WorldWideScience

Sample records for rise government blamed

  1. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  2. Fiscal determinants of government borrowing costs: do we have only ourselves to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Funda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and the problems in peripheral EU countries resulted in increased attention to fiscal developments and their impact on borrowing costs for both public and private sector. Existing theoretical literature suggests that worsening of current and expected budget balances as well as an increase of public debt lead to a rise in short and long term interest rates for sovereign debtors. However, empirical results are inconclusive, especially for emerging market countries. This paper analyzes the factors that determine the dynamics of government bond spreads, with special emphasis on fiscal indicators. The survey covered 17 European countries, of which 9 are developed and 8 are emerging market economies, all of them members of the EU except Croatia. The empirical part of the paper employs dynamic panel data method and uses the Arellano and Bond estimator to get consistent estimates of parameters of interest. The results show that in the period 2004-2011 fiscal balance and public debt projections had a significant impact on the differences in government bond yields for emerging market countries, with the effect being much stronger during the period after the onset of financial crises. On the other hand, it seems that sovereign spread dynamics in developed countries is driven mostly by the global market sentiment.

  3. Assigning Blame: The Rhetoric of Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of opinions on how to improve US education, a remarkable consensus has emerged that someone or something is to blame for the failures of the public school system, argues rhetoric scholar Mark Hlavacik in this new and insightful book examining the role of language and persuasion in the rise of the accountability movement.…

  4. Who can I Blame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    that this practice is shaped by the view that, metaphorically speaking, a person with a beam in her own eye is in no position to complain about the mote in the eye of another. Such a complaint would involve a distinctive kind of incoherence (one that can also be found in relation to praise). This incoherence has...... received little attention from moral philosophers, but incoherent blame and praise may be inappropriate for two rather different reasons. First, they might involve the non-moral inappropriateness of incoherent applications of the standards appealed to. This form of inappropriateness can occur outside...

  5. Fat and the law: who should take the blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaric, Mirko; Erbacher, Sharon

    2005-02-01

    The incidence of obesity in both adults and children is rising at a rapid rate in most developed countries, including in Australia. Some obese people are seeking to place the blame for their condition on the fast-food industry, as demonstrated by the recent litigation in the United States brought by two obese plaintiffs against McDonald's. This litigation was unsuccessful, and on existing Australian negligence principles any similar litigation commenced here is likely to suffer the same fate. Principles of personal responsibility, autonomy and free will should prevail to deny a negligence claim. The risk of obesity and concomitant health problems from eating fast food to excess is an obvious risk which the plaintiff should not have ignored and which he or she has voluntarily assumed. It is for the Australian Government, not the courts, to regulate the behaviour of the fast-food industry. The government should take action by requiring all major fast-food chains to label their products with nutritional information, and by imposing restrictions on the advertising of food to children.

  6. Auditing and the Purification of Blame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skærbæk, Peter; Christensen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although public sector special audit and performance audit are frequently involved in blame, very few studies (save for Radcliffe 1997) provide detailed empirical accounts on how auditing participates in blame allocation. This study sets out to study one case of blame allocation by describing...... and characterizing the origins of failure and antecedents leading to the need for blame allocation, the institutional entities and arrangements that participate in the blame game, and how these entities, including the supreme audit institution, are mobilized in the processes of blame allocation. Applying a case...

  7. Rise and Fall of the First Financial Futures Market in China: The Case of Chinese Government Bond Futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Chen; Zhongguo Zhou

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the rise and fall of the first financial futures market in China. We cmpare the characteristics in the Chinese Government bond futures market with those in the US T-bond futures market. They differ in market design and structure, market governance, margin requirements, position limits, delivery process, and the way in which the settlement price is calculated. Furthermore, with a unique dataset, we shaw that prior to maturities of govermnent bond futures, traders begun to accumulate significant amounts of long positions for several selected contracts without the intention to offset, forcing short position holders to either purchase deliverable bonds or offset futures at highly inflated prices, causing higher market volatility and price disequilibrium in both spot and futures markets. Arbitrage opportunity arises and the market eventually collapses. The lessons learned from the suspension of the Chinese Government bond futures market offer an invaluable learning experience.

  8. Medical regulation, spectacular transparency and the blame business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Gerry; Fischer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore general practitioners' (GPs') and psychiatrists' views and experiences of transparent forms of medical regulation in practice, as well as those of medical regulators and those representing patients and professionals. The research included interviews with GPs, psychiatrists and others involved in medical regulation, representing patients and professionals. A qualitative narrative analysis of the interviews was then conducted. Narratives suggest rising levels of complaints, legalisation and blame within the National Health Service (NHS). Three key themes emerge. First, doctors feel "guilty until proven innocent" within increasingly legalised regulatory systems and are consequently practising more defensively. Second, regulation is described as providing "spectacular transparency", driven by political responses to high profile scandals rather than its effects in practice, which can be seen as a social defence. Finally, it is suggested that a "blame business" is driving this form of transparency, in which self-interested regulators, the media, lawyers, and even some patient organisations are fuelling transparency in a wider culture of blame. A relatively small number of people were interviewed, so further research testing the findings would be useful. Transparency has some perverse effects on doctors' practice. Rising levels of blame has perverse consequences for patient care, as doctors are practicing more defensively as a result, as well as significant financial implications for NHS funding. Transparent forms of regulation are assumed to be beneficial and yet little research has examined its effects in practice. In this paper we highlight a number of perverse effects of transparency in practice.

  9. Navigating Polycentric Governance from a Citizen’s Perspective: The Rising New Middle Classes Respond

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Alan; Biekart, Kees

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA global growth in the middle class is anticipated to influence development choices and the evolution of domestic polities associated with a ‘rising‘ South. Responding to the local effects of a multipolar world order will add to a citizen’s existing need to navigate national polycentrism. Exploration of this citizen-centric phenomenon introduces a new, comprehensive analytic framework that combines public with private governance, the latter categorised as modern, traditional a...

  10. How to win the blame game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D G

    2001-01-01

    At some companies, people are all too quick to point fingers, leaving employees more concerned about avoiding blame than about achieving results. Such organizations, ruled by "CYA," have given blame a bum rap. David Baldwin, a former Major League pitcher, says blame can be a powerful and constructive force. It can be an effective teaching tool that helps people avoid repeating their mistakes. When used judiciously--and sparingly--blame can also prod people to put forth their best efforts, while maintaining both their confidence and their focus on goals. Indeed, blame can have a very positive effect when it's done for the right reasons. The key, then, is the way that blame is managed, which can influence how people make decisions and perform their jobs and ultimately affect the culture and character of an organization. In the course of his research on how Major League Baseball managers make decisions, Baldwin became fascinated by the subject of blame--what functions it serves and how it's best managed. His observations led him to identify five rules of blame, which, he says, apply to any organization, whether it's the LA Dodgers, General Motors, or a small start-up. First, know when to blame--and when not to. Second, blame in private and praise in public. Third, realize that the absence of blame can be far worse than its presence. Fourth, manage misguided blame. And fifth, be aware that confidence is the first casualty of blame. Managers who follow these rules will use blame in the most positive and effective ways possible, Baldwin says. Without these rules, blame becomes an ever-more difficult balancing act: Too much erodes people's confidence, while too little hinders them from reaching their full potential.

  11. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co

  12. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  13. Taking Blame for Other People's Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Jennifer; Madon, Stephanie; Curran, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Taking blame for another person's misconduct may occur at relatively high rates for less serious crimes. The authors examined individual differences and situational factors related to this phenomenon by surveying college students (n = 213) and men enrolled in substance abuse treatment programs (n = 42). Among college students, conscientiousness and delinquency predicted their likelihood of being in a situation in which it was possible to take the blame for another person's misconduct. Situational factors, including the relationship with the perpetrator, the seriousness of the offense, feelings of responsibility for the offense, and differential consequences between the offender and the blame taker, were associated with college students' decisions to take the blame. Among substance abuse treatment participants, individuals who took the blame for another person's misconduct were more extraverted, reported feeling more loyalty toward the true perpetrator, and indicated more incentives to take the blame than individuals who did not take the blame. Links between theories of helping behavior and situational factors that predict blame taking are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  15. Information Dilemmas and Blame-Avoidance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    from day one about 2009 H1N1 flu. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance...... on information control to insulating leaders by using technical experts and agencies as 'lightning rods.' In 2003, the Chinese strategy of information containment and secrecy backfired, and the Chinese leadership eventually received blame at home and internationally for crisis mismanagement. In 2009, China put...... in place public health specialists and institutions as responsible for H1N1 information and responses, thereby insulating the top-tier leadership....

  16. State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J G; Hudgens, D E; Kassakian, J M; Trescott, D L; Craghan, M; Nuckols, W H; Hershner, C H; Linn, C J; Merritt, P G; McCue, T M; O'Connell, J F; Tanski, J; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    Rising sea level threatens existing coastal wetlands. Overall ecosystems could often survive by migrating inland, if adjacent lands remained vacant. On the basis of 131 state and local land use plans, we estimate that almost 60% of the land below 1 m along the US Atlantic coast is expected to be developed and thus unavailable for the inland migration of wetlands. Less than 10% of the land below 1 m has been set aside for conservation. Environmental regulators routinely grant permits for shore protection structures (which block wetland migration) on the basis of a federal finding that these structures have no cumulative environmental impact. Our results suggest that shore protection does have a cumulative impact. If sea level rise is taken into account, wetland policies that previously seemed to comply with federal law probably violate the Clean Water Act.

  17. Paternal exposure not to blame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, R.; Darby, S.C.; Evans, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The report ten years ago of an unexpectedly large number of cases of leukaemia in young people in Seascale, a small town 3 km south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in northwest England, has given rise to much public concern and much scientific research. The idea that the increased number of cases might have been due to local pollution from radioactive waste did not seem likely, and interest focused instead on an alternative explanation that has come to be called ''Gardner's hypothesis''. This hypothesis postulated that the men's exposure to ionizing radiation in the course of their work led to mutations in their sperm which increased substantially the risk of leukaemia in their children. This led to a court case in which two families sought compensation from the company which operates the plant, British Nuclear Fuels. In the course of the case a great deal of new evidence became available which justifies the conclusion that the hypothesis is wrong. (author)

  18. Blame and punishment? The electoral politics of extreme austerity in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Karyotis, Georgios; Rudig, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Can governments that introduce extreme austerity measures survive elections? Contrary to economic voting expectations, the PASOK government in Greece initially appeared to cope quite well, claiming victory in regional elections in 2010 despite widespread anti-austerity protest. In this paper, we interpret this result with the help of a post-election survey, which also covered future voting intention. The explanatory power of models based on theories of economic voting and blame attribution as...

  19. Attribution of Blame for Wife Abuse by Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Bernardo J.; McNeely, Judith A.

    Several researchers have explored the role of alcohol in domestic violence and attributions of blame. To compare the amount of blame attributed to an incident of wife abuse, alcoholic (N=52) and nonalcoholic (N=159) subjects read an account of wife abuse and distributed a percentage of the blame to the man, the woman, and the situation.…

  20. Reconciliation responses, blame, and expressions of guilt or shame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, Caroline; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Zebel, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Recipients of intergroup apologies have been found to prefer expressions of shame over guilt. However, there is little research comparing the responses of a wronged group with those of a blamed group. Kenyans/Britons evaluated guilt/shame statements about colonialism, with blame measured as the

  1. Not afraid to blame: the neglected role of blame attribution in medical consumerism and some implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marsha; Schlesinger, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A crucial aspect of medical consumerism has been overlooked in past research and policymaking: how consumers decide whom to "blame" for bad outcomes. This study explores how, in a system increasingly dominated by managed care, these attributions affect consumers' attitudes and behavior. Using data from the experiences of people with serious mental illness, hypotheses are tested regarding the origins and consequences of blaming for medical consumerism. Blame was allocated to health plans in a manner similar, but not identical, to the way in which blame was allocated to health care professionals. Both allocations are shaped by enrollment in managed care, with blame allocation affecting consumers' subsequent willingness to talk about adverse events. Policy implications include the need for more finely tuned grievance procedures and better consumer education about managed care practices.

  2. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  3. Self-Blame in Rape Victims: A Control-Maintenance Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    Two types of self-blame were investigated: characterological self-blame, corresponding to the popular negative view of self-blame; and behavioral self-blame, representing a positive attempt to reestablish a belief in control. Results of a questionnaire completed by rape crisis centers located across the country attest to the pervasiveness of…

  4. Blame Attribution as a Moderator of Perceptions of Sexual Orientation-Based Hate Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Chandler, Joseph F.; Wakeman, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Blame attribution is a valuable mechanism explaining decision making. However, present literature mainly employs blame attribution as a dependent variable. The shortcoming of this fact is that blame attribution offers a potentially valuable explanatory mechanism for decision making. The authors designed two studies to investigate blame attribution…

  5. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  6. Plenty of Blame to Go Around: A Qualitative Approach to Attribution of Moral Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomai, Emmett; Forbus, Ken

    2007-01-01

    We present a computational model of blame attribution. Recently Mao and Gratch, following Attribution theory, created a computational model that assigned blame to an agent for a negative occurrence...

  7. Derogating obese individuals: The role of blame, contempt, and disgust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, C.; van der Pligt, J.; Doosje, B.

    2015-01-01

    Weight stigma is pervasive and has profound negative consequences for obese individuals. The attribution-emotion approach of stigmatization holds that blame attributions relate to derogation stigmatized groups indirectly through anger and pity. Other research suggests that disgust is related to

  8. The Underdevelopment of Nigeria: Who is to Blame - Failure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the underdevelopment of Nigeria: who is to blame: Failure of leadership or its' political economy. The paper highlights the features of underdevelopment in Nigeria. These range from, high rate of unemployment, inegalitarian distribution of income and wealth, high level of insecurity, increase level of ...

  9. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-12-01

    This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH) was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in disease control. The

  10. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung CHOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in

  11. Introduction – Political Governance and Strategic Relations: Domestic-Foreign Policy Nexus and China’s Rise in the Global System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed several momentous developments in the political economy of the People’s Republic of China (PRC both on the domestic front and in her foreign relations. Deriving correct interpretation of such fast-paced developments and changes has preoccupied much of the circles of China-watchers these days, with political scientists, economists, sociologists and international relations experts focusing their respective attentions on either the domestic transformation occurring within the PRC or on her foreign relations. While the volatile series of incidents involving a year of crackdowns on domestic civil societal movements, civil rights lawyers, labour activists and Hong Kong’s book publishers and distributors were unfolding dramatically, the year also witnessed the continued rise of China’s economic might culminating in the realisation of her initiative for the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB that started operation on 25th December 2015 and the continued progress of her “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR proposal after the creation of the State-owned Silk Road Fund on 29th December 2014. Such developments on China’s domestic and global fronts have to be properly placed in the overall context of China’s domestic-foreign policy nexus that has uniquely evolved during her recent decades of continuous, astounding economic tour de force amidst the stagnation of the modernisation and democratisation of her political structure and sociopolitical power configuration, and the rise of her influence in the global system.

  12. Introduction – Political Governance and Strategic Relations: Domestic-Foreign Policy Nexus and China’s Rise in the Global System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed several momentous developments in the political economy of the People’s Republic of China (PRC both on the domestic front and in her foreign relations. Deriving correct interpretation of such fast-paced developments and changes has preoccupied much of the circles of China-watchers these days, with political scientists, economists, sociologists and international relations experts focusing their respective attention on either the domestic transformation occurring within the PRC or on her foreign relations. While the volatile series of incidents involving a year of crackdowns on domestic civil societal movements, civil rights lawyers, labour activists and Hong Kong’s book publishers and distributors were unfolding dramatically, the year also witnessed the continued rise of China’s economic might culminating in the realisation of her initiative for the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB that started operation on 25th December 201 5 and the continued progress of her “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR proposal after the creation of the State-owned Silk Road Fund on 29th December 201 4. Such developments on China’s domestic and global fronts has to be properly placed in the overall context of China’s domestic-foreign policy nexus that has uniquely evolved during from her recent decades of continuous, astounding economic tour de force amidst the stagnation of the modernisation and democratisation of her political structure and sociopolitical power configuration, and the rise of her influence in the global system.

  13. Re-racialization of Addiction and the Redistribution of Blame in the White Opioid Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sonia; Rivera, Allyssa Stephanie; Hansen, Helena Bjerring

    2018-04-27

    New York City has the largest number of opioid dependent people of U.S. cities, and within New York, Whites have the highest rate of prescription opioid and heroin overdose deaths. The rise of opioid abuse among Whites has resulted in popular narratives of victimization by prescribers, framing of addiction as a biological disease, and the promise of pharmaceutical treatments that differ from the criminalizing narratives that have historically described urban Latino and black narcotic use. Through an analysis of popular media press and interviews with opioid prescribers and community pharmacists in Staten Island-the epicenter of opioid overdose in New York City and the most suburban and white of its boroughs-we found that narratives of white opioid users disrupted notions of the addict as "other," producing alternative logics of blame that focus on prescribers and the encroachment of dealers from outside of white neighborhoods. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.

  14. Self-Blame and Commodification of Unemployed Young People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pultz, Sabina

    Young people face the risk of unemployment in a labor market characterized by a drift towards precarious employment (Kalleberg, 2013). Building on poststructuralist theory this study documents how young unemployed people’s understanding of unemployment is affected by neoliberal discourses, also...... reflected in the technologies applied by the institutions in the employment area. As a result, responsibility for unemployment is increasingly placed on the individual and self-blame is promoted as the predominant explanation. This qualitative study consists of a combination of field observations made...... people experience their situation and position themselves in regards to this normative encouragement to blame themselves. Personal branding and networking are identified as strategies enforced by the employment system and can be viewed as technologies of the self encouraging young people to commodify...

  15. The challenge of achieving interprofessional collaboration: should we blame Nightingale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Kathleen M

    2012-09-01

    The goal of implementing true interprofessional collaboration within the health care system seems to be elusive. The historical role of medicine as primary clinical leader and decision maker is particularly entrenched in the Western health care system. Florence Nightingale, the acknowledged founder of modern, Western nursing, is often blamed for the subservient role of nursing and other female-dominated health and social care professions. Is it fair to lay the blame on Nightingale? This paper seeks to place Nightingale in context and to revisit her own words to explore the Victorian world in which she worked as a social reformer. It argues that Nightingale made pragmatic compromises to gain acceptance for the new profession of nursing; that these compromises had unanticipated consequences that persist - but are not unchangeable.

  16. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  17. Understanding Gender Differences in Rape Victim Blaming: The Power of Social Influence and Just World Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-08-01

    Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions. The current study examined blame attribution of a fictional rape victim who received either positive, negative, or neutral support from friends and family in a sample of 383 undergraduate men and women. Individually, social support and JWB were both significant predictors of blame, and women were more influenced by social support than men; specifically, gender was a more salient predictor of blame toward the positively supported victim, suggesting that positive support received by friends and family may evoke a domino effect of support from other women. Conditional effects revealed that JWB were most influential on blame when responding to the positively supported victim. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. Mechanism of bystander-blaming: defensive attribution, counterfactual thinking, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary victimology recognizes that an understanding of the mechanism of blaming requires a comprehensive approach that includes the victim, the offender, and the bystander. However, most of the existing research on blaming focuses on the victim and the offender, ignoring the issue of bystander-blaming. This study highlights the bystander and investigates bystander-blaming by exploring some theoretical explanations, including counterfactual thinking, defensive attribution, and gender differences. The study included 363 young male and female participants, who read vignettes describing the behavior of the victim and the bystander in a rape scenario and answered questions regarding bystander-blaming. The results show that both counterfactual thinking and defensive attribution play a role in bystander-blaming. This article addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Clark, John W; Kehn, Andre; Burks, Alixandra C; Wechsler, Hayley J

    2014-01-01

    We examined blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of hate crimes against gay, African American, and transgender victims. Participants were 510 Texas jury panel members. Results of vignette-based crime scenarios showed that victim blame displayed significant negative, and perpetrator blame significant positive, effects on sentencing recommendations. Also as hypothesized, victim and perpetrator blame moderated the effect of support for hate crime legislation. Interaction patterns suggested that both types of blame attribution influence sentencing recommendations, but only for participants disagreeing with hate crime legislation. Three-way interactions with victim type also emerged, indicating that the effects of both types of blame attribution show particular influences when the victim is gay, as opposed to transgender or African American. Implications for attribution theory, hate crime policy, and jury selection are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nature of Blame in Patient Safety Incident Reports: Mixed Methods Analysis of a National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer; Edwards, Adrian; Williams, Huw; Sheikh, Aziz; Parry, Gareth; Hibbert, Peter; Butlin, Amy; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    A culture of blame and fear of retribution are recognized barriers to reporting patient safety incidents. The extent of blame attribution in safety incident reports, which may reflect the underlying safety culture of health care systems, is unknown. This study set out to explore the nature of blame in family practice safety incident reports. We characterized a random sample of family practice patient safety incident reports from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. Reports were analyzed according to prespecified classification systems to describe the incident type, contributory factors, outcomes, and severity of harm. We developed a taxonomy of blame attribution, and we then used descriptive statistical analyses to identify the proportions of blame types and to explore associations between incident characteristics and one type of blame. Health care professionals making family practice incident reports attributed blame to a person in 45% of cases (n = 975 of 2,148; 95% CI, 43%-47%). In 36% of cases, those who reported the incidents attributed fault to another person, whereas 2% of those reporting acknowledged personal responsibility. Blame was commonly associated with incidents where a complaint was anticipated. The high frequency of blame in these safety, incident reports may reflect a health care culture that leads to blame and retribution, rather than to identifying areas for learning and improvement, and a failure to appreciate the contribution of system factors in others' behavior. Successful improvement in patient safety through the analysis of incident reports is unlikely without achieving a blame-free culture. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  1. Is Self-Blame Really Functional for the Spinal Cord Injured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholomskas, Diane; Steil, Janice M.

    Bulman and Wortman's (1977) study of severe accident victims showed that victims who blamed themselves as the cause of the accident were more likely to receive higher coping ratings from a nurse or social worker, while victims who blamed others for the accident or who saw the accident as avoidable were more likely to be rated as having coped…

  2. Disruptive Behaviors and Maternal Responsibility: A Complex Portrait of Stigma, Self-Blame, and Other Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria C.; Arcia, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Feelings of stigma and self-blame were studied among 62 Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican mothers of 4- to 10-year-old children with disruptive behaviors. Data were collected and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results indicated that 42% blamed themselves for their children's behaviors, and 39% felt stigmatized by others.…

  3. Blaming Leaders for Organizational Accidents: Proxy Logic in Collective- versus Individual-Agency Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Yuriko; Young, Maia J.; Morris, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    The current research investigates whether observers blame leaders for organizational accidents even when these managers are known to be causally uninvolved. Past research finds that the public blames managers for organizational harm if the managers are perceived to have personally played a causal role. The present research argues that East Asian…

  4. "With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": Democracy, the Secretary of State for Health and Blame Shifting Within the English National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, David I

    2018-01-01

    The English National Health Service (NHS) has suffered from a democratic deficit since its inception. Democratic accountability was to be through ministers to Parliament, but ministerial control over and responsibility for the NHS were regarded as myths. Reorganizations and management and market reforms, in the neoliberal era, have centralized power within the NHS. However, successive governments have sought to reduce their responsibility for health care through institutional depoliticization, to shift blame, facilitated through legal changes. New Labour's creation of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Monitor were somewhat successful in reducing ministerial culpability regarding health technology regulation and foundation trusts, respectively. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition created NHS England to reduce ministerial culpability for health care more generally. This is pertinent as the NHS is currently being undermined by inadequate funding and privatization. However, the public has not shifted from blaming the government to blaming NHS England. This indicates limits to the capacity of law to legitimize changes to social relations. While market reforms were justified on the basis of empowering patients, I argue that addressing the democratic deficit is a preferable means of achieving this goal.

  5. Why blame is a factor in recovery from whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R; Russell, A S

    2001-03-01

    The biopsychosocial model of chronic whiplash continues to evolve. An aspect of the medicolegal and social dilemma of whiplash that has been largely unresearched is the impression in clinical practice of how seldom drivers who caused the collision present with chronic whiplash symptoms. There are potential biological (injury threshold and mechanism), psychological, and social explanations for this observation, and these flow from the same biopsychosocial model that addresses the progression from acute to chronic pain. This article explores each of these factors as they relate to the disparate experiences of the driver at-fault ('blamed') for the collision, and the not-at-fault driver ('innocent victim'). Recent research lends further support to the hypothesis that a biopsychosocial model best explains this phenomenon. Copyright DUMMY.

  6. Sexual preference, gender, and blame attributions in adolescent sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia.

  7. Internalising discourses of parenting blame: Voices from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Barnes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intertwining of a discourse of parental blame with the legacy of institutionalised neglect and the current roll-back of state support and services in two of Ireland's most socially marginalised and economically disadvantaged communities. In the course of fieldwork conducted to explore narratives of community safety, the authors were struck by the continual, unprompted emergence of a divisive and enduring belief that community problems could be primarily traced to 'bad parents' and 'bad parenting'. This article argues/identifies that the internalisation of a powerfully evocative discourse of blame works to absolve the state of all responsibility for the conditions in which marginalised communities are forced to live; it legitimises current and future cutbacks by portraying such communities as irresponsible and as the creators of their own problems; it distorts and distracts discussion away from necessary and critical questioning of state accountability by promoting a reductive, individualised understanding of what are complex, collective responsibilities. The internalisation of discourses of culpability operates to the benefit of the state, where 'bad' parents are understood to be 'undeserving' citizens. Finally, we argue that the ability of the state to cut back social funding and to roll back on previous commitments depends, in a large part, on the willingness of the wider community to believe that responsibility for long term social and economic marginalisation and associated problems rests, not with the state, but with 'bad' and 'undeserving' citizens (Adair 2005; Edelman 1998; Lens 2002; Welsh and Parsons 2006. Promoting that willingness is achieved through continual media and public sphere portrayals of the poor, and particularly of working class parents, as dangerously and overly fertile (Tyler 2008; Wilson and Huntington 2005, as non-contributors to prosperity and as over contributors to decline (Skeggs 2005

  8. Family Stress: Dealing with Blame. Help for Farm Families in Crisis. [Student Text] and Leader's Guide and Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgaard, Virginia

    These two documents address the issue of dealing with blame for farm families in crisis. The first document, for the adult student, discusses how and why people blame each other, with emphasis on the current farm financial crisis. It is noted that blaming occurs primarily at the anger and depression stages of the loss cycle and that, when losing…

  9. Rise of the Political Right in India: Hindutva-Development Mix, Modi Myth, and Dualities

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, N.

    2017-01-01

    We are witnessing a global phenomenon of the rise of right-wing leaders who combine nationalist rhetoric with a claim to challenge the pernicious effects of neoliberalism. But, upon achieving power, they do not oppose the business elite, instead, while paying lip service to the victims of economic processes, they direct the blame for those structural problems upon the minorities and ‘Others’ within the rightwing nationalist imagination. In the Indian context, this is typified by the rise of N...

  10. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  11. Pierre Bourdieu and transformative agency: a study of how patients in Benin negotiate blame and accountability in the context of severe obstetric events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique P; Kanhonou, Lydie G; Filippi, Véronique; Lègonou, Solange; Ronsmans, Carine

    2008-05-01

    This paper explores the social and institutional processes that constrain and enable obstetric patients in Benin to critically evaluate quality of healthcare and to stimulate positive changes in the health system. Based on qualitative data collected as part of a hospital auditing system, the paper analyses semi-structured patient feedback interviews and their function as a primary mechanism through which critical patient evaluation can develop constructively. Using a Bourdieuan framework, we explore the dynamic social conditions that give rise to transformative agency and institutional change. Our results show that hospitals are often permeated with the habitus of employment, kinship and reproductive social fields, through which a number of social, economic and healthcare conflicts, power struggles and blame-inducing interactions emerge. These conflicts generally serve to keep patients quiescent and passive when it comes to developing critical statements of quality of care. In a subset of cases, however, these conflicts are transformed by patients and their family members into opportunities for modifying the values and practices of each habitus in new and creative ways. The active negotiation of social conflict and blame enabled a minority of patients actively to divert blame from themselves and to develop and maintain critical healthcare evaluations.

  12. Blame Conformity: Innocent Bystanders Can Be Blamed for a Crime as a Result of Misinformation from a Young, but Not Elderly, Adult Co-Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether or not exposing an eyewitness to a co-witness statement that incorrectly blames an innocent bystander for a crime can increase the likelihood of the eyewitness subsequently blaming the innocent bystander for the crime. It also examined whether or not the perceived age of the co-witness influences this effect. Participant eyewitnesses first watched a video of a crime featuring a perpetrator and an innocent bystander. They then read one of six bogus co-witness statements about the crime. All were presented as having been written by a female co-witness and they differed in terms of her age (young adult or elderly) and who she blamed for the crime (the perpetrator, the innocent bystander, or nobody). One week later the participants were asked who committed the crime. When the young adult co-witness had blamed the innocent bystander just over 40% of participants subsequently did the same. Few participants (less than 8%) in the other conditions subsequently blamed the innocent bystander. The elderly co-witness was also rated as less credible, less competent, and less accurate than the younger co-witness suggesting eyewitnesses were less likely to be influenced by her incorrect statement as they perceived her to be a less reliable source of information. The applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Blame Conformity: Innocent Bystanders Can Be Blamed for a Crime as a Result of Misinformation from a Young, but Not Elderly, Adult Co-Witness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Thorley

    Full Text Available This study examined whether or not exposing an eyewitness to a co-witness statement that incorrectly blames an innocent bystander for a crime can increase the likelihood of the eyewitness subsequently blaming the innocent bystander for the crime. It also examined whether or not the perceived age of the co-witness influences this effect. Participant eyewitnesses first watched a video of a crime featuring a perpetrator and an innocent bystander. They then read one of six bogus co-witness statements about the crime. All were presented as having been written by a female co-witness and they differed in terms of her age (young adult or elderly and who she blamed for the crime (the perpetrator, the innocent bystander, or nobody. One week later the participants were asked who committed the crime. When the young adult co-witness had blamed the innocent bystander just over 40% of participants subsequently did the same. Few participants (less than 8% in the other conditions subsequently blamed the innocent bystander. The elderly co-witness was also rated as less credible, less competent, and less accurate than the younger co-witness suggesting eyewitnesses were less likely to be influenced by her incorrect statement as they perceived her to be a less reliable source of information. The applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. From Freud to Feminism: Gendered Constructions of Blame Across Theories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.

  15. Patient deaths blamed on long waits at the Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. This morning the lead article in the Arizona Republic was a report blaming as many as 40 deaths at the Phoenix VA on long waits (1. Yesterday, Rep. Jeff Miller, the chairman of the House Committee on Veterans Affairs, held a hearing titled “A Continued Assessment of Delays in VA Medical Care and Preventable Veteran Deaths.” “It appears as though there could be as many as 40 veterans whose deaths could be related to delays in care,” Miller announced to a stunned audience. The committee has spent months investigating patient-care scandals and allegations at VA facilities in Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Miami and other cities. said that dozens of VA hospital patients in Phoenix may have died while awaiting medical care. He went on to say that staff investigators have evidence that the Phoenix VA Health Care System keeps two sets of records to conceal prolonged waits that patients must endure for ...

  16. More and more weather records - Is global warming to blame?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wergen, Gregor; Krug, Joachim [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    If one believes in current media coverage it seems very simple: Due to the significant, largely anthropogenic, warming of the world's average temperature, more and more weather extremes occur. Every time we have a record breaking daily maximum temperature, or an immense amount of precipitation in a certain timespan, this is intuitively blamed on global warming. However mathematically the relation between an increasing mean value and the occurrence of records is far from trivial and not completely understood. This relation and its relevance to the analysis of weather data is the subject of this talk. Given an underlying distribution, we consider the probability that an event in a succession of events is a record, when the distribution itself is shifting, or altering its form. We found some approximations that are useful for the comparison with historical climate recordings. We obtained data for the daily maximum and daily minimum temperature and the daily precipitation amount from thousands of weather stations in Europe and the United States and analyzed them with regard to record events. The results are largely in accordance with what we predict from our calculations, but also reveal some interesting deviations.

  17. Interventions Highlighting Hypocrisy Reduce Collective Blame of Muslims for Individual Acts of Violence and Assuage Anti-Muslim Hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour; Falk, Emily

    2018-03-01

    Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed). The "winning" intervention reduced collective blame of Muslims by highlighting hypocrisy in the ways individuals collectively blame Muslims-but not other groups (White Americans, Christians)-for individual group members' actions. After replicating the effect in an independent sample, we demonstrate that a novel interactive activity that isolates the psychological mechanism amplifies the effectiveness of the collective blame hypocrisy intervention and results in downstream reductions in anti-Muslim attitudes and anti-Muslim behavior.

  18. Global Governance, Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  19. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  20. To Blame or to Forgive? Reconciling Punishment and Forgiveness in Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    What do you do when faced with wrongdoing-do you blame or do you forgive? Especially when confronted with offences that lie on the more severe end of the spectrum and cause terrible psychological or physical trauma or death, nothing can feel more natural than blame. Indeed, in the UK and the USA, increasingly vehement and righteous public expressions of blame and calls for vengeance have become commonplace; correspondingly, contemporary penal philosophy has witnessed a resurgence of the retributive tradition, in the modern form usually known as the 'justice' model. On the other hand, people can and routinely do forgive others, even in cases of severe crime. Evolutionary psychologists argue that both vengeance and forgiveness are universal human adaptations that have evolved as alternative responses to exploitation, and, crucially, strategies for reducing risk of re-offending. We are naturally endowed with both capacities: to blame and retaliate, or to forgive and seek to repair relations. Which should we choose? Drawing on evolutionary psychology, we offer an account of forgiveness and argue that the choice to blame, and not to forgive, is inconsistent with the political values of a broadly liberal society and can be instrumentally counter-productive to reducing the risk of future re-offending. We then sketch the shape of penal philosophy and criminal justice policy and practice with forgiveness in place as a guiding ideal.

  1. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: the conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-07-01

    While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12-19 years; M=15.6; SD=1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PISA and Global Educational Governance--A Critique of the Project, Its Uses and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøberg, Svein

    2015-01-01

    The PISA project has steadily increased its influence on the educational discourse and educational policies in the now 70 participating countries. The educational debate has become global, and the race to improve PISA-rankings has become high priority in many countries. For governments the PISA-test is a high-stake test. Governments are blamed for…

  3. Reducing exposure to trust-related risks to avoid self-blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Miller, Dale T

    2011-02-01

    Three studies demonstrated that anticipated self-blame elicits more conservative decisions about risks that require trust than about otherwise economically identical risks that do not. Participants were more reluctant to invest money in a company when it risked failure due to fraud versus low consumer demand (Study 1), and to risk points in an economic game when its outcome ostensibly depended on another participant versus chance (Studies 2 and 3). These effects were mediated by anticipated self-blame (Studies 1 and 2). Additionally, participants who actually experienced a loss felt more self-blame when the loss violated their trust and became even more conservative in subsequent risk decisions relative to participants whose loss did not violate their trust (Study 3). No support emerged for alternative explanations based on either the perceived probability of incurring a loss or an aversion to losses that profit others. The motivational power of trust violations is discussed.

  4. Rape myth attitudes in rural Kenya: toward the development of a culturally relevant attitude scale and "blame index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavrow, Paula; Withers, Mellissa; Obbuyi, Albert; Omollo, Vidalyne; Wu, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Rape myth attitudes (RMAs) can excuse men for rape, placing blame on female victims. This study identified and classified RMAs in rural western Kenya through 31 focus group discussions with youths and adults. We found that about half of the participants were likely to blame victims unconditionally. Stereotypes about rape victims and perpetrators were rife. Five of seven standardly used RMA categories emerged spontaneously in focus groups, along with a new category: "she owed him." Based on the data, we developed a "blame index" to assess the likelihood of community victim blaming in Kenya. To reduce victim blaming and bring about more prosecutions for rape, community education, teacher training, and reforms of rape laws are highly recommended.

  5. The Blame Index: Exploring the Change in Social Work Students' Perceptions of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavega, Elena; Kindle, Peter A.; Peterson, Susan; Schwartz, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the development of a new Blame Index to determine attributions of the causes of poverty along a single structural-to-individual dimension. A multisite pre-/post-group design tested the degree of change in social work students' (N = 177) perception of poverty as a result of taking a single BSW social policy course or an MSW…

  6. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  7. Leadership Style, Crisis Response and Blame Management: The case of Hurricane Katrina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/161938876; t Hart, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072685387; McConnell, A.; Preston, T

    2010-01-01

    Crisis management research has largely ignored one of the most pressing challenges political leaders are confronted with in the wake of a large-scale extreme event: how to cope with what is commonly called the blame game. In this article, we provide a heuristic to help understand political leader

  8. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  9. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  10. "Blame" Concept in Phraseology: Cognitive-Semantic Aspect (Based on the French Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalavina, Tatyana Y.; Kisel, Olesya V.

    2016-01-01

    Phraseology is one of the basic and most important objects of study in cognitive linguistics. The article deals with verbal fixed phrases in their correlation with the cognitive structure of knowledge--a concept. The used definitional analysis method to identify the basic notions of the conceptual content of the concept of blame and basic…

  11. The Relation between Abuse and Violent Delinquency: The Conversion of Shame to Blame in Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to…

  12. Why the Community Reinvestment Act cannot be blamed for the subprime crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    It has become common practice—and in particular, but not exclusively, in conservative media—to blame the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) of 1977 for the U.S. subprime mortgage and foreclosure crisis that triggered the global financial crisis. It is argued that the CRA forced lenders to give

  13. Blaming the Baby Boomers does today’s young people no favours

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the nastiest narratives to have developed over the past decade is that of “boomer blaming”, where the alleged good fortunes of the generation born in the 20 years or so after World War II (definitions of the boomer generation vary, often according to what it is being blamed for) are presented as the cause of myriad social problems.

  14. Approaching Parental Guilt, Shame, and Blame in a Helping Relationship: Multiple Methods for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Kia J.; Cohen-Filipic, Katherine; Cummings, Cory R.

    2016-01-01

    Social workers often feel ill-prepared to effectively engage parents in conversations about guilt, shame, and blame related to their children's mental health or substance use challenges. To address that problem, we suggest that specific content should be integrated into social work courses to teach students how to acknowledge and sensitively…

  15. Canadian inquiry assesses blame for tainted blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-26

    A commission of inquiry, headed by Justice Horace Krever of the Ontario Court of Appeal, found that hundreds of hemophiliacs and blood transfusion recipients could have avoided HIV if the government regulators and medical suppliers had taken precautions in the early 1980s to protect Canada's blood supply. The report documents an inventory of errors and misjudgments that resulted in the infection of more than 1,200 people with HIV and roughly 60,000 with hepatitis C. The report noted that one U.S. blood fractionator, Armour Pharmaceutical, violated Canadian law by not informing government regulators in 1985 that its products might be tainted with HIV. Other findings conclude that the Red Cross, the agency with principal responsibility for protecting Canada's blood supply, put forth a halfhearted and ineffective response, and little effort was made to promote the use of safer blood clotting agents for hemophiliacs. Canada only began testing its blood supply for HIV eight months after the U.S. initiated ELISA testing. The commission recommends compensating all past and future recipients of contaminated blood and blood products.

  16. Blaming Machismo: How the Social Imaginary is Failing Men with HIV in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnography of HIV care in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in this article I explore how the social imaginary surrounding gender relations shapes men's experiences of seeking care for and living with HIV. Popular understandings of gender relations, which draw heavily on the machismo concept, intersect with a global health master narrative that frames women as victims in the AIDS epidemic in a way that generates a strong sentiment of blaming machismo within local HIV/AIDS-related services. Statements such as, "it's because of machismo" are used to explain away epidemiological trends. Participant observation in the context of HIV care, coupled with illness narrative interviews, illuminate how blaming machismo shapes men's experiences of care and the ways that they feel excluded from various forms of support. Thus, the illness experiences of men with HIV problematize the machismo concept and how it is drawn upon in the context of care.

  17. Understanding self-Blame as a risk for unemployed young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pultz, Sabina

    and make sense of it and how they position themselves in regards to this normative demand to blame themselves. Personal branding and networking are identified as strategies enforced by the employment system and can be viewed as technologies of the self (Rose, 1996) encouraging young people to modulate......Young people face the risk of unemployment in a labor market characterized by a drift towards precarious employment (Kalleberg, 2013). Building on governmentality perspectives this study documents how understanding of unemployment is affected by neoliberal discourses reflected in the technologies...... applied by the institutions in the employment area. As a result, responsibility for unemployment is increasingly placed on the individual and self-blame is promoted as the predominant explanation, revitalizing attributional theory in a new way. This qualitative study consists of a combination of ten field...

  18. Blaming the helpers: the marginalization of teachers and parents of the urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, B A; Azar, S T

    1999-10-01

    The nature and origins of the current tendency toward disparaging parents and teachers of the urban poor are examined. It is suggested that the influence of parents and teachers must be understood in the context of multiple intervening variables. Several explanations are offered for the phenomenon of blame, including the fact that women constitute the great majority of teachers and are often the primary agents of parenting.

  19. Sexual revictimization during women's first year of college: self-blame and sexual refusal assertiveness as possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; May, Pamela; Sörensen, Silvia; DelTosta, Jill

    2010-11-01

    Although sexual victimization during adolescence increases risk for later revictimization, mechanisms for increased risk among new college students have not been identified. Female undergraduates (N = 87) were assessed at the start and end of their first academic year. Those who reported initial sexual victimization at Time 1 were more likely than other women to report later college victimization at Time 2. Path analyses showed that self-blame and decreased sexual refusal assertiveness (SRA) explained this effect. Specifically, initial victimization was associated with increased self-blame; in turn, self-blame indirectly predicted later college victimization via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Prevention efforts focused on self-blame and other barriers to SRA may reduce risk for revictimization during women's transition to college.

  20. Attributions of blame to battered women when they are perceived as feminists or as "difficult to deal with".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Fernández, Ana; Megías, Jesús L

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of victim-related and observer-related factors in victim blaming of battered women. Two hundred and forty six college students participated. They were asked to read a scenario describing a hypothetical case of physical violence perpetrated by a man against his partner. Depending on the experimental condition, the victim was described either as a feminist and/or as exhibiting difficulties in her relationship with others or not. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed with victim blaming as dependent variable. Participants' hostile sexism positively predicted victim blaming when the victim was described as a feminist and as a "difficult to deal with" woman (p feminist woman (p < .001). These results underscore the importance of victim-related and observer-related factors, and of their interaction, in blaming the victim of gender-based violence.

  1. The Role of Self-Blaming Moral Emotions in Major Depression and Their Impact on Social-Economical Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Pulcu, Erdem; Zahn, Roland; Elliott, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    People with major depressive disorder (MDD) are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognises excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotion...

  2. "You Blame Me, Therefore I Blame Me": The Importance of First Disclosure Partner Responses on Trauma-Related Cognitions and Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnan-White, Jess; Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Diamond-Welch, Bridget K; Tollini, Craig

    2018-04-01

    Trauma recovery processes may be understood within a socioecological model. Individual factors (such as sex of the survivor) and microsystem factors (including trauma characteristics) have been studied extensively. However, there is a paucity of research examining the effects of macrosystem factors on the impact of trauma-especially examining how the response of the first person to whom the survivor disclosed affects trauma-related cognitions and distress. Sixty-three college student participants reported a history of disclosing at least one traumatic event in an online, anonymous survey. Participants also provided information on the first person they told about the trauma, the social reactions of that person, general social reactions to trauma disclosure, the participants' trauma-related cognitions and psychological distress (PTSD, other mental health issues), details about the traumatic event, and basic demographic information. Paired sample t tests showed that participants experienced the responses of the first person they told about their trauma as more favorable than the responses of the all of the people to whom they told about the event. Women and survivors of non-interpersonal trauma reported more supportive responses than men and survivors of interpersonal trauma. Hierarchical linear regressions showed that interpersonal trauma and victim blame on the part of the first person the survivor told were associated with more negative trauma-related cognitions. Interpersonal trauma, emotional support, and victim blame were associated with a greater degree of trauma-related distress. The results suggest that participants perceived the response of the first person they told as more beneficial than the response of the rest of their exosystem. However, the reactions of the first person the survivor told differed based on the sex of the survivor and the type of trauma they experienced. Consistent with previous research, interpersonal trauma and victim blame by the

  3. Government Disaster Response and Narrative Retrospection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    that voters did not appear to immediately punish the Danish and Swedish governments for the Tsunami despite the severe impacts and the widespread public disapproval of the governments’ disaster responses. The concept of narrative retrospection shows how there was limited pressure to politicize the government’s...... disaster management efforts in Denmark, while the brunt of the political blame in Sweden occurred more than a year after the Tsunami.......This paper investigates the nexus between disaster response and voting behaviour through a comparative study of the electoral dynamics in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami in Denmark and Sweden. The paper addresses three hypotheses of retrospection: (i) blind retrospection where voters...

  4. Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues. ... and state governments has echoed new concerns for policy stakeholders in Nigeria. ... the share of concessional loan in external debt stock and develop Public-Private ...

  5. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  6. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  7. Country of residence, gender equality and victim blaming attitudes about partner violence: a multilevel analysis in EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivert, Anna-Karin; Merlo, Juan; Gracia, Enrique

    2017-09-27

    Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a global and preventable public health problem. Public attitudes, such as victim-blaming, are important for our understanding of differences in the occurrence of IPVAW, as they contribute to its justification. In this paper, we focus on victim-blaming attitudes regarding IPVAW within the EU and we apply multilevel analyses to identify contextual determinants of victim-blaming attitudes. We investigate both the general contextual effect of the country and the specific association between country level of gender equality and individual victim-blaming attitudes, as well as to what extend a possible general contextual effect was explained by county level gender equality. We analyzed data from 26 800 respondents from 27 member states of the European Union who responded to a survey on public perceptions of domestic violence. We applied multilevel logistic regression analysis and measures of variance (intra-class correlation (ICC)) were calculated, as well as the discriminatory accuracy by calculating the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Over and above individual characteristics, about 15% of the individual variance in the propensity for having victim-blaming attitudes was found at the country level, and country level of gender equality did not affect the general contextual effect (i.e. ICC) of the country on individual victim-blaming attitudes. The present study shows that there are important between-country differences in victim-blaming attitudes that cannot be explained by differences in individual-level demographics or in gender equality at the country level. More research on attitudes towards IPVAW is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  9. Shifting Blame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garofalo, Orsola; Rott, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Decision makers frequently have a spokesperson communicate their decisions. In this paper, we address two questions. First, does it matter who communicates an unfair decision? Second, does it matter how the unfair decision is communicated? We conduct a modified dictator game experiment in which e...

  10. Who, or What, Is to Blame for the Accumulation of Debt in Ontario and Quebec (and What Will It Take to Stop the Bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the main reason for government debt accumulation in Canada? Is the main driver of debt the public policy choices made by governments, or are non-policy factors, like interest rates and the economic environment to blame? Answering this question is the first step for governments burdened by high levels of government debt to introduce policies aimed at getting that debt under control. The effort to curtail debts in the mid-1990s prompted research into the sources of debt accumulation. The goal of this research was to determine whether the cause of debt was a set of poor fiscal policy choices in the form of overly generous social programs and/or insufficient taxation, an overly tight monetary policy driving up interest costs on existing debt and slowing growth, or simply bad luck in the form of unavoidable world events. That research aspired to identify the sources of debt accumulation so those mistakes, once identified, might be avoided in the future. This paper looks at Ontario and Quebec; two provinces with high and growing debt to GDP ratios and representing the two largest provincial economies in Canada. Introducing an original data set describing the finances of these governments over the period 1980-81 to 2011-12 and a new approach for identifying the causes of debt accumulation, this paper finds that the causes are disproportionate policy based. Finally, this paper offers a way out of debt for these governments. The solutions demand difficult policy choices; choices that will require a significantly heavier burden be borne by the citizens and taxpayers of Ontario than those in Quebec.

  11. Anger and retribution after collective overuse: the role of blaming and environmental uncertainty in social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; van Dijk, Eric; Wit, Arjaan; De Cremer, David

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how group members respond to one another when collective overuse occurs. The authors argue that interpersonal reactions after overuse in a common-resource dilemma are largely determined by the environmental characteristics of the social dilemma. More specifically, under environmental certainty they expect people to show more anger to group members than under uncertainty (Study 1). Additionally, they expect stronger retributive reactions to high harvesters than to moderate harvesters, and they expect this difference to be larger under certainty than under uncertainty (Study 2 and 3). Moreover, they predict that these effects are mediated by blaming. The results of three experiments corroborate these predictions.

  12. Blended Learning Analytics Model for Evaluation (BLAME). Et case-studie af universitetsunderviseres brug af Blackboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Bennedsen, Andreas Brændstrup; Hansen, Janne Saltoft

    2015-01-01

    I denne artikel vil vi præsentere en strategi til inddragelse af læringsanalytik (learning analytics) ved evaluering af universitetsunderviseres brug af et nyt LMS på Aarhus Universitet: Blackboard. Vi diskuterer en model (BLAME: Blended Learning Analytics Model of Evaluation) for, hvordan...... kategorisering af kurser og data om læringsanalytik indsamlet på Blackboard kan integreres. Endvidere belyser vi, hvilke implikationer en sådan læringsanalytik kan have for blended learning ved at analysere to forskellige uddannelses-cases/illustrationer. Dernæst diskuterer vi pædagogisk udvikling i forbindelse...

  13. "Luck's always to blame": silent wounds of a penetrating gunshot trauma sustained 20 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, Ioannis; Manali, Effrosyni D; Argentos, Stylianos; Raptakis, Thomas; Papiris, Spyros A

    2015-01-01

    Gunshot tracheal injuries represent life-threatening events and usually necessitate emergent surgical intervention. We report a case of an exceptional finding of a patient with retained ballistic fragments in the soft tissues of the thorax, proximal to the right subclavian artery and the trachea, carrying silently his wounds for two decades without any medical or surgical intervention. The bullet pellet on the upper part of the trachea seen accidentally in the chest computed tomography, was also found during bronchoscopy. In short "luck's always to blame".

  14. The team halo effect: why teams are not blamed for their failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naquin, Charles E; Tynan, Renee O

    2003-04-01

    In this study, the existence of the team halo effect, the phenomenon that teams tend not to be blamed for their failures, is documented. With 2 studies using both real teams and controlled scenarios, the authors found evidence that the nature of the causal attribution processes used to diagnose failure scenarios leads to individuals being more likely to be identified as the cause of team failure than the team as a collective. Team schema development, as indexed by team experience, influences this effect, with individuals who have more team experience being less likely to show the team halo effect

  15. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  16. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  17. From the Consulting Room to the Court Room? Taking the Clinical Model of Responsibility Without Blame into the Legal Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2013-03-01

    Within contemporary penal philosophy, the view that punishment can only be justified if the offender is a moral agent who is responsible and hence blameworthy for their offence is one of the few areas on which a consensus prevails. In recent literature, this precept is associated with the retributive tradition, in the modern form of 'just deserts'. Turning its back on the rehabilitative ideal, this tradition forges a strong association between the justification of punishment, the attribution of responsible agency in relation to the offence, and the appropriateness of blame. By contrast, effective clinical treatment of disorders of agency employs a conceptual framework in which ideas of responsibility and blameworthiness are clearly separated from what we call 'affective blame': the range of hostile, negative attitudes and emotions that are typical human responses to criminal or immoral conduct. We argue that taking this clinical model of 'responsibility without blame' into the legal realm offers new possibilities. Theoretically, it allows for the reconciliation of the idea of 'just deserts' with a rehabilitative ideal in penal philosophy. Punishment can be reconceived as consequences-typically negative but occasionally not, so long as they are serious and appropriate to the crime and the context-imposed in response to, by reason of, and in proportion to responsibility and blameworthiness, but without the hard treatment and stigma typical of affective blame. Practically, it suggests how sentencing and punishment can better avoid affective blame and instead further rehabilitative and related ends, while yet serving the demands of justice.

  18. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  19. The rise of securities markets : what can government do?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Using U.S. securities markets as a case history, the author explores the role securities markets play in economic development, how they emerge, and how regulation can make them more effective. Why the United States? Two centuries ago, it was a small undeveloped country with serious financial problems. It confronted those problems and, guided by Alexander Hamilton, creatively reformed its financial system, which then became a foundation of the U.S. economic infrastructure and a bulwark for lon...

  20. Government Policy and the Banking Crisis: Vindicated, Misled or Flying Blind?

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Damian; TASC

    2010-01-01

    Almost three years after the onset of Ireland's banking criris public disenchantment continues to increase, aggravated in part by the government's failure to provide a transparent examination for the crisis and an endless stream of revelations on the increasing cost of stabilising the banking system. The government claimed that it acted on the "best available advice" and as a consequence has been able to pin the blame for the crisis on events beyond its control. This think piece argues that t...

  1. Perceptions of adolescent bullying: attributions of blame and responsibility in cases of cyber-bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Allison; Downey, Christina A

    2013-12-01

    Cyber-bullying (where victims are targeted via online social networking or other electronic means) has gained increased attention in research and the broadcast media, but previous research has not investigated attribution of blame in such cyber-bullying events. This experiment hypothesized that participants would assign higher ratings of blame to bullying perpetrators when the bullying situations were depicted as having highly foreseeable outcomes (vs. unforeseeable outcomes), and as occurring in school (vs. online). In addition, a significant interaction was predicted between outcome foreseeability and bullying situation, with highly foreseeable in-school events being rated as the most predictable and attributable to the bully's actions. One-hundred sixty-three participants completed surveys containing demographic items, items regarding their past experiences of victimization, and one of four randomly-assigned vignettes detailing a bullying situation (which participants rated). While hypotheses regarding outcome foreseeability were supported, no cyber-bullying vs. in-school main effects (or corresponding interaction effects) were detected. Implications for future research and practice, as well as study limitations, are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. The blame game: cervical cancer, knowledge of its link to human papillomavirus and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Melissa A; Gerend, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    This two-study paper examined stigma toward women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection (STI). For Study 1, participants (N = 352) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in which they read a brief description of a patient with either cervical or ovarian cancer in which the cause of the patient's cancer was either specified (cervical: HPV, a STI vs. ovarian: family history) or unspecified. Participants in the cervical cancer/cause-specified condition rated the patient as more dirty, dishonest and unwise, and reported feeling more moral disgust and 'grossed out' than participants in the cervical cancer/cause-unspecified condition. For Study 2, participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to read a vignette about a patient with cervical cancer in which the cause of cancer was either specified or unspecified. Consistent with Study 1, participants in the cause-specified condition rated the patient as more unwise, and reported feeling more moral disgust and 'grossed out' than participants in the cause-unspecified condition. These effects were mediated by attributions of blame toward the patient. Findings suggest that women with cervical cancer may be stigmatised and blame may play a role in this process.

  3. Mothers in "incest families": a critique of blame and its destructive sequels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J

    1996-09-01

    This paper critically reviewed the blame-oriented explanations of mothers' roles in father-daughter incest, which was contrasted with feminist reassessments in a sociopolitical context. The concept of the dysfunctional family forms the matrix in which views of blaming the mother take life. The mother is characterized as the ¿cornerstone¿ of the family dynamics that create and maintain the incestuous behavior of the spouse. Several categories of maternal behavior were reported to set up conditions in the family for father-daughter incest, including the contention that the mother colludes in the abuse either by unconscious passivity or by active conscious involvement in arranging the act. In addition, the mother's alleged inadequacies in the areas of intimacy and sexuality are often viewed as central factors in the dynamics of father-daughter incest. Identified as additional victims in the complex matrix of family and community, mothers are revictimized by the clinical establishment that upholds the unconscious patriarchal ideology underlying violence against women. Clinicians need to validate and support mothers in their ¿disenfranchised grief¿ so they can help their daughters to heal, and to design and lobby for programs that will promote social changes that are necessary for a more egalitarian society.

  4. Superphenix set to rise again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Superphenix, France's seemingly jinxed fast breeder reactor, which has not produced a single kilowatt of energy in more than 3 years, looks set to rise up next year like the mythical bird it is named after. The $5 billion reactor, the largest fast breeder in the world, has just been given the seal of approval by a public commission ordered by the government to look at the pros and cons of restarting. It still has hoops to jump through: a safety check and approval from the ministries of industries and environment. But the consortium of French, Italian, and German power utilities that run the plant are confident they can get it running by next summer. The Superphenix that rises out of the ashes will, however, be a different species of bird from the one planned 20 years ago. The consortium plans to turn the reactor into a debreeder, one that will incinerate more plutonium than it produces and so eat into Europe's plutonium stockpile. Calculations by Superphenix staff and the Atomic Energy Commission indicate that a plutonivorous fast breeder could incinerate 15 to 25 kilograms of plutonium while producing 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity-scarcely enough to make a dent in the tonnes of plutonium produced by Electricite de France's reactors each year. The Superphenix consortium is anxious to get the reactor back on line. The annual cost of upkeep and repair of the idle plant and salaries for its 700 staff may reach $140 million this year, 20% more than if the plant was running normally. If restarted, the existing core and a second one ready on the shelf will generate electricity worth $1.3 billion

  5. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  6. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  7. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  8. Attributions of Blame in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Behavior Problems and Frequency of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J

    2017-06-01

    Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.

  9. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  10. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  11. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  12. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  13. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  14. Rumor, gossip and blame: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention in the South African lowveld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic provides fertile breeding ground for theories of the origin of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and the allocation of blame. Drawing on ethnographic research in the Bushbuckridge region of the South African lowveld, this article examines the articulation of AIDS through gossip and rumor. These oral forms create moral readings of behavior and shape folk discourses of AIDS that resist dominant epidemiological explanations. Significantly, constructions of AIDS are not uniform. Although elders claim AIDS as traditional and curable, younger men and women support theories of AIDS as a modern, foreign disease. Witchcraft beliefs are popular in explaining why certain people die and not others. At times, rumor may escalate into a moral panic. The implications of these findings for social responses to the AIDS epidemic and HIV/AIDS prevention are explored.

  15. Bench-marking effects in the blaming of professionals for incidents of aggression and assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, J; Lanza, M

    1994-01-01

    This study compared all possible orders of responding to three vignettes describing incidents between a male patient and a female nurse in which the nurse is mildly assaulted, severely assaulted, or verbally abused by the patient (the control condition). Subjects were 32 female senior-year nursing students and 28 practicing nurses. It was found that response levels to a given vignette could predict a respondent's response to the other vignettes. Also, a significant "bench-marking" effect was found: if a subject responded to the mild assault vignette first, the subject's overall response pattern best fit the general nonlinear assignment-of-blame pattern observed, but if the subject responded to the severe assault or control vignette first, this vignette set a bench mark for responding from which the subject's subsequent responses did not deviate greatly, which slightly distorted the subject's V-shaped nonlinear response pattern.

  16. Blame, shame and hopelessness: medically unexplained symptoms and the 'heartsink' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Louise

    2014-04-01

    'Heartsink' patients present a moral dilemma. We recognise their suffering, but at the same time struggle with the feelings they trigger in us. Patients also experience negative feelings. Without a diagnosis they lack a narrative or vocabulary to make sense of their own suffering. This article explores some of the challenges faced and strategies utilised when managing patients with medically unexplained symptoms. Doctors and patients often experience frustration and helplessness in consultations around medically unexplained symptoms. Without a diagnosis, patients lack social legitimacy as 'sick' people with 'real' illnesses. They often describe feeling blamed for their own distress. Because of this, they can experience deep feelings of worthlessness and shame. Patients with a history of abuse can be particularly vulnerable. Management includes validating their suffering, helping them construct appropriate explanations for their distress and providing empathic interpersonal care, while minimising the risk of iatrogenic harm.

  17. The current approach to human error and blame in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, Melanie

    There is a large body of research to suggest that serious errors are widespread throughout medicine. The traditional response to these adverse events has been to adopt a 'person approach' - blaming the individual seen as 'responsible'. The culture of medicine is highly complicit in this response. Such an approach results in enormous personal costs to the individuals concerned and does little to address the root causes of errors and thus prevent their recurrence. Other industries, such as aviation, where safety is a paramount concern and which have similar structures to the medical profession, have, over the past decade or so, adopted a 'systems' approach to error, recognizing that human error is ubiquitous and inevitable and that systems need to be developed with this in mind. This approach has been highly successful, but has necessitated, first and foremost, a cultural shift. It is in the best interests of patients, and medical professionals alike, that such a shift is embraced in the NHS.

  18. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Attributions of blame and responsibility in sexual harassment: reexamining a psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S

    2011-04-01

    Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.

  20. A dual-motive model of scapegoating: displacing blame to reduce guilt or increase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel; Keefer, Lucas A

    2012-06-01

    The authors present a model that specifies 2 psychological motives underlying scapegoating, defined as attributing inordinate blame for a negative outcome to a target individual or group, (a) maintaining perceived personal moral value by minimizing feelings of guilt over one's responsibility for a negative outcome and (b) maintaining perceived personal control by obtaining a clear explanation for a negative outcome that otherwise seems inexplicable. Three studies supported hypotheses derived from this dual-motive model. Framing a negative outcome (environmental destruction or climate change) as caused by one's own harmful actions (value threat) or unknown sources (control threat) both increased scapegoating, and these effects occurred indirectly through feelings of guilt and perceived personal control, respectively (Study 1), and were differentially moderated by affirmations of moral value and personal control (Study 2). Also, scapegoating in response to value threat versus control threat produced divergent, theoretically specified effects on self-perceptions and behavioral intentions (Study 3). 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  1. A Longitudinal Rejection Sensitivity Model of Depression and Aggression: Unique Roles of Anxiety, Anger, Blame, Withdrawal and Retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Nesdale, Drew; Webb, Haley J; Khatibi, Mhasa; Downey, Geraldine

    2016-10-01

    In this longitudinal study, attributional and social processes involved in symptoms of mental health problems (depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior) were identified by investigating anxious and angry rejection sensitivity (RS), causal attributions of self-blame and peer-blame, and responses to rejection threat of withdrawal and retribution. Young adolescents (N = 713, grades 5-7) completed questionnaires three times in their regular classrooms over 14 months. Participants who reported more self-blame for rejection were more likely to withdraw in response to rejection threat, and withdrawal and anxious RS were associated with increased depressive symptoms at T3 relative to T1. In contrast, adolescents higher in the angry form of RS and who reported more peer-blame for rejection were more likely to seek retribution, which in turn was associated with more overt/relational aggressive behavior at T3 relative to T1. Depressive symptom level measured at T1 also was associated with later RS and coping with withdrawal, and aggressive behavior at T1 was associated with later retribution. Sex of the participants did not moderate any longitudinal associations, and only one prospective path, from T1 depressive symptoms to T2 RS anxious, was moderated by age.

  2. Blaming the Victim and Exonerating the Perpetrator in Cases of Rape and Robbery: Is There a Double Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieneck, Steffen; Krahe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research in legal decision making has demonstrated the tendency to blame the victim and exonerate the perpetrator of sexual assault. This study examined the hypothesis of a special leniency bias in rape cases by comparing them to cases of robbery. N = 288 participants received descriptions of rape and robbery of a female victim by a male…

  3. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  4. Blame, Guilt and the Need for "Labels"; Insights from Parents of Children with Special Educational Needs and Educational Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on home-school relationships and blame has concentrated on the experiences of parents with children with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD). This has led to the voices of educational practitioners, as well as parents of children with other special educational needs, being neglected. This article, by Karen…

  5. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self-blame

  6. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  7. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  8. Climate change governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieling, Joerg [HafenCity Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Urban Planning and Regional Development; Leal Filho, Walter (eds.) [HAW Hamburg (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Science

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a cause for concern both globally and locally. In order for it to be tackled holistically, its governance is an important topic needing scientific and practical consideration. Climate change governance is an emerging area, and one which is closely related to state and public administrative systems and the behaviour of private actors, including the business sector, as well as the civil society and non-governmental organisations. Questions of climate change governance deal both with mitigation and adaptation whilst at the same time trying to devise effective ways of managing the consequences of these measures across the different sectors. Many books have been produced on general matters related to climate change, such as climate modelling, temperature variations, sea level rise, but, to date, very few publications have addressed the political, economic and social elements of climate change and their links with governance. This book will address this gap. Furthermore, a particular feature of this book is that it not only presents different perspectives on climate change governance, but it also introduces theoretical approaches and brings these together with practical examples which show how main principles may be implemented in practice.

  9. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  10. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  11. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  12. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  13. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  14. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  15. Shifting blame/selling health: corporate social responsibility in the age of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how and why health has become a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy for the global food and drink industry (FDI) in the context of current governmental and public calls to address mounting obesity rates. It argues that, despite the current prominence of health within CSR, there has not been a reciprocal interest by those adopting sociological approaches to the study of health and illness in the implications of this strategic uptake of health or in the viability and legitimacy of the state's own public health role. This omission is addressed through an empirical exploration of three contentions: first, that health and wellbeing may be used to secure brand value and consumer goodwill at a time when mounting obesity rates demand new levels of accountability from the FDI. Secondly, that the food industry, through CSR, may promote a narrow epidemiological understanding of obesity, shifting blame from 'foods' to 'diet' and from 'diet' to 'sedentarism'. Thirdly, that CSR reporting and its associated practices have enabled the food industry to assume some responsibility for obesity prevention, thereby problematising the state's role in addressing its own 'public health' crisis.

  16. A systems approach to accepted standards of care: Shifting the blame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Glance

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In healthcare, from a legal perspective, the standard ofacceptable practice has been generally set by the courts anddefined as healthcare professionals acting in a manner thatis widely accepted by their peers as meeting an acceptablestandard of care. This view, however, reflects the state ofhow practice “is” rather than what it “ought to be”. What isought to be depends on whether you take a “person” or“system” oriented approach to practice.The increasing pressures of lack of money and resources,and an ever-increasing need for care are bringing pressureon the health services to move to a system approach andthis is gaining acceptance both with clinicians and thuseventually the courts.A systems-type approach to healthcare will, by necessity,embrace clinical protocols and guidelines supported byclinical information systems. It will also see blame for errorsshifting from clinicians to the organisations that employthem.This paper argues that a continued use of a person-basedapproach to healthcare, developed through an historicalrecord of practice by individual clinicians, is no longeradequate defence in a case of supposed negligence.When the healthcare system has codified clinical guidelinesand digital data gathered across thousands of clinicians andtheir patients, it is possible to compute adequate levels ofcare and expect clinicians and the healthcare system ingeneral to meet these minimum standards.Future negligence decisions will rely on a systems-basedbest practice standard of care determined through evidencerather than opinion

  17. "Blame it on the weeds": politics, poverty, and ecology in the new South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Abigail H

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2000, spectacular fires burned in the natural veld of Cape Town, South Africa. As the fire-fighting effort finished, a theory emerged: invasive alien species, trees from other countries, such as Australia and the United States, were to blame for the fires. While the invasive alien hypothesis captured the attention of media and policy makers alike, there was little ecological evidence to support it. This article places the fires of 2000 in a longer history of post-apartheid policy and science surrounding invasive alien floral species, arguing that the fires allowed for a synergy between concerns over poverty relief, nature conservation, and scientific research. The most visible example of this synergy was an increased commitment to the Working for Water programme on the Cape Peninsula, a large-scale employment programme utilising unskilled labour to clear invasive alien species in order to conserve South African water resources. In addition to providing employment for South Africa's poorest citizens, Working for Water provided funding for ecological research about invasive alien species. The studies that resulted from this funding focused on gathering information to make practical suggestions for invasive species control. Although the focus of these studies was on management, the science used was itself as rigorous as it had ever been. In the post-apartheid era, as poverty relief and nature conservation came together, scientists ensured that they would continue to play a role in nature conservation by making their research relevant to both invasive species control and to poverty relief.

  18. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  19. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...

  20. The role of self-blaming moral emotions in major depression and their impact on social-economical decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ePulcu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available People with major depressive disorder (MDD are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognises excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotions in MDD. These self-blaming moral emotions have been purported to influence people when they make social and financial decisions in cognitive studies, particularly those using neuroeconomical paradigms. Such paradigms aim to predict social behaviour in activities of daily living, by using important resource tangibles (especially money in laboratory conditions. Previous literature suggests that guilt promotes altruistic behaviour via acting out reparative tendencies, whereas shame reduces altruism by means of increasing social and interpersonal distance. In the second part of this review, we will discuss the potential influence of self-blaming moral emotions on overt behaviour in MDD, reviewing clinical and experimental studies in social and financial decision-making, in which guilt and shame were manipulated. This is not a well-established area in the depression literature, however in this opinion paper we will argue that studies of moral emotions and their impact on behavioural decision-making are of potential importance in the clinical field, by linking specific symptoms of a disorder to a behavioural outcome which may lead to stratification of clinical diagnoses in the future.

  1. The role of self-blaming moral emotions in major depression and their impact on social-economical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem; Zahn, Roland; Elliott, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    People with major depressive disorder (MDD) are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognizes excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotions in MDD. These self-blaming moral emotions have been purported to influence people when they make social and financial decisions in cognitive studies, particularly those using neuroeconomical paradigms. Such paradigms aim to predict social behavior in activities of daily living, by using important resource tangibles (especially money) in laboratory conditions. Previous literature suggests that guilt promotes altruistic behavior via acting out reparative tendencies, whereas shame reduces altruism by means of increasing social and interpersonal distance. In the second part of this review, we will discuss the potential influence of self-blaming moral emotions on overt behavior in MDD, reviewing clinical and experimental studies in social and financial decision-making, in which guilt, and shame were manipulated. This is not a well-established area in the depression literature, however in this opinion paper we will argue that studies of moral emotions and their impact on behavioral decision-making are of potential importance in the clinical field, by linking specific symptoms of a disorder to a behavioral outcome which may lead to stratification of clinical diagnoses in the future.

  2. The Role of Self-Blaming Moral Emotions in Major Depression and Their Impact on Social-Economical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem; Zahn, Roland; Elliott, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    People with major depressive disorder (MDD) are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognizes excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotions in MDD. These self-blaming moral emotions have been purported to influence people when they make social and financial decisions in cognitive studies, particularly those using neuroeconomical paradigms. Such paradigms aim to predict social behavior in activities of daily living, by using important resource tangibles (especially money) in laboratory conditions. Previous literature suggests that guilt promotes altruistic behavior via acting out reparative tendencies, whereas shame reduces altruism by means of increasing social and interpersonal distance. In the second part of this review, we will discuss the potential influence of self-blaming moral emotions on overt behavior in MDD, reviewing clinical and experimental studies in social and financial decision-making, in which guilt, and shame were manipulated. This is not a well-established area in the depression literature, however in this opinion paper we will argue that studies of moral emotions and their impact on behavioral decision-making are of potential importance in the clinical field, by linking specific symptoms of a disorder to a behavioral outcome which may lead to stratification of clinical diagnoses in the future. PMID:23750148

  3. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Murgui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.

  4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder blame game: a study on the positioning of professionals, teachers and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is currently the most debated childhood psychiatric diagnosis. Given the circulation of competing perspectives about the 'real' causes of children's behaviour and the 'best' way to treat them, we aim to analyse the interactions of the central social actors' discourses about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children within the Italian context. Adopting a multi-method approach, we focus on the polyphonic chorus of voices surrounding the child, studying the discourses of mental health professionals, teachers and parents. These actors are representative of three contexts that are deeply engaged with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medical institutions, schools and families. Our theoretical and methodological approach integrates positioning theory, the Bakhtinian notion of dialogical thinking and discourse analysis to study stakeholders' reflexive and interactive positioning in terms of the attribution of rights, duties, responsibilities and power issues. The results show that mutual blame is a constitutive element of relational dynamics among the key adults surrounding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children. We argue that these conflicting relationships are not merely related to the debate regarding the validity of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Rather, the mutual blame centres on questions of compliance, recognition of authority and morality. Through the blame game, adults negotiate their own and others' subjectivity in ways that simultaneously (re)produce power relationships and resistance efforts.

  5. The gendered embodiment of shame: Intersections of acquaintance rape, trauma and self-blame in Pompidou posse by Sarah Lotz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Murray

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a feminist literary analysis of the gendered embodiment of shame in Pompidou posse by Sarah Lotz. In this novel, Lotz depicts female characters who are sexually assaulted by acquaintances and the resultant shame and trauma reside in their bodies. I will demonstrate that the embodied shame of these characters is distinctly gendered and that this shapes their attempts to cope with the aftermath of the sexual assaults. A close reading of the text reveals that the characters are exposed to overwhelming social messages of female culpability in a larger context that is rife with misogyny. As a result, they anticipate blame to such an extent that they blame themselves and internalise this blame as shame. By focusing on the bodies of the survivors, Lotz demonstrates the embodiment of shame, but she also suggests a corporeal challenge to silencing. The bodies of these characters speak loudly, albeit sometimes in the halting language of trauma, and they function to alert them to danger, to help them excavate memories that are made inaccessible and to testify to traumatic sexual assault.

  6. The ‘Blame Game’: Discourse Analysis of Family Members’ and Therapist Negotiation of Problem Definition in Systemic Family Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelopi Patrika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at shedding light to the complex ways in which blame and responsibility are negotiated, when family members and the therapist engage in problem definition talk in systemic family therapy. The article draws from a qualitative research study which was designed to explore problem talk in systemic family therapy by means of discourse analysis methodology. Nine videotaped initial systemic family therapy sessions in which four different therapists and six different families with a variety of reported difficulties were sampled. They were transcribed verbatim and subjected to micro-analysis by means of the Discursive Action Model. In the present article, we present the detailed analysis of one of the identified patterns of blame allocation, in which family members are shown to construct the identified patient’s deviation from normality as the cause of their difficulties while the therapist is shown to attempt to exonerate blame from the identified patient by means of positive connotation. We discuss the implications of our analysis for theory development and clinical practice in the field, in the context of a growing body of related research. We also hint to the potential of discourse analysis methodology for family therapy research.

  7. Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Hvidt, Niels C

    2016-07-01

    When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study with selected survey participants. The response rate was 59% (1237/2098), of which 85% stated that they had been involved in a traumatic childbirth. We formed five categories during the comparative mixed methods analysis: the patient, clinical peers, official complaints, guilt, and existential considerations. Although blame from patients, peers or official authorities was feared (and sometimes experienced), the inner struggles with guilt and existential considerations were dominant. Feelings of guilt were reported by 36-49%, and 50% agreed that the traumatic childbirth had made them think more about the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath of a traumatic childbirth. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  9. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  10. Corporate Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...

  11. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  12. Ducking for cover in the 'blame game': news framing of the findings of two reports into the 2010-11 Queensland floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Jacqui; McLean, Hamish

    2015-01-01

    After a disaster, the media typically focus on who is to blame. However, relatively little is known about how the narrative of blame plays out in media coverage of the release of official disaster reports. This paper examines coverage by two Australian newspapers (The Courier-Mail and The Australian) of the release of the Queensland Floods Commission of Inquiry's Interim Report and its Final Report to identify whether and how the news frame of blame was used. Given the absence of blame in the Final Report, the newspapers resorted to the frame of 'failure' in news and feature articles, while continuing to raise questions in editorials and opinion pieces about who was to blame. This study argues that situating coverage of the report within the news frame of failure and questioning who was to blame for the disaster limited the media's ability to facilitate a discussion about the prevention of similar disasters in the future. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  13. " Blaming, shaming, humiliation": Stigmatising medical interactions among people with non-epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Catherine; Lian, Olaug S

    2017-01-01

    Background : People with non-epileptic seizures (NES) describe challenging relationships with health professionals, and explain negative interactions as common and expected. Despite these difficulties, little is known about how people with NES experience difficult healthcare encounters. Methods : Using a thematic discourse analysis approach, we analysed the free-text survey responses of 135 people with NES and asked: what kind of challenges do people living with this condition encounter when interacting with health professionals, and how do they experience the consequences of difficult interactions? We explore their experiences by interpreting the latent meaning of participants' texts from a social-constructionist perspective on health and illness. Results : The overarching narrative depicts a fundamental breakdown in patient-provider relationships. According to our data, the negative experiences of study participants emerge from more than practitioners' lack of awareness of NES and access to information about the condition - to the extent that it is available. In examining the challenges people with NES encounter when interacting with health professionals, their main experiences centre on blame and humiliation. When exploring their experiences, theories of stigma serve as a useful theoretical framework. Conclusions : Normative judgements arising from psychogenic understandings of NES are stigmatising and restrict professional displays of respectful (patient-centred) care. Those with the condition depict being negatively stereotyped, illegitimated and held morally culpable by health professionals. Perceived to lack medical, moral and credible status, participants describe practitioners who treat them with disrespect, and some recount conduct that defies all ethical and professional obligations and standards. These encounters can have wide-ranging adverse consequences for patients: emotionally, physically, and for their future healthcare. The quality of healthcare

  14. Blaming, shaming, humiliation”: Stigmatising medical interactions among people with non-epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Catherine; Lian, Olaug S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with non-epileptic seizures (NES) describe challenging relationships with health professionals, and explain negative interactions as common and expected. Despite these difficulties, little is known about how people with NES experience difficult healthcare encounters. Methods: Using a thematic discourse analysis approach, we analysed the free-text survey responses of 135 people with NES and asked: what kind of challenges do people living with this condition encounter when interacting with health professionals, and how do they experience the consequences of difficult interactions? We explore their experiences by interpreting the latent meaning of participants’ texts from a social-constructionist perspective on health and illness. Results: The overarching narrative depicts a fundamental breakdown in patient-provider relationships. According to our data, the negative experiences of study participants emerge from more than practitioners’ lack of awareness of NES and access to information about the condition - to the extent that it is available. In examining the challenges people with NES encounter when interacting with health professionals, their main experiences centre on blame and humiliation. When exploring their experiences, theories of stigma serve as a useful theoretical framework. Conclusions: Normative judgements arising from psychogenic understandings of NES are stigmatising and restrict professional displays of respectful (patient-centred) care. Those with the condition depict being negatively stereotyped, illegitimated and held morally culpable by health professionals. Perceived to lack medical, moral and credible status, participants describe practitioners who treat them with disrespect, and some recount conduct that defies all ethical and professional obligations and standards. These encounters can have wide-ranging adverse consequences for patients: emotionally, physically, and for their future healthcare. The quality of healthcare

  15. Discourses of Blame and Responsibility: U.S./Canadian Media Representations of Palestinian-Israeli Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Baltodano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption of a deep cultural divide between Canada and the United States, the researchers employed critical discourse analysis to examine the texts of one U.S. and one Canadian newspaper as artifacts and productions of the two countries' cultural inclinations toward international conflict and peace. The authors found differences in the intensity and pervasiveness of pro-militaristic discourse in the two nations' media texts but did not find evidence to support the thesis that Canada and the United States are divided by profound and intractable distinctions of values, beliefs or cultures. Instead the two newspapers demonstrated a noteworthy similarity of language, tone and text that presented shared perspectives on distant political and electoral initiatives in Israel and Palestine. Several strong similarities appeared across some two years of news coverage and political statements in Canada and the United States about the Palestinian parliamentary and presidential elections as well as the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza. Five familiar themes emerged to present Israelis and Palestinians in largely dichotomous and oppositional terms. When the news context was an election or a withdrawal from occupied territory, rather than military aggression, media nevertheless represented the two parties as engaged in a zero-sum game. The consistent narratives of "othering" established and re-enforced narrow roles for both parties, placed blame and responsibility, and charged Palestinians with the (often unilateral obligation to resolve the conflict. This media coverage demonstrates a convergence rather than a division of cultures across the longest undefended border in the world. These findings also support earlier work establishing the prevalence of "war journalism" in mainstream news coverage by the West. In news contexts that might have provided an opportunity to embrace significant components of Johan Galtung's concept of peace journalism, neither

  16. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  17. IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...

  18. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  19. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  20. From the Consulting Room to the Court Room? Taking the Clinical Model of Responsibility Without Blame into the Legal Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Within contemporary penal philosophy, the view that punishment can only be justified if the offender is a moral agent who is responsible and hence blameworthy for their offence is one of the few areas on which a consensus prevails. In recent literature, this precept is associated with the retributive tradition, in the modern form of ‘just deserts’. Turning its back on the rehabilitative ideal, this tradition forges a strong association between the justification of punishment, the attribution of responsible agency in relation to the offence, and the appropriateness of blame. By contrast, effective clinical treatment of disorders of agency employs a conceptual framework in which ideas of responsibility and blameworthiness are clearly separated from what we call ‘affective blame’: the range of hostile, negative attitudes and emotions that are typical human responses to criminal or immoral conduct. We argue that taking this clinical model of ‘responsibility without blame’ into the legal realm offers new possibilities. Theoretically, it allows for the reconciliation of the idea of ‘just deserts’ with a rehabilitative ideal in penal philosophy. Punishment can be reconceived as consequences—typically negative but occasionally not, so long as they are serious and appropriate to the crime and the context—imposed in response to, by reason of, and in proportion to responsibility and blameworthiness, but without the hard treatment and stigma typical of affective blame. Practically, it suggests how sentencing and punishment can better avoid affective blame and instead further rehabilitative and related ends, while yet serving the demands of justice. PMID:24771953

  1. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  2. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  3. The Rise of Blog Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the growth of blogs in popular culture, and the fact that they are becoming more widely accepted in the media industry. The rise and popularity of blogs--short for "Web logs"--are causing journalism educators to overhaul their teachings. In fact, blogging's influence varies from one university program to the next, just like…

  4. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  5. Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagondahalli, Deepa; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2012-04-01

    Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Urban

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  7. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  8. Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and propo......INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers...... and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study...... the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath...

  9. Shame and guilt/self-blame as predictors of expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Suro, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the family environment reflecting the amount of criticism and emotional over-involvement expressed by a key relative towards a family member with a disorder or impairment. Patients from high EE homes have a poorer illness prognosis than do patients from low EE homes. Despite EE's well-established predictive validity, questions remain regarding why some family members express high levels of EE attitudes while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed the Five Minute Speech Sample to measure EE, along with questionnaires assessing self-directed emotions. In line with the hypotheses, higher levels of both shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia predicted high EE. Results of the current study elucidate the EE construct and have implications for working with families of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22357355

  10. Argentina's chemical makers seek government support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, F.

    1993-01-01

    Argentina's chemical industry association, Camara de la Industria Quimica y Petroquimica (CIQYP; Buenos Aires), has started negotiations with the government aiming to stem industry-wide losses, which reached $236 million during the past 18 months. CIQYP blames the poor performance on worldwide over-supply and falling prices, which have curbed exports, and low tariffs, which have spurred imports. It is calling for higher import tariffs and export incentives. The talks will also focus on a possible bond issue that would support companies willing to restructure and modernize operations. The main factor hindering competitiveness is what CIQYP president Alejandro Achaval calls Argentinean cost, including high energy costs, high provincial and federal taxes, and high financing charges. Since 1988, the industry has cut prices by 30%, formed mergers and joint ventures, closed 11 plants and started five new ones, slashed the workforce by 27%, and engaged in the government's privatization program. Meanwhile, plans to privatize 64% of aromatics producer Petroquimica General Mosconi(PGM) were derailed when potential bidders Diamond Shamrock, Shell, and Perez Companc refused for the second time to make offers on February 2. Jorge Olazabal, planning secretary of the Ministry of Defense, says PGM will be put up for sale again by March

  11. Beyond Blame: Challenging Violence in the Media. Leader's Guide D: Teen/Adult Classes and Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Barbara Bliss

    This guide provides an approach for high school educators and instructors of adult learners to teach media literacy and promote an informed public conversation about the impact of violent imagery in the culture today. Five key goals govern the program: (1) to reduce exposure to media violence; (2) to change the impact of violent images that are…

  12. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  13. Rethinking Federalism for More Effective Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alice M. Rivlin

    2012-01-01

    For common reasons the federal government and most state governments face rising structural deficits even as the economy recovers. An aging population requires retirement income and increasingly expensive health care, while a prosperous economy requires public investment in skills, technology, and infrastructure. However, stressed federal and state tax systems are increasingly inadequate. The author revisits proposals, made twenty years ago, for substantial changes in fiscal federalism design...

  14. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  15. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  16. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  17. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  18. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  19. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  20. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this

  1. Invited Commentary: Can Issues With Reproducibility in Science Be Blamed on Hypothesis Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Clarice R

    2017-09-15

    In the accompanying article (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(6):646-647), Dr. Timothy Lash makes a forceful case that the problems with reproducibility in science stem from our "culture" of null hypothesis significance testing. He notes that when attention is selectively given to statistically significant findings, the estimated effects will be systematically biased away from the null. Here I revisit the recent history of genetic epidemiology and argue for retaining statistical testing as an important part of the tool kit. Particularly when many factors are considered in an agnostic way, in what Lash calls "innovative" research, investigators need a selection strategy to identify which findings are most likely to be genuine, and hence worthy of further study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Federalism and multilevel governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally

  3. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  4. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  5. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  6. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  7. Government for the People; On the Determinants of the Size of U.S. Government

    OpenAIRE

    Tamim Bayoumi; Fernando M. Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    Trends in the size of U.S. government are examined. In the postwar period, general government primary spending rose by ¼ percent of GDP a year through 1975, stabilizing thereafter. With higher social transfers offset by a lower burden of defense spending, expansion reflected a baby-boom driven rise in education spending. The parallel improvement in tax efficiency helped equate the benefits of higher spending with the costs from higher taxation, in accordance with a marginalist view of the siz...

  8. Powernext Carbon rises in power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conil-Lacoste, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Powernext Carbon, the French CO 2 stock exchange, allows industrialists to trade CO 2 emission quotas. Those who have exhausted their allocated quotas can purchase new ones to other industrialists who have emitted less CO 2 than expected. Thanks to Powernext Carbon, the 'polluter pays principle' finally finds a concrete implementation. This article is an interview of J.F. Conil-Lacoste, general director of Powernext, who clarifies some points of the carbon trading system: lessons learnt after 18 months of activity of Powernext Carbon, measures to be implemented to encourage the development of Powernext Carbon, changes made in the 2008-2012 quotas allocation plan of the French government, mechanism of credits for emissions abatement and their role in CO 2 abatement, relevance of a quotas system for individuals. (J.S.)

  9. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  10. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  11. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’Kiely, Doireann

    2015-03-03

    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following the initiation of rise, t, like h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2}. This is in contrast to the rise on a vertical plate, which obeys the classic capillary-inertia scaling h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. We highlight a subtlety in the scaling analysis that yielded h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2} and investigate the consequences of this subtlety. We develop a potential flow model of the dynamic problem, which we solve using the finite element method. Our numerical results agree well with previous experiments but suggest that the correct early time behaviour is, in fact, h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. Furthermore, we show that at intermediate times the dynamic rise of the meniscus is governed by two parameters: the contact angle and the cylinder radius measured relative to the capillary length scale, t^{2/3}. This result allows us to collapse previous experimental results with different cylinder radii (but similar static contact angles) onto a single master curve.

  12. Hypertension Due to Toxic White Crystals in the Diet: Should We Blame Salt or Sugar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    The "Salt Hypothesis" is the notion that an increase in salt intake will increase blood pressure and thus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD),which has been a point of contention for decades. Despite this, numerous health organizations, dietary guidelines, and government policies advocate population-wide salt restriction. However, there is no conclusive proof that restricting salt intake reduces the risk of hypertension (HTN) and/or CVD events; sodium restriction in fact may paradoxically lead to adverse health outcomes. Importantly, another white crystal, sucrose (or table sugar) but also high-fructose corn syrup are much more detrimental food additives. Indeed, added sugars have the ability to induce hypertension via the promotion of inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and obesity. Considering that there is no physiologic requirement for dietary carbohydrate, there is little reason to suspect adverse health consequences from cutting back on sugar. This paper reviews the evidence relating to salt and sugar on HTN and CVD. Based on our review of the scientific literature, guidelines should focus more on reducing sugar rather than salt for the prevention and treatment of HTN and its consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  14. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  15. Public management and governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovaird, A. G; Löffler, Elke

    2009-01-01

    ... how the process of governing needs to be fundamentally altered if a government is to retain public trust and make better use of society's resources. Key themes covered include: ■ ■ ■ ■ the challenges and pressures which governments experience in an international context; the changing functions of modern government in the global economy; the 'mixed ec...

  16. Anthropogenic sea level rise and adaptation in the Yangtze estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Ruan, R.; Xu, G.; Zeng, G.; Zhu, J.; Dai, Z.; Gu, S.; Zhang, X.; Wang, H.

    2016-02-01

    Sea level rise is a major projected threat of climate change. There are regional variations in sea level changes, depending on both naturally the tectonic subsidence, geomorphology, naturally changing river inputs and anthropogenic driven forces as artificial reservoir water impoundment within the watershed and urban land subsidence driven by ground water depletion in the river delta. Little is known on regional sea level fall in response to the channel erosion due to the sediment discharge decline by reservoir interception in the upstream watershed, and water level rise driven by anthropogenic measures as the land reclamation, deep waterway regulation and fresh water reservoir construction to the sea level change in estuaries. Changing coastal cities are situated in the delta regions expected to be threatened in various degrees. Shanghai belongs to those cities. Here we show that the anthropogenic driven sea level rise in the Yangtze estuary from the point of view of the continuous hydrodynamic system consisted of river catchment, estuary and coastal sea. Land subsidence is cited as 4 mm/a (2011-2030). Scour depth of the estuarine channel by upstream engineering as Three Gauge Dam is estimated at 2-10 cm (2011-2030). The rise of water level by deep waterway and land reclamation is estimated at 8-10 cm (2011-2030). The relative sea level rise will be speculated about 10 -16 cm (2011-2030), which these anthropogenic sea level changes will be imposed into the absolute sea level rise 2 mm/a and tectonic subsidence 1 mm/a measured in 1990s. The action guideline to the sea level rise strategy in the Shanghai city have been proposed to the Shanghai government as (1) recent actions (2012-2015) to upgrade the city water supply and drainage engineering and protective engineering; (2) interim actions (2016-2020) to improve sea level monitoring and early warning system, and then the special, city, regional planning considering sea level rise; (3) long term actions (2021

  17. Hospital reforms in France under a Socialist government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pouvourville, G

    1986-01-01

    French health care faced the dual crises of rising costs and excess physicians. No government, whether left or right, could avoid focusing reform on the extensive public hospital system. Many differences introduced by the Socialists after 1981 were rhetorical and relational--matters of "democratization" of governance and "control" of physicians. Paradoxically, the two major structural reforms, "departmentalization" and "global budgeting," were extensions of actions begun under preceding governments. Neither has come to fruition yet.

  18. "She deserved it": Effects of sexism norms, type of violence, and victim's pre-assault behavior on blame attributions toward female victims and approval of the aggressor's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sabrina; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-04-01

    Effects of ambivalent sexism, sexism norms, victim behavior, and type of violence on male students' reactions to male violence against women in intimate relationships were examined. Participants judged a scenario depicting an act of sexual or non-sexual violence against a female partner who had either shown overtly sexual or non-sexual behavior toward another man. Generally, high (vs. low) hostile sexism, high (vs. low) hostile sexism norm feedback, and victim's overtly sexual (vs. non-sexual) behavior led to stronger victim blame and perceived approval of the aggressor's behavior. The victim of non-sexual violence was blamed more than the rape victim, particularly if she had behaved in an overtly sexual manner.

  19. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  20. Transitions governance: Towards a new governance paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a framework for governance in the context of large scale and long term societal change (transitions). We argue that existing theories of governance offer interesting descriptive insights for such a framework, but do not present innovative prescriptive ideas

  1. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  2. Leadership and Governance in Regional Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2015-01-01

    the idea that market-led governance offers a superior model of leadership for regional tourism. This paper adopts an embedded case study approach, undertaking a comparison of leadership in two RTOs that are operating in the same geographical location but under different governance regimes. Semi......-structured interviews with executives/leaders and stakeholders/followers were undertaken in two RTOs, a market-led organization and a government-led organization. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of governance arrangements on the capacity of these RTOs to lead tourism. Findings reveal that while......The rise of neoliberal market management has contributed to an incontrovertible “truth” that regional tourism organizations (RTOs) established and led by business actors are more effective in leading regional tourism development. Despite these assertions, little evidence has surfaced to support...

  3. Social construction of victim’s blame, with special emphasis on criminal procedure against accused for the assassination of Zoran Đinđić, the prime minister of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of victim blaming is analyzed, in general, and particularly, in the criminal procedure and through the media. Also, the attention is paid to the secondary victimization of family members of murder victims in general, and, especially, in criminal procedure, and when there is the tendency of blaming direct victim. In the first part of the paper the overview of existing theoretical knowledge is given. In the second part, the analyses of social construction of victim’s ...

  4. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government...... to promote international competitiveness of domestic businesses. Both sets of explanations see governments as driving CSR policies to meet particular national government goals. Support is found for the thesis that CSR policies are often related to international competitiveness, yet our findings suggest...... that government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....

  5. Regional approaches in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconopisceva, O. G.; Proskurin, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    The evolutionary process of high-rise construction is in the article focus. The aim of the study was to create a retrospective matrix reflecting the tasks of the study such as: structuring the most iconic high-rise objects within historic boundaries. The study is based on contemporary experience of high-rise construction in different countries. The main directions and regional specifics in the field of high-rise construction as well as factors influencing the further evolution process are analyzed. The main changes in architectural stylistics, form-building, constructive solutions that focus on the principles of energy efficiency and bio positivity of "sustainable buildings", as well as the search for a new typology are noted. The most universal constructive methods and solutions that turned out to be particularly popular are generalized. The new typology of high-rises and individual approach to urban context are noted. The results of the study as a graphical scheme made it possible to represent the whole high-rise evolution. The new spatial forms of high-rises lead them to new role within the urban environments. Futuristic hyperscalable concepts take the autonomous urban space functions itself and demonstrate us how high-rises can replace multifunctional urban fabric, developing it inside their shells.

  6. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  7. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  8. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  9. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how de...

  10. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  11. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  12. The terminal rise velocity of bubble in a liquid column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario Ar Talaia

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: As it is know, buoyancy and drag forces govern bubble rising velocity in a liquid column. These forces strongly depend on fluid proprieties and gravity as well as bubble equivalent diameter. The present work reports about a set of experiments bubble rising velocity in a liquid column using liquid with different kinematics viscosity. Records of terminal velocity were obtained, over a wide range of dynamic viscosity. The results show that the terminal rise velocity of bubble is strongly influenced by the effect of kinematics viscosity. The interpretation of physical phenomenon is considered. The set data permit to have a game of terminal velocities of 7.96 - 32.86 cm.s -1 with Reynolds number of 0.8 - 7491. The bubble movement is recorded with a camera video, which will be presented. Our aim goal is to present an original set data and the results are discussed in light of theory of two-phase flow. Prediction of bubble terminal velocity is discussed, so as, the range of applicability. (author)

  13. Practice of good governance and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Bălăceanu Cristina; Predonu Andreea – Monica

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization), in effect re...

  14. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  15. 'I call it the blame and shame disease': a qualitative study about perceptions of social stigma surrounding type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jessica L; Ventura, Adriana; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane

    2013-11-18

    While health-related stigma has been the subject of considerable research in other conditions (obesity and HIV/AIDS), it has not received substantial attention in diabetes. The aim of the current study was to explore the social experiences of Australian adults living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with a particular focus on the perception and experience of diabetes-related stigma. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. This study was conducted in non-clinical settings in metropolitan and regional areas in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants were recruited primarily through the state consumer organisation representing people with diabetes. All adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM living in Victoria were eligible to take part. Twenty-five adults with T2DM participated (12 women; median age 61 years; median diabetes duration 5 years). A total of 21 (84%) participants indicated that they believed T2DM was stigmatised, or reported evidence of stigmatisation. Specific themes about the experience of stigma were feeling blamed by others for causing their own condition, being subject to negative stereotyping, being discriminated against or having restricted opportunities in life. Other themes focused on sources of stigma, which included the media, healthcare professionals, friends, family and colleagues. Themes relating to the consequences of this stigma were also evident, including participants' unwillingness to disclose their condition to others and psychological distress. Participants believed that people with type 1 diabetes do not experience similar stigmatisation. Our study found evidence of people with T2DM experiencing and perceiving diabetes-related social stigma. Further research is needed to explore ways to measure and minimise diabetes-related stigma at the individual and societal levels, and also to explore perceptions and experiences of stigma in people with

  16. Fear and blame in mental health nurses' accounts of restrictive practices: Implications for the elimination of seclusion and restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; O'Kane, Deb; Oster, Candice

    2018-03-09

    Restrictive practices continue to be used in mental health care despite increasing recognition of their harms and an international effort to reduce and ultimately eliminate their use. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore mental health nurses' views of the potential elimination of these practices. Nine focus groups were conducted with 44 mental health nurses across Australia, and the data analysed using thematic analysis. Overall, the nurses expressed significant fear about the potential elimination of restrictive practices and saw themselves as being blamed for both the use of these practices and the consequences should they be eliminated. Findings detail the conflicts facing staff in balancing the need for ward safety for everyone present while at the same time providing person-centred care. Nurses described the changing role of the mental health nurse in acute settings, being more focussed on risk assessment and medication while at the same time attempting to practise in trauma-informed person-centred ways. The impact on ward safety with increasing acuity of consumers plus the presence of forensic consumers and those affected by methamphetamine was emphasized. Change initiatives need to take into account nurses' deep concerns about the consequences of eliminating all forms of control measures in hospitals and respond to the symptoms and behaviours consumers present with and associated unpredictable and concerning behaviours. Attempts to eliminate restrictive practices should, therefore, be carefully considered and come with a clear articulation of alternatives to ensure the safety of consumers, visitors, and staff. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  18. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  19. Governing Academic Medical Center Systems: Evaluating and Choosing Among Alternative Governance Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Ramya; O'Hanlon, Claire; Chen, Peggy; Leuschner, Kristin; Nelson, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The ability of academic medical centers (AMCs) to fulfill their triple mission of patient care, medical education, and research is increasingly being threatened by rising financial pressures and resource constraints. Many AMCs are, therefore, looking to expand into academic medical systems, increasing their scale through consolidation or affiliation with other health care systems. As clinical operations grow, though, the need for effective governance becomes even more critical to ensure that the business of patient care does not compromise the rest of the triple mission. Multi-AMC systems, a model in which multiple AMCs are governed by a single body, pose a particular challenge in balancing unity with the needs of component AMCs, and therefore offer lessons for designing AMC governance approaches. This article describes the development and application of a set of criteria to evaluate governance options for one multi-AMC system-the University of California (UC) and its five AMCs. Based on a literature review and key informant interviews, the authors identified criteria for evaluating governance approaches (structures and processes), assessed current governance approaches using the criteria, identified alternative governance options, and assessed each option using the identified criteria. The assessment aided UC in streamlining governance operations to enhance their ability to respond efficiently to change and to act collectively. Although designed for UC and a multi-AMC model, the criteria may provide a systematic way for any AMC to assess the strengths and weaknesses of its governance approaches.

  20. Rising tides, rising gates: The complex ecogeomorphic response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise and human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven G.; Rodríguez, José F.; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia M.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to submergence due to sea-level rise, as shown by predictions of up to 80% of global wetland loss by the end of the century. Coastal wetlands with mixed mangrove-saltmarsh vegetation are particularly vulnerable because sea-level rise can promote mangrove encroachment on saltmarsh, reducing overall wetland biodiversity. Here we use an ecogeomorphic framework that incorporates hydrodynamic effects, mangrove-saltmarsh dynamics, and soil accretion processes to assess the effects of control structures on wetland evolution. Migration and accretion patterns of mangrove and saltmarsh are heavily dependent on topography and control structures. We find that current management practices that incorporate a fixed gate for the control of mangrove encroachment are useful initially, but soon become ineffective due to sea-level rise. Raising the gate, to counteract the effects of sea level rise and promote suitable hydrodynamic conditions, excludes mangrove and maintains saltmarsh over the entire simulation period of 100 years

  1. Transforming Government Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...... both aiming at realizing this strategy by reengineering back office processes and implement one-stop shopping. The research contributes to the e-government literature by identifying key differences between the two cases in terms of dynamic capabilities, by identifying the importance...

  2. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Singapore Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Sea level in Singapore Strait is governed by various scale phenomena, from global to local. Global signals are dominated by the climate change and multi-decadal variability and associated sea level rise; at regional scale seasonal sea level variability is caused by ENSO-modulated monsoons; locally, astronomic tides are the strongest force. Tide gauge records in Singapore Strait are analyzed to derive local sea level trend, and attempts are made to attribute observed sea level variability to phenomena at various scales, from global to local. It is found that at annual scale, sea level anomalies in Singapore Strait are quasi-periodic, of the order of ±15 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level falls are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are related to La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±9 cm. At multi-decadal scale, sea level in Singapore Strait has been rising at the rate 1.2-1.9 mm/year for the period 1975-2009, 2.0±0.3 mm/year for 1984-2009, and 1.3-4.7 mm/year for 1993-2009. When compared with the respective global trends of 2.0±0.3, 2.4, and 2.8±0.8 mm/year, Singapore Strait sea level rise trend was weaker at the earlier period and stronger at the recent decade.

  3. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  4. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  5. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  6. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  7. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  8. Control mechanisms in corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Zattila Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of corporate governance is determined by the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different actors in the company structure. Organizationally complex structure of corporate entities, established as a reflection of composite forms of business corporations, give rise to the conflict of interest between the owners, the board of directors and managers, which is generally known as the principal-agency problem. Given the fact that operations of modern companies include interaction with a large number of stakeholders, matters of ethics and accountability to the owners, employees, creditors and the state are the basic postulates which have been subject to re-examination lately. The reasons for reassessing these issues are to be sought in numerous abuses by companies, which are on the other hand highly active in their effors to protect themselves from similar abuses (mainy cyber crime. In order to respond to new challenges and requirements, which include providing for the interests of both shareholders and stakeholders, corporate management is required to establish an adequate system of internal control covering all company activities. Contemporary trends in the development of internal audit, as a mechanism of good corporate governance, are reflected in providing advice in respect of anticipated future risks and risk management.

  9. Hibernia project gets another government boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian governments will provide a financial backstop for development of Hibernia oil field off Newfoundland while a new partner i sought. Ottawa and Newfoundland will pay as much as $127 million or 75% of development costs incurred by the companies from May 15 to Nov. 1, 192. That figure could rise to $185 million if an agreement is extended to Jan. 1, 1993, by mutual consent. The governments will pay only if the project on the Grand Banks is suspended or terminated and buyers can't be found for Gulf's 25% interest. The federal government agreed to pay two thirds of the indemnity, Newfoundland one third. A federal spokesman the Ottawa does not expect to have to pay the funds. The agreement represents an insurance policy for participating companies

  10. Governance Strategies for a Sustainable Digital World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Linkov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization is changing society by the increased connectivity and networking that digital technologies enable, such as enhancing communication, services, and trade. Increasingly, policymakers within various national governments and international organizations such as the United Nations (UN and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD are examining the original sustainability policy concepts applied within the Brundtland Report of 1987 through the lens of digitalization. While the growth of a digital economy may increase productivity and benefit local and global economies, digitalization also raises potential sustainability challenges pertaining to social (i.e., the benefits or costs imposed by disruptive digital technologies upon social networks and ways of life, including threats to economic sustainability and the rise of economic disparity and environmental wellbeing (i.e., natural resource stewardship and concern for future generations driven by the automation of information processing and delivery of services. Various perspectives have been raised regarding how the process of digitalization might be governed, and national governments remain at odds regarding a single best strategy to promote sustainable digitalization using the Brundtland concept to meet the development needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations (i.e., social and environmental well-being. This paper reviews three governance strategies that countries can use in conjunction with adaptive governance to respond to digitalization sustainability threats: (i a laissez-faire, industry-driven approach; (ii a precautionary and preemptive strategy on the part of government; and (iii a stewardship and “active surveillance” approach by government agencies that reduce the risks derived from digitalization while promoting private sector innovation. Regardless of a state’s digital governance response and how it is shaped by

  11. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    , according to Titus et al, is for communities to develop a common vision about which lands will be protected and which lands will yield to the rising sea, similar to the way land use plans identify commercial, residential, agricultural, and conservation lands. The supplementary material in their paper (as well as a related web site suggested by the peer review process of this journal) provides maps that depict the likelihood of shore protection based on existing land use data and the assessment of the local governments. Such maps, they suggest, might be used as a starting point to promote dialogue within communities about which lands should be protected and which lands are allowed to become submerged. A second tripping point relates to conflict between existing environmental laws and their collective ability to respond to the impacts of global warming. For example, property owners are automatically issued permits for construction of hard shore-protection structures (e.g. bulkheads and revetments) without an assessment of their environmental impact. Normally, under the Clean Water Act, the impact of each permit is assessed separately, but there is a special expedited process for activities with no cumulative impact. The Corps of Engineers concluded that shore protection does not have a cumulative impact, and that might be true if shore erosion was rare and stable shores the general rule. But once we recognize that the sea level is rising, then shore erosion becomes the general rule and a cumulative impact is likely. Under the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), cumulative impacts have been defined as `the impacts of an activity ``added to other past present and reasonably future actions'' regardless of who takes the other actions'. If the NEPA were actually evoked, it would considerably delay permit approvals and substantially impact the Corps of Engineers' process for issuing permits. The potential impact of sea level rise clearly requires a holistic approach to

  12. The orthopaedist's role in healthcare system governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    Historically, physicians as participants in healthcare governance were shunned because of perceived potential for conflict of interest. This maxim is being revisited as health systems begin to appreciate the value presented by physician leaders. This overview of the orthopaedist's role in healthcare governance will be addressed in three sections: first to identify the need for change in American healthcare, second to examine the role that physicians should play in governing over this inevitable change, and third to outline strategies for effective participation for those physicians wishing to play a role in healthcare governance. The PubMed data set was queried applying the search commands "governance AND (healthcare OR hospital) AND (doctor OR physician OR surgeon)" for the time period 1969 to 2012. In addition, the bibliographies of relevant articles were reviewed. This search strategy returned 404 titles. Abstract and article review identified 19 relevant to the topic. Bibliographic review identified five more articles of relevance forming the foundation for this review. The delivery of American health care will require change to face current economic realities. Organizations that embrace this change guided by the insight of physician governors are well positioned to recognize the simultaneous improvement in value and quality. Although few physicians are formally trained for these roles, multiple paths to becoming effective governors are available. In this environment of rapid change in healthcare delivery, the medical insight of physician leadership will prove invaluable. Governing bodies should reach out to talented physicians and administratively talented physicians should rise to this challenge.

  13. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  14. HiRISE: The People's Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/). Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/) and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish/), opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  15. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes...

  16. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  17. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  18. Energy Efficiency Governance: Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.

  19. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  20. Gobernanza Versus Gobierno Governance Versus Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany-Robert Dufour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento del término moderno de gobierno por el postmoderno de gobernanza, pone de manifiesto un nuevo lenguaje postmoderno en el que se deja entrever que ambas nociones, gobierno y gobernanza, tienden a oponerse. La gobernanza corporativa designa la toma del poder del capitalismo financiero sobre el capitalismo industrial, que no es otra cosa que, por un lado, propender por la rentabilidad máxima para los accionistas, valorizar todo en el mercado sin consideraciones morales, obligar a los actores a la búsqueda de riesgo permanente y flexibilizar las relaciones jerárquicas en la Administración de la empresa; y por el otro, la marginación de la clase obrera. La gobernanza ha llegado a los asuntos políticos convirtiéndose en modelo de gestión pública por excelencia, ella trata que el gobierno reducido a su mínima expresión guie a una sociedad civil que adquiere un papel importante en la creación y seguimiento de las diferentes políticas, es decir, que el gobierno adquiere una forma flexible de regulación, es allá donde la gobernanza política nos conduce, a la supuesta autorregulación de los intereses privados que sumados pasan a configurar el interés general. En realidad se trata de una nueva forma de dominación marcada por un desvanecimiento político, donde la sociedad civil juega en contra del Estado. La gobernanza le está tendiendo una temible trampa a la democracia, en tanto se presenta como una ampliación de la democracia materializada en una mejor participación de la sociedad civil, destruyendo la persona pública que se forma por la unión de todos los otros y convirtiéndola en representante de intereses particulares.The displacement of the modern term of government for the postmodern one of governance, reveals a new postmodern language in which one is left to guess that both notions, government and governance, tend to be opposed. Corporate governance signifies the seizure of power of financial capitalism

  1. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  2. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  3. Implementing clinical governance in English primary care groups/trusts: reconciling quality improvement and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S M; Sheaff, R; Sibbald, B; Marshall, M N; Pickard, S; Gask, L; Halliwell, S; Rogers, A; Roland, M O

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the concept of clinical governance being advocated by primary care groups/trusts (PCG/Ts), approaches being used to implement clinical governance, and potential barriers to its successful implementation in primary care. Qualitative case studies using semi-structured interviews and documentation review. Twelve purposively sampled PCG/Ts in England. Fifty senior staff including chief executives, clinical governance leads, mental health leads, and lay board members. Participants' perceptions of the role of clinical governance in PCG/Ts. PCG/Ts recognise that the successful implementation of clinical governance in general practice will require cultural as well as organisational changes, and the support of practices. They are focusing their energies on supporting practices and getting them involved in quality improvement activities. These activities include, but move beyond, conventional approaches to quality assessment (audit, incentives) to incorporate approaches which emphasise corporate and shared learning. PCG/Ts are also engaged in setting up systems for monitoring quality and for dealing with poor performance. Barriers include structural barriers (weak contractual levers to influence general practices), resource barriers (perceived lack of staff or money), and cultural barriers (suspicion by practice staff or problems overcoming the perceived blame culture associated with quality assessment). PCG/Ts are focusing on setting up systems for implementing clinical governance which seek to emphasise developmental and supportive approaches which will engage health professionals. Progress is intentionally incremental but formidable challenges lie ahead, not least reconciling the dual role of supporting practices while monitoring (and dealing with poor) performance.

  4. Navigating Polycentric Governance from a Citizen’s Perspective: The Rising New Middle Classes Respond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Fowler (Alan); K. Biekart (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA global growth in the middle class is anticipated to influence development choices and the evolution of domestic polities associated with a ‘rising‘ South. Responding to the local effects of a multipolar world order will add to a citizen’s existing need to navigate national

  5. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Michael; Ivanova, Zinaida

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author's sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  6. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don’t provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers’ behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  7. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Michael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author’s sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  8. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  9. The Rise of the Professional Field of Medicine in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Carlhed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of conditions enabling the rise of the professional field of medicine in Sweden. The analysis is based mainly on second- ary data, while the use of primary data is restricted to official statistics. Primarily, it aims to study the conditions promoting professionalization in medicine. Important exogenous conditions were derived from early emerging nation state administration structures concerning policy and governance of public health, as well as a delegated supervision of professional health activities to the medical profession and the organization of a public national health care system. Professionalization strategies such as social organization of the medical profession and their use of a variety of legitimizing resources as tools for jurisdictional claims are considered as endogenous conditions. Broadly, the analysis shows a close relationship between the growth of professionalization in the field of medicine and the development of state prosperity in the Swedish welfare state. 

  10. Paradoxes around good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2013-01-01

    textabstract Good governance is not a new concept Ambrogio Lorenzetti made his frescoes on good and bad governance already in the years 1338-1340 They can be viewed in the Palazzo Publicco on one of the most beautiful squares of the world, the Piazza del Campo in Siena, Italy I assume many of you

  11. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  12. Partnerships and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....

  13. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  14. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  15. Benefit from the Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Profijt van de overheid. Income levels are determined to a considerable extent by the government, which exerts an influence through social security and taxation. The traditional purchasing power tables are a reflection of this. However, the influence of the government goes

  16. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  17. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  18. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  19. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  20. DOD Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency

  1. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation.......This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation....

  2. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  3. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  4. Student Participation in Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The success of student government activities on any campus is significantly affected by the amount of student participation permitted in the institution's decision-making processes. The traditional" model of government--characterized by tokenism--often results in the separate jurisdictions" model-- characterized by fragmentation and interest…

  5. The governance of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative

  6. Making Government Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Millo, Yuval; Tuck, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    The financialised character of contemporary rationalities of public governance has been the subject of increased attention within a range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields. With this paper we propose a particular analytical framework, focused on the notion of 'governance devices', for ...

  7. Digital Government and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agencys readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, manage...

  8. Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S Y; Bai, Mei; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Gullotta, Justin; He, Ping; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Peggs, Steve; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smart, Loralie; Snydstrup, Louis; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

  9. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  10. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  11. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  12. 'Governance' sebagai Pengelolaan Konflik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Noer Arfani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the notion of understanding governance as part of conflict management, or vice versa, of undustanding conflict management aspects as benefiting from governance concepts and practices. Governance, with its much broader meaning than government, suggests diverse relevant and significant clues, hints and ideas in the context of conflict management endeavors. one of which is the idea to involve larger audiences and stakeholders –beyond the conventional institutions such as governmental bodies– in policy making processes and public discourses. Such comprehension and appreciation of governance concepts and practices is certainly parallel with the conflict management philosophies, concepis and practices which based on and oriented toward integrative, non-formal and non-litigative mechanisms.

  13. A new corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.

  14. Transforming governance to enhance social and educational innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Torfing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of governance networks at all levels and in different policy areas has led to a growing number of studies focusing on interactive forms of governance. This paper aims to contribute to the development of governance research by looking at how collaboration in governance networks can help to spur social and educational innovation. The paper begins by defining the concept of governance networks and then provides a systematic overview of different theories that explain the current rise of governance networks. Next, it defines the concept of innovation and discusses how collaboration in networks can enhance innovation. Finally, it discusses how collaborative innovation can be initiated, facilitated and catalysed through new forms of leadership and management.

  15. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  16. Investigation of wind behaviour around high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Isa, Norasikin; Fitriah Nasir, Nurul; Sadikin, Azmahani; Ariff Hairul Bahara, Jamil

    2017-09-01

    A study on the investigation of wind behaviour around the high-rise buildings is done through an experiment using a wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics. High-rise buildings refer to buildings or structures that have more than 12 floors. Wind is invisible to the naked eye; thus, it is hard to see and analyse its flow around and over buildings without the use of proper methods, such as the use of wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics software.The study was conducted on buildings located in Presint 4, Putrajaya, Malaysia which is the Ministry of Rural and Regional Development, Ministry of Information Communications and Culture, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government and the Ministry of Women, Family, and Community by making scaled models of the buildings. The parameters in which this study is conducted on are, four different wind velocities used based on the seasonal monsoons, and wind direction. ANSYS Fluent workbench software is used to compute the simulations in order to achieve the objectives of this study. The data from the computational fluid dynamics are validated with the experiment done through the wind tunnel. From the results obtained through the use of the computation fluid dynamics, this study can identify the characteristics of wind around buildings, including boundary layer of the buildings, separation flow, wake region and etc. Then analyses is conducted on the occurance resulting from the wind that passes the buildings based on the velocity difference between before and after the wind passes the buildings.

  17. Global Governance Mechanisms to Address Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiyara, Ponnu; Inoue, Hajime; Sprenger, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit. A borderless threat like antimicrobial resistance requires global governance mechanisms to mitigate its emergence and spread, and it is the responsibility of all countries and relevant multilateral organizations. These mechanisms can be in the form of legally binding global governance mechanisms such as treaties and regulatory standards or nonbinding mechanisms such as political declarations, resolutions, or guidelines. In this article, we argue that while both are effective methods, the strong, swift, and coordinated action needed to address rising rates of antimicrobial resistance will be better served through legally binding governance mechanisms.

  18. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  19. Ambidextrous IT Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Svejvig, Per; Tordrup Heeager, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Through a case study at a global technology company, we investigate how organizations can adapt their IT governance approach to the information system at hand. This is done by considering the degree of information system integration and whether the system is related to supporting operational...... efficiency (exploitation) or innovation (exploration). Based on the findings of the case study, we introduce the concept of ambidextrous IT governance to describe how IT governance can be adapted to fit the dual needs of both exploration and exploitation through the use of IS....

  20. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  1. The Rise of the Digital Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shift to digital offerings among public libraries. Libraries increasingly are fulfilling roles as technology hubs for their communities, with high demand for technology and career development training resources. Ebooks and other digital materials are on the rise, while print is being scaled back. More libraries are turning to…

  2. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  3. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  4. Rising Political Consciousness: Transformational Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Mazalan; Muhamad, Mazanah

    As part of a larger study (not discussed) ten educated Malaysian citizens were interviewed to find whether their rising political consciousness, over a ten year period (1988-1999), indicated that their transformation was influenced by their culture. The subjects were between 35-45 years old, married, with an average of four children. All were…

  5. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  6. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  7. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  8. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  9. The economic consequences of oil price rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The author discusses the possible consequences of oil barrel price rise. First, he discusses the main results of analysis's which have been performed for thirty years regarding the impact of oil price on economical activity. He proposes interpretations of these studies and of their conclusions, and tries to draw lessons regarding effects which can be expected from the recent evolutions of energy markets

  10. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  11. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  12. International Advisory Councils and Internationalization of Governance: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihut, Georgiana; Altbach, Philip G.; Salmi, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the emergence of international advisory councils (IACs) at universities around the world and introduces the concept of internationalization of governance. Global trends in the field of higher education, such as the quest to create world-class universities and advance in global rankings, the rise of new public management, and…

  13. United People : designing a new model of global governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.; Ansell, C.; Buck, J.; Choi, Y.; van der Eyden, R.; Figueroa Huencho, V.; John, E.; Kunkler, T.; Mair, J.; Meijer, A.; Meyer, R.; Stephenson, K.; Välikangas, L.; Whitestone, N.; Yu, C.

    2018-01-01

    Human-driven changes on this planet have been giving rise to global warming, social instability, civil wars, and acts of terrorism. The existing system of global governance is not equipped to effectively address these enormous challenges. It is slow where one must move quickly, favors bureaucracy

  14. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. President Obama believes the country must invest in the true engine of America's economic growth--a rising and thriving middle class.…

  15. Understanding social media governance: seizing opportunities, staying out of trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.C.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The rise of social media such as Facebook and Twitter has provided employees with means to share work-related information. Increasingly, social media governance policies are implemented to negotiate the risks and opportunities of such behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to unveil the

  16. Diversification and Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); A.A.C.J. van Oijen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the impact of governance structure on diversification behavior. Hypotheses are developed regarding the differences in diversification strategy of cooperatives and stock listed companies. The analysis shows that stock listed companies are more diversified than

  17. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    a different future for both parents and children. Thus, the approach to PMTO as a technology of the future indicates its expected prevalence in the future and its attempt to reach in to the future becoming of the child. The technology’s involvement of the relatives and its orientation towards shaping......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  18. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  19. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  20. Lean Government Methods Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  1. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...... along four core dimensions: the setting in space and time, the definition of the public, the framing of the res publica and legitimacy issues. Moreover, our comparative analysis of Sydney and Vienna gives evidence of differences in governance configurations enacted through strategy documents....

  2. The government of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2015-01-01

    . Subsequent research on biopolitics and governmentality has tended to separate the concepts, differentiating into distinct research traditions each with different intellectual pathways. We propose to bring these conceptual innovations together to understand contemporary problems of the government of life...... of death power, the interplay of sovereignty, discipline and security, governmentalization through medical normalization, and ‘securitization’ of life as circulations and open series. The article also introduces this special feature on the government of life in which significant scholars explores issues...

  3. Remittances Deteriorate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Z. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    I use a natural experiment of oil-price-driven remittance flows to poor, non-oil-producing Muslim countries to demonstrate that remittances deteriorate the quality of governance, especially in countries with weak democratic institutions. The results indicate that a 1 standard deviation increase in remittances raises corruption by 1.5 index points (on a 6-point scale), which is equivalent to a [dollar]600 decrease in per capita GDP. Concomitantly, remittances may enable governments to reduce t...

  4. Improving Corporate Governance Practices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Huse; J. Gabrielsson; A. Minichilli

    2009-01-01

    Peak performing organizations may benefit from active value creating boards. Suggestions to improve board behaviour and corporate governance practices are presented in this article. The suggestions result from findings in the “Valued Creating Board” research programme. However, active boards working in a shareholder activism framework may destroy rather than support value creation processes within firms. In peak performing organizations corporate governance practices should be designed and de...

  5. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  6. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  7. Global health governance as shared health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-07-01

    With the exception of key 'proven successes' in global health, the current regime of global health governance can be understood as transnational and national actors pursuing their own interests under a rational actor model of international cooperation, which fails to provide sufficient justification for an obligation to assist in meeting the health needs of others. An ethical commitment to providing all with the ability to be healthy is required. This article develops select components of an alternative model of shared health governance (SHG), which aims to provide a 'road map,' 'focal points' and 'the glue' among various global health actors to better effectuate cooperation on universal ethical principles for an alternative global health equilibrium. Key features of SHG include public moral norms as shared authoritative standards; ethical commitments, shared goals and role allocation; shared sovereignty and constitutional commitments; legitimacy and accountability; country-level attention to international health relations. A framework of social agreement based on 'overlapping consensus' is contrasted against one based on self-interested political bargaining. A global health constitution delineating duties and obligations of global health actors and a global institute of health and medicine for holding actors responsible are proposed. Indicators for empirical assessment of select SHG principles are described. Global health actors, including states, must work together to correct and avert global health injustices through a framework of SHG based on shared ethical commitments.

  8. Challenges in Projecting Sea Level Rise impacts on the Coastal Environment of South Florida (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeysekera, J.; Park, J.; Irizarry-Ortiz, M. M.; Barnes, J. A.; Trimble, P.; Said, W.

    2010-12-01

    Due to flat topography, a highly transmissive groundwater aquifer, and a growing population with the associated infrastructure, South Florida’s coastal environment is one of the most vulnerable areas to sea level rise. Current projections of sea level rise and the associated storm surges will have direct impacts on coastal beaches and infrastructure, flood protection, freshwater aquifers, and both the isolated and regional wetlands. Uncertainties in current projections have made it difficult for regional and local governments to develop adaptation strategies as such measures will depend heavily on the temporal and spatial patterns of sea level rise in the coming decades. We demonstrate the vulnerability of both the built and natural environments of the coastal region and present the current efforts to understand and predict the sea level rise estimate that management agencies could employ in planning of adaptation strategies. In particular, the potential vulnerabilities of the flood control system as well as the threat to the water supply wellfields in the coastal belt will be presented. In an effort to understand the historical variability of sea level rise, we present linkages to natural phenomena such as Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation, and the analytical methods we have developed to provide probabilistic projections of both mean sea level rise and the extremes.

  9. E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    E-Government and E-Governance Benefits ..... Morocco's central government promotes the use of ICT in the public sector in order to enhance ...... The project's mission is to develop low-cost laptops with educational value for African children.

  10. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  11. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  12. High and rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  13. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  14. The influence of corporate governance on project governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies the interaction between corporate governance and project management in project governance. It begins with introduction of basics of corporate governance and various principles of corporate governance in chosen countries and organizations. Further it introduces theoretical background of project governance and its connection and to corporate governance. In practical part work analyzes the level of compliancy with Swiss codex of best praxis in chosen company. The results con...

  15. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  16. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  17. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  18. Dangerous Liaisons? Governments, companies and Internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Private actors in the information technology sector are currently playing an increasingly important role in content mediation, as well as in regulation of online forms of expression, with implications for both internet rights and economic freedom. The “privatisation of internet governance” (DeNardis, 2010, is not a new dynamic; however, in a scenario in which users are taking advantage of increasingly sophisticated technology, the centralisation and concentration characterising today’s most widespread internet services are contributing to the accentuation of this tendency. The 'inherently political' qualities of search engine algorithm development, video content removals, blocking of domain names – actions that originate and rest with the private sector’s handling of the internet’s infrastructure – should not be neglected in our assessment of the field of internet governance today.

  19. A Framework for Project Governance in Major Public IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter Georg; Riis, Eva

    2016-01-01

    such a framework. It was developed from the literature on major and mega-projects, both public and private, that concern infrastructure, engineering and IT. The proposed framework for project governance comprises six major elements: governance structure, management approach, stakeholders, value, systems......The rising number of major public IT projects is mirrored by a growing research interest in the management of such projects. Both can benefit from a more complete understanding of project governance that should lead to a practical framework for project governance. The present paper proposes...... integration and complexity. Empirical research has identified a number of characteristics for these project governance elements. In the second part of the paper the framework was tested in a case study of the Danish smart card Rejsekort project. The framework was found to be robust, and that in this case...

  20. A Framework for Project Governance in Major Public IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Eva; Harboe, Peter Georg

    2016-01-01

    integration and complexity. Empirical research has identified a number of characteristics for these project governance elements. In the second part of the paper the framework was tested in a case study of the Danish smart card Rejsekort project. The framework was found to be robust, and that in this case......The rising number of major public IT projects is mirrored by a growing research interest in the management of such projects. Both can benefit from a more complete understanding of project governance that should lead to a practical framework for project governance. The present paper proposes...... such a framework. It was developed from the literature on major and mega-projects, both public and private, that concern infrastructure, engineering and IT. The proposed framework for project governance comprises six major elements: governance structure, management approach, stakeholders, value, systems...

  1. Sea-level rise: towards understanding local vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Projections of global sea-level rise into the future have become more pessimistic over the past five years or so. A global rise by more than one metre by the year 2100 is now widely accepted as a serious possibility if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. That is witnessed by the scientific assessments that were made since the last IPCC report was published in 2007. The Delta Commission of the Dutch government projected up to 1.10 m as a 'high-end' scenario (Vellinga et al 2009). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) projected up to 1.40 m (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research 2009), and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) gives a range of 0.90-1.60 m in its 2011 report (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 2011). And recently the US Army Corps of Engineers recommends using a 'low', an 'intermediate' and a 'high' scenario for global sea-level rise when planning civil works programmes, with the high one corresponding to a 1.50 m rise by 2100 (US Army Corps of Engineers 2011). This more pessimistic view is based on a number of observations, most importantly perhaps the fact that sea level has been rising at least 50% faster in the past decades than projected by the IPCC (Rahmstorf et al 2007, IPCC 2007). Also, the rate of rise (averaged over two decades) has accelerated threefold, from around 1 mm yr-1 at the start of the 20th century to around 3 mm yr-1 over the past 20 years (Church and White 2006), and this rate increase closely correlates with global warming (Rahmstorf et al 2011). The IPCC projections, which assume almost no further acceleration in the 20th century, thus look less plausible. And finally the observed net mass loss of the two big continental ice sheets (Van den Broeke et al 2011) calls into question the assumption that ice accumulation in Antarctica would largely balance ice loss from Greenland in the course of further global warming (IPCC 2007). With such a serious sea-level rise on the horizon

  2. Increasing Resilience Through Engagement In Sea Level Rise Community Science Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, L. A.; Rindge, H.

    2017-12-01

    Science literate and engaged members of the public, including students, are critical to building climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant facilitates programs that work to build and strengthen these connections. The Urban Tides Community Science Initiative (Urban Tides) and the Youth Exploring Sea Level Rise Science Program (YESS) engage communities across the boundaries of public engagement, K-12 education, and informal education. YESS is an experiential sea level rise education program that combines classroom learning, field investigations and public presentations. Students explore sea level rise using a new curricula, collect their own data on sea level rise, develop communication products, and present their findings to city governments, researchers, and others. Urban Tides engages community members, informal education centers, K-12 students, and local government leaders in a citizen science program photo- documenting extreme high tides, erosion and coastal flooding in Southern California. Images provide critical information to help calibrate scientific models used to identify locations vulnerable to damage from future sea level rise. These tools and information enable community leaders and local governments to set priorities, guidelines, and update policies as they plan strategies that will help the region adapt. The program includes a mobile app for data collection, an open database to view photos, a lesson plan, and community beach walks. Urban Tides has led to an increase in data and data-gathering capacity for regional scientists, an increase in public participation in science, and an increase in ocean and climate literacy among initiative participants. Both of these programs bring informed and diverse voices into the discussion of how to adapt and build climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant will share impacts and lessons learned from these two unique programs.

  3. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S; Reynolds, Michelle H; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Krause, Crystal M

    2012-08-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds. Conservation Biology ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original

  4. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  5. Numerical modelling of inert gas bubble rising in liquid metal pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, Arjun; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B K.

    2016-01-01

    Two-phase flow finds several applications in safe operation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Numerical modelling of bubble rise dynamics in liquid metal pool of SFR is essential for the evaluation of residence time and shape changes, which are of utmost importance for simulating associated heat and mass transfer processes involved in reactor safety. A numerical model has been developed based on OpenFOAM for the evaluation of two-dimensional inert gas bubble rise dynamics in stagnant liquid metal pool. The governing model equations are discretized and solved using the Volume of Fluid based solver available in OpenFOAM with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The model has been validated with available numerical benchmark results for laminar transient two-phase flow. The model has been used to evaluate velocity and rise trajectory of argon gas bubble with different diameters through a pool of liquid sodium. (author)

  6. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  7. GOVERNANCE, URBAN COMPETITIVENESS AND CRISIS IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé SOMOZA MEDINA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the rise of the term governance from its beginnings in the business world and the neoliberal economic thought through its application in urban renewal actions in the world’s major cities. Over the analysis, we argue that it was the theoretical discourse of urban governance and competitiveness that for decades enabled the private property sector to direct the urban regeneration processes of greatest added value. Changes in transport infrastructures and the abandonment of old industrial facilities left large central segments of the city available for redevelopment in line with the theories of post-Fordist capitalism. The global economic crisis has paralysed many of these projects, which had entailed the investment of large sums of public money and yielded low social returns. At the same time, criticism has been levelled against governance and strategic planning. Here, I examine the processes of governance and competitiveness as an urban objective and recent examples of urban renewal in Spanish cities.

  8. Four logics of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...

  9. Electoral Governance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Marchetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral governance has increasingly more frequently been the object of study of the comparative politics literature. This article examines the electoral governance institutional model adopted in Brazil and its consequences for political/electoral competition. It is argued herein that Brazil’s Electoral Justice System, motivated by the institutional design, has ended up becoming one of the main actors of the country’s recent democratic consolidation, being decisive not only with regard to rule adjudication and application, but also to rulemaking. With the purpose of assessing this governance model in action, three important recent rulings by Brazil’s Electoral Justice System are analysed here: verticalization of the coalitions, reduction in the number of councillors, and party loyalty.

  10. Measuring Innovation in Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been growing interest in supporting innovation in the public sector as a means of increasing the efficiency and quality of government services. Generally speaking, innovation in government could be defined as “The creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in outcome efficiency, effectiveness or quality’’ [3]. A ‘Process Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing ‘efficiency’. A ‘Product or Service Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing the ‘effectiveness’ of government. A ‘Policy Innovation’ is mainly oriented at enhancing outcomes. These categorisations are important for identifying and selecting the metrics of measurement and to make distinctions between inputs, outputs, and outcomes. (Author)

  11. 'Joined Up' Local Governments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnå, Hilde; Casale, Donatella; Hajnal, Gyorgy

    eforms inspired by NPM have raised many challenges to governments, such as time lags between implementation and (any) results, fragmentation due to unbundling monolithic organizations and mediocre support from public sector stakeholders (Christensen/Lægreid 2007, Dunleavy et al. 2006, Hood...... measures (6 2004). JUG involves an emphasis on coordinating governmental activities, for example through partnerships and horizontal governing approaches, to eliminate contradictions between different policies, and to deliver integrated and seamless services from a citizen’s perspective (Lægreid et al......, for example one-stop-shops, often combined with e-government solutions (Norway, Italy, Hungary and Germany), public sector recentralisation and de-agencification (Ireland) or refined strategies for steering the ‘landscape of corporatized organizations‘ (Hungary and Austria)....

  12. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  13. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  14. Managing e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Persson, John Stouby; Heeager, Lise Tordrup

    2015-01-01

    Public sector managers take much of the responsibility for selecting, commissioning, implementing and realising benefits from information technology (IT) projects. However, e-Government initiatives often suffer from complexity, vision failure, lack of goal clarity and insufficient commitment....... These problems may stem from value traditions that are deeply ingrained in managers' cultural environments but not always in harmony with each other. A first step towards working with value complexity is to understand it; we synthesise a model of value positions for e-Government derived from major traditions...... in the public administration literature. Four value positions relevant to e-Government together with their IT assumptions are identified; they reflect the ideals of professionalism, efficiency, service and engagement. A qualitative investigation of Danish local authority managers displays both value congruence...

  15. Tactics of the governed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment has become a performative idiom in Andean Peru, where it retains its purchase despite the investments of the state. Local development is tied to the desire to be governed. In spite of prolonged state presence, the villages’ relationship to authorities is continuously and persistently...... figured as one of abandonment: villages are abandoned because someone is deliberately holding them in such unfortunate conditions. To figure abandonment in village politics is to draw on this idiom as an effective means of both communicating the historical experience of governance and putting forward...

  16. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  17. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  18. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....

  19. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...... by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  20. Government intervention in child rearing: governing infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for the young might somehow be enthusiastically invested, regardless of the complications that can be anticipated in the later, more ambivalent years of childhood and adolescence. According to Davis, the understanding of the concept of infancy associated with the rise of popular education can trace its pedigree to a genuine shift in sensibility that occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century. After exploring the essentially Romantic positions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Fröbel and their relevance to the pattern of reform of early childhood education in the United Kingdom and the United States, Davis also assesses the influence of figures such as Stanley Hall and John Dewey in determining the rationale for modern early childhood education. A central contention of Davis's essay is that the assumptions evident in the theory and practice of Pestalozzi and his followers crystallize a series of tensions in the understanding of infancy and infant education that have haunted early childhood education from the origins of popular schooling in the late eighteenth century down to the policy dilemmas of the present day.

  1. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Archiving of Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports (CAFRs) on State Government Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joel B.

    2012-01-01

    Rising cost and declining revenues have hampered the financial affairs of state governments, forcing many to curtail services, reduce employee benefits, and trim the workforce, calling into question the fiscal sustainability of many state governments. As a result, stakeholders are demanding greater accountability and increased transparency into…

  3. The Acceptance of Mobile Government from a Citizen‘s Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    Mobile Government (in short: M-Government) is just at the beginning of its rise as a future trend of E-Government. Considering the technical advancements such as mobile Internet, smart phones and tablet-PCs, M-Government tremendously develops a new potential for organizational communication proce......-Government is significantly influenced by both, factors citizens see as a benefit but also by factors of perceived risks...... processes. There are many examples of failures of early E-Government-projects due to a lack of consideration of users’ requirements. Against this background, the paper tries to contribute to organizational communication processes by addressing the driving factors influencing the acceptance of Mobile...... Government among the citizens. Extending the approaches of the Technology Acceptance Model (TRA) (Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) to Mobile Government, a new M-Government-Acceptance-Model was developed. It shows that the intention to use M...

  4. The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce

    2004-01-01

    The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issu...

  5. Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in food production and consumption is fundamentally transforming a wide variety of social practices at different levels in society. Simply adding another level of governance will therefore not solve the problems related to food production and consumption in global modernity. Different

  6. Governing Logistics Information Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.; Aldewereld, H.M.; Knol, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Extended Single Window (ESW) project aims to support goods flows by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Specifically, the project takes the concept of Single Windows (often used in the sense that governments offer a single portal or interface to which businesses can submit

  7. Ethics in Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  8. Data Quality Assurance Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Gonzalez; Stephanie Suhr

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE Quality Management Strategy, addressing EXCELERATE Ethics requirement no. 5 on Data Quality Assurance Governance. The strategy describes the essential procedures and practices within ELIXIR-EXCELERATE concerning planning of quality management, performing quality assurance and controlling quality. It also depicts the overall organisation of ELIXIR with emphasis on authority and specific responsibilities related to quality assurance.

  9. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  10. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  11. Governing the water user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, Edwin; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst

  12. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  13. Getting Port Governance Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Langen, Peter; Saragiotis, Periklis

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relevance of ports for economic development and next identifies port governance as a critical determinant of a well-functioning port industry. While in the past decades privately owned terminal operating companies have emerged and contributed to more efficient supply ch...

  14. Contractual Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Companies have the choice to deviate from their national corporate governance standards by opting into another system. They can do so via contractual devices – such as cross-border mergers and acquisitions, (re)incorporations, and cross-listings – which enable firms to choose their preferred level

  15. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  16. Decentralized environmental governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tula

    Human Development, a Road to the. Future. Systematization of ... Opportunities for Sustainability and Natural Resources Access for Poor. Rural Areas ... natural resource management. Under this ... Governance is defined as the formal and informal ... approval of the Environmental Impact Study, the strong oppo- sition of the ...

  17. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  18. The economic consequences of rising oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, F.

    2006-05-01

    In the context of rising crude oil prices observed in the last five years, this paper attempts to shed light on the possible consequences of a costlier barrel. We shall begin with a brief presentation of the main results of the analyses conducted in the last 30 years, concerning the impact of energy prices on economic activity. We shall then interpret these analyses and their conclusions, and try to draw a number of lessons about the anticipated effects of the recent trend in energy prices. (author)

  19. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  20. The rise and fall of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Recent data from heavy ion collisions at RHIC show unexpectedly large near-angle correlations that broaden longitudinally with centrality. The amplitude of this ridge-like correlation rises rapidly with centrality, reaches a maximum, and then falls in the most central collisions. In this talk we explain how this behavior can be easily understood in a picture where final momentum-space correlations are driven by initial coordinate space density fluctuations. We propose {nu}{sub n}{sup 2}/{epsilon}{sub n,part}{sup 2} as a useful way to study these effects and explain what it tells us about the collision dynamics.

  1. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  2. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  3. Hydrodynamics in a swarm of rising bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboux, G.

    2007-04-01

    In many applications, bubbles are used to agitate a liquid in order to enhance mixing and transfer. This work is devoted to the study of the hydrodynamics in a stable bubble column. Experimentally, we have determined the properties of the velocity fluctuations inside and behind a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles for different bubble sizes and gas volume fractions α: self-similarity in α 0,4 , spectrum in k -3 and integral length scale controlled by buoyancy. Numerically, we have reproduced these properties by means of large-scale simulations, the bubbles being modeled by volume-forces. This confirms that the dynamics is controlled by wake interactions. (author)

  4. The rising home birth trend in America

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlan Aliyev; Chastidy Roldan; Bulent Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US). Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of h...

  5. Nuclear costs: why do they keep rising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power has performed badly in recent years as a new investment everywhere except Japan and Korea. This has mainly been for orthodox financial and economic reasons. Among the factors contributing to this loss of competitiveness, persistently rising real capital costs have been particularly important. While the nuclear industry has believed it could control and reduce capital costs, increasing regulatory stringency has made designs more complex and correspondingly more costly. These cost increasing factors have far outweighed traditional cost reducing factors (like learning). The only lasting way to meet increasing stringency in safety at acceptably low cost is likely to be the development of new and simpler reactor designs. (author)

  6. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  7. Which type of government revenue leads government expenditure?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Zeinab; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced government budget deficit since 1998. It is undeniable that a budget deficit or inability to cover government spending is not positively seen by external parties. The optimum level of government budget is the state where government spending is totally offset by government revenue and that can be achieved through an increase in tax revenue or decrease in spending. The paper aims to discover the existence of a theoretical relationship betwe...

  8. Exposure to rising inequality shapes Americans' opportunity beliefs and policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Leslie; Burk, Derek; Laperrière, Marie; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-05

    Economic inequality has been on the rise in the United States since the 1980s and by some measures stands at levels not seen since before the Great Depression. Although the strikingly high and rising level of economic inequality in the nation has alarmed scholars, pundits, and elected officials alike, research across the social sciences repeatedly concludes that Americans are largely unconcerned about it. Considerable research has documented, for instance, the important role of psychological processes, such as system justification and American Dream ideology, in engendering Americans' relative insensitivity to economic inequality. The present work offers, and reports experimental tests of, a different perspective-the opportunity model of beliefs about economic inequality. Specifically, two convenience samples (study 1, n = 480; and study 2, n = 1,305) and one representative sample (study 3, n = 1,501) of American adults were exposed to information about rising economic inequality in the United States (or control information) and then asked about their beliefs regarding the roles of structural (e.g., being born wealthy) and individual (e.g., hard work) factors in getting ahead in society (i.e., opportunity beliefs). They then responded to policy questions regarding the roles of business and government actors in reducing economic inequality. Rather than revealing insensitivity to rising inequality, the results suggest that rising economic inequality in contemporary society can spark skepticism about the existence of economic opportunity in society that, in turn, may motivate support for policies designed to redress economic inequality.

  9. Exposure to rising inequality shapes Americans’ opportunity beliefs and policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Leslie; Burk, Derek; Laperrière, Marie; Richeson, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Economic inequality has been on the rise in the United States since the 1980s and by some measures stands at levels not seen since before the Great Depression. Although the strikingly high and rising level of economic inequality in the nation has alarmed scholars, pundits, and elected officials alike, research across the social sciences repeatedly concludes that Americans are largely unconcerned about it. Considerable research has documented, for instance, the important role of psychological processes, such as system justification and American Dream ideology, in engendering Americans’ relative insensitivity to economic inequality. The present work offers, and reports experimental tests of, a different perspective—the opportunity model of beliefs about economic inequality. Specifically, two convenience samples (study 1, n = 480; and study 2, n = 1,305) and one representative sample (study 3, n = 1,501) of American adults were exposed to information about rising economic inequality in the United States (or control information) and then asked about their beliefs regarding the roles of structural (e.g., being born wealthy) and individual (e.g., hard work) factors in getting ahead in society (i.e., opportunity beliefs). They then responded to policy questions regarding the roles of business and government actors in reducing economic inequality. Rather than revealing insensitivity to rising inequality, the results suggest that rising economic inequality in contemporary society can spark skepticism about the existence of economic opportunity in society that, in turn, may motivate support for policies designed to redress economic inequality. PMID:28831007

  10. Rising Strengths Hong Kong SAR in Bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; George Priya Doss, C; Zhu, Hailong; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2017-06-01

    Hong Kong's bioinformatics sector is attaining new heights in combination with its economic boom and the predominance of the working-age group in its population. Factors such as a knowledge-based and free-market economy have contributed towards a prominent position on the world map of bioinformatics. In this review, we have considered the educational measures, landmark research activities and the achievements of bioinformatics companies and the role of the Hong Kong government in the establishment of bioinformatics as strength. However, several hurdles remain. New government policies will assist computational biologists to overcome these hurdles and further raise the profile of the field. There is a high expectation that bioinformatics in Hong Kong will be a promising area for the next generation.

  11. Evaluating e-Government and Good Governance Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi Suhardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the achievement of Indonesian government institutions in implementing e-government has been conducted since around a decade ago. Several national assessments are available with almost the same ranking results. There is an agreement that the ultimate goal of e-government implementation is to achieve good government governance (GGG, while success stories of e-government require good governance practices. This study explored the correlation between e-government achievement and GGG achievement in Indonesia. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to characterize the relationship strength between e-government assessment results and good governance assessment results. The data were collected from institutions that participated in e-government and good governance assessments. The results showed that the correlation between these two entities is not very strong. Most cases showed that e-government implementation and the achievement of good governance have only a moderate positive correlation and none of the studied cases indicated a significant connection. This result can be attributed to the lack of emphasis on goals achievement in the assessments. Thus, it is recommended that future Indonesian e-government assessments should involve impact indicators.

  12. The Imperative to Protect Data and the Rise of Surveillance Cameras in Administering National Testing in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the datafication and digitalisation of education policy in the context of the Russian Federation. It taps into the policies and practices invented as a result of rising audit cultures and the scientisation and datafication of education governance. These processes turn sites of public examinations into sites of…

  13. Rise of a Cybered Westphalian Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    women in positions of power and chase P2P porn sites and dissidents internally. The Chinese bureaucracy will refuse to agree to international...forbidden sites or topics.35 As Google demonstrated, this “intermediary liability” ap- proach to control has its limitations for a nation known to...difficulty for citizens to have their own sites .38 Already the Chinese government has channelled the physical access of all web traffic in or out of

  14. Proton: Its rise, Fall, and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Terpstra Tong; Robert H. Terpstra; Ngat Chin Lim

    2012-01-01

    This case focuses on the challenges faced by a Malaysian state-owned automobile manufacturer, Proton. In so doing, it exemplifies the political context in which businesses, both domestic and foreign, operate in Malaysia. What makes Proton unique is its origin as the brainchild of Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad, Malaysia's fourth Prime Minister. Mahathir was one of the longest-serving leaders in Asia when he resigned in 2003. Over his 22-year reign, Mahathir and his government made several fund...

  15. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  16. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A.; van der Sleen, Peter; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Griffin, Daniel; Sydeman, William J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Safeeq, Mohammad; Arismendi, Ivan; Bograd, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

  17. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  18. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  19. Corporate Governance and Shareholder Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalchev, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    The probability for shareholder litigation is studied and how corporate governance characteristics and other factors explain it. Shareholder litigation results from failure of corporate governance. Thus a better quality of corporate governance is hypothesized to decrease the litigation probability. Corporate governance index is constructed based on principal components. It is found to be a significant predictor of shareholder litigation.

  20. ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDRIŞTIOIU ANCA ROXANA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent years have been characterized by the general influence of the crisis on the economic growth of the states, thus triggering the significant rise in the level of budget deficit and public debt. Under these circumstances, it is highly important that we know the real causes of the rise in public debt, its effects, and also the management strategy of the government public debt. What we aim to do is to take a glimpse into the real economic situation of the country, and in order to understand the crisis impact on it, we will review the economic facts of the last 10 years.

  1. Governance, resource curse and donor

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor

  2. Auditing IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Mihai ILIESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective IT governance helps ensure that IT supports business goals, optimizes business investment in IT, and appropriately manages IT-related risks and opportunities. Organizations that realize the IT is no longer a support process and embeds value and risks need a structured approach for better managing Information Technology, enable its capability to deliver added value enterprise wide and for setting up a risk management program to address new risks arising for usage of IT in business processes. In order to assess if IT Governance is in line with industry practices, IT Auditors need a good understanding of processes and applicable standards, particular audit work programs and experience in assessing potential problem indicators.

  3. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...... for influence. We highlight three arenas where such contests are being played out: 1. Statistical versus GAAP notions of accounting value, which features in all accounting debates over the merits and costs of ex-ante versus ex-post notions of value (i.e., the relevance versus reliability debate); 2. Private...

  4. Website Quality in Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Andersen, Kim Normann; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    . Social implications – The overall digital enabled transformation of government appears to be guided by a rather heterogeneous set of quality standards. While a variance of quality standards might stimulate innovation in websites, it can also lead to a substantial difference in digital services provided...... to citizens. Thus, the authors' research stimulates the awareness of diversity of quality parameters and could have as an implication that national and international standards beyond accessibility standards are more explicitly shared and debated. Originality/value – The aim of this paper is to provide......Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate how webmasters within government bodies explain quality of websites. Despite the central position for advancing the communication, bridging usability tests and design, there are surprisingly few studies on how webmasters perceive, experience...

  5. Governance by algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are increasingly often cited as one of the fundamental shaping devices of our daily, immersed-in-information existence. Their importance is acknowledged, their performance scrutinised in numerous contexts. Yet, a lot of what constitutes 'algorithms' beyond their broad definition as “encoded procedures for transforming input data into a desired output, based on specified calculations” (Gillespie, 2013 is often taken for granted. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion about 'what algorithms do' and in which ways they are artefacts of governance, providing two examples drawing from the internet and ICT realm: search engine queries and e-commerce websites’ recommendations to customers. The question of the relationship between algorithms and rules is likely to occupy an increasingly central role in the study and the practice of internet governance, in terms of both institutions’ regulation of algorithms, and algorithms’ regulation of our society.

  6. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, what determines their boundaries and internal organization), but would also be helpful for informing strategy issues, such as understanding strategic flexibility, strategic options, and the sources of competitive advantage. This volume brings together prominent voices on competence, governance...

  7. Soil Structure Interaction Effect on High Rise and Low Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Pathak; PAresh H. SHAH

    2000-01-01

    Effect of supporting soil on the response of structure has been analyzed in the present study. A low rise (G+ 5 storey) and a high rise (G+12 storey) building has been taken for the analysis. For both type of buildings, the response of building with and without consideration of soil structure interaction effect has been compared.Without interaction case is the case in which ends of the structure are assumed to be fixed while in interaction case, structure is assumed to be...

  8. Local Governance and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Marius PROFIROIU; Tudorel ANDREI; Gheorghe POPESCU; Alina PROFIROIU

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of ...

  9. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  10. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  11. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Karkošková; George Feuerlicht

    2016-01-01

    Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is uncle...

  12. The roles of government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigrain, P.

    1988-01-01

    The author chooses to address his talk to governments as a broad category, not differentiating the more centralized, socialized, federal, or for that matter the role of smaller governmental entities within countries, and the role they can have in impacting science. He chooses to try to say what governments should do, and with a few exceptions, what they should avoid doing, in order to support the development of physics, and for that matter other sciences within their countries. The major role is in education, where governments can prepare people for work in these disciplines, and also present the disciplines in an interesting manner so that the best minds can be attracted to these areas. The second major role is in the support of basic research in high technology areas. Some of this involves very large resource investments, but not all areas are equally expensive to support. There is a particular pitfall when governments become the consumer for basic research, for example in the case of national defense concerns, when the consumer can have a profound effect on the research effort in a country, not always for the betterment of science or society. Fiscal matters are equally important, not only in the support of the individual worker, support of the basic research, support of education, but also in the general attititude to supporting physics high tech work in the private sector within countries. Governmantal fiscal policies can have profound influences on the way private capital flows into such initiatives. Finally he touches on the need for those in basic research and high tech work to have contacts, all kinds of contacts, which foster the exchange of information and ideas, and the development of new approaches to old and new problems

  13. The governance of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Whitman

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promises made for nanotechology, its direction and momentum as it has developed to date already pose very considerable problems of regulation and control in quite fundamental ways. This article will review these difficulties under four themes. First, the principal agents for framing governance agreements (states) are also the principal proponents of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Second, the speed of new advances in nanotechnology and the reach of their implications are already o...

  14. Government Is Whose Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Jon D. Wisman

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the political meaning of President Ronald Reagan's 1981 declaration that "government is the problem." Whereas historically the state had been used by elites to extract as much surplus as possible from producers, with democratization of the franchise, the state became the sole instrument that could limit, or even potentially end, the extraction of workers' surplus. Once control of the state is in principle democratized by the ballot box, the fortunes of the elite depend ...

  15. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching (near Munich), Germany on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in Chile. The Director-General receiv...

  16. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  17. Neutrino oscillations: The rise of the PMNS paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganti, C.; Lavignac, S.; Zito, M.

    2018-01-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, the experimental progress in the last two decades has been very fast, with the precision measurements of the neutrino squared-mass differences and of the mixing angles, including the last unknown mixing angle θ13. Today a very large set of oscillation results obtained with a variety of experimental configurations and techniques can be interpreted in the framework of three active massive neutrinos, whose mass and flavour eigenstates are related by a 3 × 3 unitary mixing matrix, the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix, parametrized by three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13 and a CP-violating phase δCP. The additional parameters governing neutrino oscillations are the squared-mass differences Δ mji2 = mj2 - mi2, where mi is the mass of the ith neutrino mass eigenstate. This review covers the rise of the PMNS three-neutrino mixing paradigm and the current status of the experimental determination of its parameters. The next years will continue to see a rich program of experimental endeavour coming to fruition and addressing the three missing pieces of the puzzle, namely the determination of the octant and precise value of the mixing angle θ23, the unveiling of the neutrino mass ordering (whether m1

  18. OPEC Middle East plans for rising world demand amid uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Middle Eastern members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries must plan for huge increases in oil production capacity yet wonder whether markets for the new output will develop as expected. With worldwide oil consumption rising and non-OPEC output likely to reach its resource limits soon, OPEC member countries face major gains in demand for their crude oil. To meet the demand growth, those with untapped resources will have to invest heavily in production capacity. Most OPEC members with such resources are in the Middle East. But financing the capacity investments remains a challenge. Some OPEC members have opened up to foreign equity participation in production projects, and others may eventually do so as financial pressures grow. That means additions to the opportunities now available to international companies in the Middle East. Uncertainties, however, hamper planning and worry OPEC. Chief among them are taxation and environmental policies of consuming-nation governments. This paper reviews these concerns and provides data on production, pricing, capital investment histories and revenues

  19. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr−1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  20. Realism under Hegemony: Theorizing the Rise of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Weyland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available What light can international relations theory shed on how developing countries such as Brazil have achieved regional leadership and international influence? This comprehensive examination of Brazilian foreign policy over the last few decades argues that Realism provides a better account of Brazil’s strategy than Liberalism and Constructivism. Despite changes of government and regime, Brasília has persistently pursued relative political gain, especially international influence. However, because this rising country has faced an established hegemon in the form of the United States, it has not been able to employ conventionally Realist instruments and tactics. Its subordinate position in the current power constellation has forced Brazil to forego political or military confrontation and instead use economic cooperation, both with the hegemon and its weaker neighbors. Through this collaboration, Brazil hopes to derive disproportionate benefits that will enhance its relative power. By elucidating these complex calculations, the present essay explains the Realist strategy that ambitious nations such as Brazil have pursued and helps design a version of Realism that captures recent power dynamics in the international system.

  1. Exploring the unprecedented rise in Danish burglary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David W.M.

    2012-01-01

    burglary increased so dramatically. This paper explores four sets of possible explanations for the increase, namely: Changes in public reporting, police recording and insurance practices; changes in population age, drug use and economic recession; increasing crime tourism; and impediments policing caused...... by the National Police Reform of 2007. While some or all of these factors may have contributed to the overall rise, none of them come close to explaining it on their own. This absence of evidence is especially interesting in light of widespread assumptions in the media and among some police about foreign burglary......-year period 2005-2010, plus data on long term crime trends (1990-2010) and other social indicators....

  2. Is the Kingdom of Bicycles Rising Again?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Christensen, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on new types of cycling in postsocialist China, especially mountain and sports biking, and on the particular entanglements of gender and class brought with them. The shift in mobility and biking from the Mao era to the postsocialist China is analyzed in the contexts of cultural......-analytical notions of global assemblages and gendered interpellations. Based on Chinese newspaper materials and fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, the article examines the social and gendered implications of the new biking cultures. These new biking practices mainly interpellate new middle-class men...... and masculinities as part of an exclusive leisure culture. If the “Kingdom of the Bicycles” is going to rise again, there is a need for a broader scope that addresses access for all, including women and families, as smart bikers, as well as biking as a daily mode of transportation....

  3. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  4. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...... in the literature, the authors suggest an analytical framework for understanding African business performance, underlining the interplay between contextual specificities, firm capabilities, and firm strategy....

  5. What We Have Learned: "New Foundations for Global Governance"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan S. Alexandroff; David Shorr

    2010-01-01

    @@ In a Conference convened at Princeton University in January 2010, international relations experts were asked to consider, among other things, great power leadership and explore what would enable these powers to solve some of the great challenges facing global governance. The Conference noted a growing disjunction between our "inherited" multilateral institutions, the evolving architecture of global governance and the daunting scope and complexity of today's global governance agenda. Two key leadership questions dominated discussions at the Conference. The first: what would be the role of the remaining superpower-the United States-in the years ahead? Could the United States accept a greater multilateral environment with possibly a diminished hegemonic role? Secondly, could China successfully achieve great power status without the rivalry competition and even conflict that normally accompanies a rising power? And, in what ways could China exercise leadership in global governance?

  6. What governs governance, and how does it evolve? The sociology of governance-in-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    Governance addresses a wide range of issues including social, economic and political continuity, security and integrity, individual and collective safety and the liberty and rights to self-actualization of citizens. Questions to be answered include how governance can be achieved and sustained within a social context imbued with cultural values and in which power is distributed unevenly and dynamically, and how governance impacts on individuals and institutions. Drawing on Gramscian notions of hegemony and consent, and recent political science literatures on regulation and meta-regulation, this paper develops a sociological model of governance that emphasizes a dynamic and responsive governance in action. Empirical data from a study of pharmaceutical governance is used to show how multiple institutions and actors are involved in sustaining effective governance. The model addresses issues of how governance is sustained in the face of change, why governance of practices varies from setting to setting, and how governance is achieved without legislation.

  7. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  8. Governing Board of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its penultimate (158th) and final (159th) meetings in its current form on 24 September and 25 October 2007 respectively. A number of items, notably the triennial actuarial review and the Fund's Budget for 2008, appeared on the agenda of both meetings. The Governing Board took note of the Fund's financial position as at 30 June 2007 on the basis of the intermediate closing of the accounts on that date. In the first half of 2007, the Fund had achieved a satisfactory return on its assets compared with the position on 1 January 2007. Regarding the indexation of pensions, at the second of its two meetings, the Governing Board took note of the inflation rate in Geneva between August 2006 and August 2007 - no rise was observed in the cost-of-living during the period under consideration. As a consequence, the adjustment rate for the forthcoming three-year period, calculated by the Actuary pursuant to Article II 1.15 – Anne...

  9. Governing Board of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its penultimate (158th) and final (159th) meetings in its current form on 24 September and 25 October 2007 respectively. A number of items, notably the triennial actuarial review and the Fund’s Budget for 2008, appeared on the agenda of both meetings. The Governing Board took note of the Fund’s financial position as at 30 June 2007 on the basis of the intermediate closing of the accounts on that date. In the first half of 2007, the Fund had achieved a satisfactory return on its assets compared with the position on 1 January 2007. Regarding the indexation of pensions, at the second of its two meetings, the Governing Board took note of the inflation rate in Geneva between August 2006 and August 2007 - no rise was observed in the cost-of-living during the period under consideration. As a consequence, the adjustment rate for the forthcoming three-year period, calculated by the Actuary pursuant to Article II 1.15 – Annex C of the...

  10. Construction waste rises up the agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, David

    2010-10-01

    Building maintenance and the construction of new healthcare facilities are central to maintaining the NHS's infrastructure, but such work is costly, and subject to intense financial scrutiny. Dr David Moon, programme manager, Clients and Policy, at Government-backed WRAP (the Waste & Resources Action Programme), which works in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, to help businesses and individuals reduce waste, develop sustainable products, and use resources efficiently, outlines the crucial role that NHS Trusts play in securing cost savings through minimising construction waste, as set out in a new WRAP guide.

  11. Digital government and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  12. Rising workload or rising work pressure in general practice in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Hutten, J.B.F.; Steultjens, M.; Schellevis, F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: General practice in the Netherlands seems to be in a crisis. Worries about shortages of GP's, the first strike of general practitioners in 2001 and the rapid increase of triage systems in out of hours care are signs that work pressure and/or workload are rising. But systematic evidence

  13. Integrative environmental governance: enhancing governance in the era of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    The issue of regime complexity in global environmental governance is widely recognized. The academic debate on regime fragmentation has itself however been rather fragmented, with discussions circling around different concepts, including inter-organizational relations, polycentric governance,

  14. The emergence of the BRICS – implications for global governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Petropoulos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis of 2008, with its detrimental effects on the global economy, was the starting point of a transformation of the global governance landscape. This fluid political and economic global environment seems to be leading to the enhancement of the position of regional powers, especially within the developing world. Hence, the importance of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and, to some extent, South Africa, within the global governance structure has increased. This rise of importance is derived from the enhancement of the economic capabilities of these powers and the fact that economic interdependence has rendered the world more sensitive to the economic policies of these nations. What is even more significant is the fact that these emerging powers have initiated a process of conducting regular meetings for the purpose of discussing and coordinating their actions related to global issues. The BRIC(S meetings seem to be acting as a power multiplier, leading to enhanced pressure on developed countries to accept some proposals from the BRIC(S countries. This development enhances the effectiveness of global governance structures while also legitimizing the notion of a new global governance structure. It is yet to be shown, however, whether the new rising powers will eventually challenge existing global governance structures or be fully integrated into them.

  15. The Rising Frequency of IT Blackouts Indicates the Increasing Relevance of IT Emergency Concepts to Ensure Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Ulrich; Lipprandt, M; Röhrig, R

    2016-11-10

    As many medical workflows depend vastly on IT support, great demands are placed on the availability and accuracy of the applications involved. The cases of IT failure through ransomware at the beginning of 2016 are impressive examples of the dependence of clinical processes on IT. Although IT risk management attempts to reduce the risk of IT blackouts, the probability of partial/total data loss, or even worse, data falsification, is not zero. The objective of this paper is to present the state of the art with respect to strategies, processes, and governance to deal with the failure of IT systems. This article is conducted as a narrative review. Worst case scenarios are needed, dealing with methods as to how to survive the downtime of clinical systems, for example through alternative workflows. These workflows have to be trained regularly. We categorize the most important types of IT system failure, assess the usefulness of classic counter measures, and state that most risk management approaches fall short on exactly this matter. To ensure that continuous, evidence-based improvements to the recommendations for IT emergency concepts are made, it is essential that IT blackouts and IT disasters are reported, analyzed, and critically discussed. This requires changing from a culture of shame and blame to one of error and safety in healthcare IT. This change is finding its way into other disciplines in medicine. In addition, systematically planned and analyzed simulations of IT disaster may assist in IT emergency concept development.

  16. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars......Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  17. Low adherence to influenza vaccination campaigns: is the H1N1 virus pandemic to be blamed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivellin Valeria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few months, debates about the handling of the influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic took place, in particular regarding the change of the WHO pandemic definition, economic interests, the dramatic communication style of mass media. The activation of plans to reduce the virus diffusion resulted in an important investment of resources. Were those investments proportionate to the risk? Was the pandemic overrated? The workload of the Pediatric Emergency Room (P.E.R. at a teaching hospital in Varese (Northern Italy was investigated in order to evaluate the local diffusion and severity of the new H1N1 influenza epidemic. Discussion A 100% increase of the number of P.E.R. visits, particularly for influenza-like illness, was recorded during weeks 42-46 of 2009 (October, 17 to November, 2; the low rate of hospitalization and the mild presentation of the infection gave rise to the conclusion that the pandemic risk was overrated. Mass media communications concerning the new virus created a disproportionate fear in the population that significantly enhanced the burden of cares at the hospital. In the absence of generally implemented measures for etiological diagnosis, the actual incidence of the H1N1 infection could not be estimated. Virus identification, in fact, was limited to children showing severe symptoms after consultancy with an infectious disease specialist. The alarming nature of the communication campaign and the choice to limit etiologic diagnosis to severe cases created a climate of uncertainty which significantly contributed to the massive admissions to the P.E.R.. Summary The communication strategy adopted by the mass media was an important element during the pandemic: the absence of clarity contributed to the spread of a pandemic phobia that appeared to result more from the sensationalism of the campaign than from infection with the novel influenza A variant of human, avian, swine origin virus. One relevant effect

  18. Brexit and government procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala

    2017-01-01

    This briefing paper looks at some of the legal issues that will affect the UK’s public procurement laws and policies following Brexit. For, once the UK revokes the European Communities Act 1972, it will no longer be obligated to follow the EU Procurement Directives, nor will it be subject to the commitments the EU has signed up to on behalf of the UK in the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) and in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Additionally, under the Devolution Settlement of ...

  19. World governance for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.; Keppler, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    As energy is a strategic stake for industrial societies through supply security, economical competitiveness and environmental performance, it is well-founded and useful to consider the way that energy production and consumption are organized. This document introduces the notion of energy governance and its different interpretations, then analyses its stakes and challenges (petroleum, natural gas, investment needs), and discusses some of the debates already in progress, such as the UNO's negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction or the impact of the WTO talks on energy exchanges

  20. Governing Forest Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Environmental Governance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Governing forest ecosystem services as a forest socio-ecological system is an evolving concept in the face of different environmental and social challenges. Therefore, different modes of ecosystem governance such as hierarchical, scientific–technical, and adaptive–collaborative governance have been developed. Although each form of governance offers important features, no one form on its own is sufficient to attain sustainable environmental governance (SEG. Thus, the blending of important features of each mode of governance could contribute to SEG, through a combination of both hierarchical and collaborative governance systems supported by scientifically and technically aided knowledge. This should be further reinforced by the broad engagement of stakeholders to ensure the improved well-being of both ecosystems and humans. Some form of governance and forest management measures, including sustainable forest management, forest certification, and payment for ecosystem services mechanisms, are also contributing to that end. While issues around commodification and putting a price on nature are still contested due to the complex relationship between different services, if these limitations are taken into account, the governance of forest ecosystem services will serve as a means of effective environmental governance and the sustainable management of forest resources. Therefore, forest ecosystem services governance has a promising future for SEG, provided limitations are tackled with due care in future governance endeavors.

  1. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  2. Can salt marshes survive sea level rise ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambroni, N.; Seminara, G.

    2008-12-01

    Stability of salt marshes is a very delicate issue depending on the subtle interplay among hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and ecology. In fact, the elevation of the marsh platform depends essentially on three effects: i) the production of soil associated with sediments resuspended by tidal currents and wind waves in the adjacent tidal flats, advected to the marsh and settling therein; ii) production of organic sediments by the salt marsh vegetation; iii) soil 'loss' driven by sea level rise and subsidence. In order to gain insight into the mechanics of the process, we consider a schematic configuration consisting of a salt marsh located at the landward end of a tidal channel connected at the upstream end with a tidal sea, under different scenarios of sea level rise. We extend the simple 1D model for the morphodynamic evolution of a tidal channel formulated by Lanzoni and Seminara (2002, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 107, C1) allowing for sediment resuspension in the channel and vegetation growth in the marsh using the depth dependent model of biomass productivity of Spartina proposed by Morris et al. (2002, Ecology, 83, pp. 2869 - 2877). We first focus on the case of a tide dominated salt marsh neglecting wind driven sediment resuspension in the shoal. Results show that the production of biomass plays a crucial role on salt marsh stability and, provided productivity is high enough, it may turn out to be sufficient to counteract the effects of sea level rise even in the absence of significant supply of mineral sediments. The additional effect of wind resuspension is then introduced. Note that the wind action is twofold: on one hand, it generates wind waves the amplitude of which is strongly dependent on shoal depth and wind fetch; on the other hand, it generates currents driven by the surface setup induced by the shear stress acting on the free surface. Here, each contribution is analysed separately. Results show that the values of bottom stress induced by

  3. Chemostratigraphy at DSDP Sites 386 (Bermuda Rise) and 144 (Demerara Rise), Implications for Euxinic Conditions During OAE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, P. A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.; Sandler, A.

    2008-05-01

    ). Biomarker data indicate that during OAE 2 similar paleoceanographic conditions prevailed at both DSDP Sites, 144 on the Demerara Rise and 386 on the Bermuda Rise. A. Forster, H. Sturt, P.A. Meyers, et al., in preliminary shipboard results from Sites 1257 and 1258, Leg 207, J. Erbacher, D.C. Mosher, M.J. Malone, et al., Proc. ODP, Init.Repts.207,1-22 [Online]: http://wwwodp.tamu.edu/publications/207_IR/VOLUME/ CHAPTERS/IR207_10.PDF. [Cited 2006-02-09] M.M.M. Kuypers, et al., Paleoceanography, 17, 4, 1051-1063 (2002) B.R.T. Simoneit, in Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Vol. 43, Tucholke, B.E., Vogt, P.R., et al., 1979, Eds, Washington (U.S. Government Printing Office), pp. 643-650 (1979) B.R.T. Simoneit and D.H.Stuermer, in Cretaceous Oceans, S.O. Schlanger and M.B. Cita, Eds, Academic Press, New York, pp. 145-163 (1982)

  4. Steuern und Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Taxation, in the modern state, has long been a mass phenomenon with an interdisciplinary outlook. On the macro level of the state, a new generation of administrative reforms has crystallized under the label “good public governance”. These reforms seek to resolve regulatory interdependence of state and non - state actors by way of cooperation and interaction. In parallel, on the micro level of businesses, “corporate governance” – voluntary compliance with legal and ethical standards – has become an increasingly important issue. With a view to tax law and tax collection, these developments open up new possibilities to raise tax compliance by means of consensual and cooperative instruments and, accordingly, address taxation as a mass phenomenon. DEUTSCH: Besteuerung ist im modernen Staat ein Massenphänomen und längst interdisziplinär ausgerichtet. Auf der Makro-Ebene des Staates hat sich unter dem Begriff Good Public Governance eine neue Generation von Staats- und Verwaltungsreformen herausgebildet, die Regelungsbeziehungen von staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Akteuren durch Kooperationen und Interaktionen zu lösen versucht. Parallel dazu hat auf der Mikro-Ebene der Unternehmen mit dem Thema Corporate Governance die freiwillige Einhaltung von rechtlichen und ethischen Regeln an Bedeutung gewonnen. Für das Steuerrecht und den Steuervollzug resultieren aus diesen Entwicklungen neue Möglichkeiten, durch Nutzung konsens- und kooperationsorientierter Instrumente die Tax Compliance zu erhöhen und so dem Massenphänomen Besteuerung gerecht zu werden.

  5. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongzhi; Sadovski, Alexey; Jeffress, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical...

  6. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  7. The Rise of the Financial Planning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cull

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial planning industry in Australia has experienced significant reform in the lastdecade. This reform has not only made a considerable impact on financial planners but also onother groups such as the accounting profession, regulators, the financial services industry,educators and consumers. Although consumer protection was at the heart of this reform, it hasalso prompted the industry and other groups to consider financial planning as a profession.This paper begins with a definition of financial planning, followed by a discussion of thehistorical origins of financial planning. Several examples are used to illustrate how the industryhas developed and changed over time considering the impact of social, cultural, institutional,political and economic factors. Particular attention is given to the role of the accountingprofession and government regulation in Australia. The paper concludes with a discussion of theprofessionalisation of financial planning in light of the increased pressure for changes inremuneration practice in the industry.

  8. Sea level rise and variability around Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung; Tay, Tze-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is bounded from the west by Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea, both connected to the Indian Ocean, and from the east by South China Sea being largest marginal sea in the Pacific Basin. As a result, sea level along Peninsular Malaysia coast is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale, sea level anomalies (SLAs) are generated by the Asian monsoon; interannual sea level variability is determined by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); whilst long term sea level trend is coordinated by the global climate change. To quantify the relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on sea level trend and variability surrounding the Peninsular Malaysia, long-term tide gauge record and satellite altimetry are used. During 1984-2011, relative sea level rise (SLR) rates in waters of Malacca Strait and eastern Peninsular Malaysia are found to be 2.4 ± 0.8 mm/yr and 2.7 ± 0.6 mm/yr, respectively. Discounting for their vertical land movements (0.8 ± 2.6 mm/yr and 0.9 ± 2.2 mm/yr, respectively), their pure SLR rates are 1.6 ± 3.4 mm/yr and 1.8 ± 2.8 mm/yr, respectively, which are lower than the global tendency. At interannual scale, ENSO affects sea level over the Malaysian east coast in the range of ± 5 cm with very high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, IOD modulates sea level anomalies in the Malacca Strait in the range of ± 2 cm with high correlation coefficient. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events and positive phases of the IOD index; while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes and the negative periods of the IOD index. Seasonally, SLAs are mainly monsoon-driven, in the order of 10-25 cm. Geographically, sea level responds differently to the monsoon: two cycles per year are observed in the Malacca Strait, presumably due to South Asian - Indian Monsoon; while single

  9. Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselingh, Frank; Flecker, Rachel; Wilke, Thomas; Leroy, Suzanne; Krijgsman, Wout; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    In the past two million years, the region of the Black Sea Basin, Caspian Basin and adjacent Anatolia and the Balkans were the stage of the evolution of a unique brackish water fauna, the so-called Pontocaspian fauna. The fauna is the result of assembly of genera with a Paratethyan origin and Anatolian origins during the Early Pleistocene. The rapid diversification of the Pontocaspian fauna is the result of the very dynamic nature of the lakes (the Caspian Sea is technically a lake) and seas in the region in the past two million years. In most times the various lake basins were isolated (like today), but in other episodes connections existed. Regional and global climate as well as the regional tectonic regimes were main drivers of lake basin evolution. Over the past 80 years a major biodiversity crisis is hitting the Pontocaspian faunas due to environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species. In the new EU-ETN PRIDE (Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise)we will be documenting the geological context of past diversifications and turnover events. We present examples of rapid turnover (biodiversity crises) in the Quaternary, assess driving forces and draw implications for the nature of the current human-mediated biodiversity crisis in the region.

  10. Gas demand to rise in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Could US consumption of natural gas rise by as much as 13 quadrillion Btu (quads) over the next 20 years? A new study conducted for the American Gas Foundation by Washington Policy and Analysis says it's certainly a possibility if appropriate policies are implemented. 'Fueling the Future: Natural Gas and New Technologies for a Cleaner 21. Century', confirms what natural gas industry professionals have long suspected: changes in US energy policy that favor increased use of natural gas could improve air quality, conserve energy and reduce reliance on imported oil from politically unstable countries. Consequently, the study forecasts that the environmental, economic and efficiency advantages of natural gas-combined with advances in gas-related technologies and the introduction of new end-use technologies - could help push. US gas consumption into the 35-quad range over the next two decades. Currently, American gas demand is close to 22 quads a year. The study tracks two scenarios: a 'current projection', which shows gas demand reaching nearly 30 quads by 2020, and an 'accelerated projection', which foresees demand topping 35 quads by then based on the adoption of national policies encouraging greater use of natural gas. (authors)

  11. The Rise of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya al-Mughni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the emergence of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait, based on the writings and personal accounts of leading Islamist women activists.  It begins with an analysis of the socio-political factors that led to the creation of Islamic groups in the 1980s. It then outlines the role of women in the growth of the Islamic movement and shows how the contradictions between women’s contributions to the Islamic cause and the secondary role they play within the Islamic organizations controlled by men were conducive to the rise of Islamic feminism in the 1990s. The paper also demonstrates how the involvement of islamist women in the struggle for suffrage forging a coalition with liberal women activists had played a decisive role in changing the position of islamist groups towards the enfranchisement of women. The last two sections of the paper look at the participation of islamist women activists in the re-definition of the dichotomy between the public and private spheres and at their involvement in the process of interpretation of Islamic sources, known as Ijtihâd. The paper concludes that the engagement of islamist women activists in the discourse of women’s rights can be powerful agent of change towards a more egalitarian society.

  12. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  13. Trialogue model for ecosystem governance.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hattingh, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available form and timescale to ensure good governance. In essence, good governance promotes democratic management of ecosystems and, by inference, prudentwater resourcemanagement. Consequently, it is likely that the type of governance that occurs most often... that, unless the imperative for civic science to support democratic governance is institutionalised through policy and strategy, it is unlikely that there will be sufficient human and financial investment in civic science as a means to promote...

  14. Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...

  15. Theoretical Framework for Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu Cristina Elena

    2012-01-01

    History has revealed that there is a never-ending evolution of theories or models of corporate governance. Companies are trying to instill the sense of governance into their corporate structure. This article is a review of literature on the range of theories in corporate governance. The fundamental theories in corporate governance began with the agency theory, expanded into stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolved to transaction cost theory. However, these theories address the ca...

  16. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  17. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  18. Uruguay - Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementa...

  19. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementation including: Improving corporate information, particularly ownership disclosure, related party transac...

  20. Characterizing Government Social Media Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As research on government social media continues to grow in quantity and scope, this area calls for mapping and systematization, in order to stimulate better-informed studies in the future. This paper draws on a comprehensive review of government social media literature in the e...... a four-point research agenda for future government social media research....

  1. Government, Money, and International Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Hans-Hermann

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with: (1) Definition of government; incentive structure under government: taxation, war and territorial expansion. (2) Origin of money; government and money; the devolution of money from commodity to fiat money. (3) International politics and monetary regimes; monetary imperialism and the drive toward a one-world central bank and fiat currency.

  2. Shapes and rising velocities of single bubbles rising through an inner subchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Akio; Nakahara, Yusuke; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Shapes and velocities of single air bubbles rising through stagnant and flowing waters in an inner subchannel are measured by making use of fluorocarbon tubes. It is confirmed that (1) bubble shapes and motions in the subchannel are by far different from those in simple geometry, and they depend on the ratio λ of the bubble diameter to the subchannel hydraulic diameter, (2) when λ > 0.9, a part of a bubble intrudes into neighboring subchannels, and thereby a kind of void drift takes place even with a single bubble, (3) the terminal velocity V T of a small bubble (λ T for cell-Taylor bubbles (λ > 0.9) is presented, and (5) the rising velocity V B in laminar an turbulent flow conditions are well evaluated by substituting the proposed V T models and the ratio of the maximum liquid velocity to the mean liquid velocity into the Nicklin correlation. (author)

  3. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  4. Global warming and sea level rise. Chikyu Ondanka to kaimen josho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, N [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-10-15

    This paper describes the following matters on the problems of global warming and sea level rise. The first evaluation report published by the inter-government panel on climate change (IPCC) in 1990 estimates that, if emission of greenhouse effect gas keeps increasing at the present rate, the air temperature and the average sea level would rise by 3[degree]C and 65 centimeters, respectively by 2100. Global warming would not only result in rise of the sea level, but also accompany changes in strengths and routes of tropical low pressure areas, and precipitation patterns. Downstream areas of large rivers and island countries on coral reefs may have a risk of getting submerged. Countries having coasts developed to high densities (Japan, for example) would be subjected to a high potential effect. An 'East Hemisphere International Conference on Sea Level Rising Problem' was held in Japan in August 1993 as part of the works to prepare the second evaluation report of the IPCC (publication scheduled for 1995). The conference was attended by 24 countries, and 43 study results were reported. 4 figs.

  5. Strand Plasticity Governs Fatigue in Colloidal Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Jan Maarten; Verweij, Joanne E.; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2018-05-01

    The repeated loading of a solid leads to microstructural damage that ultimately results in catastrophic material failure. While posing a major threat to the stability of virtually all materials, the microscopic origins of fatigue, especially for soft solids, remain elusive. Here we explore fatigue in colloidal gels as prototypical inhomogeneous soft solids by combining experiments and computer simulations. Our results reveal how mechanical loading leads to irreversible strand stretching, which builds slack into the network that softens the solid at small strains and causes strain hardening at larger deformations. We thus find that microscopic plasticity governs fatigue at much larger scales. This gives rise to a new picture of fatigue in soft thermal solids and calls for new theoretical descriptions of soft gel mechanics in which local plasticity is taken into account.

  6. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....... be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government...

  7. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  8. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  9. Privatization Of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Biersteker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Biersteker graduated from Chicago University (BF in Political Science and MIT (MA in Political Science and got PhD in Political Science in MIT as well. Later professor Biersteker lectured in Yale University (1976-1985, South Carolina University (1985-1992 and Brown University (1992-2006. He could be described as a constructivist focusing his research on global governance, international organizations and transnational policy networks, construction of sovereignty and regimes of targeted sanctions. Professor Birsteker kindly agreed to give an interview to the “MGIMO Review of International Relations” during a seminar within the research project - Grant of RFBR No. 16-23-41004. The seminar was also attended by M.M. Lebedeva, Yu.A. Nikitin, A.I. Nikitin, I.A. Istomin.

  10. Tourism and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework...... requires that tourism professionals effectively engage in dynamic social discourses where difficult trade-offs are made between competing demands. The challenge for tourism education is therefore to prepare graduates to work in these complex, value-laden, socio-political environments where they can...... proactively and positively contribute to developing forms of tourism that progress the objectives of sustainable development. This chapter explores this challenge in terms of a philosophic tourism practitioner education, and in doing so, discusses three key dimensions of this education: historical antecedents...

  11. Governing the Conflicted Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth

    for collective decision-making. This makes them the natural institution of choice to nurture democratic practice among the Ho people of Jharkhand’s West Singhbhum district, whose village communities form the focus of this study. However, Jharkhand’s state laws are at odds with national ones, and decentralisation...... works more along administrative than democratic lines. This limits the extent to which the village assemblies can nurture democratisation in the implementation of development schemes. One village assembly is far more successful at governing natural resources than the other. This is shown to be due...... to proactive leadership, a cohesive community and local social mobilisation within the successful village assembly, in contrast to the co-option of benefits by some village inhabitants in the other. Based on these cases, it is concluded that while a local deliberative institution is essential for nurturing...

  12. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  13. Reinventing government: Reinventing Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeda, J.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1943 as one of the three original Manhattan Project locations involved in the development of atomic weapons. It continued as a defense production center until 1988, when its mission changed to environmental restoration and remediation. The Hanford Site is changing its business strategy and in doing so, is reinventing government. This new development has been significantly influenced by a number of external sources. These include: the change in mission, reduced security requirements, new found partnerships, fiscal budgets, the Tri-Party agreement and stakeholder involvement. Tight budgets and the high cost of cleanup require that the site develop and implement innovative cost saving approaches to its mission. Costeffective progress is necessary to help assure continued funding by Congress

  14. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  15. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Assumptions about the knowledge held by economic agents have been an integral part of the theory of economic organization since its inception. However, recent work—here called “knowledge governance”—has more explicitly highlighted knowledge as both an independent and dependent variable. Thus......, knowledge may also be seen as being caused by governance mechanisms and structures; specifically, incentives, allocations of decision rights, organizational structure and so on influence the search for knowledge, and the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge. More philosophically, the concern...... with the role of knowledge in the context of economic organization prompts a reevaluation of a number of the fundamental assumptions that are often used to guide theory-building in the economics of organization (e.g., Bayesian and game theoretical foundations)....

  16. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    do not tend to get a media coverage that matches the EU’s considerable influence on European citizens’ daily lives. This study, which is based on in-depth interviews with European Parliament press officers, concludes that these professionals are indeed attuned to a “media logic......Social actors see exposure in the news media as attractive for publicity purposes and are under pressure to adapt their press work to a “media logic” to be attractive sources for journalists and editors. This article investigates the European Parliament’s press officers’ professional practices...... in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs...

  17. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  18. Digital governance and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlæger, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Coal allocation in China is a seminal case of e-government in the political economy. The empirical phenomenon of market supporting e-government has not been systematically analysed. By developing and applying a digital governance model this article examines institutional change in a case of coal...... allocation reform in China. The case shows how the central state used e-government to get rid of planning overload. Coal allocation meetings were abolished in favour of an ecology of online market solutions. The findings suggest that further research on Chinese e-government would benefit from attention...

  19. Rising utilization of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sunitha V; Rodean, Jonathan; Bekmezian, Arpi; Hall, Matt; Shah, Samir S; Mahant, Sanjay; Parikh, Kavita; Morse, Rustin; Puls, Henry; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Clinical pathways are detailed care plans that operationalize evidence-based guidelines into an accessible format for health providers. Their goal is to link evidence to practice to optimize patient outcomes and delivery efficiency. It is unknown to what extent inpatient pediatric asthma pathways are being utilized nationally. (1) Describe inpatient pediatric asthma pathway design and implementation across a large hospital network. (2) Compare characteristics of hospitals with and without pathways. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, survey study of hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network (75% children's hospitals, 25% community hospitals). Our survey determined if each hospital used a pathway and pathway characteristics (e.g. pathway elements, implementation methods). Hospitals with and without pathways were compared using Chi-square tests (categorical variables) and Student's t-tests (continuous variables). Surveys were distributed to 3-5 potential participants from each hospital and 302 (74%) participants responded, representing 86% (106/123) of surveyed hospitals. From 2005-2015, the proportion of hospitals utilizing inpatient asthma pathways increased from 27% to 86%. We found variation in pathway elements, implementation strategies, electronic medical record integration, and compliance monitoring across hospitals. Hospitals with pathways had larger inpatient pediatric programs [mean 12.1 versus 6.1 full-time equivalents, p = 0.04] and were more commonly free-standing children's hospitals (52% versus 23%, p = 0.05). From 2005-2015, there was a dramatic rise in implementation of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways. We found variation in many aspects of pathway design and implementation. Future studies should determine optimal implementation strategies to better support hospital-level efforts in improving pediatric asthma care and outcomes.

  20. The rise and fall of gluten!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Branchi, Federica; Sanders, David S

    2015-08-01

    Mankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the last 10,000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Wheat was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent (South Western Asia) with a farming expansion that lasted from about 9000BC to 4000BC. Thus it could be considered that wheat (and gluten) is a novel introduction to man's diet! Prior to 1939 the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat. This goal was achieved and by the end of the 20th century, global wheat output had expanded 5-fold. Perhaps as a result the epidemiology of coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy has changed. CD is a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD now affects 1 % or more of all adults, for which the treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show that a far greater proportion of individuals without coeliac disease are taking a gluten-free diet of their own volition. This clinical entity has been termed non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the condition is fraught with complexities due to overlap with other gluten-based constituents that can also trigger similar clinical symptoms. This review will explore the relationship between gluten, the rising prevalence of modern coeliac disease, and the new entity of NCGS along with its associated uncertainties.

  1. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  2. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  3. Foreign Animation Films and the Rising of Anti-Multiculturalism among Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Retno Angeningsih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As the impact of globalization, foreign animation films such as Shin Chan from Japan, Krishna from India, Upin-Ipin from Malaysia, Batman and many others from the US are very popular in Indonesia. Those films supposed represent cultures of each nation, so that people can learn multiculturalism. However, those films create inversely. This study aims to know how foreign animation films affect on the rising of anti-multiculturalism among Indonesian parents. Survey is conducted on parents with kindergarten or elementary children in Yogyakarta. The results show that children prefer to watch foreign animation films compare to domestic one. They are more likely to imitate their favorite animation stars by behaving violently, speaking harshly, and disrespectfully to parents.  As a result parents tend to blame their children changing behavior on foreign cultures as bad and impolite compare to their own culture. Instead of encouraging better understanding on multiculturalism, foreign animation films has raised anti-multiculturalism among parents.Sebagai dampak globalisasi, film animasi asing seperti Shin Chan dari Jepang, Krishna dari India, Upin Ipin - dari Malaysia, Batman dan banyak lainnya dari Amerika Serikat sangat populer di Indonesia. Film-film seharusnya mewakili budaya masing-masing negara, sehingga orang dapat belajar multikulturalisme. Namun, film-film ini dapat pula berakibat sebaliknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana film animasi dari luar bisa berpengaruh pada peningkatan anti-multikulturalisme pada orang tua di Indonesia. Survey dilakukan pada orang tua yang memiliki anak TK atau SD  di Yogyakarta. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak lebih memilih untuk menonton film animasi asing dibandingkan dengan film dalam negeri. Mereka lebih cenderung untuk meniru bintang animasi favorit mereka dengan berperilaku keras, berbicara kasar, dan tidak hormat kepada orang tua. Akibatnya, orang tua cenderung menyalahkan anak

  4. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  5. Petra Governance Handbook - WP7 – Governance structures & business models : D7.3: Governance Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.; Hirschhorn, F.; Klievink, A.J.; Steenhuisen, B.M.; van der Voort, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    This document represents the governance handbook on mobility data platforms for the PETRA project. The governance handbook provides metropolitan authorities contemplating the implementation of a mobility data platform in line with the PETRA project about governance issues and design.
    The

  6. Governing the Nexus for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Sina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the challenges of and requirements for effective governance of the water, energy and food nexus. With global dynamics such as climate change, urbanization and changing consumption patterns, governing resources in a coherent manner becomes both more complex and more relevant for sustainable development. Governance challenges include nexus economics (costs and benefits of different approaches to resource management, institutional design (like questions of how decision-making should be best distributed and good governance (how to make sure that nexus governance adheres to certain agreed upon principles and values. In terms of economics, a balance between sector specific actions and nexus governance is required. For effective decision-making it is important that power among different institutions is both distributed and coordinated. Good nexus governance requires targets that can be monitored to make sure that basic principles are followed and to examine whether progress toward sustainable development is being made.

  7. Alignment between business process governance and IT governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    frameworks to enable business-IT strategic alignment, efficient process and IT requirements specification, and IT-enabled business value realization. We examine the actuality of this alignment in practice through a case study conducted in a relatively mature multinational corporation. The findings indicate......The importance of business processes and the increasing centrality of IT to an organization's performance have called for a specific focus on business process governance and IT governance in contemporary enterprises. Despite the wide scope of business process management, which covers both business...... and IT domains, and the profound impact of IT on process innovations, the association between business process governance and IT governance remains under-explored. Analyzing the constituting elements of the two governance concepts, we propose the necessity of alignment between business process and IT governance...

  8. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  9. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  10. GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Governing Board held its 97th meeting on 5 December. On this occasion, it took note of the Draft Resolution on the Conclusions of the Five-Yearly Review 2000, one of which relates to the adjustment of the contribution rates to the Pension Fund which would rise from 9.37 % to 10.12 % of the reference salary for the members and fall from 21 % to 20.25 % of the reference salary for the Organization with effect from 1.1.2001. The Governing Board noted that those adjustments would not alter the overall contribution rate, which remains at 30.37 %. Consequently, it agreed to the proposed changes. The corresponding amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund will come into force with effect from 1.1.2001. The Board also took note of a request in the draft Resolution relating to three studies in addition to the triennial actuarial review as at 1.1.2001, namely 1) to study the financial consequences for the Fund of the proposed increase in the staff of 170 posts over the period 2002-2008, 2) to asse...

  11. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  12. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  13. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  14. Democracy over governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of institutional economics are available to evaluate varieties of capitalism. These methodologies dig behind preferences and technology to arrive at the ground on which agents make choices. The individual is at the foundation of these edifices, neoclassical and otherwise. Consequently, the denouement of all these models is that the market knows best in the absence of effective counterfactuals. A natural corollary is that the task of the government is to set effective mechanisms in place in order to approach the best outcomes. In contrast, we propose a framework which contends with the modern economy as an aggregate that evolves in historical time. Problems like effective demand failures are endemic to capitalist economies. Therefore, systematic State intervention is essential to their functioning. In particular, political economy teaches us that intervention must be in the interest of wage earners. In contrast to the earlier model, the fabric of norms and conventions that facilitate the growth and development of economies must emerge from the consciousness and practices of the working class.

  15. Happiness, Sadness and Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duncan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policy-making that re-presents – as objects of concern and by means of statistics – the suffering or depression and the happiness of populations indicates an evolving form of governance that examines and reshapes subjectivity itself. Never before have states of subjectivity been acted upon, through surveys, statistical and policy analysis, and scientific disciplines, to the extent seen today. This article: Documents changing epistemic co-ordinates, especially in psychology and economics, that first occluded happiness in the interests of objectivity, but, in recent decades, marked out a renewed ‘science’ of happiness.Examines changes in the discursive formulation of depression, as a counterpart to happiness.Argues that, seen in terms of bio-power, contemporary concerns for happiness and depression are consistent – rather than incompatible – with one another. How can so many claim to be happy when so many, we are told, are depressed, anxious or suffering emotional pain? There is no underlying contradiction here, for two reasons: Happiness and depression are manifestations of the same political discourse (or aspects of a political subjectivity characterized by dis-inhibition, consumer self-indulgence and performance anxiety. And, just as we needed madness in order to understand ‘sanity,’ or the prison in order to view ourselves as ‘free,’ so we rely upon concerns about depression in order to understand and act upon ourselves as subjects capable of unlimited happiness.

  16. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  17. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  18. Blaming, shaming, humiliation”: Stigmatising medical interactions among people with non-epileptic seizures [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Robson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: People with non-epileptic seizures (NES describe challenging relationships with health professionals, and explain negative interactions as common and expected. Despite these difficulties, little is known about how people with NES experience difficult healthcare encounters. Methods: Using a thematic discourse analysis approach, we analysed the free-text survey responses of 135 people with NES and asked: what kind of challenges do people living with this condition encounter when interacting with health professionals, and how do they experience the consequences of difficult interactions? We explore their experiences by interpreting the latent meaning of participants’ texts from a social-constructionist perspective on health and illness. Results: The overarching narrative depicts a fundamental breakdown in patient-provider relationships. According to our data, the negative experiences of study participants emerge from more than practitioners’ lack of awareness of NES and access to information about the condition - to the extent that it is available. In examining the challenges people with NES encounter when interacting with health professionals, their main experiences centre on blame and humiliation. When exploring their experiences, theories of stigma serve as a useful theoretical framework. Conclusions: Normative judgements arising from psychogenic understandings of NES are stigmatising and restrict professional displays of respectful (patient-centred care. Those with the condition depict being negatively stereotyped, illegitimated and held morally culpable by health professionals. Perceived to lack medical, moral and credible status, participants describe practitioners who treat them with disrespect, and some recount conduct that defies all ethical and professional obligations and standards. These encounters can have wide-ranging adverse consequences for patients: emotionally, physically, and for their future healthcare. The

  19. Frame And Blame An Analysis Of How Local Newspaper Framed The Conflict Between Confentional And Technological Application-Based Transportation In Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Harwinta Zianur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of the research was Frame and Blame An Analysis of How Local Newspapers Framed the Conflict Between Conventional and Technological Application-Based Transportation Service in Medan. Waspada Daily Newspaper as local newspapers more frequently put a human face on the issue while national papers more frequently framed it a moral wrong. The objective of the research was to find out how the newspaper constructs the news about this conflict and how it explains the conflict as part of its social responsibility in its news product. The research used qualitative method with paradigm constructivism which considers the subject Waspada Daily News as the central factor in the communicative activity and social relationsand as the function of control toward social facts which occur in society the conflict between motor pedicab drivers and go-jek riders. Framing analysis is a descriptive textual analysis of media used to find out how news is understood and framed by media. The research used Gamson and Modegliani framing model analysis based on constructivism approach in order to find out the representation of media. The theory of Berger and Luckman Reality Construction was used to explain social reality constructed through the process of externalization objectivity and internalization. The result of the research showed that 1 Waspada Daily Newspaper prioritized the conflict because the conflict was the effect of the lack of income of motor pedicab driver and also because there was no regulation on the transportationoperation of Go-Jek online 2 Waspada Daily News exposed the conflict in the front page in four days consecutively which indicated that there were attention and seriousness of moral evaluations.

  20. Sea Level Rise in the 21st Century: Will projections ever become reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise has the potential to become one of the most costly and least well predicted impacts of human caused climate change. Unlike global surface temperature, the spread of possible scenarios (as little as 1 foot and as much as 6 feet by 2100) is not due to uncertainty about future rates of greenhouse gas emissions, but rather by a fundamental lack of knowledge about how the major ice sheets will behave in a warming climate. Clearly improved projections of sea level rise should become a major research priority in the next decade. At present, controversial techniques based on comparison with historical analogs and rates of recent warming and sea level rise are often used to create projections for the 21st Century. However, many in the scientific community feel that reliable projections must be based on a sound knowledge of the physics governing sea level rise, and particularly ice sheet behavior. In particular, large portions of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and parts of the Greenland Ice Sheet rest on solid earth that sits below sea level. These regions may be threatened, not by atmospheric warming or changes in precipitation, but rather by direct forcing from the ocean. Fledgling efforts to understand these ocean ice interactions are already underway, as are efforts to make improved models of ice sheet behavior. However a great deal of work is still needed before widely accepted projections of sea level rise become a reality. This paper will highlight the hurdles to making such projections today and suggest ways forward in this critical area of research.

  1. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P., E-mail: spvanka@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Thomas, B. G. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Brown Hall W370-B, 1610 Illinois Street, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong [“Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221–228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  2. Assessing Sea Level Rise Impacts on the Surficial Aquifer in the Kennedy Space Center Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Warnock, A. M.; Hall, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise in the past century due to climate change has been seen at an average rate of approximately 1.7-2.2 mm per year, with an increasing rate over the next century. The increasing SLR rate poses a severe threat to the low-lying land surface and the shallow groundwater system in the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, resulting in saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding. A three-dimensional groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented to investigate and evaluate the extent of floods due to rising water table as well as saltwater intrusion. The SEAWAT model is chosen to solve the variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport governing equations and simulate the regional-scale spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater level and chloride concentration. The horizontal resolution of the model is 50 m, and the vertical domain includes both the Surficial Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The numerical model is calibrated based on the observed hydraulic head and chloride concentration. The potential impacts of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding are assessed under various sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulation results, the potential landward movement of saltwater and freshwater fringe is projected. The existing water supply wells are examined overlaid with the projected salinity distribution map. The projected Surficial Aquifer water tables are overlaid with data of high resolution land surface elevation, land use and land cover, and infrastructure to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise. This study provides useful tools for decision making on ecosystem management, water supply planning, and facility management.

  3. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong [“Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221–228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  4. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies

  5. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  6. Serbs in education during the Turkish government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present opportunities cultural educational social policy and the Serbian people during the Turkish government. The intention is also to investigate the extent and level of education - literacy through the process of learning, reading, writing and acquiring new knowledge. The paper will also be discussed and the impact of other counters and their schools (Russia, Germany, Greece on the entire educational system in Serbia in the Serbian education period. Legal regulation and development of spiritual awareness and desire for literacy, will also find its place in this paper. Based on all the foregoing, it follows that the literacy during the Ottoman rule was very limited, and that the small number and percentage of population of certain social groups (nobility, clergy. There fore education was meager and insignificant, that and that, as concept, was reduced to literacy. Also, the church was the meeting place of all those who strove for literacy, and together with the monasteries of the first and only school in which they were taught reading and writing. During the First Serbian Uprising, except churches, the need for some kind of education begins to have, and government or authority which forms a first and basic institution of society. Looking at the wider development of literacy in Serbia can be concluded that education had its ups and downs, which are periodically changed depending on the social and political conditionally. Thus, at the close of the Middle Ages to the territorial possession of Despot Stefan Lazarevic (1389-1427 and its owner George Brankovic (1427-1456, with constant theats to the Turkish conquest occurred one interesting moment. Thjere is still an independent country, and despite the double vassalage to Turkey and Hungary, has seen a tumultuous economy and education rise, which was also the basis for the rise of Serbia culture. In the Serbian despots then we come to real cult of art and education, as earlier

  7. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  8. Neoliberalism revised? A critical account of World Bank conceptions of good governance and market friendly intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, R

    1998-01-01

    This article examines recent World Bank reports on the role of the state in the development process, with particular reference to the rise of the East Asian newly industrializing countries and the crisis of "governance" in sub-Saharan Africa. The concepts of market friendly intervention and good governance are critically discussed, and are found to be inadequate as explanations for East Asian "success" and African "failure." The author presents an alternative explanation for the rise of the newly industrializing countries, which draws out some of the implications for the developing world.

  9. USMC Relocation to Guam: Political Pressure and Poor Plam1ing to Blame for an Ill-Postured U.S. Military in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Projects and Programs to Support a Larger Military Presence (Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office, 2009), 1. 22 Akiko Yamamoto , "Rice, on...Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office, 2009. Yamamoto , Akiko . "Rice, on Japan Visit, Offers U.S. Regrets Over Alleged Rape

  10. Network governance for dealing with IT-enabled Interorganizational cooperation : when should network IT - such as social media - be used and how to govern it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan; Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    IT-based networking trends such as the rise of social media, crowd sourcing, open innovation, and cloud computing enable a profoundly different way of working and collaborating that challenges significantly traditional approaches of companies towards governance, i.e. the mechanisms a company employs

  11. INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT SECURITIES: SPECIFIC FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Versal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It’s disclosed the features of the international government securities market during 1993 – 2012: main players are the developed countries (Western Europe, Canada, USA with the increasing role of developing countries; debt crises have the negative impact as on the development of the international government securities market, but also on the international capital market as a whole; debt crises are not a spontaneous phenomenon, and usually occur as a result of inadequate growth in GDP increasing government debt.

  12. Corporate governance of the environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, B.

    2005-01-01

    The global pursuit of a more sustainable future cannot be achieved without the active engagement of the business community. The challenge for business has been to strategically engage with and embed environmental responsibility within their wider corporate governance to create effective corporate governance of the environment. The assumption would appear to be, that we have already witnessed the construction of such governance, delivered through the attainment of a paradigmatic shift in corpo...

  13. Corporate Governance Disclosure in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ONG, Wei Jiin

    2006-01-01

    This research provides evidence on corporate governance disclosure in Malaysia based on a sample of 25 Malaysian public listed companies on the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI) in the year 1998 and 2005 that are listed on the Bursa Malaysia. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether after the launch of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (HLFC, 2000) following the 1997/98 financial crisis, corporate governance in Malaysia has improved in terms of disclosure information ...

  14. Interorganizational Care needs Horizontal Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Spierenburg, Monique; van de Schoot, Rian

    2016-01-01

    Interorganizational Governance isn’t a theme for research yet. Because of the complexity of problems of (new) clients there is an urgent need to cooperate in networks of welfare, care, initiatives of citizens, general practitioners and others. And because of the policy of the (local) government, the transition of the healthcare systems, with the vision to help people close by. In these practice we see new ideas and forms of governance.What’s the problem? Decentralization, integration and pers...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  16. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  17. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    .... However, ethnic disputes remain confined largely to political debate and competition, enabling President Karzai to focus on improving governance, reversing security deterioration, and his re-election...

  18. Dawn of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Damsgaard, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Most countries have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fuelling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less well clear in the policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of latest...... internally and externally. The e-Day initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. The policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption focusing on visions and pedagogical intervention in governmental...

  19. Governance of Higher Education--Implementation of Project Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in higher education. The object of the study is a department at a public university, seen as a multi-project environment. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and analyze project governance as a tool that allows departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the…

  20. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…