K

    Preformed donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) in patients undergoing simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation (SLKT) are an independent risk factor for poorer patient and renal allograft survival. The outcomes of patients highly sensitized (HS) against HLA antigens undergoing SLKT and select HS SLKT recipients undergoing desensitization at a high-volume desensitization center were investigated. Seventy-five patients undergoing SLKT at a high-volume desensitization center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. HS patients were defined by panel-reactive antibody (PRA) >30% (n = 17 patients), 11 of whom received pre- or perioperative desensitization with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) ± rituximab. HS patients had significantly higher class I and class II PRA (class I = 41.3% ± 40.0% vs 2.5% ± 6.3%; class II = 45.7% ± 36.4% vs 1.0% ± 2.9%; P Desensitization in select HS SLKT patients was well tolerated but did not improve patient and allograft survival or significantly curtail rejection. HS SLKT recipients demonstrated increased allograft rejection, particularly CMR, but patient and graft survival were not impacted in the first year post-transplant. Select HS SLKT patients tolerated desensitization with high-dose IVIG ± rituximab and may have received additional immunoprotection against ABMR but survival was not affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kidney paired exchange and desensitization: Strategies to transplant the difficult to match kidney patients with living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thomas A; Lee, Jacqueline I; Melcher, Marc L

    2017-01-01

    With organs in short supply, only a limited number of kidney transplants can be performed a year. Live donor donation accounts for 1/3rd of all kidney transplants performed in the United States. Unfortunately, not every donor recipient pair is feasible because of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization and ABO incompatibility. To overcome these barriers to transplant, strategies such as kidney paired donation (KPD) and desensitization have been developed. KPD is the exchange of donors between at least two incompatible donor-recipient pairs such that they are now compatible. Desensitization is the removal of circulating donor specific antibodies to prevent graft rejection. Regardless of the treatment strategy, highly sensitized patients whose calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) is ≥95% remain difficult to transplant with match rates as low as 15% in KPD pools. Desensitization has proved to be difficult in those with high antibody titers. A novel approach is the combination of both KPD and desensitization to facilitate compatible and successful transplantation. A highly sensitized patient can be paired with a better immunological match in the KPD pool and subsequently desensitized to a lesser degree. This article reviews the current progress in KPD and desensitization and their use as a combined therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HiRISE: The People's Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/). Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/) and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish/), opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  4. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  5. Increasing access to kidney transplantation for sensitized recipient through three-way kidney paired donation with desensitization: The first Indian report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Rizvi, Sayyed J; Pal, Bipin C; Modi, Manisha P; Shah, Priya S; Varyani, Umesh T; Wakhare, Pavan S; Shinde, Saiprasad G; Ghodela, Viajay A; Patel, Minaxi H; Trivedi, Varsha B; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2016-01-01

    The combination of kidney paired donation (KPD) with desensitization represents a promising method of increasing the rate of living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) in immunologically challenging patients. Patients who are difficult to match and desensitize due to strong donor specific antibody are may be transplanted by a combination of desensitization and KPD protocol with more immunologically favorable donor. We present our experience of combination of desensitization protocol with three-way KPD which contributed to successful LDKT in highly sensitized end stage renal disease patient. All recipients were discharged with normal and stable allograft function at 24 mo follow up. We believe that this is first report from India where three-way KPD exchange was performed with the combination of KPD and desensitization. The combination of desensitization protocol with KPD improves access and outcomes of LDKT. PMID:27803919

  6. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  7. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don’t provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers’ behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  8. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  9. Influence of bleaching and desensitizing gel on bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alves Rodrigues Britto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess, in vitro, the influence of bleaching gel and the use of desensitizing agent over bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to bovine enamel. METHODS: One hundred bovine incisors were selected and randomly divided into five groups (n = 20: Group 1, control group (without bleaching; Group 2, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; Group 3, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (three applications, 15 minutes each and desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes; Group 4, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes; Group 5, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes with desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes. Brackets were bonded 7 days after bleaching and submitted to shear bond strength test after 24 hours at a compression rate of 1 mm/minute. After fracture, the adhesive remnant index (ARI was assessed under stereoscopic at 40 x magnification. Shear strength data (MPa were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: Group 5 (29.33 MPa showed significantly higher bond strength than Group 1 (19.19 MPa, Group 2 (20.59 MPa and Group 4 (23.25 MPa, but with no difference in comparison to Group 3. There was no significant difference among the other groups. The adhesive remnant index showed predominance of score 3, that is, all resin remained adhered to enamel for all groups. CONCLUSION: Bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with calcium associated with desensitizing agent application produced higher bond strength values of brackets bonded to bovine enamel.

  10. Chromatic and surface alterations in enamel subjected to brushing with desensitizing whitening toothpaste

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Queiroz de Melo Monteiro; Isabelle Lins Macedo de Oliveira; Oscar Felipe Fonseca de Brito; Brunna Paredes Guedes; Marina Schuler Mello Lula de Amorim; Ana Marly Araujo Maia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the chromatic and surface changes on enamel after toothbrushing with whitening and desensitizing toothpaste. Materials and Methods: Sixty enamel blocks were prepared, pigmented, and stratified according to initial Knoop microhardness and divided into six groups. The average roughness (Ra) was determined from two readings. After 24 h in artificial saliva, 10,000 cycles of simulated brushing were applied. The Ra was measured after 5000 and 10,000 cycles, and tooth wear...

  11. Treatment of Provoked Vulvodynia in a Swedish cohort using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstr?m, Suzanne; Kvist, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Problems related to pain during vaginal penetration are complex and the etiology is multi-factorial. It was the aim of the present study to measure whether treatment using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with provoked vulvodynia (PVD) could increase sexual interest, sexual satisfaction and response whilst decreasing experiences of sexual pain. Methods and outcome measures Sixty women suffering from PVD were treated during a 10-week period ...

  12. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, twenty-six years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the ...

  13. Treatment of dysfunctionally stored experiences with the method Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing – EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cvetek

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.

  14. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Slow Wave Sleep: A Putative Mechanism of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Marco; Amann, Benedikt L.; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Carletto, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR’s mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves...

  15. Effect of misoprostol on patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease undergoing aspirin challenge and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kristen M; Simon, Ronald A; Woessner, Katharine M; Wineinger, Nathan E; White, Andrew A

    2017-07-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is an anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity. Diminished PGE 2 regulation in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) leads to respiratory reactions on cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition. In vitro studies have found that exogenous PGE 2 stabilizes inflammatory mediator release. To examine whether misoprostol (oral prostaglandin E 1 analogue) use during aspirin challenge and desensitization might decrease the severity of aspirin-induced symptoms and make desensitization safer for patients with AERD. Forty-five patients undergoing aspirin challenge and/or desensitization were randomized to misoprostol (n = 30) or placebo (n = 15) and compared with a group of historical controls (n = 31). Misoprostol (200 μg) was administered at 30 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4 hours after the first dose of nasal ketorolac. Measured end points included change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), peak nasal inspiratory flow rate (PNIF), number of treatments received for induced reactions, and adverse gastrointestinal effects. A difference in FEV 1 and PNIF reduction was detected between misoprostol and placebo (P = .03) and misoprostol and historical controls (P = .01), respectively, during nasal ketorolac challenge. No difference was detected among aspirin reactors. Among all reactors, no difference in magnitude was found for FEV 1 (P = .13) or PNIF (P = .07) reduction across all 3 groups. Total treatment requirement was similar (P = .14). Patients receiving misoprostol were more likely to report adverse gastrointestinal effects (P = .02). The addition of misoprostol to current aspirin challenge and/or desensitization protocols reveals no protective effect in reducing the intensity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced symptoms and is not recommended based on the findings in this study. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  17. Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B; Baldacci, Heidi Bechtoldt; Pasold, Tracie; Baumgardner, Jennifer

    2004-02-01

    It is believed that repeated exposure to real-life and to entertainment violence may alter cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes, possibly leading to desensitization. The goal of the present study was to determine if there are relationships between real-life and media violence exposure and desensitization as reflected in related characteristics. One hundred fifty fourth and fifth graders completed measures of real-life violence exposure, media violence exposure, empathy, and attitudes towards violence. Regression analyses indicated that only exposure to video game violence was associated with (lower) empathy. Both video game and movie violence exposure were associated with stronger proviolence attitudes. The active nature of playing video games, intense engagement, and the tendency to be translated into fantasy play may explain negative impact, though causality was not investigated in the present design. The samples' relatively low exposure to real-life violence may have limited the identification of relationships. Although difficult to quantify, desensitization to violence should be further studied using related characteristics as in the present study. Individual differences and causal relationships should also be examined.

  18. Evolving paradigms for desensitization in managing broadly HLA sensitized transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsmoen, Nancy L; Lai, Chi-Hung; Vo, Ashley; Jordan, Stanley C

    2012-04-01

    The broadly human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitized patient awaiting organ transplantation remains a persistent and significant problem for transplant medicine. Sensitization occurs as a consequence of exposure to HLA antigens through pregnancy, blood and platelet transfusions, and previous transplants. Early experience with desensitization protocols coupled with improved diagnostics for donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and renal pathology have greatly improved transplant rates and outcomes for patients once considered un-transplantable or at high risk for poor outcomes. More recent advances have occurred through implementation of a national allocation system requiring the entering of unacceptable antigens that reduces the rate of crossmatch positivity. Current desensitization therapies include high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasma exchange (PLEX) with low-dose IVIG, and IVIG combined with rituximab. Developing therapies include proteasome inhibitors aimed at plasma cells and modifiers of complement-mediated injury. Here we discuss the important advancements in desensitization including defining the risk for antibody-mediated rejection prior to transplantation and the evolution of therapies aimed at reducing the impact of antibody injury on allografts.

  19. Carboplatin Hypersensitivity Reactions in Pediatric Low Grade Glioma Are Protocol Specific and Desensitization Shows Poor Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgshun, Andrew J; Hansford, Jordan R; Cole, Theresa; Choo, Sharon; Sullivan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The use of carboplatin for the treatment of pediatric low grade gliomas (PLGG) is often limited by the development of carboplatin hypersensitivity. Reported rates of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions vary between 6% and 32% in these patients. Here we report the frequency of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions depending on the treatment regimen used, and outcomes of carboplatin desensitization. The records of all patients in a single institution who were treated with carboplatin for PLGG were accessed and all patients receiving more than one dose of carboplatin are reported. Thirty four patients with PLGG were treated with carboplatin according to one of the two different regimens. Carboplatin hypersensitivity was documented in 47% of patients, but the frequency differed by treatment protocol. Those patients treated with 4-weekly single agent carboplatin had carboplatin allergy in 8% of cases whereas 68% of those treated with combined carboplatin and vincristine (every three weeks, according to the SIOP 2004 low grade glioma protocol) had carboplatin reactions (OR 23.6, P Desensitization was only successful in two out of 10 patients in whom it was attempted. Hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin are more common in this cohort than previously reported and rates are protocol-dependent. Desensitization showed limited effectiveness in this cohort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Oral rush desensitization for cow milk allergy: Clinical and immunological follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Jiménez, D; Larrea Tamayo, E; Díaz Martin, J J; Molinos Norniella, C; Pérez Solis, D; Menéndez Arias, C; Jiménez Treviño, S; Bousoño García, C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral rush desensitization in children with cow milk allergy. Prospective study. We included IgE-mediated cow milk allergy children over 3 years in 3 Spanish hospitals. Increasing doses of cow milk for 5 days from 1 cc of 1% to 200 cc of pure milk were administered. Clinical follow-up was conducted and we compared specific IgE levels at onset, 6, 12 and 24 months after desensitization. We included 18 children (13 males) between 3 and 14 years (mean 5.96). A total of 271 doses were administered; there were 55 adverse reactions (84% mild). At the end of the protocol, 100% showed some degree of tolerance (39% total). Full tolerance was achieved in 72% of patients after two years. Two children failed to achieve tolerance. There was a significant decrease in the levels of specific IgE to cow milk and alpha-lactalbumin at 24 months, and to casein at 6, 12 and 24 months, compared to baseline. Oral rush desensitization is a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with persistent cow milk allergy to medium term. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful desensitization protocol for hypersensitivity reaction probably caused by dabrafenib in a patient with metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Abu-Amna, Mahmoud; Hadad, Salim; Haim, Nissim; Shahar, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are both orally bioavailable small molecule agents that block mitogen activated protein kinase signalling in patients with melanoma and BRAF(V600E) mutation. Generalized hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib or dabrafenib have not been described. Continuing vemurafenib or dabrafenib therapy despite hypersensitivity reaction is especially important in patients with melanoma and BRAF(V600E) mutation, in whom this mutation plays a critical role in tumour growth. Desensitization protocols to overcome hypersensitivity reactions by gradual reintroduction of small amounts of the offending drug up to full therapeutic doses are available for many anti-cancer agents, including vemurafenib but, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported for dabrafenib. We describe a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed Type I hypersensitivity reaction to vemurafenib and to subsequent treatment with dabrafenib, and who was successfully treated by drug desensitization which allowed safe prolonged continuation of dabrafenib. The development of hypersensitivity reactions for both dabrafenib and vemurafinib in the current case could be because these drugs have a similar chemical structure and cause a cross-reactivity. However, hypersensitivity reaction to a non-medicinal ingredient shared by the two drugs is also possible. Oral desensitization appears to be an option for patients with hypersensitivity Type I to dabrafenib. This approach may permit clinicians to safely administer dabrafenib to patients who experience hypersensitivity reactions to this life-prolonging medication. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  3. A comparative evaluation of the effect of dentin desensitizers on the retention of complete cast metal crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saili M Chandavarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desensitizers are used to reduce dentin hypersensitivity. They affect the surface texture of prepared dentin and may alter the retention of fixed restorations. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the effect of dentin desensitizers on the retention of complete cast metal crowns luted with glass ionomer cement. Subjects and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human premolars were subjected to standardized tooth preparation (20° total convergence, 4 mm axial height with a computer numerically controlled machine. Individual cast metal crowns were fabricated from a base metal alloy. Dentin desensitizers included none (control, a glutaraldehyde (GLU based primer (Gluma desensitizer, casein phosphopeptide (CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP (GC Mousse, erbium, chromium: YSGG laser (Waterlase MD Turbo, Biolase and Pro-Argin (Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief desensitizing polishing paste. After desensitization, crowns were luted with glass ionomer cement and kept for 48 h at 37°C in 100% relative humidity. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine by applying a load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, followed by the Scheffe post-hoc test with P < 0.05. Results: All dentin desensitizers showed significantly different values: Pro-Argin (4.10 Megapascals [Mpa] < CPP-ACP (4.01 mpa < GLU based primer (3.87 Mpa < Virgin dentin (3.65 Mpa < LASER (3.37 Mpa. Conclusions : On comparing the effect of prepared virgin dentin, GLU based primer, CPP-ACP, LASER and Pro-Argin on the retention of complete cast metal crowns luted with glass ionomer cement on prepared teeth, it can be concluded that Pro-Argin and CPP-ACP showed the best retention in this in vitro study.

  4. Specific oral desensitization in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Evolution in one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Montserrat; Giner, Ma Teresa; Vázquez, Marta; Lozano, Jaime; Domínguez, Olga; Piquer, Mónica; Días, Marcia; Jiménez, Rosa; Martín, Ma Anunciación; Alsina, Laia; Plaza, Ana Ma

    2012-09-01

    Cow's milk allergy is the most frequent childhood food allergy. Children older than 5 who have not become tolerant have less probabilities of natural tolerance. Specific oral desensitization methods are being investigated in reference centres. The aims of our study were to assess the efficacy of our guideline of specific oral desensitization to cow's milk in children and to know its suitability for anaphylactic children. Both clinical and specific IgE outcomes were evaluated. Eighty-seven children aged 5 to 16 years with a history of cow's milk allergy were included. Prior to desensitization, skin prick test, specific IgE to cow's milk proteins and a double-blind placebo control food challenge were performed in all. Of the 87 patients, 21 had a negative challenge; they were considered tolerant, and they were told to follow a free diet. Of the positive, 44 were anaphylactic and 22 non-anaphylactic. All of them were included. In non-anaphylactic patients, 6 achieved partial and 16 maximum desensitization after 23.1 weeks. In the anaphylactic group, 7 achieved partial and 35 maximum desensitization after 26.4 weeks. Cow's milk-specific IgE levels and casein-specific IgE levels were significantly lower in the tolerant patients at baseline. One year after desensitization, the medium specific cow's milk levels and casein IgE levels had dropped significantly. Our guideline for specific oral desensitization to cow's milk is efficacious even in patients with anaphylactic reactions to cow's milk and represents a significant life change. Immunological changes in 1 year show a drop in cow's milk protein-specific IgE.

  5. Human leukocyte antigen genotypes and trial of desensitization in patients with oxcarbazepine-induced skin rash: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bolyun; Yu, Hee Joon; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Munhyang; Lee, Jeehun

    2014-08-01

    Skin rash associated with specific antiepileptic drugs occurs not infrequently and it usually necessitates discontinuation of the causative drugs. An alternative strategy is to desensitize the individual to the offending drug. We checked the human leukocyte antigen genotypes and conducted a pilot study to investigate the usefulness and safety of desensitization in pediatric patients with skin rash associated with oxcarbazepine. We enrolled 19 patients with epilepsy who had discontinued oxcarbazepine because of skin rash despite an initial good response and then became refractory to other antiepileptic drugs along with an individual with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with a similar situation. High-resolution HLA-A and -B genotyping was performed to investigate the genetic risk. The desensitization began with 0.1 mg daily reaching 120 mg on the thirty-first day. Thereafter, the dose was increased at a rate of 12 mg/day. Nineteen patients completed the desensitization protocol to a target dosage over 2-5 months. Five patients developed itching and erythema during desensitization, but the symptoms disappeared after withholding a dose increment transiently. There were no human leukocyte antigen genotypes relevant to aromatic antiepileptic drug-induced severe hypersensitivity reactions. The seizure frequency was reduced to less than at baseline in 18 individuals. This study demonstrated 95% efficacy, including 42% seizure-free patients and the favorable tolerability of desensitization to oxcarbazepine in patients with intractable epilepsy and one patient with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. Screening for sensitive human leukocyte antigen types and exclusion of severe hypersensitivity reactions should precede desensitization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypersensitivity Reactions to Oxaliplatin: Identifying the Risk Factors and Judging the Efficacy of a Desensitization Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Sugatani, Kazuko; Yoshida, Naohisa; Kokura, Satoshi; Matsuda, Kiyomi; Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Ihara, Norihiko; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Terukazu; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Naito, Yuji; Otsuji, Eigo; Hosoi, Hajime; Miki, Tsuneharu; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-06-01

    We examined the clinical data of patients treated with oxaliplatin to determine the risk factors of oxaliplatin-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of rechallenging patients with HSRs with oxaliplatin using prophylactic agents or desensitization procedures. This study consisted of 162 patients with colorectal cancer (88 men and 74 women) who were treated consecutively at the outpatient chemotherapy department at University Hospital, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. Patients underwent chemotherapy, including oxaliplatin, between March 2006 and June 2012. We analyzed the patients' clinical backgrounds (eg, age, sex, performance status, disease stage, and allergic history) to uncover any connections to the development of HSR to oxaliplatin. In addition, we rechallenged 10 patients who had oxaliplatin-related HSR using prophylactic agents or desensitization procedures. Of 162 patients, 28 (17.2%) developed oxaliplatin-related HSRs (16, 2, 9 and 1 patient had grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 HSRs, respectively). The total cumulative dose of oxaliplatin at the onset of the HSR was 301 to 1126 mg/m(2) (median, 582 mg/m(2)), and the first reactions developed in these patients after 5 to 17 infusions of oxaliplatin (median, 8 infusions). Logistic regression analysis indicated that sex (male: odds ratio = 3.624; 95% CI, 1.181-11.122; P = 0.024) and eosinophil count in peripheral blood (odds ratio = 35.118; 95% CI, 1.058-1166.007; P = 0.046) were independent variables for oxaliplatin-related HSRs. Rechallenging patients with prophylactic agents was successful in 2 (28.6%) of 7 patients who successfully completed their treatment. On the other hand, all 3 patients rechallenged with oxaliplatin using a desensitization protocol successfully completed their treatment without new HSRs. In this retrospective study, we observed that being male and having higher counts of peripheral eosinophil could be predictors for HSR to oxaliplatin. In

  7. Neural processing of emotions in traumatized children treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy: A hdEEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eTrentini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy has been proven efficacious in restoring affective regulation in Post–Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD patients. However, its effectiveness on emotion processing in children with complex trauma has yet to be explored. High density Electroencephalography (hdEEG was used to investigate the effects of EMDR on brain responses to adults’ emotions on children with histories of early maltreatment. Ten school–aged children were examined before (T0 and within one month after the conclusion of EMDR (T1. hdEEGs were recorded while children passively viewed angry, afraid, happy, and neutral faces. Clinical scales were administered at the same time. Correlation analyses were performed to detect brain regions whose activity was linked to children’s traumatic symptom–related and emotional–adaptive problem scores. In all four conditions, hdEEG showed similar significantly higher activity on the right medial prefrontal and fronto–temporal limbic regions at T0, shifting towards the left medial and superior temporal regions at T1. Moreover, significant correlations were found between clinical scales and the same regions whose activity significantly differed between pre– and post–treatment. These preliminary results demonstrate that, after EMDR, children suffering from complex trauma show increased activity in areas implicated in high–order cognitive processing when passively viewing pictures of emotional expressions. These changes are associated with the decrease of depressive and traumatic symptoms, and with the improvement of emotional–adaptive functioning over time.

  8. Neural processing of emotions in traumatized children treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy: a hdEEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, Cristina; Pagani, Marco; Fania, Piercarlo; Speranza, Anna Maria; Nicolais, Giampaolo; Sibilia, Alessandra; Inguscio, Lucio; Verardo, Anna Rita; Fernandez, Isabel; Ammaniti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven efficacious in restoring affective regulation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. However, its effectiveness on emotion processing in children with complex trauma has yet to be explored. High density electroencephalography (hdEEG) was used to investigate the effects of EMDR on brain responses to adults’ emotions on children with histories of early maltreatment. Ten school-aged children were examined before (T0) and within one month after the conclusion of EMDR (T1). hdEEGs were recorded while children passively viewed angry, afraid, happy, and neutral faces. Clinical scales were administered at the same time. Correlation analyses were performed to detect brain regions whose activity was linked to children’s traumatic symptom-related and emotional-adaptive problem scores. In all four conditions, hdEEG showed similar significantly higher activity on the right medial prefrontal and fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0, shifting toward the left medial and superior temporal regions at T1. Moreover, significant correlations were found between clinical scales and the same regions whose activity significantly differed between pre- and post-treatment. These preliminary results demonstrate that, after EMDR, children suffering from complex trauma show increased activity in areas implicated in high-order cognitive processing when passively viewing pictures of emotional expressions. These changes are associated with the decrease of depressive and traumatic symptoms, and with the improvement of emotional-adaptive functioning over time. PMID:26594183

  9. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced 18 F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: ≤1 ng/ml, 1 to ≤2 ng/ml, 2 to ≤4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups ≤1, 1 to ≤2, 2 to ≤4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA ≤2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt ≤6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve ≤2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of 18 F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, 18 F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt ≤6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not 18 F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  10. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: {<=}1 ng/ml, 1 to {<=}2 ng/ml, 2 to {<=}4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups {<=}1, 1 to {<=}2, 2 to {<=}4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA {<=}2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt {<=}6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve {<=}2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of {sup 18}F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt {<=}6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not {sup 18}F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  11. Carboxyl-terminal multi-site phosphorylation regulates internalization and desensitization of the human sst2 somatostatin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Schütz, Dagmar; Nagel, Falko; Stumm, Ralf; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-04-25

    The somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2) is the pharmacological target of somatostatin analogs that are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of human neuroendocrine tumors. We have recently shown that the stable somatostatin analogs octreotide and pasireotide (SOM230) stimulate distinct patterns of sst2 receptor phosphorylation and internalization. Like somatostatin, octreotide promotes the phosphorylation of at least six carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues namely S341, S343, T353, T354, T356 and T359, which in turn leads to a robust receptor endocytosis. Unlike somatostatin, pasireotide stimulates a selective phosphorylation of S341 and S343 of the human sst2 receptor followed by a partial receptor internalization. Here, we show that exchange of S341 and S343 by alanine is sufficient to block pasireotide-driven internalization, whereas mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 to alanine is required to strongly inhibited both octreotide- and somatostatin-induced internalization. Yet, combined mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 is not sufficient to prevent somatostatin-driven β-arrestin mobilization and receptor desensitization. Replacement of all fourteen carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues by alanine completely abrogates sst2 receptor internalization and β-arrestin mobilization in HEK293 cells. Together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that agonist-selective sst2 receptor internalization is regulated by multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcomes from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in active-duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Robert N; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Fesperman, Susan F; Delaney, Eileen M; Gerard, Steven K; Roesch, Scott C; Nebeker, Bonnie J; Pandzic, Ines; Vishnyak, Elizabeth A; Johnston, Scott L

    2016-11-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is one of the therapy interventions recommended by the Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guidelines. However, the literature concerning the effectiveness of this treatment modality in military service members is sparse. This study investigated the efficacy of EMDR in active-duty service members. We conducted an effectiveness study with a record review from active-duty military mental health clinics where clinical outcomes had been monitored over a 10-week period using self-report measures of posttraumatic stress and disability. Symptom scores were examined over time in 331 service members who met presumptive criteria for the disorder on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), who were in psychotherapy, and who received (n = 46) or didn't receive (n = 285) EMDR. Results indicated that patients receiving EMDR had significantly fewer therapy sessions over 10 weeks but had significantly greater gains in their PCL-M scores than did individuals not receiving EMDR. Randomized, controlled trials are still needed, but these findings provide further support for the use of EMDR in service members with PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  14. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A. B. P.; van den Berg, D. P. G.; Cath, D. C.; Schoorl, M.; Engelhard, I. M.; Korrelboom, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  15. Efektivitas Desensitizing Agent dengan dan tanpa Fluor pada Metode in Office Bleaching terhadap Kandungan Mineral Gigi (Kajian In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulita Kristanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In office bleaching menggunakan hidrogen peroksida 40% sering memberikan efek samping berupa linu baik selama maupun setelah perawatan tersebut dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh waktu aplikasi dan kandungan fluor desensitizing agent pada metode in office bleaching terhadap kandungan mineral gigi. Delapan gigi masing-masing dipotong menjadi 4 bagian, 6 potong digunakan untuk pemeriksaan XRD awal. Gigi dikeringkan dalam oven suhu 50° selama 30 menit diserbuk, diambil 1 mg untuk diperiksa kandungan mineralnya dengan goniometer. Dua puluh empat potong yang lain dibagi dalam 4 kelompok perlakuan. Kelompok I: gigi diaplikasi bahan bleaching 0,5-1 mm hidrogen peroksida 40% selama 1 jam, dicuci, dikeringkan, diikuti aplikasi 0,1 ml desensitizing agent tanpa fluor (CPP-ACP selama 30 menit, dicuci, dikeringkan. Kelompok II : gigi diaplikasi CPP-ACP 30 menit, dicuci, dikeringkan, dibleaching menggunakan hidrogen peroksida 40% selama 1 jam. Selanjutnya gigi diaplikasi CPP-ACP 30 menit lagi, dicuci, dikeringkan. Kelompok III gigi dibleaching menggunakan hidrogen peroksida 40% selama 1 jam, dicuci, dikeringkan, diikuti aplikasi desensitizing agent yang mengandung fluor (CPP-ACFP selama 30 menit, dicuci, dikeringkan. Kelompok IV: gigi diaplikasi CPP-ACFP 30 menit, dicuci, dikeringkan, dibleaching menggunakan hidrogen peroksida 40% selama 1 jam. Selanjutnya gigi diaplikasi CPP-ACFP selama 30 menit, dicuci dikeringkan. Sesudah perlakuan, semua gigi dilakukan pemeriksaan kandungan mineral gigi dengan prosedur yang sama. Uji Mann Whitney menunjukkan penurunan mineral paling sedikit terjadi pada kelompok IV (4500. Desensitizing agent mengandung F sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan in office bleaching menunjukkan penurunan mineral paling kecil.   The Effectiveness of Desensitizing Agent with and without Fluorine in Office Bleaching Method to Tooth Mineral content. Tooth sensitivity arises during or after an in

  16. ASM-024, a piperazinium compound, promotes the in vitro relaxation of β2-adrenoreceptor desensitized tracheas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël-Assayag, Evelyne; Beaulieu, Marie-Josée; Cormier, Yvon

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled β2-adrenoreceptor agonists are widely used in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for bronchoconstriction relief. β2-Adrenoreceptor agonists relax airway smooth muscle cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) mediated pathways. However, prolonged stimulation induces functional desensitization of the β2-adrenoreceptors (β2-AR), potentially leading to reduced clinical efficacy with chronic or prolonged administration. ASM-024, a small synthetic molecule in clinical stage development, has shown activity at the level of nicotinic receptors and possibly at the muscarinic level and presents anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties. Aerosolized ASM-024 reduces airway resistance in mice and promotes in-vitro relaxation of tracheal and bronchial preparations from animal and human tissues. ASM-024 increased in vitro relaxation response to maximally effective concentration of short-acting beta-2 agonists in dog and human bronchi. Although the precise mechanisms by which ASM-024 promotes airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation remain unclear, we hypothesized that ASM-024 will attenuate and/or abrogate agonist-induced contraction and remain effective despite β2-AR tachyphylaxis. β2-AR tachyphylaxis was induced with salbutamol, salmeterol and formoterol on guinea pig tracheas. The addition of ASM-024 relaxed concentration-dependently intact or β2-AR desensitized tracheal rings precontracted with methacholine. ASM-024 did not induce any elevation of intracellular cAMP in isolated smooth muscle cells; moreover, blockade of the cAMP pathway with an adenylate cyclase inhibitor had no significant effect on ASM-024-induced guinea pig trachea relaxation. Collectively, these findings show that ASM-024 elicits relaxation of β2-AR desensitized tracheal preparations and suggest that ASM-024 mediates smooth muscle relaxation through a different target and signaling pathway than β2-adrenergic receptor agonists. These findings suggest ASM-024

  17. Effect of a Desensitizing Varnish on Microleakage of Two Self-Etch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Saffarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro experimental study was to assess the effect of application of a desensitizing varnish on the enamel and dentin marginal seal.Materials and Methods: Seventy-two freshly extracted, intact human premolar teeth were divided into four groups (n=18. Class V cavities (3mm in length, 2mm in width and 2mm in depth were prepared on the buccal surface of each tooth. The following sealing materials were applied in the four groups: One-step Clearfil S3 Bond (S3 self-etch adhesive, two-step Clearfil SE Bond (SE self-etch adhesive, S3 Bond+ VivaSens desensitizing varnish (VS+S3 and Clearfil SE Bond + VivaSens (VS+SE. The cavities on the teeth were then incrementally filled with Z350 light-cure composite. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C, and were then thermocycled for 1000 cycles. Then, all the specimens were prepared for dye penetration test and were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin dye and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The teeth were then sectioned buccolingually along the center of restorations with a diamond disk.   Microleakage at the tooth-restoration interface was assessed in the enamel and dentin margins blindly using dye penetration under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification.Results: There was significantly greater leakage at the enamel and dentin margins in group VS+SE than in group SE; also, these values were higher in group VS+S3 than in S3.Conclusion: Combined application of desensitizing varnish and self-etch adhesives seems to increase microleakage in composite restorations. Thus, its application is not suggested.

  18. Systemic Chemical Desensitization of Peptidergic Sensory Neurons with Resiniferatoxin Inhibits Experimental Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Torbjørn; Gundersen, Yngvar; Gjermo, Per; Fristad, Inge; Opstad, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: The immune system is an important player in the pathophysiology of periodontitis. The brain controls immune responses via neural and hormonal pathways, and brain-neuro-endocrine dysregulation may be a central determinant for pathogenesis. Our current knowledge also emphasizes the central role of sensory nerves. In line with this, we wanted to investigate how desensitization of peptidergic sensory neurons influences the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis, and, furthermore, how selected cytokine and stress hormone responses to Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation are affected. Material and methods: Resiniferatoxin (RTX; 50 μg/kg) or vehicle was injected subcutaneously on days 1, 2, and 3 in stress high responding and periodontitis-susceptible Fischer 344 rats. Periodontitis was induced 2 days thereafter. Progression of the disease was assessed after the ligatures had been in place for 20 days. Two h before decapitation all rats received LPS (150 μg/kg i.p.) to induce a robust immune and stress response. Results: Desensitization with RTX significantly reduced bone loss as measured by digital X-rays. LPS provoked a significantly higher increase in serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but lower serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and the stress hormone corticosterone. Conclusions: In this model RTX-induced chemical desensitization of sensory peptidergic neurons attenuated ligature-induced periodontitis and promoted a shift towards stronger pro-inflammatory cytokine and weaker stress hormone responses to LPS. The results may partly be explained by the attenuated transmission of immuno-inflammatory signals to the brain. In turn, this may weaken the anti-inflammatory brain-derived pathways. PMID:21339860

  19. Successful Short Desensitization Treatment Protocol with Narrowband UVB Phototherapy (TL-01) in Polymorphic Light Eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalia, A; Fernández-Sartorio, C; Fustà, X; Morgado-Carrasco, D; Podlipnik, S; Aguilera, P

    2017-10-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is a common idiopathic photodermatosis that typically presents with pruritic papular or papulovesicular lesions on sun-exposed skin between spring and autumn. In many subjects PLE is mild, and can usually be prevented by the use of broad-spectrum topical sunscreens and a gradual increase in sunlight exposure. However, in some individuals, sunlight exposure results in florid PLE and they often benefit from prophylactic desensitization treatment using phototherapy in early spring, an artificial method that induces a "hardening" phenomenon. To describe and evaluate the efficacy of a short desensitization protocol, based on a one-month-treatment, administered twice a week with narrow band UVB in subjects with severe polymorphic light eruption (PLE). A retrospective, open planned and non-randomized study to assess the efficacy of UVB phototherapy in prevention of polymorphic light eruption. Fifteen subjects diagnosed with severe PLE were treated with the standard protocol in our Photobiology Unit between 2014 and 2015. The effect of hardening was sustained during follow up in 87.5% of desensitization treatments. A statistically significant association (pPLE and the response to treatment was found. The effect of hardening was maintained in the vast majority of subjects, obtaining a good benefit with no PLE episodes during all the summer. We demonstrate that our standard protocol is effective, and produces a successful outcome for the majority of PLE subjects. Our protocol is shorter than those currently applied, being favourable both for the patient and the physician. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes Following ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation Performed After Desensitization by Nonantigen-Specific Immunoadsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Luis E; Siebert, Daniela; Süsal, Caner; Opelz, Gerhard; Leo, Albrecht; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Schemmer, Peter; Schaefer, Sebastian Markus; Klein, Katrin; Beimler, Jörg; Zeier, Martin; Schwenger, Vedat; Morath, Christian

    2015-11-01

    For desensitization of ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients we recently proposed nonantigen-specific immunoadsorption (IA) and rituximab. We now compared clinical outcomes of 34 ABO-incompatible living-donor kidney recipients who were transplanted using this protocol with that of 68 matched ABO-compatible patients. In addition, we analyzed efficacy and cost of nonantigen-specific as compared to blood group antigen-specific IA. Before desensitization, the median isoagglutinin titer of 34 ABO-incompatible patients was 1:64 (Coombs technique). Patients received a median of 7 preoperative IA treatments. Twenty-four patients had a median of 2 additional plasmapheresis treatments to reach the preoperative target isoagglutinin titer of 1:8 or less. After a median postoperative follow-up of 22 months, overall graft survival in the ABO-incompatible group was not significantly different from that in ABO-compatible patients (log-rank P = 0.20), whereas patient survival tended to be lower (log-rank P = 0.05). The incidence of rejection episodes was 15% in both groups. The ABO-incompatible kidney recipients had a higher incidence of BK virus replication (P = 0.04) and nephropathy (P = 0.01) and showed more often colonization with multidrug resistant bacteria (P = 0.02). In comparison to blood group antigen-specific IA, nonantigen-specific IA showed equal efficacy but was associated with reduction in cost. Clinical outcomes of ABO-incompatible patients desensitized with a nonantigen-specific IA device and rituximab do not differ from that of matched ABO-compatible patients although a trend toward reduced patient survival was noted. Special attention must be paid to the higher incidence of BK virus infection in recipients of ABO-incompatible grafts.

  1. Platinum desensitization in patients with carboplatin hypersensitivity: A single-institution retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwerger, Gary; Gressel, Gregory M; English, Diana P; Nelson, Wendelin K; Carusillo, Nina; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Santin, Alessandro; Schwartz, Peter E; Ratner, Elena S

    2017-01-01

    The carboplatin desensitization (CD) protocol presented here allows patients with either a positive skin test or a prior hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to safely, rapidly and effectively continue with carboplatin infusions. Newly described factors can identify patients at risk for developing adverse events during CD. A retrospective review was performed on patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent CD between 2005 and 2014. The CD protocol uses a four-step dilution process over 3.5h. 129 patients underwent CD and completed a total of 788cycles. The desensitization protocol prevented HSRs in 96% (753 out of 788) of these cycles. Patients achieved an average of 6.1cycles (SD±4.55, range 0-23) with CD. The CD protocol allowed 73% (94 of 129) of the patients to undergo carboplatin infusion without reaction. Patients with moderate to life-threatening HSRs (grade 2 through 4) were 10.5years younger at initial CD than patients with grades 0 or 1 HSRs (52.3 vs. 63, P = 0.0307). One patient death occurred during her thirteenth desensitization cycle. The HSR in this case was complicated by pre-exisiting pulmonary hypertension. This is the largest study of its kind showing a safe, effective and rapid (3.5h) CD protocol. The majority of patients with a history of either carboplatin hypersensitivity reaction or a positive skin test completed the CD protocol without HSRs. Age was identified as a risk factor for HSR severity during CD. Age can be employed along with pre-load dependent cardiac conditions as a way to help risk stratify patients undergoing CD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Gluma Desensitizer on the tensile strength of zirconia crowns bonded to dentin: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Hartmann, Leonie; Hartmann, Rahel; Roos, Malgorzata; Ender, Andreas; Ozcan, Mutlu; Sailer, Irena; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2012-02-01

    This study tested the impact of Gluma Desensitizer on the tensile strength of zirconia crowns bonded to dentin. Human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into six groups (N = 144, n = 24 per group). For each tooth, a zirconia crown was manufactured. The zirconia crowns were cemented with: (1) Panavia21 (PAN), (2) Panavia21 combined with Gluma Desensitizer (PAN-G), (3) RelyX Unicem (RXU), (4) RelyX Unicem combined with Gluma Desensitizer (RXU-G), (5) G-Cem (GCM) and (6) G-Cem combined with Gluma Desensitizer (GCM-G). The initial tensile strength was measured in half (n = 12) of each group and the other half (n = 12) subjected to a chewing machine (1.2 Mio, 49 N, 5°C/50°C). The cemented crowns were pulled in a Universal Testing Machine (1 mm/min, Zwick Z010) until failure occurred and tensile strength was calculated. Data were analyzed with one-way and two-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Scheffé test, t test and Kaplan-Meier analysis with a Breslow-Gehan analysis test (α = 0.05). After the chewing simulation, the self-adhesive resin cements combined with Gluma Desensitizer showed significantly higher tensile strength (RXU-G, 12.8 ± 4.3 MPa; GCM-G, 13.4 ± 6.2 MPa) than PAN (7.3 ± 1.7 MPa) and PAN-G (0.9 ± 0.6). Within the groups, PAN, PAN-G and RXU resulted in significantly lower values when compared to the initial tensile strength; the values of all other test groups were stable. In this study, self-adhesive resin cements combined with Gluma Desensitizer reached better long-term stability compared to PAN and PAN-G after chewing simulation.

  3. Analysis of anti-HLA antibodies in sensitized kidney transplant candidates subjected to desensitization with intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobashevsky, Andrew L; Higgins, Nancy G; Rosner, Kevin M; Mujtaba, Muhammad A; Goggins, William C; Taber, Tim E

    2013-07-27

    Preexisting donor-specific antibodies against human leukocyte antigens are major risk factors for acute antibody-mediated and chronic rejection of kidney transplant grafts. Immunomodulation (desensitization) protocols may reduce antibody concentration and improve the success of transplant. We investigated the effect of desensitization with intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab on the antibody profile in highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates. In 31 transplant candidates (calculated panel-reactive antibody [cPRA], 34%-99%), desensitization included intravenous immunoglobulin on days 0 and 30 and a single dose of rituximab on day 15. Anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies were analyzed before and after desensitization. Reduction of cPRA from 25% to 50% was noted for anti-class I (5 patients, within 20-60 days) and anti-class II (3 patients, within 10-20 days) antibodies. After initial reduction of cPRA, the cPRA increased within 120 days. In 24 patients, decrease in mean fluorescence intensity of antibodies by more than 50% was noted at follow-up, but there was no reduction of cPRA. Rebound occurred in 65% patients for anti-class I antibodies at 350 days and anti-class II antibodies at 101 to 200 days. Probability of rebound effect was higher in patients with mean fluorescence intensity of more than 10,700 before desensitization, anti-class II antibodies, and history of previous transplant. The desensitization protocol had limited efficacy in highly sensitized kidney transplant candidate because of the short period with antibody reduction and high frequency of rebound effect.

  4. A role for inflammatory mediators in heterologous desensitization of CysLT1 receptor in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Valérie; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Barbieri, Silvia; Rovati, G. Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LT) are rapidly generated at sites of inflammation and, in addition to their role in asthma, rhinitis, and other immune disorders, are increasingly regarded as significant inflammatory factors in cancer, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular diseases. We recently demonstrated that in monocyte/macrophage–like U937 cells, extracellular nucleotides heterologously desensitize CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R)-induced Ca2+ transients. Given that monocytes express a number of other inflammatory and chemoattractant receptors, this study was aimed at characterizing transregulation between these different stimuli. We demonstrate that in U937 cells and in primary human monocytes, a series of inflammatory mediators activating Gi-coupled receptor (FPR1, BLT1) desensitize CysLT1R-induced Ca2+ response unidirectionally through activation of PKC. Conversely, PAF-R, exclusively coupled to Gq, cross-desensitizes CysLT1R without the apparent involvement of any kinase. Interestingly, Gs-coupled receptors (β2AR, H1/2R, EP2/4R) are also able to desensitize CysLT1R response through activation of PKA. Heterologous desensitization seems to affect mostly the Gi-mediated signaling of the CysLT1R. The hierarchy of desensitization among agonists may be important for leukocyte signal processing at the site of inflammation. Considering that monocytes/macrophages are likely to be the major source of cysteinyl-LT in many immunological and inflammatory processes, shedding light on how their receptors are regulated will certainly help to better understand the role of these cells in orchestrating this complex network of integrated signals. PMID:19965602

  5. The Rise of Blog Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the growth of blogs in popular culture, and the fact that they are becoming more widely accepted in the media industry. The rise and popularity of blogs--short for "Web logs"--are causing journalism educators to overhaul their teachings. In fact, blogging's influence varies from one university program to the next, just like…

  6. Outpatient rapid 4-step desensitization for gynecologic oncology patients with mild to low-risk, moderate hypersensitivity reactions to carboplatin/cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Cohn, David; Waller, Allyson; Backes, Floor; Copeland, Larry; Fowler, Jeffrey; Salani, Ritu; O'Malley, David

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of an outpatient, 4-step, one-solution desensitization protocol in gynecologic oncology patients with history of mild to low-risk, moderate hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to platinums (carboplatin and cisplatin). This was a single institutional retrospective review. Gynecologic oncology patients with a documented history of mild or low-risk, moderate immediate HSRs to carboplatin/cisplatin and continued treatment with 4-step, one-solution desensitization protocols in the outpatient infusion center were included. Patients with delayed HSRs or immediate high-risk, moderate or severe HSRs were excluded. The primary end point was the rate of successful administrations of each course of platinums. From January 2011 to June 2013, eighteen eligible patients were evaluated for outpatient 4-step, one-solution desensitization. Thirteen patients had a history of HSRs to carboplatin and 5 with HSRs to cisplatin. All of 18 patients successfully completed 94 (98.9%) of 95 desensitization courses in the outpatient infusion center. Eight of 8 (100%) patients with initial mild HSRs completed 29/29 (100%) desensitization courses, and 9 of 10 (90%) of patients with initial moderate HSRs completed 65/66 (94%) desensitization courses. In total, 65/95 (68%) desensitizations resulted in no breakthrough reactions, and mild, moderate and severe breakthrough reactions were seen in 19%, 12% and 1% desensitizations, respectively. No patients were hospitalized during desensitization. The outpatient rapid, 4-step, one-solution desensitization protocol was effective and appeared safe among gynecologic oncology patients who experienced mild to low-risk, moderate HSRs to carboplatin/cisplatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using operant conditioning and desensitization to facilitate veterinary care with captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Heidi; Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara; Hope, Katharine

    2012-09-01

    In addition to being a large component of most zoological collections, reptile species are becoming more popular as family pets. Reptiles have the cognitive ability to be trained to facilitate daily husbandry and veterinary care. Desensitization and operant conditioning can alleviate some of the behavioral and physiological challenges of treating these species. A survey of reptile training programs at zoos in the United States and worldwide reveals that there are many successful training programs to facilitate veterinary care and minimize stress to the animal. Many of the techniques being used to train reptiles in zoological settings are transferable to the exotic pet clinician. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  9. Thermal desensitization of gamma irradiated LiF:Mg,Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V.; Rogalev, B.; Afonin, G. (Institute of Geochemistry, Irkutsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-01-01

    The thermoluminescence sensitivity variation of gamma irradiated LiF:Mg,Ti after annealing at temperatures of 300-500[sup o]C has been studied. This variation is shown to be due to concurrent processes of sensitization and damage. Annealing of irradiated crystals leads to the restoration of the initial sensitivity. The damage decay time is approximately an order of magnitude greater than the decay time of the sensitization. The experimental data are interpreted quantitatively within the scope of included gamma track overlapping. (author).

  10. The measurement of cell mediated immunity by radioimmunoassay in desensitizing treatment with acupoints for allergic asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ronglin; Luan Meiling; Wang Mingsuo; Liu Keliang

    1994-05-01

    Three mitogens consisted of PHA, PWM, LPS were used to activate lymphocytes. Lymphocyte transformation with radioisotope incorporation of 3 H-TdR was done in 20 patients with allergic asthma and 14 healthy persons as control groups. Cell mediated immune in these cases of desensitizing treatment with acupoints were studied. The experiments showed that the incorporation rates of 3 H-TdR, acupoints were studied. The experiments showed that the incorporation rates of 3 H-TdR, activated by PHA, PWM, LPS, of the allergic asthma patients were P>0.05, P 3 H-TdR in lymphocytes after desensitizing treatment with acupoints compared with that before the treatment tended to be normal. Lymphocyte transformation difference of 3 H-TdR incorporation rates between this group and A or B control groups was significant (P<0.01). This study provides scientific clinical experimental evidences for researching cell mediated immune in attack and curative effects of allergic asthma

  11. Revisiting Desensitization and Allergen Immunotherapy Concepts for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises A; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Rosenwasser, Lanny J; Bousquet, Jean; Pawankar, Ruby; Sisul, Juan Carlos; Cepeda, Alfonso Mario; Li, James; Muraro, Antonella; Fineman, Stanley; Sublett, James L; Katelaris, Constance H; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Hee-Bom; Casale, Thomas; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Allergy and hypersensitivity intervention management procedures, such as desensitization and/or tolerance induction and immunotherapy, have not been pondered up to now in the content of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) context because the focus has been on prioritizing the condition implementations. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to implementing allergic and hypersensitivity conditions in the forthcoming ICD-11. However, we consider that it is crucial now to have nomenclature and classification universally accepted for these procedures to be able to provide scientifically consistent proposals into the new ICD-11 platform for the best practice parameters of our specialty. With the aim of promoting a harmonized comprehension and aligning it with the ICD-11 revision, we have reviewed the definitions and concepts currently used for desensitization and/or tolerance induction and immunotherapy. We strongly believe that this review is a key instrument to support the allergy specialty identity into the ICD-11 framework and serves as a platform to perform positive quality improvement in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful Renal Transplantation with Desensitization in Highly Sensitized Patients: A Single Center Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Hyoung, Bok Jin; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Lee, So Young; Jeon, Youn Joo; Song, Joon Chang; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Sun Cheol; Choi, Bum Soon; Moon, In Sung; Kim, Yong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and/or plasmapheresis (PP) are effective in preventing antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of kidney allografts, but AMR is still a problem. This study reports our experience in living donor renal transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Ten patients with positive crossmatch tests or high levels of panel-reactive antibody (PRA) were included. Eight patients were desensitized with pretransplant PP and low dose IVIG, and two were additionally treated with rituximab. Allograft function, number of acute rejection (AR) episodes, protocol biopsy findings, and the presence of donor-specific antibody (DSA) were evaluated. With PP/IVIG, six out of eight patients showed good graft function without AR episodes. Protocol biopsies revealed no evidence of tissue injury or C4d deposits. Of two patients with AR, one was successfully treated with PP/IVIG, but the other lost graft function due to de novo production of DSA. Thereafter, rituximab was added to PP/IVIG in two cases. Rituximab gradually decreased PRA levels and the percentage of peripheral CD20+ cells. DSA was undetectable and protocol biopsy showed no C4d deposits. The graft function was stable and there were no AR episodes. Conclusively, desensitization using PP/IVIG with or without rituximab increases the likelihood of successful living donor renal transplantation in sensitized recipients. PMID:19194545

  13. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  14. Group therapy compared with individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of group therapy (GT) for extreme dental anxiety were compared with individual treatment (IT). Scales used measured dental anxiety, beliefs or trust in dentists, and fear of the next dentist after specialist treatment which showed reduced dental anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared...... with a static control group of 45 patients. The 30 GT patients showed no significant difference in dropouts during training compared with the 68 IT patients, but for patients who completed treatment, GT (n = 24) had greater dental anxiety reduction than IT subjects (n = 60). GT patients required fewer therapist...... hours per patients than did either of the two IT methods, but time saved in GT did not reach significance over clinical rehearsal IT. Results at 1- yr follow-up after specialist treatment indicated that dropouts were significantly greater in group therapy. Rehearsal IT performed best for sustained...

  15. G-protein-mediated interconversions of cell-surface cAMP receptors and their involvement in excitation and desensitization of guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Haastert, P.J.; de Wit, R.J.; Janssens, P.M.; Kesbeke, F.; DeGoede, J.

    1986-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum cells, extracellular cAMP induces the rapid (within 2 s) activation of guanylate cyclase, which is followed by complete desensitization after about 10 s. cAMP binding to these cells is heterogeneous, showing a subclass of fast dissociating sites coupled to adenylate cyclase (A-sites) and a subclass of slowly dissociating sites coupled to guanylate cyclase (B-sites). The kinetics of the B-sites were further investigated on a seconds time scale. Statistical analysis of the association of [ 3 H]cAMP to the B-sites and dissociation of the complex revealed that the receptor can exist in three states which interconvert according to the following scheme. cAMP binds to the BF-state (off-rate 2.5 s) which rapidly (t1/2 = 3 s) converts to the BS-state (off-rate 15 s) and subsequently (without a detectable delay) into the BSS-state (off-rate 150 s). In membranes, both the BS- and BSS-states are converted to the BF-state by GTP and GDP, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. Densensitized cells show a 80% reduction of the formation of the BSS-state, but no reduction of the BF- or BS-state. These data are combined into a model in which the transitions of the B-sites are mediated by a G-protein; activation of the G-protein and guanylate cyclase is associated with the transition of the BS- to the BSS-state of the receptor, whereas desensitization is associated with the inhibition of this transition

  16. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  17. Efficacy of desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for hypersensitivity relief in MIH-affected molars: an 8-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekes, Katrin; Heinzelmann, Karolin; Lettner, Stefan; Schaller, Hans-Günter

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy in reducing hypersensitivity in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)-affected molars immediately and over 8 weeks combining a single in-office application and a homed-based program with desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate. Nineteen children with at least one MIH-affected molar with hypersensitivity were included. Hypersensitivity was assessed with an evaporative (air) stimulus and a tactile stimulus. Each child received a single in-office treatment with a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (elmex Sensitive Professional desensitizing paste), followed by 8 weeks of brushing twice daily with a desensitizing toothpaste containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate with 1450 ppm fluoride (elmex Sensitive Professional toothpaste), using the elmex Sensitive Professional toothbrush. Additionally, the corresponding mouthwash (elmex Sensitive Professional mouthwash) was used. Clinical assessments were made at baseline, immediately after the in-office treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of brushing twice daily. Fifty-six molars with an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale) were included. Application of the desensitizing paste decreased hypersensitivity significantly immediately and throughout the 8 weeks recalls (p MIH. This is the first study evaluating the desensitizing effect of a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate in patients with MIH.

  18. A randomized controlled study of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT): clinical desensitization and modulation of the allergic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Pooja; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kemper, Alex; Steele, Pamela; Hiegel, Anne; Kamilaris, Janet; Carlisle, Suzanne; Yue, Xiaohong; Kulis, Mike; Pons, Laurent; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Background Open-label oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols have been used to treat small numbers of patients with peanut allergy. Peanut OIT has not been evaluated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Objective To investigate the safety and effectiveness of OIT for peanut allergy in a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods In this multicenter study, peanut-allergic children ages 1-16 years received OIT with peanut flour or placebo. Initial escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases were followed by an oral food challenge at approximately one year. Titrated skin prick tests (SPT) and laboratory studies were performed at regular intervals. Results Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. Three peanut OIT subjects withdrew early in the study due to allergic side effects. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, all remaining peanut OIT subjects (N=16) ingested the maximum cumulative dose of 5000 mg (approximately 20 peanuts), while placebo subjects (N=9) ingested a median cumulative dose of 280 mg (range, 0-1900 mg) [p<0.001]. In contrast to the placebo group, the peanut OIT group showed reductions in SPT size (p<0.001), IL-5 (p=0.01), and IL-13 (p=0.02) and increases in peanut-specific IgG4 (p<0.001). Peanut OIT subjects had initial increases in peanut-specific IgE (p<0.01) but did not show significant change from baseline by the time of OFC. The ratio of FoxP3 hi: FoxP3 intermediate CD4+CD25+ T cells increased at the time of OFC (p=0.04) in peanut OIT subjects. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate that peanut OIT induces desensitization and concurrent immune modulation. The present study continues and is evaluating the hypothesis that peanut OIT causes long-term immune tolerance. PMID:21377034

  19. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  20. Long-term efficacy of aspirin desensitization in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Review of two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez

    2016-05-01

    Clinical cases: two patients diagnosed with respiratory disease exacerbated by aspirin, with poor asthma control and need for multiple polypectomies, despite optimal pharmacological management, carrying out protocol desensitization to aspirin (AAS successful, now after 4 years of having carried out, they have adequate asthma control without need for polypectomies with a maintenance dose of aspirin 150 mg/day.

  1. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, C.R.; Bartholow, B.D.; Kerr, G.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and

  2. Chronic violent video game exposure and desensitization to violence: Behavioral end event-related brain potential data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholow, B.D.; Bushman, B.J.; Sestir, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to media violence increases aggression, though the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. One theory posits that repeated exposure to media violence desensitizes viewers to real world violence, increasing aggression by blunting aversive reactions

  3. Imaging Agonist-Induced D2/D3 Receptor Desensitization and Internalization In Vivo with PET/fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian; Rosen, Bruce R; Mandeville, Joseph B

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of dopamine receptor desensitization and internalization, thereby proposing a new technique for non-invasive, in vivo measurements of receptor adaptations. The D2/D3 agonist quinpirole, which induces receptor internalization in vitro, was administered at graded doses in non-human primates while imaging with simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A pronounced temporal divergence between receptor occupancy and fMRI signal was observed: occupancy remained elevated while fMRI responded transiently. Analogous experiments with an antagonist (prochlorperazine) and a lower-affinity agonist (ropinirole) exhibited reduced temporal dissociation between occupancy and function, consistent with a mechanism of desensitization and internalization that depends upon drug efficacy and affinity. We postulated a model that incorporates internalization into a neurovascular-coupling relationship. This model yielded in vivo desensitization/internalization rates (0.2/min for quinpirole) consistent with published in vitro measurements. Overall, these results suggest that simultaneous PET/fMRI enables characterization of dynamic neuroreceptor adaptations in vivo, and may offer a first non-invasive method for assessing receptor desensitization and internalization.

  4. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Pilo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC. Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa. The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns.

  5. Crystal structure and dynamics of a lipid-induced potential desensitized-state of a pentameric ligand-gated channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Sandip [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States; Schmandt, Nicolaus [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States; Gicheru, Yvonne [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States; Chakrapani, Sudha [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States

    2017-03-06

    Desensitization in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in synaptic membranes, enhances the agonist-induced transition to the desensitized state in the prokaryotic channel GLIC. We determined a 3.25 Å crystal structure of the GLIC-DHA complex in a potentially desensitized conformation. The DHA molecule is bound at the channel-periphery near the M4 helix and exerts a long-range allosteric effect on the pore across domain-interfaces. In this previously unobserved conformation, the extracellular-half of the pore-lining M2 is splayed open, reminiscent of the open conformation, while the intracellular-half is constricted, leading to a loss of both water and permeant ions. These findings, in combination with spin-labeling/EPR spectroscopic measurements in reconstituted-membranes, provide novel mechanistic details of desensitization in pentameric channels.

  6. Inhibition of calcineurin inhibits the desensitization of capsaicin evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones from adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docherty, RJ; Yeats, JC; Bevan, S; Boddeke, HWGM

    Capsaicin activates a non-specific cation conductance in mammalian sensory neurones. If capsaicin is applied continuously or repeatedly then there is a progressive decline in responsiveness. We have studied the mechanism of this desensitization using electrophysiological methods in cultured dorsal

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy versus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating panic disorder : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, F.; den Oudsten, B.L.; Zijlstra, W.P.; de Jongh, A.; Lobbestael, J.; de Vries, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for patients with panic disorder (PD). From a theoretical perspective, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy could also be useful in the treatment of PD because: (1) panic attacks can be experienced as

  8. Appropriateness of Taped versus Live Relaxation in the Systematic Desensitization of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Gary R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated whether the relaxation part of systematic desensitization could be learned by cancer patients from a prerecorded audiotape. Results showed four of five patients assigned to a taped-relaxation group experienced nausea while listening to the audiotape, whereas none of five patients taught muscle relaxation in person reported nausea. (BH)

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for treating panic disorder : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, F.; Den Oudsten, B.; Zijlstra, W.; de Jongh, A.; Lobbestael, J.; De Vries, J.

    Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for patients with panic disorder (PD). From a theoretical perspective, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy could also be useful in the treatment of PD because: (1) panic attacks can be experienced as

  10. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscletype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiper...

  11. Performance evaluation of a vibration desensitized scanning white light interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutman, J; Evans, C J; Ganguly, V; Schmitz, T L

    2014-01-01

    Surface metrology instruments normally require thermal, seismic and acoustic isolation. Shop-floor metrology solutions offer reduced cost and process time. If they operate on the same principles as laboratory devices, an inherent sensitivity to vibration remains. This paper describes a methodology for evaluating ‘environmental tolerance’ and applying it to characterize a recently introduced ‘environmentally tolerant’ scanning white light interferometer (SWLI). Previously published measurements of replicated nickel reference standards on the new instrument and on a stylus profilometer showed good correlation. Surface topography repeatabilities (per ISO 25178-604:2013) were insignificantly different when evaluated on the SWLI instrument in a metrology laboratory and in a manufacturing area. Measurements of reference standards under forced vibration of the entire instrument show maximum ripple error and data dropout in regions of structural resonance. Measurements were performed with large forced horizontal and vertical sample oscillation beneath the objective, exhibiting maximum ripple error near odd integer multiples of half the instrument detector frequency. Error due to data dropout was also investigated. (paper)

  12. On the ligand binding profile and desensitization of plant ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR)-like channels functioning in MAMP-triggered Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J; Maintz, Jens; Cavdar, Meltem

    2012-01-01

    in the putative agonist binding profile and potential mode of desensitization of MAMP-activated plant iGluRs. Based on results from pharmacological inhibition and desensitization experiments, we propose that plant iGluR complexes responsible for the MAMP-triggered Ca ( 2+) signature have a binding profile...... that combines the specificities of mammalian NMDA-and non-NMDA types of iGluRs, possibly reflecting the evolutionary history of plant and animal iGluRs. We further hypothesize that, analogous to the mammalian NMDA-NR1 receptor, desensitization of plant iGluR-like channels might involve binding of the ubiquitous...

  13. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  14. The reduction efficacy of dentinal hypersensitivity by two commercially available desensitizing toothpastes: Vantej and Colgate Pro- Argin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Dentin hypersensitivity is a commonly experienced problem that is triggered by an external stimulus, such as hot and cold temperature changes, pressure from tooth brushing and osmotic changes caused due to sweet or sour food and beverages. Various treatment modalities are tried and tested, amongst them desensitizing pastes have been used extensively in the past decades. Objective: The objective of these 15 days, single center, randomized clinical pilot study was to evaluate the dentin hypersensitivity reducing efficacy of two commercially available desensitizing toothpastes: One with Pro-Argin technology and the other with Novamin. Materials and Methods: Eighty subjects of dentin hypersensitivity were sampled in the present pilot study. Subjects were randomly selected and the pastes were prescribed for both the groups. Subjects were advised to brush twice daily for 2 min with the desensitizing paste and also were advised for topical application of the desensitizing paste on sensitive teeth and were asked not to rinse until morning. The evaluation was done by Air blast technique using sensitivity visual analog scale consisting of mild, moderate, and severe parameters rated on a scale of 0-10. Efficacy was compared on baseline, after 1 min of application and after 15 days. Statistical Analysis: t-test was performed and P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups after 1 min of examination, but there was a statistically significant difference in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity after 15 days interval favoring Vantej group (P ≤ 0.02. Conclusion: Desensitizing paste containing 5% NovaMin crystals provided a statistically significant reduction at 15 days interval when compared with the one containing Pro-Arginine.

  15. Comparing the Effectiveness of Systematic Desensitization and Distraction on Pain and Fear in Children with Dental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fallah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One of the difficulties of community of dentists, especially dentists dealing with children, is the pain and fear of dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and distraction on reducing fear and pain in children with dental problems. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study designed with pretest-posttest multi groups according to control group. For this purpose, 45 children with dental problems referred to the dental clinic of Ardabil was selected and divided into three groups of 15 people: systematic desensitization (n=15, distraction (n=15 and control group (n=15. All of three groups answered to dental fears survey and numeric scale of pain as pre-test. Then, the therapeutic method of systematic desensitization and distraction was performed on two experimental groups. After completion of the treatments, three groups answered to dental fear survey and numeric scale of pain. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used for the analysis of the data. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the score of post-test between three groups in pain (F=197.27; p<0.001 anddental fear (F=178.36; p<0.001. LSD post hoc test results showed that systematic desensitization method was more effective in reduction of pain and the distraction method was more affective in reduction of dental fear. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that psychological interventions of distracting and systematic desensitization can be used to reduce fear and pain at pediatric clinics.

  16. Renal transplantation across the donor-specific antibody barrier: Graft outcome and cancer risk after desensitization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Desensitization regimens including use of intravenous immune globulin and rituximab have been reported to overcome renal transplant hyperacute rejection. A retrospective case-control study was performed to assess the results and complications of renal transplantation with desensitization therapy for donor-specific antibody (DSA) in a transplant center in Asia, where donor exchange was usually not allowed. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 22 patients with DSA received live-donor renal transplantation after desensitization (DSA group). During the same period, the DSA group was compared to the NSA group (152 renal transplants) who had no specific antibody to the donors (66 from deceased donors and 86 from living relatives). Rejection, renal function, graft and patient survival rates, infection, and cancer incidence were reviewed and analyzed from medical records. The DSA group (46.8%) had significantly higher acute rejection rates than the NSA group (13.7%) at the 1-year follow-up. The estimated renal function, 5-year graft, and patient survival rates were comparable between the groups. The DSA group (19.6%) had significantly higher 5-year de novo cancer incidence than the NSA group (8.5%; p = 0.028); three patients of the DSA group developed urothelial carcinoma 17.0 ± 3.0 months after transplantation. By using stepwise Cox regression analysis, desensitization therapy was identified as the sole independent risk factor for post-transplant urothelial carcinoma. When compared to renal transplantation without DSA, desensitization therapy for DSA resulted in equivalent renal transplant outcome but potentially increased risk of urothelial carcinoma after transplantation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Treatment of Provoked Vulvodynia in a Swedish cohort using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Suzanne; Kvist, Linda J

    2015-11-25

    Problems related to pain during vaginal penetration are complex and the etiology is multi-factorial. It was the aim of the present study to measure whether treatment using desensitization exercises and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with provoked vulvodynia (PVD) could increase sexual interest, sexual satisfaction and response whilst decreasing experiences of sexual pain. Sixty women suffering from PVD were treated during a 10-week period with a combination of mucosal desensitization and pelvic floor exercises and CBT. The McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ) was used to measure efficacy of the treatment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure psychological distress. The primary outcome measurements were changes in scores for the MFSQ and changes in individual items on the MFSQ directly after treatment completion. Secondary outcome measurements were changes in the MFSQ items 6 months after treatment and changes in HADS sub-scales 6 months after treatment. Statistical comparisons of answers to the MFSQ were carried out using the Wilcoxon signed rank test (paired). Validity of the MFSQ in this study was measured by testing one global question about sexuality and total scores on MFSQ using Spearman's correlation test. Study participants reported a statistically significant increase in sexual fantasies, increased sexual pleasure, excitement and vaginal lubrication after treatment was completed. PVD occurred less often which resulted in significantly less avoidance of sexual intercourse, increased frequency of masturbation and intercourse. All improvements were sustained at 6 months after treatment ended. Two questions showed no significant changes, these pertained to the individual's contentment with her partner as a lover and a friend. The anxiety sub-scale of the HADS showed a significantly decreased level of anxiety at 6 months follow-up but no change in the scores on the depression sub-scale. Treatment for PVD

  18. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  19. Knock-in mice harboring a Ca(2+) desensitizing mutation in cardiac troponin C develop early onset dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bradley K; Singh, Sonal; Fan, Qiying; Hernandez, Adriana; Portillo, Jesus P; Reiser, Peter J; Tikunova, Svetlana B

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of aberrant Ca(2+) binding and exchange with cardiac myofilaments are not clearly understood. In order to examine the effect of decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of cTnC on cardiac function, we generated knock-in mice carrying a D73N mutation (not known to be associated with heart disease in human patients) in cTnC. The D73N mutation was engineered into the regulatory N-domain of cTnC in order to reduce Ca(2+) sensitivity of reconstituted thin filaments by increasing the rate of Ca(2+) dissociation. In addition, the D73N mutation drastically blunted the extent of Ca(2+) desensitization of reconstituted thin filaments induced by cTnI pseudo-phosphorylation. Compared to wild-type mice, heterozygous knock-in mice carrying the D73N mutation exhibited a substantially decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development in skinned ventricular trabeculae. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that median survival time for knock-in mice was 12 weeks. Echocardiographic analysis revealed that knock-in mice exhibited increased left ventricular dimensions with thinner walls. Echocardiographic analysis also revealed that measures of systolic function, such as ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), were dramatically reduced in knock-in mice. In addition, knock-in mice displayed electrophysiological abnormalities, namely prolonged QRS and QT intervals. Furthermore, ventricular myocytes isolated from knock-in mice did not respond to β-adrenergic stimulation. Thus, knock-in mice developed pathological features similar to those observed in human patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In conclusion, our results suggest that decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of the regulatory N-domain of cTnC is sufficient to trigger the development of DCM.

  20. Overexpression Myocardial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Exacerbates Cardiac Dysfunction and Beta-Adrenergic Desensitization in Experimental Hypothyroidism☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qun; Cheng, Heng-Jie; Callahan, Michael F.; Kitzman, Dalane W; Li, Wei-Min; Cheng, Che Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence links hypothyroidism to the pathology of HF. However, the precise mechanisms are incompletely understood. The alterations and functional effects of cardiac NOS in hypothyroidism are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that hypothyroidism increases cadiomyocyte inducible NOS (iNOS) expression, which plays an important role in hypothyroidism-induced depression of cardiomyocyte contractile properties, [Ca2+]i transient ([Ca2+]iT), and β-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness. Methods and Results We simultaneously evaluated LV functional performance and compared myocyte three NOS, β-adrenergic receptors (AR) and SERCA2a expressions and assessed cardiomyocyte contractile and [Ca2+]iT responses to β-AR stimulation with and without pretreatment of iNOS inhibitor (1400W, 10−5 mol/L) in 26 controls and 26 rats with hypothyroidism induced by methimazole (~30 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks in the drinking water). Compared with controls, in hypothyroidism, total serum T3 and T4 were significantly reduced followed by significantly decreased LV contractility (EES) with increased LV time constant of relaxation. These LV abnormalities were accompanied by concomitant significant decreases in myocyte contraction (dL/dtmax), relaxation (dR/dtmax), and [Ca2+]iT. In hypothyroidism, isoproterenol (10−8 M) produced significantly smaller increases in dL/dtmax, dR/dtmax and [Ca2+]iT. These changes were associated with decreased β1-AR and SERCA2a, but significantly increased iNOS. Moreover, only in hypothyroidism, pretreatment with iNOS inhibitor significantly improved basal and isoproterenol-stimulated myocyte contraction, relaxation and [Ca2+]iT. Conclusions Hypothyroidism produces intrinsic defects of LV myocyte force-generating capacity and relaxation with β-AR desensitization. Up-regulation of cadiomyocyte iNOS may promote progressive cardiac dysfunction in

  1. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  2. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Jongeneel, Ruud

    2009-09-01

    Intellectual disability is a comorbid condition in epilepsy. People with epilepsy and intellectual disability are at high risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the many contributors to behavioral problems in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability are those of traumatic experiences. As such, behavioral problems can be seen as a reflection of these traumatic experiences. Among established trauma therapies, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an emerging treatment that is effective in adults and also seems to be effective in children. This article is a case report of EMDR in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability, in whom the EMDR children's protocol was used. The aim was to assess whether clinical trauma status significantly diminished to nonclinical status posttreatment. Change in trauma symptoms was evaluated with the Reliable Change Index (RCI). Results showed a significant decrease in trauma symptoms toward nonclinical status from pretreatment to posttreatment. EMDR consequences for epilepsy and intellectual disability are discussed.

  3. INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN ADMINISTRATION FOR DESENSITIZATION BEFORE RENAL TRANSPLANTATION AND MANAGING ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been placed recently in transplantation in highly HLA-sensitized patients. In attempts to remove these antibodies and enable successful renal transplantation, several approaches have been developed. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG was found to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders (e. g. Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome. Recently, a beneficial effect of IVIG on the reduc- tion of anti-HLA antibodies was described. The anti-inflammatory effect of IVIG provides hopeful opportunities in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR management. There are several protocols of IVIG administration for pre-transplant desensitization and AMR treatment: high-dose IVIG, low-dose IVIG + plasmapheresis, IVIG + plasmapheresis + rituximab. These advancements have enabled transplantation in patients previously considered untransplantable and in concert with new diagnostic techniques has resulted in new approaches to management of AMR. 

  4. Churg-Strauss syndrome following cessation of allergic desensitization vaccination: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokri Bahareh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Churg-Strauss syndrome is a vasculitis of medium to small sized vessels. Diagnosis is mainly clinical with findings of asthma, eosinophilia, rhinosinusitis and signs of vasculitis in major organs. Case presentation We present a case of a 19-year-old Persian male who developed signs and symptoms of this syndrome related to hyposensitization treatments for allergy control. Conclusions No unifying etiology for the disease can be presented as it is found associated with environmental factors, medications, infections and is even considered a variant of asthma with predisposition to vasculitic involvement. Therefore, it is important to recognize this disease and be aware of underdiagnosis because of emphasis on pathologic evidence. Here, we present a case of allergic desensitization causing Churg-Strauss syndrome in the absence of other known factors.

  5. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  6. α1B-Adrenergic Receptors Differentially Associate with Rab Proteins during Homologous and Heterologous Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Badillo, Jean A.; Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B.; Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A.; Romero-Ávila, M. Teresa; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; García-Sáinz, J. Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Internalization of G protein-coupled receptors can be triggered by agonists or by other stimuli. The process begins within seconds of cell activation and contributes to receptor desensitization. The Rab GTPase family controls endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, and endosomal fusion. Among their remarkable properties is the differential distribution of its members on the surface of various organelles. In the endocytic pathway, Rab 5 controls traffic from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, whereas Rab 4 and Rab 11 regulate rapid and slow recycling from early endosomes to the plasma membrane, respectively. Moreover, Rab 7 and Rab 9 regulate the traffic from late endosomes to lysosomes and recycling to the trans-Golgi. We explore the possibility that α1B-adrenergic receptor internalization induced by agonists (homologous) and by unrelated stimuli (heterologous) could involve different Rab proteins. This possibility was explored by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using cells coexpressing α1B-adrenergic receptors tagged with the red fluorescent protein, DsRed, and different Rab proteins tagged with the green fluorescent protein. It was observed that when α1B-adrenergic receptors were stimulated with noradrenaline, the receptors interacted with proteins present in early endosomes, such as the early endosomes antigen 1, Rab 5, Rab 4, and Rab 11 but not with late endosome markers, such as Rab 9 and Rab 7. In contrast, sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation induced rapid and transient α1B-adrenergic receptor interaction of relatively small magnitude with Rab 5 and a more pronounced and sustained one with Rab 9; interaction was also observed with Rab 7. Moreover, the GTPase activity of the Rab proteins appears to be required because no FRET was observed when dominant-negative Rab mutants were employed. These data indicate that α1B-adrenergic receptors are directed to different endocytic vesicles depending on the desensitization type (homologous vs

  7. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Desensitization protocol in highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high titer kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, J; Machida, Y; Iwai, T; Naganuma, T; Kitamoto, K; Iguchi, T; Maeda, S; Kamada, Y; Kuwabara, N; Kim, T; Nakatani, T

    2010-12-01

    A positive crossmatch indicates the presence of donor-specific alloantibodies and is associated with a graft loss rate of >80%; anti-ABO blood group antibodies develop in response to exposure to foreign blood groups, resulting in immediate graft loss. However, a desensitization protocol for highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high-titer kidney transplantation has not yet been established. We treated 6 patients with high (≥1:512) anti-A/B antibody titers and 2 highly HLA-sensitized patients. Our immunosuppression protocol was initiated 1 month before surgery and included mycophenolate mofetil (1 g/d) and/or low-dose steroid (methylprednisolone 8 mg/d). Two doses of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (150 mg/m(2)) were administered 2 weeks before and on the day of transplantation. We performed antibody removal with 6-12 sessions of plasmapheresis (plasma exchange or double-filtration plasmapheresis) before transplantation. Splenectomy was also performed on the day of transplantation. Postoperative immunosuppression followed the same regimen as ABO-compatible cases, in which calcineurin inhibitors were initiated 3 days before transplantation, combined with 2 doses of basiliximab. Of the 8 patients, 7 subsequently underwent successful living-donor kidney transplantation. Follow-up of our recipients showed that the patient and graft survival rates were 100%. Acute cellular rejection and antibody-mediated rejection episodes occurred in 1 of the 7 recipients. These findings suggest that our immunosuppression regimen consisting of rituximab infusions, splenectomy, plasmapheresis, and pharmacologic immunosuppression may prove to be effective as a desensitization protocol for highly HLA-sensitized and ABO-incompatible high-titer kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  10. Superphenix set to rise again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Superphenix, France's seemingly jinxed fast breeder reactor, which has not produced a single kilowatt of energy in more than 3 years, looks set to rise up next year like the mythical bird it is named after. The $5 billion reactor, the largest fast breeder in the world, has just been given the seal of approval by a public commission ordered by the government to look at the pros and cons of restarting. It still has hoops to jump through: a safety check and approval from the ministries of industries and environment. But the consortium of French, Italian, and German power utilities that run the plant are confident they can get it running by next summer. The Superphenix that rises out of the ashes will, however, be a different species of bird from the one planned 20 years ago. The consortium plans to turn the reactor into a debreeder, one that will incinerate more plutonium than it produces and so eat into Europe's plutonium stockpile. Calculations by Superphenix staff and the Atomic Energy Commission indicate that a plutonivorous fast breeder could incinerate 15 to 25 kilograms of plutonium while producing 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity-scarcely enough to make a dent in the tonnes of plutonium produced by Electricite de France's reactors each year. The Superphenix consortium is anxious to get the reactor back on line. The annual cost of upkeep and repair of the idle plant and salaries for its 700 staff may reach $140 million this year, 20% more than if the plant was running normally. If restarted, the existing core and a second one ready on the shelf will generate electricity worth $1.3 billion

  11. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  12. The Climate Science Special Report: Rising Seas and Changing Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    GMSL has risen by about 16-21 cm since 1900. Ocean heat content has increased at all depths since the 1960s, and global mean sea-surface temperature increased 0.7°C/century between 1900 to 2016. Human activity contributed substantially to generating a rate of GMSL rise since 1900 faster than during any preceding century in at least 2800 years. A new set of six sea-level rise scenarios, spanning a range from 30 cm to 250 cm of 21st century GMSL rise, were developed for the CSSR. The lower scenario is based on linearly extrapolating the past two decades' rate of rise. The upper scenario is informed by literature estimates of maximum physically plausible values, observations indicating the onset of marine ice sheet instability in parts of West Antarctica, and modeling of ice-cliff and ice-shelf instability mechanisms. The new scenarios include localized projections along US coastlines. There is significant variability around the US, with rates of rise likely greater than GMSL rise in the US Northeast and the western Gulf of Mexico. Under scenarios involving extreme Antarctic contributions, regional rise would be greater than GMSL rise along almost all US coastlines. Historical sea-level rise has already driven a 5- to 10-fold increase in minor tidal flooding in several US coastal cities since the 1960s. Under the CSSR's Intermediate sea-level rise scenario (1.0 m of GMSL rise in 2100) , a majority of NOAA tide gauge locations will by 2040 experience the historical 5-year coastal flood about 5 times per year. Ocean changes are not limited to rising sea levels. Ocean pH is decreasing at a rate that may be unparalleled in the last 66 million years. Along coastlines, ocean acidification can be enhanced by changes in the upwelling (particularly along the US Pacific Coast); by episodic, climate change-enhanced increases in freshwater input (particularly along the US Atlantic Coast); and by the enhancement of biological respiration by nutrient runoff. Climate models project

  13. Estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is independent of estrogen receptor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Dania V; Dai, Ying; Thomas, Peter; Carrasco, Gonzalo A; DonCarlos, Lydia L; Muma, Nancy A; Li, Qian

    2010-08-01

    Estradiol regulates serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor signaling. Since desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptors may be an underlying mechanism by which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) mediate their therapeutic effects and combining estradiol with SSRIs enhances the efficacy of the SSRIs, it is important to determine which estrogen receptors are capable of desensitizating 5-HT(1A) receptor function. We previously demonstrated that selective activation of the estrogen receptor, GPR30, desensitizes 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, since estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta), is highly expressed in the PVN, we investigated the role of ERbeta in estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling. We first showed that a selective ERbeta agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) has a 100-fold lower binding affinity than estradiol for GPR30. Administration of DPN did not desensitize 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat PVN as demonstrated by agonist-stimulated hormone release. Second, we used a recombinant adenovirus containing ERbeta siRNAs to decrease ERbeta expression in the PVN. Reductions in ERbeta did not alter the estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in oxytocin cells. In contrast, in animals with reduced ERbeta, estradiol administration, instead of producing desensitization, augmented the ACTH response to a 5-HT(1A) agonist. Combined with the results from the DPN treatment experiments, desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling does not appear to be mediated by ERbeta in oxytocin cells, but that ERbeta, together with GPR30, may play a complex role in central regulation of 5-HT(1A)-mediated ACTH release. Determining the mechanisms by which estrogens induce desensitization may aid in the development of better treatments for mood disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Helle; Ahring, Philip Kiær; Timmermann, Daniel Brunicardi

    2009-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators. The molecu......Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators......) in micromolar: 10 (CTZ), 26 (NS1493), 43 (NS5206), and 48 (NS5217)]. The four modulators divide into three groups according to efficacy and desensitization kinetics: (1) CTZ increases the peak current efficacy twice as much as the three analogues and nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization; (2) NS5206...... and NS5217 have low efficacy and only attenuate desensitization partially; (3) NS1493 has low efficacy but nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization. A hydrophobic substituent at the 3-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system is important for compound...

  15. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  16. Development of the bubble rise model in RELAP-UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    Several improvements have been made to the 'bubble rise calculation' in the code RELAP-UK, which models the separation of the steam and water phases within specified volumes of the coolant circuit. The bubble rise velocity and the bubble density gradient parameter are no longer necessarily user-defined constants, as the code can calculate their values at each time step according to the local fluid conditions. In particular, the calculation of the bubble rise velocity is consistent with the RELAP-UK drift flux correlation. It is now possible to represent a vertical column by a stack of vertically-adjacent bubble-rise volumes. Any mixture level existing within the column can freely pass between the volumes in the stack. The facilities are demonstrated in this paper by a simple computational example. (author)

  17. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  18. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  19. Rise in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among highly sexual active homosexual men and an increasing association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV over time (1984-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; Pfrommer, Christiaan; Mindel, Adrian; Taylor, Janette; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are both highly prevalent. The rate of genital HSV-1 transmission is reportedly increasing over time. HSV-2 is considered to be an important risk factor for HIV transmission. We therefore studied changes in the HSV-1 and HSV-2

  20. Neutral endopeptidase up-regulation in isolated human umbilical artery: involvement in desensitization of bradykinin-induced vasoconstrictor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Facundo Germán; Halperin, Ana Verónica; Palma, Alejandro Martín; Nowak, Wanda; Errasti, Andrea Emilse; Rothlin, Rodolfo Pedro

    2007-02-01

    Previous reports show that bradykinin B(2) receptors mediate contractile responses induced by bradykinin (BK) in human umbilical artery (HUA). However, although it has been reported that BK-induced responses can desensitize in several inflammatory models, the effects of prolonged in vitro incubation on BK-induced vasoconstriction in HUA have not been studied. In isolated HUA rings, BK-induced responses after a 5-h in vitro incubation showed a marked desensitization compared with responses at 2 h. Inhibition of either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or neutral endopeptidase (NEP), both BK-inactivating enzymes, failed to modify responses to BK at 2 h. After 5 h, ACE inhibition produced only a slight potentiation of BK-induced responses. In contrast, BK-induced vasoconstriction at 5 h was markedly potentiated by NEP inhibition. Moreover, NEP activity, measured by hydrolysis of its synthetic substrate (Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-p-nitroanilide), showed a 2.4-fold increase in 5-h incubated versus 2-h incubated tissues, which was completely reversed by cycloheximide (CHX) treatment. Furthermore, CHX significantly potentiated BK-induced responses, suggesting that NEP-mediated kininase activity increase at 5 h depends on de novo protein synthesis. In addition, under NEP inhibition, CHX treatment failed to produce an additional potentiation of BK-induced vasoconstriction. Still, NEP up-regulation was confirmed by Western blot, showing a 2.1-fold increase in immunoreactive NEP in 5-h incubated versus 2-h incubated HUA. In summary, the present study provides strong pharmacological evidence that NEP is up-regulated and plays a key role in desensitization of BK-induced vasoconstriction after prolonged in vitro incubation in HUA. Our results provide new insights into the possible mechanisms involved in BK-induced response desensitization during sustained inflammatory conditions.

  1. Four-Way Kidney Exchange Transplant With Desensitization Increases Access to Living-Donor Kidney Transplant: First Report From India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Kasat, Govind S; Patil, Mayur V; Patel, Jaydeep C; Kumar, Deepak P; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2017-09-26

    This study reports our experience of the first 4-way kidney exchange transplant combined with desensitization in India, which allows increased access to living-donor kidney transplant for sensitized patients. Four-way kidney exchange transplant procedures were approved by the ethics committee of our institution and the Organ Transplantation Authorization Committee of state governments of India (as per the Transplantation of Human Organs Act of India). The protocols conformed to Declaration of Istanbul principles and the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Helsinki Declaration. Written informed consent was obtained from patients, donors, and their guardians. In April 2016, our transplant team completed simultaneous 4-way kidney exchange transplant procedures without any medical (rejection and infections) or surgical complications. Reasons for being included for kidney exchange transplant were ABO incom-patible (2 recipients) and sensitization (2 recipients). All 4 recipients had stable graft function with no proteinuria and donor-specific antibody at 11-month follow-up on standard triple immunosup-pression. Patient and graft survival rates were both 100%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first single-center report of 4-way kidney exchange transplant combined with desensitization from India. This procedure has the potential to expand living-donor kidney transplant in disadvantaged groups (eg, sensitized patients). Recipients who are hard to match due to high panel reactive antibody and difficult to desensitize due to strong donor-specific antibodies can receive a transplant with a combination of kidney exchange and desensitization. Our study suggests that 4-way kidney exchange transplant can be performed in developing countries (India) similar to that shown in programs in developed countries with team work, kidney exchange registry, and counseling.

  2. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt , Christopher R.; Bartholow , Bruce D.; Kerr , Geoffrey T.; Bushman , Brad J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and nonviolent photos while their brain activity was measured, and then gave an ostensible opponent unpleasant noise blasts. Participants low in previous exposure to video game ...

  3. Oral food desensitization in children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy: a new protocol with raw hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Paolo; Giampietro, Paolo G; Carello, Rossella; Gabriele, Ida; Avitabile, Simona; Galli, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects young children and can cause severe allergic reactions. Avoidance results in dietary limitations and can affect the quality of life, especially in cases where potentially life-threatening reactions exist. Our objective was to desensitize children with moderate-severe IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy over a 6-month period, by introducing increasing and very gradual daily doses of raw hen's egg in order to enable the children to assume 25ml of this food, or to induce tolerance to the highest possible dose. The protocol foresaw the egg reintroduction in the home setting. In this randomized, controlled open study, 20 hen's egg allergic children (10 in the active group) were admitted. A convincing history or a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge confirmed the diagnosis. Oral desensitization was performed with increasing doses starting from 0.27 mg of hen's egg proteins (1 drop of raw hen's egg diluted 1:100). We adopted an original, mathematically calculated protocol in order to ensure a constant, daily increment of doses. 8/10 children (80%) in the active group achieved the daily intake of 25ml over a 6-month period. One child (10%) could tolerate up to 2ml/day while another child (10%) failed the desensitization. Six months after enrolment only 2 children in the control group (20%) could tolerate hen's egg. We successfully desensitized 8/10 children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy in a 6-month period. The partial outcome in the child who could tolerate 2ml/day reduced the risk of severe reactions after unnoticed introduction of egg. A regular protocol that ensures a daily constant increase of doses helps to reduce possible adverse events, thus improving safety and effectiveness. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Maslovaric, Giada; Zaccagnino, Maria; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Perilli, Sava; Trivellato, Denis; Longo, Vittorio; Civilotti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes, which can cause widespread territorial and socio-economic destruction, are life-threatening, unexpected, unpredictable, and uncontrollable events caused by the shaking of the surface of the earth. The psychological consequences, such as PTSD, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, are well-known to clinicians and researchers. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Pro...

  5. Neural processing of emotions in traumatized children treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy: a hdEEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Trentini, C; Pagani, M; Fania, P; Speranza, AM; Nicolais, G; Sibilia, A; Inguscio, L; Verardo, AR; Fernandez, I; Ammaniti, M

    2015-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven efficacious in restoring affective regulation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. However, its effectiveness on emotion processing in children with complex trauma has yet to be explored. High density electroencephalography (hdEEG) was used to investigate the effects of EMDR on brain responses to adults’ emotions on children with histories of early maltreatment. Ten school-aged children were examined be...

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Treating Panic Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, F.; Den Oudsten, B.; Zijlstra, W.; de Jongh, Ad; Lobbestael, J.; De Vries, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for patients with panic disorder (PD). From a theoretical perspective, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy could also be useful in the treatment of PD because: (1) panic attacks can be experienced as life threatening; (2) panic memories specific to PD resemble traumatic memories as seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (3) PD often develops following a distressing life event. The pr...

  7. Clinical studies of a purified timothy pollen extract: desensitization therapy with a purified timothy pollen preparation compared to a crude timothy pollen extract. II. Results of the tests in vitro and their relation to symptoms and tests in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Berg, T; Johansson, S G; Lanner, A

    1982-01-01

    Perennial desensitization therapy was given during a period of 3.5 years to 40 children allergic to grass pollen allergens. 20 patients were treated with a crude and another 20 with a purified timothy pollen extract. 8 children served as untreated controls. The concentration of total and specific IgE in the treated groups covaried with those in the control group. Neither a suppression of the seasonal booster effect nor a suppression of IgE synthesis attributable to the treatment was found. The rise of timothy-specific "blocking' IgG antibodies was more pronounced in the group treated with the purified extract than in the group treated with the crude extract. A significant difference was found only after 3.5 years of treatment. The amplitude of rise of IgG antibodies correlated significantly with the effect of the treatment as judged by repeated conjunctival titration test. The results suggest that a good IgG response is an indication of successful therapy and that a better IgG response may be achieved with purified allergen extracts.

  8. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  9. The roles of selective attention and desensitization in the association between video gameplay and aggression: An ERP investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Mejdy M; Denke, Greg; Rawls, Eric; Lamm, Connie

    2018-04-01

    A number of studies have indicated that violent video gameplay is associated with higher levels of aggression and that desensitization and selective attention to violent content may contribute to this association. Utilizing an emotionally-charged rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, the current study used two event-related potentials (ERPs) - the N1 and P3 - that have been associated with selective attention and desensitization as neurocognitive mechanisms potentially underlying the connection between gameplay and higher levels of aggression. Results indicated that video game players and non-players differed in N1 and P3 activation when engaged with emotionally-charged imagery. Additionally, P3 amplitudes moderated the association between video gameplay and aggression, indicating that players who display small P3 amplitudes also showed heightened levels of aggression. Follow-up moderational analyses revealed that individuals who play games for many hours and show more negative N1 amplitudes show smaller P3 activation. Together, our results suggest that selective attention to violent content and desensitization both play key roles in the association between video gameplay and aggression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Axial compressor gas path design for desensitization of aerodynamic performance and stability to tip clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Mert

    project are to develop gas path design strategies for axial compressors to achieve the same goal, to assess their ability to be combined with desensitizing axial compressor blade design strategies and to be applied to non-axial compressors. The search for gas path design strategies was based on the exploitation of the two flow desensitizing features listed above. Two gas path design strategies were proposed and analyzed. The first was gas path contouring in the form of a concave gas path to increase incoming tip meridional momentum.

  11. Efficacy and safety of oral desensitization in children with cow's milk allergy according to their serum specific IgE level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ara, Carmen; Pedrosa, María; Belver, María Teresa; Martín-Muñoz, María Flor; Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Oral desensitization in children allergic to cow's milk proteins is not risk free. The analysis of factors that may influence the outcome is of utmost importance. To analyze the efficacy and safety of the oral desensitization according to specific IgE (sIgE) level and adverse events during the maintenance phase. Thirty-six patients allergic to cow's milk (mean age, 7 years) were included in an oral desensitization protocol. Patients were grouped according to sIgE levels (ImmunoCAP) into groups 1 (sIgE 17-50 kU/L). Nineteen children were included as a control group. Serum sIgE levels to cow's milk and its proteins were determined at inclusion and 6 and 12 months after finishing the desensitization protocol. Thirty-three of 36 patients were successfully desensitized (200 mL): 100% of group 1 and 88% of groups 2 and 3. Desensitization was achieved in a median of 3 months (range, 1-12 months); 90% of the patients in group 1, 50% of the patients in group 2, and 30% of the patients in group 3 achieved tolerance in less than 3 months (P = .04). In the control group only 1 child tolerated milk in oral food challenge after 1 year. During the induction phase, there were 53 adverse events in 27 patients (75%). Patients of groups 2 and 3 had more severe adverse events compared with group 1. During the maintenance phase, 20 of 33 patients (60%) had an adverse event. Oral desensitization is efficacious. Tolerance is achieved earlier when sIgE is lower. Severe adverse events are frequent, especially in patients with higher sIgE levels. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical approach on challenge and desensitization procedures with aspirin in patients with ischemic heart disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, G; Romano, A; Santucci, A; Barbaud, A; Bavbek, S; Bignardi, D; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, P; Costantino, M T; Laguna, J J; Lombardo, C; Losappio, L M; Makowska, J; Nakonechna, A; Quercia, O; Pastorello, E A; Patella, V; Terreehorst, I; Testi, S; Cernadas, J R; Dionicio Elera, J; Lippolis, D; Voltolini, S; Grosseto, D

    2017-03-01

    Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) constitutes a serious problem for subjects with coronary artery disease. In such subjects, physicians have to choose the more appropriate procedure between challenge and desensitization. As the literature on this issue is sparse, this study aimed to establish in these subjects clinical criteria for eligibility for an ASA challenge and/or desensitization. Collection and analysis of data on ASA challenges and desensitizations from 10 allergy centers, as well as consensus among the related physicians and an expert panel. Altogether, 310 subjects were assessed; 217 had histories of urticaria/angioedema, 50 of anaphylaxis, 26 of nonimmediate cutaneous eruptions, and 17 of bronchospasm related to ASA/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) intake. Specifically, 119 subjects had index reactions to ASA doses lower than 300 mg. Of the 310 subjects, 138 had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 101 of whom underwent desensitizations, whereas 172 suffered from a chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD), 126 of whom underwent challenges. Overall, 163 subjects underwent challenges and 147 subjects underwent desensitizations; 86 of the latter had index reactions to ASA doses of 300 mg or less. Ten subjects reacted to challenges, seven at doses up to 500 mg, three at a cumulative dose of 110 mg. The desensitization failure rate was 1.4%. In patients with stable CIHD and histories of nonsevere hypersensitivity reactions to ASA/NSAIDs, an ASA challenge is advisable. Patients with an ACS and histories of hypersensitivity reactions to ASA, especially following doses lower than 100 mg, should directly undergo desensitization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Technological innovations and the rise of social inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Eikemo, Terje Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Social inequalities in health have been categorised as a human-rights issue that requires action. Unfortunately, these inequalities are on the rise in many countries, including welfare states. Various theories have been offered to explain the persistence (and rise) of these inequalities over time, including the social determinants of health and fundamental cause theory. Interestingly, the rise of modern social inequalities in health has come at a time of great technological innovation. This article addresses whether these technological innovations are significantly influencing the persistence of modern social inequalities in health. A theoretical argument is offered for this potential connection and is discussed alongside the typical social determinants of health perspective and the increasingly popular fundamental cause perspective. This is followed by a proposed research agenda for further investigation of the potential role that technological innovations may play in influencing social inequalities in health.

  14. Barrier response to Holocene sea-level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    Normally it is believed that sea-level rise causes coastal barrier retreat. However, sea-level is only one of the parameters determining the long term coastal development of barrier coasts. Sediment supply is an equally important determinant and may overshadow the effects of sea-level rise....... Conceptually this has been known for a long time but for the first time we can show the relative effect of these two parameters. We have studied three neighboring barrier islands in the Wadden Sea, and described their 3D morphological evolution during the last 8000 years. It appears that the barrier islands...... a much stronger component of sea-level control. The distance between the islands is only 50 km, and therefore our study shows that prediction of barrier development during a period of rising sea level may be more complicated than formerly believed....

  15. Effects of enzyme-potentiated desensitization in the treatment of pollinosis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, C; Scala, G; Sproviero, S; Franzese, A

    1996-01-01

    Several controlled clinical trials have shown that specific immunotherapy (SIT) using incremental injections of allergens can be effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Nevertheless, the risk of side effects have led to some recommended limitations of SIT. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD) is a proposed method for immunotherapy with very low doses of mixed allergens plus beta-glucuronidase enzyme, for which irrelevant or no side effects have been claimed. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of EPD in the treatment of pollinosis. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of EPD among 20 patients sensitive to Parietaria and grass pollen was performed. All patients recorded daily symptom scores for nine months following a single intradermal injection of EPD or buffered saline received in February. Symptoms recorded were nasal itching and obstruction, sneezing, rhinorrhea, itchy eyes and excessive tear production. Moreover, total and specific lgE were measured and CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes were counted at different times. In the same period, ten additional subjects, with an allergic clinical profile similar to the subjects admitted to the double-blind trial, were studied in an open clinical trial in order to evaluate the effects of EPD without enzyme using a mixture of allergens. Symptom scores were higher in the placebo group (p < 0.001), with a similar level of significance for both global symptom score and for each individual symptom. Active-treated patients had a significant post-treatment increase in the mean percentage of T-CD8+ peripheral blood cells and a significant post-seasonal decrease in the mean percentage of Parietaria specific lgE. On the contrary, placebo-treated patients had a borderline significant post-seasonal decrease in the mean percentage of CD8+ circulating cells and a significant seasonal increase in the mean percentage of Parietaria specific lgE with no significant post

  16. Methodological Aspects of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, .exibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  17. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. as dentin hypersensitivity desensitization gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariza Hanum Mayvita Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity is a short sharp sense of pain in the teeth when exposed to excitatory stimulus. A total of 74% of world population experiencing dentin hypersensitivity. Home treatment topical desensitization is rarely found in Indonesia. The use of dentrifice is less practical because it must be done with regular brushing. Indonesia has abundant natural resources, one of which is purple sweet potato. Purple sweet potato (Ipomea Batatas P. has highest potasium ions compared to other foodstuffs. Potassium ions can be a solution of dentin hypersensitivity by temporary blocking the suffix pulp nerve impulses. Purpose: The research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the 10% purple sweet potato extract gel of the dental pain threshold score. Method: An experimental study carried out by dental pain threshold score measurements using vitality tester into the teeth with gum recession. Samples included 32 respondents with a single blind and pre-post test control group design. They were divided into treatment group and negative control group. Paired T-test and Wilcoxon were used as data analysis. Result: The results showed dental pain threshold score increasing either in treatment group and negative control, although not as significant as in the treatment group. Conclusion: 10% purple sweet potato extract gel containing potassium ions is able to reduce the pain of dentin hypersensitivity.

  18. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Chun Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this case–control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41 or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42. A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05. The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters.

  19. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Slow Wave Sleep: A Putative Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pagani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is considered highly efficacious for the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and has proved to be a valid treatment approach with a wide range of applications. However, EMDR’s mechanisms of action is not yet fully understood. This is an active area of clinical and neurophysiological research, and several different hypotheses have been proposed. This paper discusses a conjecture which focuses on the similarity between the delta waves recorded by electroencephalography during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS and those registered upon typical EMDR bilateral stimulation (eye movements or alternate tapping during recurrent distressing memories of an emotionally traumatic event. SWS appears to have a key role in memory consolidation and in the reorganization of distant functional networks, as well as Eye Movements seem to reduce traumatic episodic memory and favor the reconsolidation of new associated information. The SWS hypothesis may put forward an explanation of how EMDR works, and is discussed also in light of other theories and neurobiological findings.

  20. Functional Disruption of a Chloroplast Pseudouridine Synthase Desensitizes Arabidopsis Plants to Phosphate Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate (Pi deficiency is a common nutritional stress of plants in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. Plants respond to Pi starvation in the environment by triggering a suite of biochemical, physiological, and developmental changes that increase survival and growth. The key factors that determine plant sensitivity to Pi starvation, however, are unclear. In this research, we identified an Arabidopsis mutant, dps1, with greatly reduced sensitivity to Pi starvation. The dps1 phenotypes are caused by a mutation in the previously characterized SVR1 (SUPPRESSION OF VARIAGATION 1 gene, which encodes a chloroplast-localized pseudouridine synthase. The mutation of SVR1 results in defects in chloroplast rRNA biogenesis, which subsequently reduces chloroplast translation. Another mutant, rps5, which contains a mutation in the chloroplast ribosomal protein RPS5 and has reduced chloroplast translation, also displayed decreased sensitivity to Pi starvation. Furthermore, wild type plants treated with lincomycin, a chemical inhibitor of chloroplast translation, showed similar growth phenotypes and Pi starvation responses as dps1 and rps5. These results suggest that impaired chloroplast translation desensitizes plants to Pi starvation. Combined with previously published results showing that enhanced leaf photosynthesis augments plant responses to Pi starvation, we propose that the decrease in responses to Pi starvation in dps1, rps5, and lincomycin-treated plants is due to their reduced demand for Pi input from the environment.