Kourtidis, Antonis; Necela, Brian; Lin, Wan-Hsin; Lu, Ruifeng; Feathers, Ryan W; Asmann, Yan W; Thompson, E Aubrey; Anastasiadis, Panos Z
Cumulative evidence demonstrates that most RNAs exhibit specific subcellular distribution. However, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon and its functional consequences are still under investigation. Here, we reveal that cadherin complexes at the apical zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelial adherens junctions recruit the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) Ago2, GW182, and PABPC1, as well as a set of 522 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and 28 mature microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), via PLEKHA7. Top canonical pathways represented by these mRNAs include Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, and stem cell signaling. We specifically demonstrate the presence and silencing of MYC, JUN, and SOX2 mRNAs by miR-24 and miR-200c at the ZA. PLEKHA7 knockdown dissociates RISC from the ZA, decreases loading of the ZA-associated mRNAs and miRNAs to Ago2, and results in a corresponding increase of MYC, JUN, and SOX2 protein expression. The present work reveals a mechanism that directly links junction integrity to the silencing of a set of mRNAs that critically affect epithelial homeostasis. © 2017 Kourtidis et al.
Kawamata, Tomoko; Tomari, Yukihide
It is well established that 20- to 30-nt small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs, play crucial roles in regulating gene expression and control a surprisingly diverse array of biological processes. These small RNAs cannot work alone: they must form effector ribonucleoprotein complexes - RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) - to exert their function. Thus, RISC assembly is a key process in small RNA-mediated silencing. Recent biochemical analyses of RISC assembly, together with new structural studies of Argonaute, the core protein component of RISC, suggest a revised view of how mature RISC, which contains single-stranded guide RNA, is built from small RNAs that are born double-stranded. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Bong Cho; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon
Premature senescence, a key strategy used to suppress carcinogenesis, can be driven by p53/p21 proteins in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that Wig1 plays a critical role in this process through regulation of p21 mRNA stability. Wig1 controls the association of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a central component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), with target p21 mRNA via binding of the stem-loop structure near the microRNA (miRNA) target site. Depletion of Wig1 prohibited miRNA-mediated p21 mRNA decay and resulted in premature senescence. Wig1 plays an essential role in cell proliferation, as demonstrated in tumour xenografts in mice, and Wig1 and p21 mRNA levels are inversely correlated in human normal and cancer tissues. Together, our data indicate a novel role of Wig1 in RISC target accessibility, which is a key step in RNA-mediated gene silencing. In addition, these findings indicate that fine-tuning of p21 levels by Wig1 is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence.
Kawamata, Tomoko; Tomari, Yukihide
Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression of their target mRNAs via the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A core component of RISC is the Argonaute (Ago) protein, which dictates the RISC function. In Drosophila, miRNAs and siRNAs are generally loaded into Ago1-containing RISC (Ago1-RISC) and Ago2-containing RISC (Ago2-RISC), respectively. We developed a native agarose gel system to directly detect Ago1-RISC, Ago2-RISC, and their precursor complexes. Methods presented here will provide powerful tools to biochemically dissect the RISC assembly pathways.
The AVR RISC Microcontroller Handbook is a comprehensive guide to designing with Atmel's new controller family, which is designed to offer high speed and low power consumption at a lower cost. The main text is divided into three sections: hardware, which covers all internal peripherals; software, which covers programming and the instruction set; and tools, which explains using Atmel's Assembler and Simulator (available on the Web) as well as IAR's C compiler.Practical guide for advanced hobbyists or design professionalsDevelopment tools and code available on the Web
Atiya, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sambamurti, A.; Strzelinski, R.
This paper reports on the designed, construction and testing microprocessor based controller for data acquisition and analysis conforming to the IEEE-960 Fastbus standard. The controller uses the RISC AM29000 processor and the Am29027 floating point co-processor. The module functions as a Fastbus slave and is used for analysis and filtering of digitially sampled waveforms acquired in a large system of high performance transient digitizers (over 200 channels, each sampling at 500 MHz. with 8 bits of dynamic range). With modifications the module can operate as a Fastbus master
Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Hessenbruch, John M.; Zeise, Frederick F.
A second generation digital optical computer (DOC II) has been developed which utilizes a RISC based operating system as its host. This 32 bit, high performance (12.8 GByte/sec), computing platform demonstrates a number of basic principals that are inherent to parallel free space optical interconnects such as speed (up to 1012 bit operations per second) and low power 1.2 fJ per bit). Although DOC II is a general purpose machine, special purpose applications have been developed and are currently being evaluated on the optical platform.
Mattiroli, Francesca; Gu, Yajie; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Luger, Karolin
Nucleosome assembly following DNA replication controls epigenome maintenance and genome integrity. Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is the histone chaperone responsible for histone (H3-H4)2 deposition following DNA synthesis. Structural and functional details for this chaperone complex and its interaction with histones are slowly emerging. Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, combined with in vitro and in vivo mutagenesis studies, we identified the regions involved in the direct interaction between the yeast CAF-1 subunits, and mapped the CAF-1 domains responsible for H3-H4 binding. The large subunit, Cac1 organizes the assembly of CAF-1. Strikingly, H3-H4 binding is mediated by a composite interface, shaped by Cac1-bound Cac2 and the Cac1 acidic region. Cac2 is indispensable for productive histone binding, while deletion of Cac3 has only moderate effects on H3-H4 binding and nucleosome assembly. These results define direct structural roles for yeast CAF-1 subunits and uncover a previously unknown critical function of the middle subunit in CAF-1.
Haystead, Mark W.
This report describes the findings for an analysis of data provided by the Re-Inventing Schools Coalition (RISC). A comparison was made between schools at seven districts that employ the RISC model and eight non-RISC districts (hereinafter referred to as RISC and non-RISC schools) on the percentages of students who scored proficient or above on…
Yoda, Mayuko; Kawamata, Tomoko; Paroo, Zain; Ye, Xuecheng; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Liu, Qinghua; Tomari, Yukihide
The assembly of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a key process in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. In humans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are incorporated into RISCs containing the Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins Ago1-4. Previous studies have proposed that, unlike Drosophila melanogaster RISC assembly pathways, human RISC assembly is coupled with dicing and is independent of ATP. Here we show by careful reexamination that, in humans, RISC assembly and dicing are uncoupled, and ATP greatly facilitates RISC loading of small-RNA duplexes. Moreover, all four human AGO proteins show remarkably similar structural preferences for small-RNA duplexes: central mismatches promote RISC loading, and seed or 3'-mid (guide position 12-15) mismatches facilitate unwinding. All these features of human AGO proteins are highly reminiscent of fly Ago1 but not fly Ago2.
Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki
trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1-RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3' cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3' cleavage fragment. When the 3' nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3' cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1-RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3'-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1-RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3' cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3' fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production.
The RISC (Relativistic Ionising Streamer Chamber) spectrometer (situated at Protvino, joining the accelerator) is discussed, and the experiment carried out in international cooperation is presented. The beam monitor, the trigger system and the control and data recording system as well as the streamer spark chamber are detailed (the latter is the largest of our time). Examples of the main experiments as well as the work carried out in Budapest are discussed briefly. (Sz.J.)
Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C.; Liu, Qinghua
SUMMARY Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains Dicer-2(Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here, we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11−/− ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of Drosophila RLC and elucidate a novel cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. PMID:26257286
Pavel Kh Kopylov
Full Text Available Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to serine. We investigated polymorphism of the Caf1 sequences among other Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains, which have a limited virulence in guinea pigs and in humans. Sequencing of caf1 genes from 119 Y. pestis strains belonging to different biovars within subsp. microtus showed that the Caf1 proteins exist in three isoforms, the global type Caf1NT1 (Ala48 Phe117, type Caf1NT2 (Ser48 Phe117 found in Transcaucasian-highland and Pre-Araks natural plague foci #4-7, and a novel Caf1NT3 type (Ala48 Val117 endemic in Dagestan-highland natural plague focus #39. Both minor types are the progenies of the global isoform. In this report, Caf1 polymorphism was analyzed by comparing predicted intrinsic disorder propensities and potential protein-protein interactivities of the three Caf1 isoforms. The analysis revealed that these properties of Caf1 protein are minimally affected by its polymorphism. All protein isoforms could be equally detected by an immunochromatography test for plague at the lowest protein concentration tested (1.0 ng/mL, which is the detection limit. When compared to the classic Caf1NT1 isoform, the endemic Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 had lower immunoreactivity in ELISA and lower indices of self- and cross-protection. Despite a visible reduction in cross-protection between all Caf1 isoforms, our data suggest that polymorphism in the caf1 gene may not allow the carriers of Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 variants escaping from the Caf1NT1-mediated immunity to plague in the case of a low-dose flea-borne infection.
SHANKER NILANGI; SOWMYA L
This paper presents design and verification of a 32-bit enhanced RISC processor core having floating point computations integrated within the core, has been designed to reduce the cost and complexity. The designed 3 stage pipelined 32-bit RISC processor is based on the ARM7 processor architecture with single precision floating point multiplier, floating point adder/subtractor for floating point operations and 32 x 32 booths multiplier added to the integer core of ARM7. The binary representati...
Hong, Junmei; Wei, Na; Chalk, Alistair; Wang, Jue; Song, Yutong; Yi, Fan; Qiao, Ren-Ping; Sonnhammer, Erik L L; Wahlestedt, Claes; Liang, Zicai; Du, Quan
RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) is a central protein complex in RNAi, into which a siRNA strand is assembled to become effective in gene silencing. By using an in vitro RNAi reaction based on Drosophila embryo extract, an asymmetric model was recently proposed for RISC assembly of siRNA strands, suggesting that the strand that is more loosely paired at its 5' end is selectively assembled into RISC and results in target gene silencing. However, in the present study, we were unable to establish such a correlation in cell-based RNAi assays, as well as in large-scale RNAi data analyses. This suggests that the thermodynamic stability of siRNA is not a major determinant of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Further studies on fork siRNAs showed that mismatch at the 5' end of the siRNA sense strand decreased RISC assembly of the antisense strand, but surprisingly did not increase RISC assembly of the sense strand. More interestingly, measurements of melting temperature showed that the terminal stability of fork siRNAs correlated with the positions of the mismatches, but not gene silencing efficacy. In summary, our data demonstrate that there is no definite correlation between siRNA stability and gene silencing in mammalian cells, which suggests that instead of thermodynamic stability, other features of the siRNA duplex contribute to RISC assembly in RNAi.
Hong Junmei; Wei Na; Chalk, Alistair; Wang Jue; Song, Yutong; Yi Fan; Qiao Renping; Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.; Wahlestedt, Claes; Liang Zicai; Du, Quan
RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) is a central protein complex in RNAi, into which a siRNA strand is assembled to become effective in gene silencing. By using an in vitro RNAi reaction based on Drosophila embryo extract, an asymmetric model was recently proposed for RISC assembly of siRNA strands, suggesting that the strand that is more loosely paired at its 5' end is selectively assembled into RISC and results in target gene silencing. However, in the present study, we were unable to establish such a correlation in cell-based RNAi assays, as well as in large-scale RNAi data analyses. This suggests that the thermodynamic stability of siRNA is not a major determinant of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Further studies on fork siRNAs showed that mismatch at the 5' end of the siRNA sense strand decreased RISC assembly of the antisense strand, but surprisingly did not increase RISC assembly of the sense strand. More interestingly, measurements of melting temperature showed that the terminal stability of fork siRNAs correlated with the positions of the mismatches, but not gene silencing efficacy. In summary, our data demonstrate that there is no definite correlation between siRNA stability and gene silencing in mammalian cells, which suggests that instead of thermodynamic stability, other features of the siRNA duplex contribute to RISC assembly in RNAi
Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R. Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki
trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)–mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1–RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3′ cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3′ cleavage fragment. When the 3′ nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3′ cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1–RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3′-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1–RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3′ cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3′ fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production. PMID:23417299
Full Text Available Abstract Background Argonaute, the core component of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC, binds to mature miRNAs and regulates gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. We recently reported that Argonaute 2 (Ago2 also assembles into complexes with miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs. These Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes are catalytically active in vitro and constitute non-canonical RISCs. Results The use of pre-miRNAs as guides by Ago2 bypasses Dicer activity and complicates in vitro RISC reconstitution. In this work, we characterized Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes and identified RNAs that are targeted by miRNAs but not their corresponding pre-miRNAs. Using these target RNAs we were able to recapitulate in vitro pre-miRNA processing and canonical RISC loading, and define the minimal factors required for these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that Ago2 and Dicer are sufficient for processing and loading of miRNAs into RISC. Furthermore, our studies suggest that Ago2 binds primarily to the 5'- and alternatively, to the 3'-end of select pre-miRNAs.
Betancur, Juan G; Tomari, Yukihide
In flies, asymmetric loading of small RNA duplexes into Argonaute2-containing RNA-induced silencing complex (Ago2-RISC) requires Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer, which acts as a protein sensor for the thermodynamic stabilities of the ends of small RNA duplexes. However, the mechanism of small RNA asymmetry sensing in mammalian RISC assembly remains obscure. Here, we quantitatively examined RISC assembly and target silencing activity in the presence or absence of Dicer in mammals. Our data show that, unlike the well-characterized fly Ago2-RISC assembly pathway, mammalian Dicer is dispensable for asymmetric RISC loading in vivo and in vitro.
Rachana Solanki; Vinay Gupta
The Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processor use fewer instructions with simple constructs, therefore they can be executed much faster within the CPU without having to use memory as often. It reduce execution time by simplifying the instruction set of the computer. The DSP processors are perform the operation such as Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), Inverse DCT, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) are performed by DSP system. This paper represent the des...
Kim, Kevin; Lee, Young Sik; Carthew, Richard W.
In the Drosophila RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct Argonaute2 (Ago2), an endonuclease, within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to cleave complementary mRNA targets. In vitro studies have shown that, for each siRNA duplex, RISC retains only one strand, the guide, and releases the other, the passenger, to form a holo-RISC complex. Here, we have isolated a new Ago2 mutant allele and provide, for the first time, in vivo evidence that endogenous Ago2 slicer activity is important to mount an RNAi response in Drosophila. We demonstrate in vivo that efficient removal of the passenger strand from RISC requires the cleavage activity of Ago2. We have also identified a new intermediate complex in the RISC assembly pathway, pre-RISC, in which Ago2 is stably bound to double-stranded siRNA. PMID:17123955
Knaap, L.M. van der; Alberda, D.L.
Om inzichten te krijgen in criminogene factoren van delinquenten is het screeningsinstrument 'Recidive Inschattingsschalen' (RISc) ontwikkeld. De betrouwbaarheid en validiteit van dit instrument zijn al onderzocht en positief bevonden. Dit onderzoek gaat na of de RISc geschikt is als
Naruse, Ken; Matsuura-Suzuki, Eriko; Watanabe, Mariko; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Tomari, Yukihide
To silence target mRNAs, small RNAs and Argonaute (Ago) proteins need to be assembled into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). Although the assembly of Drosophila melanogaster RISC was recently reconstituted by Ago2, the Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer, and five chaperone proteins, the absence of a reconstitution system for mammalian RISC assembly has posed analytical challenges. Here we describe reconstitution of human RISC assembly using Ago2 and five recombinant chaperone proteins: Hsp90β, Hsc70, Hop, Dnaja2, and p23. Our data show that ATP hydrolysis by both Hsp90β and Hsc70 is required for RISC assembly of small RNA duplexes but not for that of single-stranded RNAs. The reconstitution system lays the groundwork for further studies of small RNA-mediated gene silencing in mammals. © 2018 Naruse et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Sasaki, Hiroshi M; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Tomari, Yukihide
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a small RNA-protein complex that mediates silencing of complementary target RNAs. Biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of RISC assembly and function for nearly two decades. However, further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms. Single-molecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful imaging-based approach to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity. Combining this technique with our recently established in vitro reconstitution system of fly Ago2-RISC, we have developed a single-molecule observation system for RISC assembly. In this chapter, we summarize the detailed protocol for single-molecule analysis of chaperone-assisted assembly of fly Ago2-RISC as well as its target cleavage reaction.
Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C; Liu, Qinghua
Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains the Dicer-2 (Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein-associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although it is an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11(-/-) ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using the recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of the Drosophila RLC and elucidate a cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gu, Shuo; Jin, Lan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A
Small RNAs regulate genetic networks through a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which, in mammals, contains at its center one of four Argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4). A key regulatory event in the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways is Ago loading, wherein double-stranded small-RNA duplexes are incorporated into RISC (pre-RISC) and then become single-stranded (mature RISC), a process that is not well understood. The Agos contain an evolutionarily conserved PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain whose primary function is to bind the 3' end of small RNAs. We created multiple PAZ-domain-disrupted mutant Ago proteins and studied their biochemical properties and biological functionality in cells. We found that the PAZ domain is dispensable for Ago loading of slicing-competent RISC. In contrast, in the absence of slicer activity or slicer-substrate duplex RNAs, PAZ-disrupted Agos bound duplex small interfering RNAs, but were unable to unwind or eject the passenger strand and form functional RISC complexes. We have discovered that the highly conserved PAZ domain plays an important role in RISC activation, providing new mechanistic insights into how miRNAs regulate genes, as well as new insights for future design of miRNA- and RNAi-based therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zank, G. P.; Spann, James F.
The goal of this project is to serve the needs of space system designers and operators by developing an interplanetary radiation environment model within 10 AU:Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) toolset: (1) The RISCS toolset will provide specific reference environments for space system designers and nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for space system operators; (2) We envision the RISCS toolset providing the spatial and temporal radiation environment external to the Earth's (and other planets') magnetosphere, as well as possessing the modularity to integrate separate applications (apps) that can map to specific magnetosphere locations and/or perform the subsequent radiation transport and dosimetry for a specific target.
Bailey, David H.; Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)
This tutorial will discuss the top five RISC microprocessors and the parallel systems in which they are used. It will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere. The effective performance of these processors will be compared by citing standard benchmarks in the context of real applications. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmarks, both absolute performance and performance per dollar, will be listed. The next generation of the NPB will be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of future directions in the field. Technology Transfer Considerations: All of these computer systems are commercially available internationally. Information about these processors is available in the public domain, mostly from the vendors themselves. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks and their results have been previously approved numerous times for public release, beginning back in 1991.
Timoc, Constantin; Benz, Harry
Viewgraphs on a fault-tolerant RISC microprocessor for spacecraft applications are presented. Topics covered include: reduced instruction set computer; fault tolerant registers; fault tolerant ALU; and double rail CMOS logic.
Anand Nandakumar Shardul
In this project, we propose a 16-bit non-pipelined RISC processor, which is used for signal processing applications. The processor consists of the blocks, namely, program counter, clock control unit, ALU, IDU and registers. Advantageous architectural modifications have been made in the incremented circuit used in program counter and carry select adder unit of the ALU in the RISC CPU core. Furthermore, a high speed and low power modified modifies multiplier has been designed and introduced in ...
Kobayashi, Hotaka; Tomari, Yukihide
Non-coding RNAs generally form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with their partner proteins to exert their functions. Small RNAs, including microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs, assemble with Argonaute (Ago) family proteins into the effector complex called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which mediates sequence-specific target gene silencing. RISC assembly is not a simple binding between a small RNA and Ago; rather, it follows an ordered multi-step pathway that requires specific accessory factors. Some steps of RISC assembly and RISC-mediated gene silencing are dependent on or facilitated by particular intracellular platforms, suggesting their spatial regulation. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms for RISC assembly of each small RNA class and propose a revised model for the role of the chaperone machinery in the duplex-initiated RISC assembly pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iki, Taichiro; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki
Posttranscriptional gene silencing is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that contain AGO proteins and single-stranded small RNAs. The assembly of plant AGO1-containing RISCs depends on the molecular chaperone HSP90. Here, we demonstrate that cyclophilin 40 (CYP40), protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), and several other proteins with the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain associates with AGO1 in an HSP90-dependent manner in extracts of evacuolated tobacco protoplasts (BYL). Intriguingly, CYP40, but not the other TPR proteins, could form a complex with small RNA duplex-bound AGO1. Moreover, CYP40 that was synthesized by in-vitro translation using BYL uniquely facilitated binding of small RNA duplexes to AGO1, and as a result, increased the amount of mature RISCs that could cleave target RNAs. CYP40 was not contained in mature RISCs, indicating that the association is transient. Addition of PP5 or cyclophilin-binding drug cyclosporine A prevented the association of endogenous CYP40 with HSP90-AGO1 complex and inhibited RISC assembly. These results suggest that a complex of AGO1, HSP90, CYP40, and a small RNA duplex is a key intermediate of RISC assembly in plants.
Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T
It has been shown that siRNAs can compete with each other or with endogenous miRNAs for RISC components. This competition may complicate the interpretations of phenotypes observed through siRNA-mediated knockdown of genes, especially those genes implicated in the RISC pathway. In this study, we re-examined the function of RNA helicase A (RHA), which has been previously proposed to function in RISC loading based on siRNA-mediated knockdown studies. Here we show that reduced RISC activity or loading of siRNAs was observed only in cells depleted of RHA using siRNA, but not using RNaseH-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), suggesting that the impaired RISC function stems from the competition between pre-existing and newly transfected siRNAs, but not from reduction of the RHA protein. This view is further supported by the findings that cells depleted of a control protein, NCL1, using siRNA, but not ASO, exhibited similar defects on the loading and activity of a subsequently transfected siRNA. Transfection of RHA or NCL1 siRNAs, but not ASOs, reduced the levels of endogenous miRNAs, suggesting a competition mechanism. As a positive control, we showed that reduction of MOV10 by either siRNA or ASO decreased siRNA activity, confirming its role in RISC function. Together, our results indicate that RHA is not required for RISC activity or loading, and suggest that proper controls are required when using siRNAs to functionalize genes to avoid competition effects. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vasselon, Thierry; Bouttier, Manuella; Saumet, Anne; Lecellier, Charles-Henri
RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent cellular system against viruses in various organisms. Although common traits are observed in plants, insects, and nematodes, the situation observed in mammals appears more complex. In mammalian somatic cells, RNAi is implicated in endonucleolytic cleavage mediated by artificially delivered small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as well as in translation repression mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Because siRNAs and miRNAs recognize viral mRNAs, RNAi inherently limits virus production and participates in antiviral defense. However, several observations made in the cases of hepatitis C virus and retroviruses (including the human immunodeficiency virus and the primate foamy virus) bring evidence that this relationship is much more complex and that certain components of the RNAi effector complex [called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)], such as AGO2, are also required for viral replication. Here, we summarize recent discoveries that have revealed this dual implication in virus biology. We further discuss their potential implications for the functions of RNAi-related proteins, with special emphasis on retrotransposition and genome stability.
Mikhailov, A.M.; Vainshtein, B.K.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Vasil'ev, A.M.; Rudenko, E.G.; Abramov, V.M.; Zav'yalov, V.P.; Kornev, A.N.; Kornilov, V.V.; Karlyshev, A.V.; MacIntyre, Sh.
The for growing conditions perfect single crystals of the protein Caf1M have been established. The unit-cell parameters of the crystals are (a=112.6 A, b=78.1 A, c=65.3 A, sp. gr. P2 1 2 1 2 1 ), molecular weight is 28 kDa), which is a representative of molecular periplasmatic chaperones, were found. This investigation is the first necessary stage of determination the three-dimensional structure of this biomacromolecule at atomic resolution. Taking into account that the primary amino acid sequences of the protein Caf1M and of the structurally studied protein PapD and also their secondary structures are homologous, the phase problem can be solved by the molecular replacement method
Uwada, Junsuke; Tanaka, Niina; Yamaguchi, Yutaro; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Shibahara, Kei-ichi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Hisato
The small ubiquitin-related modifier 2/3 (SUMO2/3) can be post-translationally conjugated to a wide variety of proteins constituting chromatin, the platform for genetic and epigenetic regulation. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SUMO2/3 and SUMO2/3-modified proteins are delivered to the chromatin fibers. Here we report that the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), human p150, interacts directly and preferentially with SUMO2/3. Amino acid residue of 98-105 in p150 is essential and sufficient for SUMO2/3 interaction. p150-SUMO2/3 interaction coincided with regions that replicate chromatin fibers, because accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were detected at foci co-localized with both p150 and SUMO2/3 during the S-phase in a cell line expressing epitope-tagged p150. Although inhibition of SUMO2/3 expression had only a small effect on p150 deposition on the replication sites, depletion of p150 led to delocalization of SUMO2/3 from the replication foci. Furthermore, p150 mutants deficient in SUMO2/3 interaction, caused a major reduction of SUMO2/3 at the replication foci. Thus, our findings suggest an expanded role of p150 as a SUMO2/3-interacting factor, and raise the intriguing possibility that p150 plays a role in promoting delivery of SUMO2/3 or SUMO2/3-modified proteins (or both) on chromatin fibers during replication.
Ignarski, Michael; Singh, Aditi; Swart, Estienne C; Arambasic, Miroslav; Sandoval, Pamela Y; Nowacki, Mariusz
Genome-wide DNA remodelling in the ciliate Paramecium is ensured by RNA-mediated trans-nuclear crosstalk between the germline and the somatic genomes during sexual development. The rearrangements include elimination of transposable elements, minisatellites and tens of thousands non-coding elements called internally eliminated sequences (IESs). The trans-nuclear genome comparison process employs a distinct class of germline small RNAs (scnRNAs) that are compared against the parental somatic genome to select the germline-specific subset of scnRNAs that subsequently target DNA elimination in the progeny genome. Only a handful of proteins involved in this process have been identified so far and the mechanism of DNA targeting is unknown. Here we describe chromatin assembly factor-1-like protein (PtCAF-1), which we show is required for the survival of sexual progeny and localizes first in the parental and later in the newly developing macronucleus. Gene silencing shows that PtCAF-1 is required for the elimination of transposable elements and a subset of IESs. PTCAF-1 depletion also impairs the selection of germline-specific scnRNAs during development. We identify specific histone modifications appearing during Paramecium development which are strongly reduced in PTCAF-1 depleted cells. Our results demonstrate the importance of PtCAF-1 for the epigenetic trans-nuclear cross-talk mechanism. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Kawamata, Tomoko; Yoda, Mayuko; Tomari, Yukihide
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function through the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which contains an Argonaute (Ago) protein at the core. RISC assembly follows a two-step pathway: miRNA/miRNA* duplex loading into Ago, and separation of the two strands within Ago. Here we show that the 5' phosphate of the miRNA strand is essential for duplex loading into Ago, whereas the preferred 5' nucleotide of the miRNA strand and the base-pairing status in the seed region and the middle of the 3' region function as additive anchors to Ago. Consequently, the miRNA authenticity is inspected at multiple steps during RISC assembly.
Ariyoshi, Jumpei; Momokawa, Daiki; Eimori, Nao; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira; Yamayoshi, Asako
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be important post-transcription regulators of gene expression. Aberrant miRNA expression is associated with pathological disease processes, including carcinogenesis. Therefore, miRNAs are considered significant therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. MiRNAs do not act alone, but exhibit their functions by forming RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Thus, the regulation of RISC activity is a promising approach for cancer therapy. MiRNA is a core component of RISC and is an essential to RISC for recognizing target mRNA. Thereby, it is expected that development of the method to promote the release of miRNA from RISC would be an effective approach for inhibition of RISC activity. In this study, we synthesized novel peptide-conjugated oligonucleotides (RINDA-as) to promote the release of miRNA from RISC. RINDA-as showed a high rate of miRNA release from RISC and high level of inhibitory effect on RISC activity.
Rust, John; Chiu, Herbert
Administered Minnesota Counseling Inventory and Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognition (RISC) to 174 adolescents in Hong Kong. Results showed that negative schizophrenic symptoms of social dysfunction and emotional instability as measured by Minnesota Counseling Inventory were positively and significantly correlated with positive schizotypal…
Decyk, Viktor K.; Karmesin, Steve Roy; Boer, Aeint de; Liewer, Paulette C.
General strategies are developed to optimize particle-cell-codes written in Fortran for RISC processors which are commonly used on massively parallel computers. These strategies include data reorganization to improve cache utilization and code reorganization to improve efficiency of arithmetic pipelines.
Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5' products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC.
van den Berg, Arjen; Mols, Johann; Han, Jiahuai
Summary Small RNA molecules have been known and utilized to suppress gene expression for more than a decade. The discovery that these small RNA molecules are endogenously expressed in many organisms and have a critical role in controlling gene expression have led to the arising of a whole new field of research. Termed small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) these ~22 nt RNA molecules have the capability to suppress gene expression through various mechanisms once they are incorporated in the multi-protein RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) and interact with their target mRNA. This review introduces siRNAs and microRNAs in a historical perspective and focuses on the key molecules in RISC, structural properties and mechanisms underlying the process of small RNA regulated post-transcriptional suppression of gene expression. PMID:18692607
Foreman, W.M.; Amann, J.F.; Fu, S.; Kozlowski, T.; Naivar, F.J.; Oothoudt, M.A.; Shelley, F.
Recent advances in Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations have greatly altered the economics of processing power available for experiments. In addition VME interfaces available for many of these workstations make it possible to use them in experiment frontends for filtering and compressing data. Such a second stage trigger has been implemented at LAMPF using a commercially available workstation and VME interface. The implementation is described and measurements of data transfer speeds are presented in this paper
Collange , Sylvain
International audience; We present Simty, a massively multi-threaded RISC-V processor core that acts as a proof of concept for dynamic inter-thread vector-ization at the micro-architecture level. Simty runs groups of scalar threads executing SPMD code in lockstep, and assembles SIMD instructions dynamically across threads. Unlike existing SIMD or SIMT processors like GPUs or vector processors, Simty vector-izes scalar general-purpose binaries. It does not involve any instruction set extension...
Schuck, Jana; Gursinsky, Torsten; Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Burgyán, Jozsef; Behrens, Sven-Erik
AGO/RISC-mediated antiviral RNA silencing, an important component of the plant's immune response against RNA virus infections, was recapitulated in vitro. Cytoplasmic extracts of tobacco protoplasts were applied that supported Tombusvirus RNA replication, as well as the formation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) that could be functionally reconstituted with various plant ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. For example, when RISC containing AGO1, 2, 3 or 5 were programmed with exogenous siRNAs that specifically targeted the viral RNA, endonucleolytic cleavages occurred and viral replication was inhibited. Antiviral RNA silencing was disabled by the viral silencing suppressor p19 when this was present early during RISC formation. Notably, with replicating viral RNA, only (+)RNA molecules were accessible to RISC, whereas (-)RNA replication intermediates were not. The vulnerability of viral RNAs to RISC activity also depended on the RNA structure of the target sequence. This was most evident when we characterized viral siRNAs (vsiRNAs) that were particularly effective in silencing with AGO1- or AGO2/RISC. These vsiRNAs targeted similar sites, suggesting that accessible parts of the viral (+)RNA may be collectively attacked by different AGO/RISC. The in vitro system was, hence, established as a valuable tool to define and characterize individual molecular determinants of antiviral RNA silencing.
Knaap, L.M. van der; Leenarts, L.E.W.; Nijssen, L.T.J.
Het instrument Recidive Inschattings Schalen (RISc) is gebaseerd op een Engelstalig instrument (OASys). Tijdens de ontwikkeling van de RISc is aandacht besteed aan de vertaling van het instrument, aan de kwaliteit van de items en aan de interne consistentie van de schalen van het instrument. Verder
Khoshouei, Mahdieh Sadat
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The CD-RISC was completed by a sample of 323 Isfahan university students (168 females, 155 males) aged 19-34 years. A maximum likelihood method with an oblique solution resulted in four factors…
Cortadella, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Llaberia, J.M.
In the 80's a new architecture design and implementation style has appeared: the RISC style. It proposes an overall view of the system were the processor is included. For each function, an extensive analysis has to be performed in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages that hardware and software introduce in the design. An optimum design involved an agreement between both levels and has to take into account cost, performance, and technological factors. In this paper, the main features of this new architecture design style are presented. (Author)
Cerrito, L.; Chorowicz, V.; Lebbolo, H.; Vallereau, A.
SISIFUS is a general purpose Fastbus Master and Slave able to perform any operation on both Fastbus segments. Master operations are directed either by the processor or by two fast sequencers. A Block Mover function is implemented allowing direct data block transfers between two Slaves. SISIFUS uses the AM 29000 RISC microprocessor which can execute every assembler instruction in 40ns. The on-board monitor/debugger allows programs to be written in assembler from a terminal connected to the module or written in C and cross compiled on a host computer (PC)
Background No resilience scale has been validated in Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 10-item CD-RISC in a sample of Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Design: Observational prospective multicenter study. Sample: Patients with diagnoses of fibromyalgia recruited from primary care settings (N = 208). Instruments: In addition to sociodemographic data, the following questionnaires were administered: Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS), the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (10-item CD-RISC), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results Regarding construct validity, the factor solution in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered adequate, so the KMO test had a value of 0.91, and the Barlett’s test of sphericity was significant (χ2 = 852.8; gl = 45; p fibromyalgia, acceptable psychometric properties, with a high level of reliability and validity. PMID:24484847
Moslehpour, Saeid; Puliroju, Chandrasekhar; Abu-Aisheh, Akram
The project deals about development of a basic RISC processor. The processor is designed with basic architecture consisting of internal modules like clock generator, memory, program counter, instruction register, accumulator, arithmetic and logic unit and decoder. This processor is mainly used for simple general purpose like arithmetic operations and which can be further developed for general purpose processor by increasing the size of the instruction register. The processor is designed in VHDL by using Xilinx 8.1i version. The present project also serves as an application of the knowledge gained from past studies of the PSPICE program. The study will show how PSPICE can be used to simplify massive complex circuits designed in VHDL Synthesis. The purpose of the project is to explore the designed RISC model piece by piece, examine and understand the Input/ Output pins, and to show how the VHDL synthesis code can be converted to a simplified PSPICE model. The project will also serve as a collection of various research materials about the pieces of the circuit.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a simulation and analysis of the Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture and the effects on RISC performance of a lockup-free cache interface. RISC architectures achieve high performance by having a small, but sufficient, instruction set with most instructions executing in one clock cycle. Current RISC performance range from 1.5 to 2.0 CPI. The goal of RISC is to attain a CPI of 1.0. The major hind...
Kawamata, Tomoko; Seitz, Hervé; Tomari, Yukihide
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression of their target mRNAs through the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which contains an Argonaute (Ago) family protein as a core component. In Drosophila melanogaster, miRNAs are generally sorted into Ago1-containing RISC (Ago1-RISC). We established a native gel system that can biochemically dissect the Ago1-RISC assembly pathway. We found that miRNA-miRNA* duplexes are loaded into Ago1 as double-stranded RNAs in an ATP-dependent fashion. In contrast, unexpectedly, unwinding of miRNA-miRNA* duplexes is a passive process that does not require ATP or slicer activity of Ago1. Central mismatches direct miRNA-miRNA* duplexes into pre-Ago1-RISC, whereas mismatches in the seed or guide strand positions 12-15 promote conversion of pre-Ago1-RISC into mature Ago1-RISC. Our findings show that unwinding of miRNAs is a precise mirror-image process of target recognition, and both processes reflect the unique geometry of RNAs in Ago proteins.
Fredy Joao Valente
RISC - Uma nova tendência em arquitetura de computadores. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de como surgiu esta nova arquitetura, e suas características básicas, que a diferencia das arquiteturas convencionais. Uma proposta de microprocessador RISC é apresentada, com sua rota de dados completamente detalhada. Um simulador para arquitetura RISC foi então construído, para se testar este microprocessador. Para validar o simulador, que é a idéia principal deste trabalho, e para se avaliar a arqui...
Heredia-López, F J; Bata-García, J L; Alvarez-Cervera, F J; Góngora-Alfaro, J L
A new, low-cost rotometer, based on a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller, is presented. Like earlier devices, it counts the number and direction of full turns for predetermined time periods during the evaluation of turning behavior induced by drug administration in rats. The present stand-alone system includes a nonvolatile memory for long-term data storage and a serial port for data transmission. It also contains a display for monitoring the experiments and has battery backup to avoid interruptions owing to power failures. A high correlation was found (r > .988, p < 2 x 10(-14)) between the counts of the rotometer and those of two trained observers. The system reflects quantitative differences in turning behavior owing to pharmacological manipulations. It provides the most common counting parameters and is inexpensive, flexible, highly reliable, and completely portable (weight including batteries, 159 g).
Konsek, Marion B.; Reed, Daniel A.; Watcharawittayakul, Wittaya
Although previous studies have shown that a large file of overlapping register windows can greatly reduce procedure call/return overhead, the effects of register windows in a multiprogramming environment are poorly understood. This paper investigates the performance of multiprogrammed, reduced instruction set computers (RISCs) as a function of window management strategy. Using an analytic model that reflects context switch and procedure call overheads, we analyze the performance of simple, linearly self-recursive programs. For more complex programs, we present the results of a simulation study. These studies show that a simple strategy that saves all windows prior to a context switch, but restores only a single window following a context switch, performs near optimally.
Jackson, Albert S.
The author explores the application of RISC (reduced instruction set computer) processors in massively parallel computer (MPC) designs for aerospace simulation. The MPC approach is shown to be well adapted to the needs of aerospace simulation. It is shown that any of the three common types of interconnection schemes used with MPCs are effective for general-purpose simulation, although the bus-or switch-oriented machines are somewhat easier to use. For partial differential equation models, the hypercube approach at first glance appears more efficient because the nearest-neighbor connections required for three-dimensional models are hardwired in a hypercube machine. However, the data broadcast ability of a bus system, combined with the fact that data can be transmitted over a bus as soon as it has been updated, makes the bus approach very competitive with the hypercube approach even for these types of models.
Full Text Available Indirect forms of speech, such as sarcasm, jocularity (joking, and 'white lies' told to spare another's feelings, occur frequently in daily life and are a problem for many clinical populations. During social interactions, information about the literal or nonliteral meaning of a speaker unfolds simultaneously in several communication channels (e.g., linguistic, facial, vocal, and body cues; however, to date many studies have employed uni-modal stimuli, for example focusing only on the visual modality, limiting the generalizability of these results to everyday communication. Much of this research also neglects key factors for interpreting speaker intentions, such as verbal context and the relationship of social partners. Relational Inference in Social Communication (RISC is a newly developed (English-language database composed of short video vignettes depicting sincere, jocular, sarcastic, and white lie social exchanges between two people. Stimuli carefully manipulated the social relationship between communication partners (e.g., boss/employee, couple and the availability of contextual cues (e.g. preceding conversations, physical objects while controlling for major differences in the linguistic content of matched items. Here, we present initial perceptual validation data (N = 31 on a corpus of 920 items. Overall accuracy for identifying speaker intentions was above 80% correct and our results show that both relationship type and verbal context influence the categorization of literal and nonliteral interactions, underscoring the importance of these factors in research on speaker intentions. We believe that RISC will prove highly constructive as a tool in future research on social cognition, inter-personal communication, and the interpretation of speaker intentions in both healthy adults and clinical populations.
Rothermich, Kathrin; Pell, Marc D
Indirect forms of speech, such as sarcasm, jocularity (joking), and 'white lies' told to spare another's feelings, occur frequently in daily life and are a problem for many clinical populations. During social interactions, information about the literal or nonliteral meaning of a speaker unfolds simultaneously in several communication channels (e.g., linguistic, facial, vocal, and body cues); however, to date many studies have employed uni-modal stimuli, for example focusing only on the visual modality, limiting the generalizability of these results to everyday communication. Much of this research also neglects key factors for interpreting speaker intentions, such as verbal context and the relationship of social partners. Relational Inference in Social Communication (RISC) is a newly developed (English-language) database composed of short video vignettes depicting sincere, jocular, sarcastic, and white lie social exchanges between two people. Stimuli carefully manipulated the social relationship between communication partners (e.g., boss/employee, couple) and the availability of contextual cues (e.g. preceding conversations, physical objects) while controlling for major differences in the linguistic content of matched items. Here, we present initial perceptual validation data (N = 31) on a corpus of 920 items. Overall accuracy for identifying speaker intentions was above 80% correct and our results show that both relationship type and verbal context influence the categorization of literal and nonliteral interactions, underscoring the importance of these factors in research on speaker intentions. We believe that RISC will prove highly constructive as a tool in future research on social cognition, inter-personal communication, and the interpretation of speaker intentions in both healthy adults and clinical populations.
Liu, Ying; Ye, Xuecheng; Jiang, Feng; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Junmin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Liu, Qinghua
The catalytic engine of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), wherein the endoribonuclease Argonaute and single-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) direct target mRNA cleavage. We reconstituted long double-stranded RNA- and duplex siRNA-initiated RISC activities with the use of recombinant Drosophila Dicer-2, R2D2, and Ago2 proteins. We used this core reconstitution system to purify an RNAi regulator that we term C3PO (component 3 promoter of RISC), a complex of Translin and Trax. C3PO is a Mg2+-dependent endoribonuclease that promotes RISC activation by removing siRNA passenger strand cleavage products. These studies establish an in vitro RNAi reconstitution system and identify C3PO as a key activator of the core RNAi machinery.
Matkovich, Scot J; Van Booven, Derek J; Eschenbacher, William H; Dorn, Gerald W
MicroRNAs (miRs) are expanding our understanding of cardiac disease and have the potential to transform cardiovascular therapeutics. One miR can target hundreds of individual mRNAs, but existing methodologies are not sufficient to accurately and comprehensively identify these mRNA targets in vivo. To develop methods permitting identification of in vivo miR targets in an unbiased manner, using massively parallel sequencing of mouse cardiac transcriptomes in combination with sequencing of mRNA associated with mouse cardiac RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). We optimized techniques for expression profiling small amounts of RNA without introducing amplification bias and applied this to anti-Argonaute 2 immunoprecipitated RISCs (RISC-Seq) from mouse hearts. By comparing RNA-sequencing results of cardiac RISC and transcriptome from the same individual hearts, we defined 1645 mRNAs consistently targeted to mouse cardiac RISCs. We used this approach in hearts overexpressing miRs from Myh6 promoter-driven precursors (programmed RISC-Seq) to identify 209 in vivo targets of miR-133a and 81 in vivo targets of miR-499. Consistent with the fact that miR-133a and miR-499 have widely differing "seed" sequences and belong to different miR families, only 6 targets were common to miR-133a- and miR-499-programmed hearts. RISC-sequencing is a highly sensitive method for general RISC profiling and individual miR target identification in biological context and is applicable to any tissue and any disease state.
Kass-Hout, T A; Moyé, L A; Smith, M A; Morgenstern, L B
The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based statistical algorithm that could be translated into a simple scoring system in order to ascertain incident stroke cases using hospital admission medical records data. The Risk Index Score (RISc) algorithm was developed using data collected prospectively by the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, 2000. The validity of RISc was evaluated by estimating the concordance of scoring system stroke ascertainment to stroke ascertainment by physician and/or abstractor review of hospital admission records. RISc was developed on 1718 randomly selected patients (training set) and then statistically validated on an independent sample of 858 patients (validation set). A multivariable logistic model was used to develop RISc and subsequently evaluated by goodness-of-fit and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The higher the value of RISc, the higher the patient's risk of potential stroke. The study showed RISc was well calibrated and discriminated those who had potential stroke from those that did not on initial screening. In this study we developed and validated a rapid, easy, efficient, and accurate method to ascertain incident stroke cases from routine hospital admission records for epidemiologic investigations. Validation of this scoring system was achieved statistically; however, clinical validation in a community hospital setting is warranted.
Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5’ products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24466.001 PMID:28463111
van Dongeren Ap
Full Text Available High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, and to evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called “hotspots” can be identified.
Kearns, J. P.; Quammen, D.
This work addresses the problem of reducing context switch overhead on a processor which supports a large register file - a register file much like that which is part of the Berkeley RISC processors and several other emerging architectures (which are not necessarily reduced instruction set machines in the purest sense). Such a reduction in overhead is particularly desirable in a real-time embedded application, in which task-to-task context switch overhead may result in failure to meet crucial deadlines. A storage management technique by which a context switch may be implemented as cheaply as a procedure call is presented. The essence of this technique is the avoidance of the save/restore of registers on the context switch. This is achieved through analysis of the static source text of an Ada tasking program. Information gained during that analysis directs the optimized storage management strategy for that program at run time. A formal verification of the technique in terms of an operational control model and an evaluation of the technique's performance via simulations driven by synthetic Ada program traces are presented.
Breaugh, James A
The way an organization recruits can influence the type of employees it hires, how they perform, and their retention rate. This article provides a selective review of research that has addressed recruitment targeting, recruitment methods, the recruitment message, recruiters, the organizational site visit, the job offer, and the timing of recruitment actions. These and other topics (e.g., the job applicant's perspective) are discussed in terms of their potential influence on prehire (e.g., the quality of job applicants) and posthire (e.g., new employee retention) recruitment outcomes. In reviewing research, attention is given to the current state of scientific knowledge, limitations of previous research, and important issues meriting future investigation.
Flores, Omar; Kennedy, Edward M; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Cullen, Bryan R
It has previously been assumed that the generally high stability of microRNAs (miRNAs) reflects their tight association with Argonaute (Ago) proteins, essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). However, recent data have suggested that the majority of mature miRNAs are not, in fact, Ago associated. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous human miRNAs vary widely, by >100-fold, in their level of RISC association and show that the level of Ago binding is a better indicator of inhibitory potential than is the total level of miRNA expression. While miRNAs of closely similar sequence showed comparable levels of RISC association in the same cell line, these varied between different cell types. Moreover, the level of RISC association could be modulated by overexpression of complementary target mRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the level of RISC association of a given endogenous miRNA is regulated by the available RNA targetome and predicts miRNA function.
Ciomperlik, Jessica J; Omarov, Rustem T; Scholthof, Herman B
The RNAi model predicts that during antiviral defense a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is programmed with viral short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to target the cognate viral RNA for degradation. We show that infection of Nicotiana benthamiana with Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) activates an antiviral nuclease that specifically cleaves TRV RNA in vitro. In agreement with known RISC properties, the nuclease activity was inhibited by NaCl and EDTA and stimulated by divalent metal cations; a novel property was its preferential targeting of elongated RNA molecules. Intriguingly, the specificity of the TRV RISC could be reprogrammed by exogenous addition of RNA (containing siRNAs) from plants infected with an unrelated virus, resulting in a newly acquired ability of RISC to target this heterologous genome in vitro. Evidently the virus-specific nuclease complex from N. benthamiana represents a genuine RISC that functions as a readily employable and reprogrammable antiviral defense unit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martinez, Natalia J; Chang, Hao-Ming; Borrajo, Jacob de Riba; Gregory, Richard I
Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and associated microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) for target messenger RNA cleavage and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Although Ago2 is essential for RISC activity, the mechanism of RISC assembly is not well understood, and factors controlling Ago2 protein expression are largely unknown. A role for the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone complex in loading small RNA duplexes into the RISC has been demonstrated in cell extracts, and unloaded Ago2 is unstable and degraded by the lysosome in mammalian cells. Here we identify the co-chaperones Fkbp4 and Fkbp5 as Ago2-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. Pharmacological inhibition of this interaction using FK506 or siRNA-mediated Fkbp4/5 depletion leads to decreased Ago2 protein levels. We find FK506 treatment inhibits, whereas Fkbp4/5 overexpression promotes, miRNA-mediated stabilization of Ago2 expression. Simultaneous treatment with a lysosome inhibitor revealed the accumulation of unloaded Ago2 complexes in FK506-treated cells. We find that, consistent with unloaded miRNAs being unstable, FK506 treatment also affects miRNA abundance, particularly nascent miRNAs. Our results support a role for Fkbp4/5 in RISC assembly.
Jannot, Guillaume; Vasquez-Rifo, Alejandro; Simard, Martin J
During the last decade, several novel small non-coding RNA pathways have been unveiled, which reach out to many biological processes. Common to all these pathways is the binding of a small RNA molecule to a protein member of the Argonaute family, which forms a minimal core complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex or RISC. The RISC targets mRNAs in a sequence-specific manner, either to induce mRNA cleavage through the intrinsic activity of the Argonaute protein or to abrogate protein synthesis by a mechanism that is still under investigation. We describe here, in details, a method for the affinity chromatography of the let-7 RISC starting from extracts of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our method exploits the sequence specificity of the RISC and makes use of biotinylated and 2'-O-methylated oligonucleotides to trap and pull-down small RNAs and their associated proteins. Importantly, this technique may easily be adapted to target other small RNAs expressed in different cell types or model organisms. This method provides a useful strategy to identify the proteins associated with the RISC, and hence gain insight in the functions of small RNAs.
Omarov, Rustem T; Ciomperlik, Jessica; Scholthof, Herman B
Infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) mutants compromised for silencing suppression induces formation of an antiviral RISC (vRISC) that can be isolated using chromatography procedures. The isolated vRISC sequence-specifically degrades TBSV RNA in vitro, its activity can be down-regulated by removing siRNAs, and re-stimulated by exogenous supply of siRNAs. vRISC is most effective at hydrolyzing the ~4.8kb genomic RNA, but less so for a ~2.2kb TBSV subgenomic mRNA (sgRNA1), while the 3' co-terminal sgRNA2 of ~0.9kb appears insensitive to vRISC cleavage. Moreover, experiments with in vitro generated 5' co-terminal viral transcripts show that RNAs of ~2.7kb are efficiently cleaved while those of ~1.1kb or shorter are unaffected. The isolated antiviral ribonuclease complex fails to degrade ~0.4kb defective interfering RNAs (DIs) in vitro, agreeing with findings that in plants DIs are not targeted by silencing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Park, June Hyun; Shin, Chanseok
Small RNA silencing is mediated by the effector RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that consists of an Argonaute protein (AGOs 1-4 in humans). A fundamental step during RISC assembly involves the separation of two strands of a small RNA duplex, whereby only the guide strand is retained to form the mature RISC, a process not well understood. Despite the widely accepted view that 'slicer-dependent unwinding' via passenger-strand cleavage is a prerequisite for the assembly of a highly complementary siRNA into the AGO2-RISC, here we show by careful re-examination that 'slicer-independent unwinding' plays a more significant role in human RISC maturation than previously appreciated, not only for a miRNA duplex, but, unexpectedly, for a highly complementary siRNA as well. We discovered that 'slicer-dependency' for the unwinding was affected primarily by certain parameters such as temperature and Mg(2+). We further validate these observations in non-slicer AGOs (1, 3 and 4) that can be programmed with siRNAs at the physiological temperature of humans, suggesting that slicer-independent mechanism is likely a common feature of human AGOs. Our results now clearly explain why both miRNA and siRNA are found in all four human AGOs, which is in striking contrast to the strict small-RNA sorting system in Drosophila. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Liu, Ying; Tan, Huiling; Tian, Hui; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, She; Liu, Qinghua
The effector of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). C3PO promotes the activation of RISC by degrading the Argonaute2 (Ago2)-nicked passenger strand of duplex siRNA. Active RISC is a multiple-turnover enzyme that uses the guide strand of siRNA to direct the Ago2-mediated sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNA. How this effector step of RNAi is regulated is currently unknown. Here, we used the human Ago2 minimal RISC system to purify Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (SSB)/autoantigen La as an activator of the RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage activity. Our reconstitution studies showed that La could promote multiple-turnover RISC catalysis by facilitating the release of cleaved mRNA from RISC. Moreover, we demonstrated that La was required for efficient RNAi, antiviral defense, and transposon silencing in vivo. Taken together, the findings of C3PO and La reveal a general concept that regulatory factors are required to remove Ago2-cleaved products to assemble or restore active RISC. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iwasaki, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Yoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Katsuma, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomari, Yukihide
Small silencing RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs)--direct posttranscriptional gene silencing of their mRNA targets as guides for the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Both siRNAs and miRNAs are born double stranded. Surprisingly, loading these small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, the core components of RISC, requires ATP, whereas separating the two small RNA strands within Argonaute does not. Here we show that the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery is required to load small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, but not for subsequent strand separation or target cleavage. We envision that the chaperone machinery uses ATP and mediates a conformational opening of Ago proteins so that they can receive bulky small RNA duplexes. Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Gredler, Rachel; Chen, Dong; Emdad, Luni; Bhutia, Sujit; Pannell, Lewis; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand
There is virtually no effective treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and novel targets need to be identified to develop effective treatment. We recently documented that the oncogene Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Employing yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1), a nuclease in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) facilitating RNAi-mediated gene silencing, as an AEG-1 interacting protein. Coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization studies confirmed that AEG-1 is also a component of RISC and both AEG-1 and SND1 are required for optimum RISC activity facilitating small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA)-mediated silencing of luciferase reporter gene. In 109 human HCC samples SND1 was overexpressed in ≈74% cases compared to normal liver. Correspondingly, significantly higher RISC activity was observed in human HCC cells compared to immortal normal hepatocytes. Increased RISC activity, conferred by AEG-1 or SND1, resulted in increased degradation of tumor suppressor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are target of oncomiRs. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of SND1 significantly inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells. As a corollary, stable overexpression of SND1 augmented and siRNA-mediated inhibition of SND1 abrogated growth of human HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, thus revealing a potential role of SND1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We unravel a novel mechanism that overexpression of AEG-1 and SND1 leading to increased RISC activity might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of SND1 enzymatic activity might be developed as an effective therapy for HCC. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
R. Jason Faberman
To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.
RNA silencing is a eukaryote-specific phenomenon in which microRNAs and small interfering RNAs degrade messenger RNAs containing a complementary sequence. To this end, these small RNAs need to be loaded onto an Argonaute protein (AGO protein) to form the effector complex referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC assembly undergoes multiple and sequential steps with the aid of Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. The molecular mechanisms for this assembly process remain unclear, despite their significance for the development of gene silencing techniques and RNA interference-based therapeutics. This review dissects the currently available structures of AGO proteins and proposes models and hypotheses for RISC assembly, covering the conformation of unloaded AGO proteins, the chaperone-assisted duplex loading, and the slicer-dependent and slicer-independent duplex separation. The differences in the properties of RISC between prokaryotes and eukaryotes will also be clarified. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:637-660. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1356 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bernard, T.; Bousias, K.; Guang, L.; Jesshope, C.R.; Lankamp, M.; van Tol, M.W.; Zhang, L.
This paper presents a concurrent execution model and its micro-architecture based on in-order RISC processors, which schedules instructions from large pools of contextualised threads. The model admits a strategy for programming chip multiprocessors using parallelising compilers based on existing
Clark, K.A.; Meehan, T.J.
This paper reports on the on-orbit data obtained from the MPTB RISC Processor Experiment, containing three Integrated Device Technologies R3081 processors. During operations, nine SEUs were observed in the processors, and four SEUs were observed in the memory and/or support circuitry. (authors)
Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Noorderhaven, N.G.
Competition between alliance blocks is a new form of rivalry: groups of firms link together for a common purpose by means of strategic alliances, and competition between alliance blocks is superimposed on competition between individual firms. This paper focuses on alliance blocks in the RISC
Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.
Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and
Guzik, Z; Bal, F; Formenti, F; Lacourt, A
A part of the LKr calorimeter data acquisition system of the NA48 experiment (a precision measurements of epsilon / epsilon ' in CP- violating K/sup 0/ to 2 pi decays) is described. The experiment runs on the SPS north area in CERN. This paper presents some aspects of controlling the NA48 readout process based on commercial RIO 8260 RISC processors, which were used as a core for maintaining control algorithms. Several RISC processors were equipped with custom-made VME mezzanine boards providing interfacing, pre-processing and data formatting. These mezzanines are the subjects of this paper. They are: RIO-TIC/DAT (a time-stamp distributor and buffered DT-bus interface), FOL-RIO (an optical data formatter and event merger) and "TAXI receiver" (for handling trigger data of the NA48 Level-2 trigger supervisor). Also, the interface between the DT-bus and S- link/PCI is described. (8 refs).
Guzik, Z.; Chlopik, A.; Bal, Fr.; Formenti, F.; Lacourt, A.
A part of the LKr calorimeter data acquisition system of the NA48 experiment (a precision measurements of ε/ε' in CP violating; K 0 →2π decays) is described. The experiment runs on the SPS north area in CERN. This paper presents some aspects of controlling the NA48 readout process based on commercial RIO 8260 RISC processors, which were used as a core for maintaining control algorithms. Several RISC processors were equipped with custom-made VME mezzanine boards providing interfacing, pre-processing and data formatting. These mezzanines are subjects of this paper. They are: RIO-TIC/DAT - time stamp distributor and buffered DT-bus interface, FOL-RIO - optical data formatter and event merger and 'TAXI receiver' - handling trigger data of the NA48 Level 2 trigger supervisor. Also the interface between DT-bus and S-link/PCI is described
Endo, Yayoi; Iwakawa, Hiro-oki; Tomari, Yukihide
Plant ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7) assembles RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) specifically with miR390 and regulates the auxin-signalling pathway via production of TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs). However, how AGO7 discerns miR390 among other miRNAs remains unclear. Here, we show that the 5' adenosine of miR390 and the central region of miR390/miR390* duplex are critical for the specific interaction with AGO7. Furthermore, despite the existence of mismatches in the seed and central regions of the duplex, cleavage of the miR390* strand is required for maturation of AGO7-RISC. These findings suggest that AGO7 uses multiple checkpoints to select miR390, thereby circumventing promiscuous tasiRNA production.
Takeuchi, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Yasu, Y.
We have developed a compact data acquisition system on RISC/UNIX workstations. A SUN TM SPARCstation TM IPC was used, in which an extension bus 'SBus TM ' was linked to a VMEbus. The transfer rate achieved was better than 7 Mbyte/s between the VMEbus and the SUN. A device driver for CAMAC was developed in order to realize an interruptive feature in UNIX. In addition, list processing has been incorporated in order to keep the high priority of the data handling process in UNIX. The successful developments of both device driver and list processing have made it possible to realize the good real-time feature on the RISC/UNIX system. Based on this architecture, a portable and versatile data taking system has been developed, which consists of a graphical user interface, I/O handler, user analysis process, process manager and a CAMAC device driver. (orig.)
Rethinagiri , Santhosh Kumar; Ben Atitallah , Rabie; Dekeyser , Jean-Luc; Niar , Smail; Senn , Eric
International audience; In this contribution, we propose an efficient power estima- tion methodology for complex RISC processor-based plat- forms. In this methodology, the Functional Level Power Analysis (FLPA) is used to set up generic power models for the different parts of the system. Then, a simulation framework based on virtual platform is developed to evalu- ate accurately the activities used in the related power mod- els. The combination of the two parts above leads to a het- erogeneou...
Yaari, R; Yaari, Refael; Jarp, Sverre
The work described in this paper was started during the migration of Aleph's production jobs from the IBM mainframe/CRAY supercomputer to several RISC/Unix workstation platforms. The aim was to understand why Aleph did not obtain the performance on the RISC platforms that was "promised" after a CERN Unit comparison between these RISC platforms and the IBM mainframe. Remedies were also sought. Since the work with the Aleph jobs in turn led to the related task of understanding compilers and their options, the conditions under which the CERN benchmarks (and other benchmarks) were run, kernel routines and frequently used CERNLIB routines, the whole undertaking expanded to try to look at all the factors that influence the performance of High Energy Physics (HEP) jobs in general. Finally, key performance issues were reviewed against the programs of one of the LHC collaborations (Atlas) with the hope that the conclusions would be of long- term interest during the establishment of their simulation, reconstruction and...
Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Mycko, Marcin P; Cichalewska, Maria; Domowicz, Małgorzata; Lewkowicz, Natalia; Jurewicz, Anna; Selmaj, Krzysztof W
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (Ago), GW182, and FXR1 proteins to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). RISCs represent a critical checkpoint in the regulation and bioavailability of miRNAs. Recent studies have revealed dysregulation of miRNAs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the function of RISCs in EAE and MS is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression of Ago, GW182, and FXR1 in CNS tissue, oligodendrocytes (OLs), brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, and CD3(+)splenocytes (SCs) of EAE mic, and found that global RISC protein levels were significantly dysregulated. Specifically, Ago2 and FXR1 levels were decreased in OLs and brain-infiltrating T cells in EAE mice. Accordingly, assembly of Ago2/GW182/FXR1 complexes in EAE brain tissues was disrupted, as confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments. In parallel with alterations in RISC complex content in OLs, we found downregulation of miRNAs essential for differentiation and survival of OLs and myelin synthesis. In brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, aberrant RISC formation contributed to miRNA-dependent proinflammatory helper T-cell polarization. In CD3(+) SCs, we found increased expression of both Ago2 and FXR1 in EAE compared with nonimmunized mice. Therefore, our results demonstrate a gradient in expression of miRNA between primary activated T cells in the periphery and polarized CNS-infiltrating T cells. These results suggest that, in polarized autoreactive effector T cells, miRNA synthesis is inhibited in response to dysregulated RISC assembly, allowing these cells to maintain a highly specific proinflammatory program. Therefore, our findings may provide a mechanism that leads to miRNA dysregulation in EAE/MS. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357521-17$15.00/0.
Blanco, Vanessa; Guisande, María Adelina; Sánchez, María Teresa; Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L
Despite the importance of resilience in populations under stress, and the fact that the 10-item version Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10) is the shortest instrument for reliable and valid evaluation of resilience, there are no data on their psychometric properties in non-professional caregivers. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the spanish version of the CD-RISC 10 in non-professional caregivers. Independently trained assessors evaluated resilience, self-esteem, social support, emotional distress and depression in a sample of 294 caregivers (89.8% women, mean age 55.3 years). The internal consistency of CD-RISC 10 was α = .86. A single factor was found that accounted for 44.7% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated this unifactorial model. The CD-RISC 10 was significantly correlated with the self-esteem (r = .416, p caregivers with depression (sensitivity = 70.0%, specificity = 68.2%). The CD-RISC 10 is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate resilience in the caregiver population.
Fu, Qinqin; Yuan, Y Adam
Intensive research interest has focused on small RNA-processing machinery and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), key cellular machines in RNAi pathways. However, the structural mechanism regarding RISC assembly, the primary step linking small RNA processing and RNA-mediated gene silencing, is largely unknown. Human RNA helicase A (DHX9) was reported to function as an RISC-loading factor, and such function is mediated mainly by its dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). Here, we report the crystal structures of human RNA helicase A (RHA) dsRBD1 and dsRBD2 domains in complex with dsRNAs, respectively. Structural analysis not only reveals higher siRNA duplex-binding affinity displayed by dsRBD1, but also identifies a crystallographic dsRBD1 pair of physiological significance in cooperatively recognizing dsRNAs. Structural observations are further validated by isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) assay. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay coupled with mutagenesis demonstrated that both dsRBDs are required for RISC association, and such association is mediated by dsRNA. Hence, our structural and functional efforts have revealed a potential working model for siRNA recognition by RHA tandem dsRBDs, and together they provide direct structural insights into RISC assembly facilitated by RHA.
Rawlings, Renata A; Krishnan, Vishalakshi; Walter, Nils G
RNA interference is a conserved gene regulatory mechanism employed by most eukaryotes as a key component of their innate immune response to viruses and retrotransposons. During viral infection, the RNase-III-type endonuclease Dicer cleaves viral double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) 21-24 nucleotides in length and helps load them into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to guide the cleavage of complementary viral RNA. As a countermeasure, many viruses have evolved viral RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) that tightly, and presumably quantitatively, bind siRNAs to thwart RNA-interference-mediated degradation. Viral RSS proteins also act across kingdoms as potential immunosuppressors in gene therapeutic applications. Here we report fluorescence quenching and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that probe siRNA binding by the dimeric RSS p19 from Carnation Italian Ringspot Virus, as well as by human Dicer and RISC assembly complexes. We find that the siRNA:p19 interaction is readily reversible, characterized by rapid binding [(1.69 ± 0.07) × 10(8) M(-)(1) s(-1)] and marked dissociation (k(off)=0.062 ± 0.002 s(-1)). We also observe that p19 efficiently competes with recombinant Dicer and inhibits the formation of RISC-related assembly complexes found in human cell extract. Computational modeling based on these results provides evidence for the transient formation of a ternary complex between siRNA, human Dicer, and p19. An expanded model of RNA silencing indicates that multiple turnover by reversible binding of siRNAs potentiates the efficiency of the suppressor protein. Our predictive model is expected to be applicable to the dosing of p19 as a silencing suppressor in viral gene therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spann, James F.; Zank, G.
We outline a plan to develop and transition a physics based predictive toolset called The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) to describe the interplanetary energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including magnetic field structure and transients, within 10 Astronomical Units; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements. The described transition plan is based on a well established approach developed in the Earth Science discipline that ensures that the customer has a tool that meets their needs
Vickers, Timothy A; Crooke, Stanley T
While most siRNAs induce sequence-specific target mRNA cleavage and degradation in a process mediated by Ago2/RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), certain siRNAs have also been demonstrated to direct target RNA reduction through deadenylation and subsequent degradation of target transcripts in a process which involves Ago1/RISC and P-bodies. In the current study, we present data suggesting that a third class of siRNA exist, which are capable of promoting target RNA reduction that is independent of both Ago and RISC. These siRNAs bind the target messenger RNA at the polyA signal and are capable of redirecting a small amount of polyadenylation to downstream polyA sites when present, however, the majority of the activity appears to be due to inhibition of polyadenylation or deadenylation of the transcript, followed by exosomal degradation of the immature mRNA.
Harvey J. Wasserman
Full Text Available The results of benchmark tests on the superscalar IBM RISC System/6000 Model 590 are presented. A set of well-characterized Fortran benchmarks spanning a range of computational characteristics was used for the study. The data from the 590 system are compared with those from a single-processor CRAY C90 system as well as with other microprocessor-based systems, such as the Digital Equipment Corporation AXP 3000/500X and the Hewlett-Packard HP/735.
Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T
Little is known about whether components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) mediate the biogenesis of RNAs other than miRNA. Here, we show that depletion of key proteins of the RISC pathway by antisense oligonucleotides significantly impairs pre-rRNA processing in human cells. In cells depleted of Drosha or Dicer, different precursors to 5.8S rRNA strongly accumulated, without affecting normal endonucleolytic cleavages. Moderate yet distinct processing defects were also observed in Ago2-depleted cells. Physical links between pre-rRNA and these proteins were identified by co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Interestingly, simultaneous depletion of Dicer and Drosha led to a different processing defect, causing slower production of 28S rRNA and its precursor. Both Dicer and Ago2 were detected in the nuclear fraction, and reduction of Dicer altered the structure of the nucleolus, where pre-rRNA processing occurs. Together, these results suggest that Drosha and Dicer are implicated in rRNA biogenesis.
Wang, Hong-Wei; Noland, Cameron; Siridechadilok, Bunpote; Taylor, David W; Ma, Enbo; Felderer, Karin; Doudna, Jennifer A; Nogales, Eva
Targeted gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) requires loading of a short guide RNA (small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA)) onto an Argonaute protein to form the functional center of an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In humans, Argonaute2 (AGO2) assembles with the guide RNA-generating enzyme Dicer and the RNA-binding protein TRBP to form a RISC-loading complex (RLC), which is necessary for efficient transfer of nascent siRNAs and miRNAs from Dicer to AGO2. Here, using single-particle EM analysis, we show that human Dicer has an L-shaped structure. The RLC Dicer's N-terminal DExH/D domain, located in a short 'base branch', interacts with TRBP, whereas its C-terminal catalytic domains in the main body are proximal to AGO2. A model generated by docking the available atomic structures of Dicer and Argonaute homologs into the RLC reconstruction suggests a mechanism for siRNA transfer from Dicer to AGO2.
Luckman, Adrian J.; Allinson, Nigel M.
A low cost image acquisition and processing system has been developed for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. Using a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture, the ARM (Acorn Risc Machine) processor provides instruction speeds suitable for image processing applications. The associated improvement in data transfer rate has allowed real-time video image acquisition without the need for frame-store memory external to the microcomputer. The system is comprised of real-time video digitising hardware which interfaces directly to the Archimedes memory, and software to provide an integrated image acquisition and processing environment. The hardware can digitise a video signal at up to 640 samples per video line with programmable parameters such as sampling rate and gain. Software support includes a work environment for image capture and processing with pixel, neighbourhood and global operators. A friendly user interface is provided with the help of the Archimedes Operating System WIMP (Windows, Icons, Mouse and Pointer) Manager. Windows provide a convenient way of handling images on the screen and program control is directed mostly by pop-up menus.
Stanhope, Stephen A.; Sengupta, Srikumar; den Boon, Johan; Ahlquist, Paul; Newton, Michael A.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally regulate targeted messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by inducing cleavage or otherwise repressing their translation. We address the problem of detecting m/miRNA targeting relationships in homo sapiens from microarray data by developing statistical models that are motivated by the biological mechanisms used by miRNAs. The focus of our modeling is the construction, activity, and mediation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) competent for targeted mRNA cleavage. We demonstrate that regression models accommodating RISC abundance and controlling for other mediating factors fit the expression profiles of known target pairs substantially better than models based on m/miRNA expressions alone, and lead to verifications of computational target pair predictions that are more sensitive than those based on marginal expression levels. Because our models are fully independent of exogenous results from sequence-based computational methods, they are appropriate for use as either a primary or secondary source of information regarding m/miRNA target pair relationships, especially in conjunction with high-throughput expression studies. PMID:19779550
Ha, J. S.; Sung, P. H.
A Risk-Informed Safety Significance Categorization (RISSC) is to categorize structures, systems, or components (SSCs) of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) into two or more groups, according to their safety significance using both probabilistic and deterministic insights. Recently, OPTION-2 (which is an emerging risk-informed paradigm) recommends that SSCs should be categorized into four groups according to whether they are safety-related or not as well as their safety significance. With the change of 10 CFR 50, safety-related components which categorized into low safety significant SSC (RISC-3 SSC) can be exempted from the existing conservative requirements. Consequently, as OPTION-2 paradigm is applied, a validation process focused on the RISC-3 SSC is needed to assure the categorization results, because most of existing RISSC methods focused on the categorization of the whole SSCs of NPPs based on importance measures obtained from probabilistic and deterministic insights. In this work, Burden to Importance Ratio (BIR) is utilized as a measure for the validation of RISC-3 SSC in OPTION-2. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach, the approach is applied to 22 components selected from 512 In-Service Test (IST) components of Ulchin unit 3. The results of the application show that the proposed approach is useful for the validation of RISC-3 SSC in OPTION-2
Meunier, A.; Sabatier, L.; Atkinson, M.; Paretzke, H.; Bouffler, S.; Mullenders, L.
Complete text of publication follows. Funded by the European Commission in the framework of a dedicated programme supporting research in the Nuclear sector (FP6 Euratom), the project RISC-RAD undertakes experimental and modelling studies ultimately to improve low dose radiation cancer risk assessment by exploring and providing evidence for the most appropriate radiation cancer risk projection and interpolation models. It started on 1st January 2004 and is running until 31 st October 2008. It mobilizes a consortium of 31 partners and is coordinated by Dr. Laure Sabatier from the French atomic energy commission. Indeed the project represents an unprecedented attempt to integrate horizontally the research on the effects of low doses of IR at the European level. A multipartner project supporting objective-driven research, RISC-RAD aims at contributing to bridge the remaining gap of scientific knowledge about effects of lows doses of ionizing radiation. It spans a large part of the research spectrum, including many topics addressed during the LOWRAD2007 conference. This presentation intends to give an account of the integrative aspects of the project, insights on the innovative solutions found to approach a complex and controversial scientific topic like the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, and links with some areas of social studies on science.The concept of 'integration' implies the development of a new kind of activity in the research field, which crosses its traditional boundaries : controversies of several kinds must temporarily be overcome within the project management board in order to define and follow a common strategy. Among them, how to reconcile the creative part of fundamental research with the compliance to strict project planning rules has come up as a debate which questions the best way a significant collective and coordinated action can address the issue of the low dose cancer risk assessment on the long term. The knowledge and
Petchjatuporn, Panom; Sirisuk, Phaophak; Khaehintung, Noppadol; Sunat, Khamron; Wicheanchote, Phinyo; Kiranon, Wiwat
This paper presents a low cost reduced instruction set computer (RISC) implementation of an intelligent ultra fast charger for a nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. The charger employs a genetic algorithm (GA) trained generalized regression neural network (GRNN) as a key to ultra fast charging while avoiding battery damage. The tradeoff between mean square error (MSE) and the computational burden of the GRNN is addressed. Besides, an efficient technique is proposed for estimation of a radial basis function (RBF) in the GRNN. Hardware realization based upon the techniques is discussed. Experimental results with commercial Ni-Cd batteries reveal that while the proposed charger significantly reduces the charging time, it scarcely deteriorates the battery energy storage capability when compared with the conventional charger
Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P
Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk (RISC) study. Presence of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the oral glucose insulin......AIM: This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. METHODS: The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin...... sensitivity (OGIS) index. Insulin secretion was estimated using three model-based parameters of insulin secretion (beta-cell glucose sensitivity, the potentiation factor ratio, and beta-cell rate sensitivity). RESULTS: A total of 162 out of 1027 participants (16%) had significant depressive symptoms. Having...
Lamaster, Hugh; Rogallo, Sarah J.
As microprocessors increase in power, the economics of centralized computing has changed dramatically. At the beginning of the 1980's, mainframes and super computers were often considered to be cost-effective machines for scalar computing. Today, microprocessor-based RISC (reduced-instruction-set computer) systems have displaced many uses of mainframes and supercomputers. Supercomputers are still cost competitive when processing jobs that require both large memory size and high memory bandwidth. One such application is array processing. Certain numerical operations are appropriate to use in a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)-based environment. Matrix multiplication is an example of an operation that can have a sufficient number of arithmetic operations to amortize the cost of an RPC call. An experiment which demonstrates that matrix multiplication can be executed remotely on a large system to speed the execution over that experienced on a workstation is described.
Petchjatuporn, Panom; Khaehintung, Noppadol [Department of Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Sirisuk, Phaophak; Sunat, Khamron [Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Wicheanchote, Phinyo [Test Engineering Department, Sanmina-SCI Systems Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kiranon, Wiwat [Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institue of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)
This paper presents a low cost reduced instruction set computer (RISC) implementation of an intelligent ultra fast charger for a nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. The charger employs a genetic algorithm (GA) trained generalized regression neural network (GRNN) as a key to ultra fast charging while avoiding battery damage. The tradeoff between mean square error (MSE) and the computational burden of the GRNN is addressed. Besides, an efficient technique is proposed for estimation of a radial basis function (RBF) in the GRNN. Hardware realization based upon the techniques is discussed. Experimental results with commercial Ni-Cd batteries reveal that while the proposed charger significantly reduces the charging time, it scarcely deteriorates the battery energy storage capability when compared with the conventional charger. (author)
Hernández, Armando R; Peterson, Larryn W; Kool, Eric T
Understanding the interactions between small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), the key protein complex of RNA interference (RNAi), is of great importance to the development of siRNAs with improved biological and potentially therapeutic function. Although various chemically modified siRNAs have been reported, relatively few studies with modified nucleobases exist. Here we describe the synthesis and hybridization properties of siRNAs bearing size-expanded RNA (xRNA) nucleobases and their use as a novel and systematic set of steric probes in RNAi. xRNA nucleobases are expanded by 2.4 Å using benzo-homologation and retain canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing groups. Our data show that the modified siRNA duplexes display small changes in melting temperature (+1.4 to -5.0 °C); substitutions near the center are somewhat destabilizing to the RNA duplex, while substitutions near the ends are stabilizing. RNAi studies in a dual-reporter luciferase assay in HeLa cells revealed that xRNA nucleobases in the antisense strand reduce activity at some central positions near the seed region but are generally well tolerated near the ends. Most importantly, we observed that xRNA substitutions near the 3'-end increased activity over that of wild-type siRNAs. The data are analyzed in terms of site-dependent steric effects in RISC. Circular dichroism experiments show that single xRNA substitutions do not significantly distort the native A-form helical structure of the siRNA duplex, and serum stability studies demonstrated that xRNA substitutions protect siRNAs against nuclease degradation.
Jo, Myung Hyun; Song, Ji-Joon; Hohng, Sungchul
In eukaryotes, small RNAs play important roles in both gene regulation and resistance to viral infection. Argonaute proteins have been identified as a key component of the effector complexes of various RNA-silencing pathways, but the mechanistic roles of Argonaute proteins in these pathways are not clearly understood. To address this question, we performed single-molecule fluorescence experiments using an RNA-induced silencing complex (core-RISC) composed of a small RNA and human Argonaute 2. We found that target binding of core-RISC starts at the seed region of the guide RNA. After target binding, four distinct reactions followed: target cleavage, transient binding, stable binding, and Argonaute unloading. Target cleavage required extensive sequence complementarity and accelerated core-RISC dissociation for recycling. In contrast, the stable binding of core-RISC to target RNAs required seed-match only, suggesting a potential explanation for the seed-match rule of microRNA (miRNA) target selection.
Kavishwar, Amol; Medarova, Zdravka
The ability to detect miRNA expression in live cells would leave these cells available for further manipulation or culture. Here, we describe the design of a miRNA sensor oligonucleotide whose sequence mimics the target mRNA. The sensor has a fluorescent label on one end of the oligo and a quencher on the other. When inside the cell, the sensor is recognized by its cognate miRNA-RISC and gets cleaved, setting the fluorophore free from its quencher. This results in fluorescence "turn on." Since cleavage by the RISC complex is an enzymatic process, the described approach has a very high level of sensitivity (nM). The rate of nonspecific cleavage of the sensor is very slow permitting the collection of meaningful signal over a long period of time.
Katherine S. Bridge
Full Text Available As core components of the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC, Argonaute (AGO proteins interact with TNRC6 proteins, recruiting other effectors of translational repression/mRNA destabilization. Here, we show that LIMD1 coordinates the assembly of an AGO-TNRC6 containing miRISC complex by binding both proteins simultaneously at distinct interfaces. Phosphorylation of AGO2 at Ser 387 by Akt3 induces LIMD1 binding, which in turn enables AGO2 to interact with TNRC6A and downstream effector DDX6. Conservation of this serine in AGO1 and 4 indicates this mechanism may be a fundamental requirement for AGO function and miRISC assembly. Upon CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LIMD1, AGO2 miRNA-silencing function is lost and miRNA silencing becomes dependent on a complex formed by AGO3 and the LIMD1 family member WTIP. The switch to AGO3 utilization occurs due to the presence of a glutamic acid residue (E390 on the interaction interface, which allows AGO3 to bind to LIMD1, AJUBA, and WTIP irrespective of Akt signaling.
In late 1991 HERA will for the first time collide stored beams of electrons and protons. This paper describes the multiple (RISC) modern reduced instruction set processor system for online event filtering and reconstruction installed within the data acquisition system of the H1 experiment. Data is processed at a continuous average rate of ∼ 6 Mbytes/s in parallel by ∼ 20 R3000 VMEbus based monoboard computers providing some 400 mips computing power. (author)
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in children worldwide. A simple clinical score predicting the probability of death in a young child with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI could aid clinicians in case management and provide a standardized severity measure during epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We analyzed 4,148 LRTI hospitalizations in children <24 months enrolled in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in South Africa from 1998-2001, to develop the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC. Using clinical data at admission, a multivariable logistic regression model for mortality was developed and statistically evaluated using bootstrap resampling techniques. Points were assigned to risk factors based on their coefficients in the multivariable model. A child's RISC score is the sum of points for each risk factor present. Separate models were developed for HIV-infected and non-infected children. RESULTS: Significant risk factors for HIV-infected and non-infected children included low oxygen saturation, chest indrawing, wheezing, and refusal to feed. The models also included age and HIV clinical classification (for HIV-infected children or weight-for-age (for non-infected children. RISC scores ranged up to 7 points for HIV-infected or 6 points for non-infected children and correlated with probability of death (0-47%, HIV-infected; 0-14%, non-infected. Final models showed good discrimination (area under the ROC curve and calibration (goodness-of-fit. CONCLUSION: The RISC score incorporates a simple set of risk factors that accurately discriminate between young children based on their risk of death from LRTI, and may provide an objective means to quantify severity based on the risk of mortality.
In late 1991 HERA will collide for the first time stored beams of electrons and protons. This paper describes the multiple RISC processor system for online event filtering and reconstruction installed within the data acquisition system of the H1 experiment. Data is processed at a continuous average rate of ∼6 Mbytes/s in parallel by ∼20 R3000 VMEbus based monoboard computers providing some 400 MIPS computing power
Ban, Ya.; Kotov, V.M.; Kharcharufkova, K.
Algorithms for track signal filtration from bubble and streamer spark chambers read by CCD matrix with elements of 256x288 dimensions are described. The microprogrammed RISC processor is used for preliminary processing and filtration of data obtained. It makes possible to recognize and filter track elements in the zone of 0.25 mm 2 square during 0.17-0.20 s, that maintains it in real time operation
Biyabani, S. R.
computers to emulate Cray system time calls, which should be easy to modify for other machines as well. The standard distribution media for this version is a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII Card Image format magnetic tape. The Cray version was developed in 1987. The IBM ES/3090 version is an IBM port of the Cray version. It is written in IBM VS FORTRAN and has the capability of executing in both vector and parallel modes on the MVS/XA operating system and in vector mode on the VM/XA operating system. Various options of the IBM VS FORTRAN compiler provide new features for the ES/3090 version, including 64-bit arithmetic and up to 2 GB of virtual addressability. The IBM ES/3090 version is available only as a 9-track, 1600 BPI IBM IEBCOPY format magnetic tape. The IBM ES/3090 version was developed in 1989. The DEC RISC ULTRIX version is a DEC port of the Cray version. It is written in FORTRAN 77 for RISC-based Digital Equipment platforms. The memory requirement is approximately 7Mb of main memory. It is available in UNIX tar format on TK50 tape cartridge. The port to DEC RISC ULTRIX was done in 1990. COS and UNICOS are trademarks and Cray is a registered trademark of Cray Research, Inc. IBM, ES/3090, VS FORTRAN, MVS/XA, and VM/XA are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. DEC and ULTRIX are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.
RISC-RAD (Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by ionizing Radiations) is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission under 6. Framework Programme / EURATOM. RISC-RAD started on 1. January 2004 for a duration of four years. Coordinated by Cea (Dr Laure Sabatier), it involves 11 European countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and 29 research institutions. Objectives: Exposures to low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are very frequent in normal living environment, at work places, in industry and in medicine. Effects of these exposures on human health cannot be reliably assessed by epidemiological methods, nor is thoroughly understood by biologists. RISC-RAD project proposes to help bridging the gap of scientific knowledge about these effects. To achieve this goal, a necessary key step is to understand the basic mechanisms by which radiation induces cancer. Studying this multistage process in an integrated way, the project offers a new biological approach characterised by and clear-cut and objective-driven scientific policy: the project is focused on the effects of low doses (less than 100 mSv) and protracted doses of radiation. It aims at identifying new parameters that take into account the differences in radiation responses between individuals. A group of modelers works closely with the experimental teams in order to better quantify the risks associated with low and protracted doses. Research work is divided into five work packages interacting closely with each other. WP1 is dedicated to DNA damage. Ionizing Radiation (IR) produce a broad spectrum of base modifications and DNA strand breaks of different kinds, among which double-strand breaks and 'clustered damage' which is thought to be a major feature in biological effectiveness of IR. The aim of Work Package 1 is to improve understanding of the initial DNA damage induced by
Pandolfini, Luca; Luzi, Ettore; Bressan, Dario; Ucciferri, Nadia; Bertacchi, Michele; Brandi, Rossella; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; D'Onofrio, Mara; Cremisi, Federico
Embryonic stem cells are intrinsically unstable and differentiate spontaneously if they are not shielded from external stimuli. Although the nature of such instability is still controversial, growing evidence suggests that protein translation control may play a crucial role. We performed an integrated analysis of RNA and proteins at the transition between naïve embryonic stem cells and cells primed to differentiate. During this transition, mRNAs coding for chromatin regulators are specifically released from translational inhibition mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). This suggests that, prior to differentiation, the propensity of embryonic stem cells to change their epigenetic status is hampered by RNA interference. The expression of these chromatin regulators is reinstated following acute inactivation of RISC and it correlates with loss of stemness markers and activation of early cell differentiation markers in treated embryonic stem cells. We propose that RISC-mediated inhibition of specific sets of chromatin regulators is a primary mechanism for preserving embryonic stem cell pluripotency while inhibiting the onset of embryonic developmental programs.
Redfern, Andrew D; Colley, Shane M; Beveridge, Dianne J; Ikeda, Naoya; Epis, Michael R; Li, Xia; Foulds, Charles E; Stuart, Lisa M; Barker, Andrew; Russell, Victoria J; Ramsay, Kerry; Kobelke, Simon J; Li, Xiaotao; Hatchell, Esme C; Payne, Christine; Giles, Keith M; Messineo, Adriana; Gatignol, Anne; Lanz, Rainer B; O'Malley, Bert W; Leedman, Peter J
The cytoplasmic RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) contains dsRNA binding proteins, including protein kinase RNA activator (PACT), transactivation response RNA binding protein (TRBP), and Dicer, that process pre-microRNAs into mature microRNAs (miRNAs) that target specific mRNA species for regulation. There is increasing evidence for important functional interactions between the miRNA and nuclear receptor (NR) signaling networks, with recent data showing that estrogen, acting through the estrogen receptor, can modulate initial aspects of nuclear miRNA processing. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic RISC proteins PACT, TRBP, and Dicer are steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) binding NR coregulators that target steroid-responsive promoters and regulate NR activity and downstream gene expression. Furthermore, each of the RISC proteins, together with Argonaute 2, associates with SRA and specific pre-microRNAs in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, providing evidence for links between NR-mediated transcription and some of the factors involved in miRNA processing.
Since November 1996, CNA has participated on a Technology Task Force established by the Commander, Navy Recruiting Command, to address several issues concerning the use of technology and Navy recruiting...
Víctor H. García Ortega
Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el diseño e implementación de un microprocesador de 16 bits de arquitectura RISC tipo MIPS. Las características principales que presenta el microprocesador son: una arquitectura Harvard con una memoria de programa de 64K x 25 bits y una memoria de datos de 64k x 16 bits, una pila de ocho niveles implementada en hardware y la Unidad Lógica-Aritmética (ALU con esquema de acarreo anticipado por propagación y generación para el aumento de velocidad en la ejecución de las operaciones aritméticas. La unidad de control decodifica y maneja las señales de control del microprocesador para ejecutar las instrucciones en un solo ciclo de reloj. La implementación se realizó en un dispositivo lógico programable del tipo FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array de la familia Spartan-3A de Xilinx. El diseño de cada elemento del microprocesador se desarrolló con el lenguaje de descripción de hardware VHDL.
Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3 expression correlates with malignancy, but its role(s in pathogenesis remains enigmatic. We interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches, we have identified 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and microRNA (miRNA binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions.
Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J; Uren, Philip J; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D; Toloue, Masoud M; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Penalva, Luiz O F; Sanford, Jeremy R
Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy, but its role(s) in pathogenesis remains enigmatic. We interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches, we have identified 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang Jing; Yang Xing; Zhang Weigong; Shen Jiao; Qiu Keni; Zhao Yuanfu
The particles-induced soft errors are a major threat to the reliability of microprocessors. Even worse, multi-bits upsets (MBUs) are ever-increased due to the rapidly shrinking feature size of the IC on a chip. Several architecture-level mechanisms have been proposed to protect microprocessors from soft errors, such as dual and triple modular redundancies (DMR and TMR). However, most of them are inefficient to combat the growing multi-bits errors or cannot well balance the critical paths delay, area and power penalty. This paper proposes a novel architecture, self-recovery dual-pipeline (SRDP), to effectively provide soft error detection and recovery with low cost for general RISC structures. We focus on the following three aspects. First, an advanced DMR pipeline is devised to detect soft error, especially MBU. Second, SEU/MBU errors can be located by enhancing self-checking logic into pipelines stage registers. Third, a recovery scheme is proposed with a recovery cost of 1 or 5 clock cycles. Our evaluation of a prototype implementation exhibits that the SRDP can successfully detect particle-induced soft errors up to 100% and recovery is nearly 95%, the other 5% will inter a specific trap. (paper)
Castanotto, Daniela; Sakurai, Kumi; Lingeman, Robert; Li, Haitang; Shively, Louise; Aagaard, Lars; Soifer, Harris; Gatignol, Anne; Riggs, Arthur; Rossi, John J.
Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both synthetic siRNAs and expressed shRNAs compete against each other and with the endogenous microRNAs for transport and for incorporation into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). The same siRNA sequences do not display competition when expressed from a microRNA backbone. We also show that TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) is one of the sensors for selection and incorporation of the guide sequence of interfering RNAs. These findings reveal that combinatorial siRNA approaches can be problematic and have important implications for the methodology of expression and use of therapeutic interfering RNAs. PMID:17660190
Jing, Wang; Xing, Yang; Yuanfu, Zhao; Weigong, Zhang; Jiao, Shen; Keni, Qiu
The particles-induced soft errors are a major threat to the reliability of microprocessors. Even worse, multi-bits upsets (MBUs) are ever-increased due to the rapidly shrinking feature size of the IC on a chip. Several architecture-level mechanisms have been proposed to protect microprocessors from soft errors, such as dual and triple modular redundancies (DMR and TMR). However, most of them are inefficient to combat the growing multi-bits errors or cannot well balance the critical paths delay, area and power penalty. This paper proposes a novel architecture, self-recovery dual-pipeline (SRDP), to effectively provide soft error detection and recovery with low cost for general RISC structures. We focus on the following three aspects. First, an advanced DMR pipeline is devised to detect soft error, especially MBU. Second, SEU/MBU errors can be located by enhancing self-checking logic into pipelines stage registers. Third, a recovery scheme is proposed with a recovery cost of 1 or 5 clock cycles. Our evaluation of a prototype implementation exhibits that the SRDP can successfully detect particle-induced soft errors up to 100% and recovery is nearly 95%, the other 5% will inter a specific trap.
Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Shen, Rongkun; Auer, Paul L; Goodman, Richard H
Identifying targets is critical for understanding the biological effects of microRNA (miRNA) expression. The challenge lies in characterizing the cohort of targets for a specific miRNA, especially when targets are being actively down-regulated in miRNA- RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-messengerRNA (mRNA) complexes. We have developed a robust and versatile strategy called RISCtrap to stabilize and purify targets from this transient interaction. Its utility was demonstrated by determining specific high-confidence target datasets for miR-124, miR-132, and miR-181 that contained known and previously unknown transcripts. Two previously unknown miR-132 targets identified with RISCtrap, adaptor protein CT10 regulator of kinase 1 (CRK1) and tight junction-associated protein 1 (TJAP1), were shown to be endogenously regulated by miR-132 in adult mouse forebrain. The datasets, moreover, differed in the number of targets and in the types and frequency of microRNA recognition element (MRE) motifs, thus revealing a previously underappreciated level of specificity in the target sets regulated by individual miRNAs.
, which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded......The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies...
Ohrt, Thomas; Mütze, Jörg; Staroske, Wolfgang; Weinmann, Lasse; Höck, Julia; Crell, Karin; Meister, Gunter; Schwille, Petra
Studies of RNA interference (RNAi) provide evidence that in addition to the well-characterized cytoplasmic mechanisms, nuclear mechanisms also exist. The mechanism by which the nuclear RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is formed in mammalian cells, as well as the relationship between the RNA silencing pathways in nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments is still unknown. Here we show by applying fluorescence correlation and cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCS/FCCS) in vivo that two distinct RISC exist: a large approximately 3 MDa complex in the cytoplasm and a 20-fold smaller complex of approximately 158 kDa in the nucleus. We further show that nuclear RISC, consisting only of Ago2 and a short RNA, is loaded in the cytoplasm and imported into the nucleus. The loaded RISC accumulates in the nucleus depending on the presence of a target, based on an miRNA-like interaction with impaired cleavage of the cognate RNA. Together, these results suggest a new RISC shuttling mechanism between nucleus and cytoplasm ensuring concomitant gene regulation by small RNAs in both compartments.
E-recruitment, also known as online or web-based recruitment, is little discussed in research from an organizational perspective. The purpose of this chapter is therefore to analyze and discuss the process of e-recruitment, its key constituents and organizing principles. In doing so I draw...... on the results of a qualitative study conducted in 2008-2009, and on data stemming from industrial reports, articles from practitioner magazines, and in-depth interviews. The chapter provides a summary of e-recruitment properties and a composite matrix of the overall elements of e-recruitment organizing. E-recruitment...... is viewed as a case of virtual organizing- the organization of processes and activities which, via technology and human agents, facilitate time- and space-independent interaction and collaboration. In closure I offer a brief discussion of implications of the findings for HR managers and professionals...
The training course 'Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation' took place at the STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland 14-16 February 2005. Proceeding of this course is collected in this volume. The idea of the course was to convene a number of scientists leading in the area of non-targeted effects of ionising radiation with the aim to outline their visions for the role of these effects and outline the future directions of radiation research on the basis of their expertise. The course was supported by the RISC-RAD IP FI6R-CT-2003-508842, Euratom specific programme for research and training on nuclear energy, 6th FP of the EC. The main objectives of the training course were: (1) to clarify the mechanisms of non-targeted effects, in particular, bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response; (2) to look if and how non-targeted effects modulate the cancer risk in the low dose region, and whether they relate to protective or harmful functions; (3) to clarify if ionising radiation can cause non-cancer diseases or beneficial effects at low and intermediate doses; (4) address the issue of individual susceptibility and other factors modifying non-targeted responses; (5) attempt to assess the relevance of non-targeted effects for radiation protection and to set the scientific basis for a modern, more realistic, radiation safety system; (6) and finally to contribute to the conceptualisation of a new paradigm in radiation biology that would cover both the classical direct (DNA-targeted) and non-targeted (indirect) effects
Rawlings, Renata A.; Krishnan, Vishalakshi; Walter, Nils G.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved gene regulatory mechanism employed by most eukaryotes as a key component of their innate immune response against viruses and retrotransposons. During viral infection, the RNase III-type endonuclease Dicer cleaves viral double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 21–24 nucleotides in length, and helps load them into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to guide cleavage of complementary viral RNA. As a countermeasure, many viruses have evolved viral RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins that tightly, and presumably quantitatively, bind siRNAs to thwart RNAi-mediated degradation. Viral RSS proteins also act across kingdoms as potential immunosuppressors in gene therapeutic applications. Here we report fluorescence quenching and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that probe siRNA binding by the dimeric RSS p19 from Carnation Italian Ringspot Virus (CIRV), as well as by human Dicer and RISC assembly complexes. We find that the siRNA:p19 interaction is readily reversible, characterized by rapid binding ((1.69 ± 0.07)×108 M−1s−1) and marked dissociation (koff = 0.062 ± 0.002 s−1). We also observe that p19 efficiently competes with recombinant Dicer and inhibits formation of RISC-related assembly complexes found in human cell extract. Computational modeling based on these results provides evidence for the transient formation of a ternary complex between siRNA, human Dicer, and p19. An expanded model of RNA silencing indicates that multiple-turnover by reversible binding of siRNAs potentiates the efficiency of the suppressor protein. Our predictive model is expected to be applicable to the dosing of p19 as a silencing suppressor in viral gene therapy. PMID:21354178
Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
-factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make......Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...
Ivanov, V.K.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Mikhal'skij, A.I.; Petrovskij, A.M.
Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs
Kenesi, Erzsébet; Carbonell, Alberto; Lózsa, Rita; Vértessy, Beáta; Lakatos, Lóránt
In most eukaryotes, RNA silencing is an adaptive immune system regulating key biological processes including antiviral defense. To evade this response, viruses of plants, worms and insects have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing proteins (VSRs). Various VSRs, such as P1 from Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), inhibit the activity of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) including an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein loaded with a small RNA. However, the specific mechanisms explaining this class of inhibition are unknown. Here, we show that SPMMV P1 interacts with AGO1 and AGO2 from Arabidopsis thaliana, but solely interferes with AGO1 function. Moreover, a mutational analysis of a newly identified zinc finger domain in P1 revealed that this domain could represent an effector domain as it is required for P1 suppressor activity but not for AGO1 binding. Finally, a comparative analysis of the target RNA binding capacity of AGO1 in the presence of wild-type or suppressor-defective P1 forms revealed that P1 blocks target RNA binding to AGO1. Our results describe the negative regulation of RISC, the small RNA containing molecular machine. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Van Dongeren, A.; Ciavola, P.; Viavattene, C.; Dekleermaeker, S.; Martinez, G.; Ferreira, O.; Costa, C.
High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called "hotspots") can be identified. The identification is done using the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, or CRAF, which computes the intensity from multi-hazards, the exposure and the vulnerability, all components of risk, including network and cascading effects. Based on this analysis hot spots of risk which warrant coastal protection investments are selected. For these hotspot areas, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support Tools are developed with which it is possible to compute in detail the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in storm event scenarios, which helps decide which measures to implement in the planning phase. The same systems, but now driven with real time data, can also be used for early warning systems. All tools are tested on eleven case study areas, at least one on each EU Regional Sea
Westermeyer, Roger H
.... Recruiting and retaining this highly skilled workforce is a significant challenge for the Air Force due to the high public and private sector demand for people with IT and related engineering skills...
2007 hearing of the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Policy, Gregory Wilshusen, director of Information Technology at...Abbott Laboratories in Chicago, recruiters are reaching out to College students by offering flexible work schedules, telecommuting , full tuition
Overseas nurses account for 40 per cent of all new registrations in the UK and this may be rising to 50 per cent. This upward trend is likely to continue. International recruitment is to be part of the NHS's long-term strategy and is becoming the focus of increasing policy attention. The international labour market will become tighter: the US needs to recruit an extra million nurses of its own.
The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...
O Caoimh, Rónán
Functional decline and frailty are common in community dwelling older adults, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Given this, we investigated the prevalence of frailty-associated risk factors and their distribution according to the severity of perceived risk in a cohort of community dwelling older adults, using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).
Csorba, Tibor; Lózsa, Rita; Hutvágner, György; Burgyán, József
RNA silencing plays an important role in plants in defence against viruses. To overcome this defence, plant viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing. The most common mode of silencing suppression is sequestration of double-stranded RNAs involved in the antiviral silencing pathways. Viral suppressors can also overcome silencing responses through protein-protein interaction. The poleroviral P0 silencing suppressor protein targets ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins for degradation. AGO proteins are the core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We found that P0 does not interfere with the slicer activity of pre-programmed siRNA/miRNA containing AGO1, but prevents de novo formation of siRNA/miRNA containing AGO1. We show that the AGO1 protein is part of a high-molecular-weight complex, suggesting the existence of a multi-protein RISC in plants. We propose that P0 prevents RISC assembly by interacting with one of its protein components, thus inhibiting formation of siRNA/miRNA-RISC, and ultimately leading to AGO1 degradation. Our findings also suggest that siRNAs enhance the stability of co-expressed AGO1 in both the presence and absence of P0.
The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.
Suggests ways community college journalism instructors can recruit and retain students in journalism classes (e.g., host a high school press day, fund a journalism scholarship, sponsor events for high school journalism teachers and advisers, serve as counselor for journalism majors, have a yearly journalism convocation, and involve campus…
Holm, Anna B.
tasks and subtasks. For management, the main task is now that of communicating with candidates. In addition, a new on-going task of maintaining a corporate career website has become an integral part of the new recruitment process. The new design is presented in the following, and its implications...
Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa
Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…
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programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The HP 9000 Series 700/800 version of TAE 5.2 requires Version 11 Release 5 of the X Window System. All other machine versions of TAE 5.2 require Version 11, Release 4 of the X Window System. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is available on media suitable for five different machine platforms: (1) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), (2) DEC RISC
Sibony, Michal; Abdullah, Majd; Greenfield, Laura; Raju, Deepa; Wu, Ted; Rodrigues, David M; Galindo-Mata, Esther; Mascarenhas, Heidi; Philpott, Dana J; Silverberg, Mark S; Jones, Nicola L
Autophagy is implicated in Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis. Recent evidence suggests autophagy regulates the microRNA (miRNA)-induced silencing complex (miRISC). Therefore, autophagy may play a novel role in CD by regulating expression of miRISC, thereby altering miRNA silencing. As microbes associated with CD can alter autophagy, we hypothesized that microbial disruption of autophagy affects the critical miRISC component AGO2. AGO2 expression was assessed in epithelial and immune cells, and intestinal organoids with disrupted autophagy. Microarray technology was used to determine the expression of downstream miRNAs in cells with defective autophagy. Increased AGO2 was detected in autophagy-deficient ATG5-/- and ATG16-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) in comparison with wild-type MEFs. Chemical agents and VacA toxin, which disrupt autophagy, increased AGO2 expression in MEFs, epithelial cells lines, and human monocytes, respectively. Increased AGO2 was also detected in ATG7-/- intestinal organoids, in comparison with wild-type organoids. Five miRNAs were differentially expressed in autophagy-deficient MEFs. Pathway enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs implicated signaling pathways previously associated with CD. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy is involved in the regulation of the critical miRISC component AGO2 in epithelial and immune cells and primary intestinal epithelial cells. We propose a mechanism by which autophagy alters miRNA expression, which likely impacts the regulation of CD-associated pathways. Furthermore, as enteric microbial products can manipulate autophagy and AGO2, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which enteric microbes could influence miRNA to promote disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Findings Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. Conclusions The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.
Ionel, C. [Enerflex Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
This presentation provided details of Enerflex, a leading supplier of products and services to the oil and gas industry, and outlined their personnel hiring policies. Enerflex's core values include community involvement and divisional logo branding. The extensive training that is provided places an emphasis on employee empowerment. The company also places an emphasis on employee safety, diversity, and team building. Competitive salaries are offered along with generous equipment allowances and a flexible benefits program. Benefits include travel and overtime rates; health benefits; retirement savings; scholarship programs; career opportunities; and apprenticeship programs. External technical training is provided. An employee referral program has been developed, and the company's recruitment program also advertises in remote newspapers to develop career streams within remote communities. tabs., figs.
Milochau, Alexandra; Lagrée, Valérie; Benassy, Marie-Noëlle; Chaignepain, Stéphane; Papin, Julien; Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Lajoix, Anne; Monterrat, Carole; Coudert, Laetitia; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Ochoa, Begoña; Lang, Jochen
Synaptotagmins are two C2 domain-containing transmembrane proteins. The function of calcium-sensitive members in the regulation of post-Golgi traffic has been well established whereas little is known about the calcium-insensitive isoforms constituting half of the protein family. Novel binding partners of synaptotagmin 11 were identified in β-cells. A number of them had been assigned previously to ER/Golgi derived-vesicles or linked to RNA synthesis, translation and processing. Whereas the C2A domain interacted with the Q-SNARE Vti1a, the C2B domain of syt11 interacted with the SND1, Ago2 and FMRP, components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Binding to SND was direct via its N-terminal tandem repeats. Our data indicate that syt11 may provide a link between gene regulation by microRNAs and membrane traffic. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hart, Karen A
In today's competitive health care recruitment environment, one of the most cost-effective and successful recruitment strategies is alumni or "boomerang" recruitment. A proven business model, alumni recruitment is just beginning to be used in a significant way in the health care arena. The cost to recruit alumni is much lower than for those in the general workforce and the alumni population is a known quantity. Alumni will assimilate much more easily into your corporate culture, will need less orientation and onboarding, and will be more productive.
Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa
Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.
Identification of four families of yCCR4- and Mg2+-dependent endonuclease-related proteins in higher eukaryotes, and characterization of orthologs of yCCR4 with a conserved leucine-rich repeat essential for hCAF1/hPOP2 binding
Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast yCCR4 factor belongs to the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex, in which it interacts, through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR motif with yPOP2. Recently, yCCR4 was shown to be a component of the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, and to contain a fold related to the Mg2+-dependent endonuclease core. Results Here, we report the identification of nineteen yCCR4-related proteins in eukaryotes (including yeast, plants and animals, which all contain the yCCR4 endonuclease-like fold, with highly conserved CCR4-specific residues. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses show that they form four distinct families, one of which contains the yCCR4 orthologs. The orthologs in animals possess a leucine-rich repeat domain. We show, using two-hybrid and far-Western assays, that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, i.e. hCAF1 and hPOP2, in a LRR-dependent manner. Conclusions We have identified the mammalian orthologs of yCCR4 and have shown that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, thus strongly suggesting conservation of the CCR4-NOT complex from yeast to human. All members of the four identified yCCR4-related protein families show stricking conservation of the endonuclease-like catalytic motifs of the yCCR4 C-terminal domain and therefore constitute a new family of potential deadenylases in mammals.
Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David
This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...
Rosser, Sue V.
Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.
Holm, Anna; Ulhøi, John Parm
Up to now, there has been little research on recruitment practices from an organizational perspective, and in part it lags behind practice. This paper attempts to rectify this by studying recent changes in the recruitment practices of Danish organizations. We employ new institutional theory......, and individuals’ social cognition. Among other things, this is reflected in the use of online recruitment and employer branding. The study concludes that the recruitment field has transformed and reviewed its practices due to institutional changes in how individuals search for employment and expect to be hired....
Instruction CR Chief Recruiter CRF Career Recruiting Force CS Culinary Specialist CT Command Trainer CTI Cryptologic Technician...third week (Module 2) when the students are taught about trends in sales and marketplaces, the art and science of sales, how to prospect for new...8, Aviation Machinist Mates (AD), Aviation Structural Mechanic (AM), Culinary Specialists (CS), and Fire Controlman (FC) had the highest average
Tarallo, Roberta; Giurato, Giorgio; Bruno, Giuseppina; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Salvati, Annamaria; Ricciardi, Luca; Marchese, Giovanna; Cordella, Angela; Rocco, Teresa; Gigantino, Valerio; Pierri, Biancamaria; Cimmino, Giovanni; Milanesi, Luciano; Ambrosino, Concetta; Nyman, Tuula A; Nassa, Giovanni; Weisz, Alessandro
The RNA-binding protein Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is a key effector of RNA-silencing pathways It exerts a pivotal role in microRNA maturation and activity and can modulate chromatin remodeling, transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is endowed with oncosuppressive activities, antagonizing hormone-induced carcinogenesis and inhibiting growth and oncogenic functions in luminal-like breast cancers (BCs), where its expression correlates with a better prognosis of the disease. Applying interaction proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry to characterize nuclear factors cooperating with ERβ in gene regulation, we identify AGO2 as a novel partner of ERβ in human BC cells. ERβ-AGO2 association was confirmed in vitro and in vivo in both the nucleus and cytoplasm and is shown to be RNA-mediated. ChIP-Seq demonstrates AGO2 association with a large number of ERβ binding sites, and total and nascent RNA-Seq in ERβ + vs ERβ - cells, and before and after AGO2 knock-down in ERβ + cells, reveals a widespread involvement of this factor in ERβ-mediated regulation of gene transcription rate and RNA splicing. Moreover, isolation and sequencing by RIP-Seq of ERβ-associated long and small RNAs in the cytoplasm suggests involvement of the nuclear receptor in RISC loading, indicating that it may also be able to directly control mRNA translation efficiency and stability. These results demonstrate that AGO2 can act as a pleiotropic functional partner of ERβ, indicating that both factors are endowed with multiple roles in the control of key cellular functions.
Correa, M. P.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Haeffelin, M.; Saiag, P.; Mahe, E.; Brogniez, C.; Dupont, J. C.; Pazmiño, A.; Auriol, F.; Bonnel, B.
Introduction: RISC-UV is a research project on "Impact of climate change on ultraviolet radiation and risks for health", a research project in which physicists, meteorologists and physicians work together to assess the relative role played by environmental and behavioral factors in the UV-related diseases as skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency. Environmental factors are related to the role played by the alteration in intensity of UV radiation at the Earth's surface resulting from variation in several factors affected by climate change and human activities: stratospheric ozone, cloud cover, aerosols and the reflectivity of the surface. On the other hand, behavioral factors are related to the sun over/underexposure and the correct use of sun-protection (hats, caps, sunglasses, sunscreen lotion, etc.). RISC-UV is organized around three main areas: 1) Organization of a workshop, scheduled for January 2009, which aims to describe the state of the art in the subject within each community and define the requirements of pathologists for epidemiological studies; 2) A pilot study intended to evaluate the consistency between UV measurements delivered simultaneously by satellite-based instruments, ground instruments, radiometers and individual dosimeters. This study is based on measurements campaigns and an analysis of the long-term consistency of data series relating to UV radiation and associated parameters; and 3) Analysis of the weights of medical, behavioral and environmental parameters involved in skin carcinogenesis. A detailed description of these areas can be found in http://www.gisclimat.fr/Doc/GB/D_projects/RISC-UV_GB.html. This presentation focuses on the first results of the UV experimental measurements performed between September 8th and October 8th 2008 in Palaiseau, France (48.7Ë N; 2.2Ë E; 170m - Haeffelin et al., 2005). A second campaign is foreseen for the spring of 2009. The purpose of these campaigns is to obtain, analyze and quantitatively link the
Duong, Chanmettachampavieng; Hurst, Cameron P
Resilience has been characterized as a defensive factor against the refinement of mental health problems. This study adapted the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Kh-CD-RISC10) for use in Khmer adolescents and subsequently investigates its psychometric properties. Using stratified random sampling, this cross-sectional study sampled Cambodian adolescents from high schools selected randomly within three provinces (Phnom Penh, Battambang and Mondulkiri)-location (rural, urban) combinations. Parallel analysis was used to identify the number of component(s), and the structure of the single factor was subsequently explored using principal axis factoring. A confirmatory factor analysis was then performed to establish the fit of the Kh-CD-RISC10 to another sample. To assess convergent validity, the factor scores of the Khmer version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were categorized into three levels, and then the general negative affectivity (GNA) and physiological hyperarousal (PH) scales (derived from the DASS 21) were compared among the three resilience groups. Of the 798 participants who responded (responded rate = 82.26 %), 440 (41.23 %) were female and the age ranged from 14 to 24 years old (mean = 17.36, SD = 1.325). The internal consistency of the Khmer 10-item CD-RISC was also shown to be high in Cambodian adolescents (Cronbach's alpha = 0. 82). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the single factor model fit data adequately (χ(2) = 100.103, df = 35, p scale of this population, and can be used to assess the resilience comparing to the level of PTSD symptoms in general Khmer adolescent.
Minh T Than
Full Text Available Identifying the physiological functions of microRNAs (miRNAs is often challenging because miRNAs commonly impact gene expression under specific physiological conditions through complex miRNA::mRNA interaction networks and in coordination with other means of gene regulation, such as transcriptional regulation and protein degradation. Such complexity creates difficulties in dissecting miRNA functions through traditional genetic methods using individual miRNA mutations. To investigate the physiological functions of miRNAs in neurons, we combined a genetic "enhancer" approach complemented by biochemical analysis of neuronal miRNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs in C. elegans. Total miRNA function can be compromised by mutating one of the two GW182 proteins (AIN-1, an important component of miRISC. We found that combining an ain-1 mutation with a mutation in unc-3, a neuronal transcription factor, resulted in an inappropriate entrance into the stress-induced, alternative larval stage known as dauer, indicating a role of miRNAs in preventing aberrant dauer formation. Analysis of this genetic interaction suggests that neuronal miRNAs perform such a role partly by regulating endogenous cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP signaling, potentially influencing two other dauer-regulating pathways. Through tissue-specific immunoprecipitations of miRISC, we identified miRNAs and their likely target mRNAs within neuronal tissue. We verified the biological relevance of several of these miRNAs and found that many miRNAs likely regulate dauer formation through multiple dauer-related targets. Further analysis of target mRNAs suggests potential miRNA involvement in various neuronal processes, but the importance of these miRNA::mRNA interactions remains unclear. Finally, we found that neuronal genes may be more highly regulated by miRNAs than intestinal genes. Overall, our study identifies miRNAs and their targets, and a physiological function of these miRNAs in
Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.
Grant, Franklin Dean
Schools need a Renaissance human-resources director to implement strategic staffing and fast-track teacher-recruitment plans. The HR director must attend to customer satisfaction, candidate supply, web-based recruitment possibilities, stabilization of newly hired staff, retention of veteran staff, utilization of retired employees, and latest…
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... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 41.310 Section 41.310 Public... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 1253.310 Section 1253.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 17.310 Section 17.310 Domestic... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 101-4.310... Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 101-4.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 8a.310 Section 8a.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 8a.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.310 Section 54.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...
Chiva Blanch, Gemma
[cat] L'objectiu d'aquesta tesi doctoral és avaluar els efectes de les fraccions del vi (alcohòlica i no alcohòlica -principalment polifenols-) sobre els principals factors de risc cardiovascular en 67 homes amb un elevat risc de patir malalties cardiovasculars. Es va realitzar un assaig clínic, aleatoritzat i creuat en el qual tots els participants van rebre en un ordre aleatori les tres intervencions: 30 gr d'alcohol / dia en forma de vi negre, la mateixa quantitat de polifenols en forma de...
This chapter will cover digital recruitment from its definition thru to its history in recruitment and trends. The subject itself could cover an entire book or an entire module at university, so this chapter will broadly touch upon the key elements and considerations. Under cultural perspective, the recruitment life cycle will be broken down into its individual parts, and digital solutions will be examined for each individual part of the process together with the impact this has on the knowledge and challenges for the manager and team. The economic perspective will assist in prioritizing initiatives and building a business case for the introduction of digital recruiting solutions. The risk perspective will raise awareness of the potential pitfalls and the operational perspective on the key considerations for a successful implementation. Finally, the key messages of this chapter are summarized in the Do’s and Don’ts.
merit of an expert modeling system of the skills and strategies used by excel- lent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the...7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Steven R. Frieman 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S...Recruiting 2M AUSTIRACT (rcnttm ame r orw am nssry i Identify by block number) s-This report describes a program of research on communication strategies and
Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter
Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441
Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter
Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20-24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5', but not 3'-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5' to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3'-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5'-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5'-cleavage fragments. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Thomas, Brian A; Givens, Eric
...) market based on data from: * DMDC (All services) * IRR (HRC-St. Louis) * AC/RC transition (HRC-Alexandria); 2) To recommend possible recruiting pools of applicants from the analyzed market data...
Schram, A.; Brandts, J.; Gërxhani, K.
This paper studies experimentally how the existence of social information networks affects the ways in which firms recruit new personnel. Through such networks firms learn about prospective employees' performance in previous jobs. Assuming individualistic preferences social networks are predicted
Presents the pros and cons concerning advertising for recruitment using three modes of analyses - economics, ethics, and law. The author concludes that advertising is an invaluable technique for information dispersal in higher education. (Author/PG)
perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 1042.310 Section 1042.310 Energy DEPARTMENT... Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 1042.300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 86.23 Section 86.23 Public Welfare... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.23 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 25.310 Section 25.310 Transportation... Recruitment Prohibited § 25.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 25.300 through 25.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 146.310 Section 146.310 Foreign... Recruitment Prohibited § 146.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 146.300 through 146.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 229.310 Section 229.310 Foreign... and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 229.300 through 229.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...
Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.
We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.
Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education
2013 saw the launch of the one-day training course "Selecting the best person for CERN". So far, 10 courses have taken place and over 100 participants have taken part in this interactive, hands on experience. The course has been met with much enthusiasm and positive feedback, with participants not only feeling better prepared and organised for the recruitment boards, but also equipped with concrete tools on how to prepare and conduct an effective selection interview. Following on from this success, further sessions are planned in 2014: we look forward to welcoming recruiting supervisors and board members who are likely to take part in a recruitment process, whether for LD or LD2IC, and who are interested in finding out more about how to get the most out of this important process! To enrol to this course, please follow this link: "Selecting the best person for CERN".
Sjøberg, Kim Anker
the resonating sound from the microbubbles in the systemic circulation were recorded for determination of microvascular recruitment in designated muscle segments. Results showed that microvascular recruitment increased with insulin stimulation by ~30% in rats and ~40% in humans (study I). Furthermore......, it was observed that muscle contractions increased muscle perfusion rapidly by 3-4 fold and by 1-2 fold compared to basal and insulin, respectively, in both rat and human skeletal muscle (study I). The real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound method was applied to investigate the vaso-active effect of the incretin...... hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the microcirculation. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 analogs are drugs used for treatments of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but the vascular effects of GLP-1 in vivo are elusive. Here it was shown that GLP-1 rapidly increased the microvascular recruitment...
Turner, Martha R.; And Others
A survey of 111 campus recruiters of graduating students shows agreement that interviews are the most important selection method. Students' verbal communication skills, character, work experience, and academic performance were judged the most important personal characteristics in applicants. Work-related expectations and attitudes were the most…
Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth
This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....
.... After introducing a model for effective and efficient recruiting, this Strategic Research Project describes the Air Force recruiting organizational structure, management processes and practices...
Ikeda, Keigo; Satoh, Minoru; Pauley, Kaleb M; Fritzler, Marvin J; Reeves, Westley H; Chan, Edward K L
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules responsible for post-transcriptional gene silencing by the degradation or translational inhibition of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). This process of gene silencing, known as RNA interference (RNAi), is mediated by highly conserved Argonaute (Ago) proteins which are the key components of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). In humans, Ago2 is responsible for the endonuclease cleavage of targeted mRNA and it interacts with the mRNA-binding protein GW182, which is a marker for cytoplasmic foci referred to as GW bodies (GWBs). We demonstrated that the anti-Ago2 monoclonal antibody 4F9 recognized GWBs in a cell cycle dependent manner and was capable of capturing miRNAs associated with Ago2. Since Ago2 protein is the effector protein of RNAi, anti-Ago2 monoclonal antibody may be useful in capturing functional miRNAs.
Biyabani, S. R.
-field boundaries. Three machine versions of INS3D are available. INS3D for the CRAY is written in CRAY FORTRAN for execution on a CRAY X-MP under COS, INS3D for the IBM is written in FORTRAN 77 for execution on an IBM 3090 under the VM or MVS operating system, and INS3D for DEC RISC-based systems is written in RISC FORTRAN for execution on a DEC workstation running RISC ULTRIX 3.1 or later. The CRAY version has a central memory requirement of 730279 words. The central memory requirement for the IBM is 150Mb. The memory requirement for the DEC RISC ULTRIX version is 3Mb of main memory. INS3D was developed in 1987. The port to the IBM was done in 1990. The port to the DECstation 3100 was done in 1991. CRAY is a registered trademark of Cray Research Inc. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. DEC, DECstation, and ULTRIX are trademarks of the Digital Equipment Corporation.
Chamberlain, Frank M.
A marketing plan from the Young Presidents' Organization Task Force is offered: define the market; identify the target student; clarify the college selection process; assess the competition; define the college in terms of market needs; develop a recruiting strategy; develop objectives for the year; spell out the tactics; and manage for results.…
Schlechty, Phillip C.; Joslin, Anne W.
Comprehensive reform in the ways teachers are recruited, trained, evaluated, and rewarded is required if the status of the teaching profession and the present quality of education is to be improved. A new career structure, simplification of certification, and reconceptualization of the teaching role are possible remedies. (KH)
Hoch, L J
Many hospitals use physician recruitment strategies--generally assistance or employment strategies--to ensure medical staff loyalty. Although these strategies appeal to both hospitals and physicians, they are becoming increasingly problematic. Over the past three years, the government has issued pronouncements that question their legality. Thus any hospital considering physician recruitment strategies would be wise to evaluate them in light of various legal issues. such as reimbursement, nonprofit taxation, corporate practice of medicine, and certificate-of-need statutes. The consequences of failing to consider these issues can be ominous. The penalties for violating the proscribed remuneration provision of the Medicare act can include a fine, imprisonment, suspension from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, or loss of license. Payment issues can result in reduced reimbursement levels. Nonprofit taxation issues can trigger the loss of tax exemption. As a result of the corporate practice of medicine, a physician recruitment strategy may not be reimbursable by third-party payers or may even constitute the unauthorized practice of medicine. Finally, in some states, physician recruitment may trigger certificate-of-need review.
Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008
This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…
Ricci, Ronald J.
Methods for combating declining applicant pools at women's colleges are discussed. Research suggests that effective student recruitment can be facilitated by the use of single-gender market niche as a means for differentiation and parent influence for promotion. Review of strategies currently used indicate these marketing methods are underused and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.510 Section 54.510... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.310 Section... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 19.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 8a.510 Section 8a.510... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office... Activities Prohibited § 15a.53 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 28.510 Section 28.510... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 106.53 Section 106.53 Education... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 1211.510 Section... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 1317.510... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 5.300 through 5.310 apply shall not...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 15a.23 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 229.510 Section 229.510 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervised recruitment. 655.30 Section 655.30... Workers) § 655.30 Supervised recruitment. (a) Supervised recruitment. Where an employer is found to have... failed to adequately conduct recruitment activities or failed in any obligation of this part, the CO may...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 146.510 Section 146.510 Foreign... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervised recruitment. 656.21 Section 656.21... Supervised recruitment. (a) Supervised recruitment. Where the Certifying Officer determines it appropriate, post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application or...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 101-4.510... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 83.12 Section 83.12 Public Welfare... § 83.12 Recruitment. (a) Comparable recruitment. A federally supported entity shall, with respect to... demonstrate that such action is part of a recruitment program which does not have the effect of discriminating...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 113.510 Section 113... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 1253.510 Section 1253.510... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.510 Section 618.510 Public... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 2555.310 Section 2555.310 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 2555.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 2555.300 through 2555.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 618.300 through 618.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 41.510 Section 41.510 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 113.310 Section 113... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 113.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 113.300 through 113.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 86.53 Section 86.53 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.53 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 28.310 Section 28.310... Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 28.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 28.300 through 28.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 25.510 Section 25.510 Transportation... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 1211.310 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1211.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 1211.300 through 1211.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 2555.510 Section 2555.510 Public... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 196.310 Section 196.310 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 196.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 196.300 through 196.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 23.510... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 196.510 Section 196.510 National... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 17.510 Section 17.510 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 36.510 Section 36.510 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 1317.310... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 1317.300 through 1317.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 3.310 Section 3.310... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 3.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 3.300 through 3.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 23.310... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 23.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 23.300 through 23.310 apply shall not discriminate on the...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.510 Section... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 106.23 Section 106.23 Education... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 106.23 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 3.510 Section 3.510... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Prohibited § 5.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 36.310 Section 36.310 Labor Office of the... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 36.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 36.300 through 36.310...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 1042.510 Section 1042.510 Energy DEPARTMENT... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees...
Holm, Anna B.; Haahr, Lars
The use of information and communication technologies has revolutionized e-recruitment and selection function in many organizations, especially transforming it into a time- and space-independent process of sourcing and evaluating candidates. In the process, organizations rely on websites, social...... media and job portals for sourcing candidates and deploy computerized and online assessment tools when selecting the best-qualified applicants. Similarly, their communication with jobseekers has moved to cyberspace and is often performed through applicant tracking systems, where hiring managers use...... mobile technologies to track and evaluate candidates. In this chapter, we present an overview of e-recruitment and selection practices and discuss the use of technology throughout the hiring process....
Christopher Cotton; Cheng Li
We model major criminal activity as a game in which a law enforcement officer chooses the rate at which to screen different population groups and a criminal organization (e.g., drug cartel, terrorist cell) chooses the observable characteristics of its recruits. Our model best describes smuggling or terrorism activities at borders, airports and other security checkpoints. When the social costs of crime are high, law enforcement is most-effective when it is unconstrained in its ability to profi...
Guri Sogn Andersen
Full Text Available The lack of recovery in Norwegian populations of the kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus C. E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl & G. W. Saunders after a large-scale disturbance that occurred sometime between the late 1990s and early 2000s has raised considerable concerns. Kelp forests are areas of high production that serve as habitats for numerous species, and their continued absence may represent the loss of an entire ecosystem. Some S. latissima populations remain as scattered patches within the affected areas, but today, most of the areas are completely devoid of kelp. The question is if natural recolonization by kelp and the reestablishment of the associated ecosystem is possible. Previous studies indicate that a high degree of reproductive synchrony in macrophytes has a positive effect on their potential for dispersal and on the connectivity between populations, but little is known about the patterns of recruitment in Norwegian S. latissima. More is, however, known about the development of fertile tissue (sori on adult individuals, which is easily observed. The present study investigated the degree of coupling between the appearance of sori and the recruitment on clean artificial substrate beneath adult specimens. The pattern of recruitment was linked to the retreat of visible sori (i.e. spore release and a seasonal component unrelated to the fertility of the adults. The formation and the retreat of visible sori are processes that seem synchronized along the south coast of Norway, and the link between sori development and recruitment may therefore suggest that the potential for S. latissima dispersal is relatively large. These results support the notion that the production and dispersal of viable spores is unlikely to be the bottleneck preventing recolonization in the south of Norway, but studies over larger temporal and spatial scales are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.
have high correlation with attrition, such as age, job characteristics, command climate, marital status, behavior issues prior to recruitment, and the...the additive model. glm(formula = Outcome ~ Age + Gender + Marital + AFQTCat + Pay + Ed + Dep, family = binomial, data = ltraining) Deviance ...0.1 ‘ ‘ 1 (Dispersion parameter for binomial family taken to be 1) Null deviance : 105441 on 85221 degrees of freedom Residual deviance
As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex a...
This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a "business process outsourcing" of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of "registered nurse," impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty.
Shkarayev, Maxim S; Shaw, Leah B; Schwartz, Ira B
We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime). (paper)
Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.
We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).
Viñolas Tolosa, Maria
Introducció: La TV del VHC succeeix en el 5-15% dels casos i depèn de factors de risc materns, obstètrics i neonatals. Fins el moment existeix poca informació sobre l’evolució dels nens infectats més enllà dels 2 o 3 primers anys de vida. L’objectiu del present estudi es determinar la taxa de TV, els factors de risc i l’evolució a llarg termini dels nens infectats. Pacients i mètodes: Estudi prospectiu de cohorts de 120 gestants infectades per VHC i els seus fills nascuts a l’Hospital del ...
Full Text Available As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex and expensive activity and, concomitantly, an independent activity, sustained both through the necessary work volume as well as through its importance for the organization.
Bowen, Brent; Carstenson, Larry; Hansen, Frederick
Discusses student recruitment in aviation education and establishes that internal recruitment methods are the most productive and cost effective. Provides examples of recruitment strategies based on a model of action research. (JOW)
Implementing learnerships: learner recruitment and selection B lessons learnt from the KwaZulu-Natal pilot projects. ... 2001 in KwaZulu-Natal, with specific reference to the recruitment and selection of learners. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary Institutions In The Absence Of International Offices. ... The present system of recruiting international students is haphazardly been handled by ... AJOL African Journals Online.
.... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...
...). This model is designed to look at both demand, that is what recruitment is required to meet a Canadian Forces human resource scenario, and supply, that is what is the potential recruitable population...
The transformation that recruitment might encounter due to big data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) is particularly fascinating which is why this thesis focuses on the changes recruitment processes are and will be facing as new technological solutions are emerging. The aim and main objective of this study is to widen knowledge about new technology-based recruitment methods, focusing on how they are utilized by Finnish recruitment professionals and how the opportunities and risks th...
Since the times internet started to become accessible to the general public, employers noticed its effectiveness as a recruitment tool. Nowadays, a big percentage of recruitment happens online. Internet presents cost-effective opportunities to reach large pool of candidates, compared to pre-internet era recruitment tools. In this thesis, the aim is to develop online recruitment process for Finnish franchisee of Cinnabon – an international chain of bakeries famous for its cinnamon rolls. T...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct recruitment. 330.402 Section 330.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.402 Direct recruitment...
Levine, Marilyn; Schimpf, Martin
Faculty recruitment is a challenge for administration and departments, especially in an era of change in the academy. This article builds on information from an interactive conference panel session that focused on faculty recruitment best practices. The article addresses faculty recruitment strategies that focus on the optimization of search…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers for...
Sønvisen, Signe Annie
The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...
Lars Øystein Ursin
Full Text Available Rosamond Rhodes and John Harris have both recently argued that we all have a general moral duty to participate in medical research. However, neither Rhodes' nor Harris' arguments in support of this obligation stand up to scrutiny, and severe and convincing criticism has been levelled against their case. Still, to refute their arguments is not to refute the conclusion. There seems to be some truth in the view that when people are asked to take part in medical research, their choice is not completely morally neutral. In this article, we argue that the proper question to ask is when, rather than if, a certain moral duty to volunteer for medical research can be appealed to. To answer this question, we need a denser description of relevant research projects and their context rather than just describing medical research in general. Drawing on our study of participants in the Norwegian HUNT biobank, we use the normative implications of the Norwegian concept «dugnad» as an analogy to discuss the requirement of providing neutral information to potential biobank participants in order to promote their free and informed decision as to whether or not to take part. We suggest that normative recruitment is not just a question of principles and ethics. It is also a question of research design and the creation of the common good in the community where the research takes place.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i2.1697
Hiring Expectancies – Expectancy (VIE) Theory ( Vroom , 1996) states individuals choose among a set of employment alternatives on the basis of the...A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment Presented at NATO Technical Course HFM 180 – Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in...the Military Fariya Syed October, 2009 Based on A Proposed Model Of Military Recruitment (Schreurs & Syed, 2007) Report Documentation Page
This bachelor's thesis deals with human resources in company and focuses on personal strategy and recruitment. Its aim is to characterize and compare processes of recruitment and selection of new employees in two companies and propose solutions to increase the efficiency of these processes. The theoretical part is mainly focused on the overall characteristics of the recruitment and selection of new employees. In the practical is the theoretical knowledge confronted with real information from ...
Surugiu Felicia; Dragomir Cristina
In order to improve maritime human resources recruitment, most crewing and shipping companies implement an internal procedure of recruitment and management of ship’s crew. Based on observations at several crewing companies, this paper presents an example of such procedure meant to ensure that qualified and competent personnel is recruited and all ships in the fleet have crew members understanding their roles, duties and responsibilities and capable of working effectively in teams
Kaitlyn E. Brodar
Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.
Miller, Sam Louise
Values-based recruitment is a process being introduced to student selection for nursing courses and appointment to registered nurse posts. This article discusses the process of values-based recruitment and demonstrates why it is important in health care today. It examines the implications of values-based recruitment for candidates applying to nursing courses and to newly qualified nurses applying for their first posts in England. To ensure the best chance of success, candidates should understand the principles and process of values-based recruitment and how to prepare for this type of interview.
Western military establishments which have decided to shift from conscription (the draft) to volunteerism as the basis of recruitment to their armed forces, commonly face very considerable challenges...
Heredia-López, Francisco J; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Collí-Alfaro, José G; Bata-García, José L; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Góngora-Alfaro, José L
Continuous spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) in a Y-maze is used for evaluating working memory in rodents. Here, the design of an automated Y-maze equipped with three infrared optocouplers per arm, and commanded by a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller is described. The software was devised for recording only true entries and exits to the arms. Experimental settings are programmed via a keyboard with three buttons and a display. The sequence of arm entries and the time spent in each arm and the neutral zone (NZ) are saved as a text file in a non-volatile memory for later transfer to a USB flash memory. Data files are analyzed with a program developed under LabVIEW® environment, and the results are exported to an Excel® spreadsheet file. Variables measured are: latency to exit the starting arm, sequence and number of arm entries, number of alternations, alternation percentage, and cumulative times spent in each arm and NZ. The automated Y-maze accurately detected the SAB decrease produced in rats by the muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl, and its reversal by caffeine, having 100 % concordance with the alternation percentages calculated by two trained observers who independently watched videos of the same experiments. Although the values of time spent in the arms and NZ measured by the automated system had small discrepancies with those calculated by the observers, Bland-Altman analysis showed 95 % concordance in three pairs of comparisons, while in one it was 90 %, indicating that this system is a reliable and inexpensive alternative for the study of continuous SAB in rodents.
Expression levels of the microRNA maturing microprocessor complex component DGCR8 and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) components argonaute-1, argonaute-2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer.
Sand, Michael; Skrygan, Marina; Georgas, Dimitrios; Arenz, Christoph; Gambichler, Thilo; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G
The microprocessor complex mediates intranuclear biogenesis of precursor microRNAs from the primary microRNA transcript. Extranuclear, mature microRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) before interaction with complementary target mRNA leads to transcriptional repression or cleavage. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of the microprocessor complex subunit DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) and the RISC components argonaute-1 (AGO1), argonaute-2 (AGO2), as well as double-stranded RNA-binding proteins PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer and its premalignant stage. Patients with premalignant actinic keratoses (AK, n = 6), basal cell carcinomas (BCC, n = 15), and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, n = 7) were included in the study. Punch biopsies were harvested from the center of the tumors (lesional), from healthy skin sites (intraindividual controls), and from healthy skin sites in a healthy control group (n = 16; interindividual control). The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 mRNA expression levels were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, and TARBP1 expression levels were significantly higher in the AK, BCC, and SCC groups than the healthy controls (P 0.05). This study indicates that major components of the miRNA pathway, such as the microprocessor complex and RISC, are dysregulated in epithelial skin cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model.
van Kempen, Bob J H; Ferket, Bart S; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Colkesen, Ersen B; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hunink, M G Myriam
We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC) model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1) internal and 2) predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3) External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets) of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%), 3.60% (3.23%), 4.70% (4.80%), and 7.50% (7.96%), respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%), 9.90% (9.13%), 14.20% (15.12%), and 24.30% (23.42%). After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated) incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95%) and 6.50% (6.29%). All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.
den Hartog, D.N.; Caley, A.; Dewe, P.
Recruiting the right leaders is an important challenge for organisations. How do organisations find these leaders? This article looks at the recruitment of leaders through advertisements. We address to what extent the 'vocabulary of leadership' originating in influential leadership theories is
Prüfer, J.; Walz, U.
We analyze the implications of the governance structure in academic faculties for their recruitment decisions when competing for new researchers. The value to individual members through social interaction within the faculty depends on the average status of their fellow members. In recruitment
Prüfer, J.; Walz, U.
We analyze the implications of the governance structure in academic faculties for their recruitment decisions when competing for new researchers. The value to individual members through social interaction within the faculty depends on the average status of their fellow members. In recruitment
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment report. 655.156 Section 655.156... FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.156 Recruitment report. (a...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment period. 655.205 Section 655.205... FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.205 Recruitment period. (a) If the OFLC Administrator determines that the...
McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne
This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…
Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.
The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…
Buddin, Richard J
.... This has become more important in recent years because the Army, during the lean recruiting years in the late 1990s, vigorously expanded its recruiting effort by adding and expanding enlistment...
Neuhalfen, Jon K
.... The analysis uses the PRIDE database, provided by Commander, Navy Recruiting Command. Trend analyses are used to identify significant changes in enlistment and attrition behavior for recruits who joined from fiscal years 1998 through 2005...
.... However, the allocation of these resources across the 31 Navy recruiting districts must be made based on the characteristics of each district, and recruiters must be placed in geographic locations...
Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T
To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.
Vieira, Taian M M; Loram, Ian D; Muceli, Silvia; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario
The recruitment and the rate of discharge of motor units are determinants of muscle force. Within a motoneuron pool, recruitment and rate coding of individual motor units might be controlled independently, depending on the circumstances. In this study, we tested whether, during human quiet standing, the force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is predominantly controlled by recruitment or rate coding. If MG control during standing was mainly due to recruitment, then we further asked what the trigger mechanism is. Is it determined internally, or is it related to body kinematics? While seven healthy subjects stood quietly, intramuscular electromyograms were recorded from the MG muscle with three pairs of wire electrodes. The number of active motor units and their mean discharge rate were compared for different sway velocities and positions. Motor unit discharges occurred more frequently when the body swayed faster and forward (Pearson R = 0.63; P motor unit potentials was explained chiefly by the recruitment of additional units. During forward body shifts, the median number of units detected increased from 3 to 11 (P motor units did not discharge continuously throughout standing. They were recruited within individual, forward sways and intermittently, with a modal rate of two recruitments per second. This modal rate is consistent with previous circumstantial evidence relating the control of standing to an intrinsic, higher level planning process.
Mulholland, Susan; Derdall, Michele
Recruitment issues in occupational therapy have been a long-standing concern for the profession. This descriptive study explored the strategies currently being used by employers to recruit occupational therapists for employment purposes. An 18-item survey was mailed to 251 sites where occupational therapists work in Alberta and Saskatchewan. There was a 64% response rate and data from 130 surveys were analyzed. The results indicate that employers continue to rely on a wide variety of strategies for advertising and recruiting, the most prevalent being word of mouth, postings at universities, and providing student fieldwork placements. In turn, the most effective recruitment strategies were listed as word of mouth, advertising in the general media, and providing student fieldwork placements. Various examples of financial incentives offered by employers were also listed. Many participants identified recent changes in recruitment strategies such as making a move towards web site job postings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The results suggest strategies for employers to target for recruiting occupational therapists and illustrate to both employers and students the importance of fieldwork in recruitment and hiring.
Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.
To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280
could be employed in recruitment advertising directed to this target market segment. ~~iZ Uncla ssifie d SECURITY CLAUIPIC~f(ATION OFf THIS PA09(Wh•l...Alexandria, Virginia, CR-ED-74-1, July 1974. Grey Advertising . Market Target Recruitmen~t Incentive Study for Enlisted Personnel (draft report, internal NRC...college students with respect to alternative recruitment strategies . This zeaTs involved the evaluation of preferred alternative modes of contact, e.g
Newman, Daniel A; Lyon, Julie S
Noting the presumed tradeoff between diversity and performance goals in contemporary selection practice, the authors elaborate on recruiting-based methods for avoiding adverse impact while maintaining aggregate individual productivity. To extend earlier work on the primacy of applicant pool characteristics for resolving adverse impact, they illustrate the advantages of simultaneous cognitive ability- and personality-based recruiting. Results of an algebraic recruiting model support general recruiting for cognitive ability, combined with recruiting for conscientiousness within the underrepresented group. For realistic recruiting effect sizes, this type of recruiting strategy greatly increases average performance of hires and percentage of hires from the underrepresented group. Further results from a policy-capturing study provide initial guidance on how features of organizational image can attract applicants with particular job-related personalities and abilities, in addition to attracting applicants on the basis of demographic background. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Treweek, Shaun; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Fraser, Cynthia; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Frank; Jackson, Catherine; Taskila, Tyna K; Gardner, Heidi
Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research. To quantify the effects of strategies for improving recruitment of participants to randomised trials. A secondary objective is to assess the evidence for the effect of the research setting (e.g. primary care versus secondary care) on recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register (CMR) in the Cochrane Library (July 2012, searched 11 February 2015); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1946 to 10 February 2015); Embase (OVID) (1996 to 2015 Week 06); Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index (ISI) (2009 to 11 February 2015) and ERIC (EBSCO) (2009 to 11 February 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. We excluded studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention and those evaluating incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit participants. We extracted data on: the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used a risk difference to estimate the absolute improvement and the 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the effect in individual trials. We assessed heterogeneity between trial results. We used GRADE to judge the certainty we had in the evidence coming from each comparison. We identified 68 eligible trials (24 new to this update) with more than 74,000 participants. There were 63 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while five evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in
. This study was a direct reaction to the first recruitment attempt that had a 10% response rate. This study consisted of four groups of randomly selected elderly married people (65-81 years) receiving a postal questionnaire measuring depression, social support, coping style, adult attachment, life...... Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. BRAND CALIPHATE...... Brand Caliphate. This thesis looks at the recruitment of women and asks if Brand Caliphate specifically targets females with its messaging, and if so
Drago, James P
.... Using generational theory it will review the characteristics beliefs values and attitudes of Generation X the Baby Boomers and the Millennial generation the target audience of the Army's current recruiting efforts...
...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...
Ross, Jason J
... of relying upon propensity studies. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to create and evaluate both non-spatial and spatial auto correlated models to determine the best method for predicting recruitment...
Engendering women's political recruitment and participation in Myanmar ... process and promote economic growth that benefits women and men of all ethnicities. ... under the call “Gender equality and decentralization”, launched in July 2017.
We first present the broad lines of the French system of language teacher recruitment in ... Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, Spanish, Turkish and .... knowledge and learning ability), the higher the Department's.
This thesis focuses on the usage of social media in the recruitment of employees. Its aim is to propose an improved strategy for a selected company and subsequently verify this proposal. In the theoretical part, the study explains the areas of human resources management and its development, defines social media and presents statistics and as a latter, it reveals the principles of social recruiting, where all the prior mentioned areas meet. It also describes the functionality of the most widel...
GLMM - Gulf Labour Markets and Migration This paper addresses a neglected area in studies of migrant labor in the Gulf States showing that exploitation of migrant workers occurs before deployment. Evidence from interviews conducted in the five major labour sending countries to Qatar (Philippines, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and India) suggests that the recruitment procedures and corrupt practices by recruitment agencies and employing company personnel in the receiving country place unski...
Ensinger, C., Tumer , Z., Tommerup, N. et al.: Hedgehog signaling in small-cell lung cancer : frequent in vivo but a rare event in vitro. Lung Cancer , 52...W81XWH-04-1-0157 TITLE: Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jingxian Zhang, Ph.D...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Feb 2004 – 14 Feb 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Stromal Recruitment by Prostate Cancer
Chan, Eddie; Kjellberg, Annie
Due to changes in the labour market, organizations need to adjust and change their attitude towards the recruitment process. The traditional way of recruiting will eventually disappear and the use of social media will play an important part in recruiting. The recruitment process is a set of actions created by the organization and consists of: Recruitment Objectives, Strategy Development, Recruitment Activities, Intervening Job Applicant Variables and Recruitment Results. The use of social med...
Uomo, Paul Dell; Schwieters, Jill
Hospitals that want to improve their recruitment efforts should: Make recruitment a priority within the organization. Take steps to reduce high vacancy rates and turnover among first-year employees. Develop a recruitment marketing plan for key positions. Establish human resources metrics to track costs and effectiveness of recruiting efforts. Enhance the recruitment process for hiring managers and job candidates.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary function abnormalities have been described in multiple sclerosis including reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC and cough but the time course of this impairment is unknown. Peak cough flow (PCF is an important parameter for patients with respiratory muscle weakness and a reduced PCF has a direct impact on airway clearance and may therefore increase the risk of respiratory tract infections. Lung volume recruitment is a technique that improves PCF by inflating the lungs to their maximal insufflation capacity. OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to describe the rate of decline of pulmonary function and PCF in patients with multiple sclerosis and describe the use of lung volume recruitment in this population. METHODS: We reviewed all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to a respiratory neuromuscular rehabilitation clinic from February 1999 until December 2010. Lung volume recruitment was attempted in patients with FVC <80% predicted. Regular twice daily lung volume recruitment was prescribed if it resulted in a significant improvement in the laboratory. RESULTS: There were 79 patients included, 35 of whom were seen more than once. A baseline FVC <80% predicted was present in 82% of patients and 80% of patients had a PCF insufficient for airway clearance. There was a significant decline in FVC (122.6 mL/y, 95% CI 54.9-190.3 and PCF (192 mL/s/y, 95% 72-311 over a median follow-up time of 13.4 months. Lung volume recruitment was associated with a slower decline in FVC (p<0.0001 and PCF (p = 0.042. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function and cough decline significantly over time in selected patients with multiple sclerosis and lung volume recruitment is associated with a slower rate of decline in lung function and peak cough flow. Given design limitations, additional studies are needed to assess the role of lung volume recruitment in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Madenjian, C.P.; Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Croley, T.E.; Szalai, E.B.; Bence, J.R.
We used a long-term series of observations on alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance that was based on fall bottom-trawl catches to assess the importance of various abiotic and biotic factors on alewife recruitment in Lake Michigan during 1962–2002. We first fit a basic Ricker spawner–recruit model to the lakewide biomass estimates of age-3 recruits and the corresponding spawning stock size; we then fit models for all possible combinations of the following four external variables added to the basic model: an index of salmonine predation on an alewife year-class, an index for the spring–summer water temperatures experienced by alewives during their first year in the lake, an index of the severity of the first winter experienced by alewives in the lake, and an index of lake productivity during an alewife year-class's second year in the lake. Based on an information criterion, the best model for alewife recruitment included indices of salmonine predation and spring–summer water temperatures as external variables. Our analysis corroborated the contention that a decline in alewife abundance during the 1970s and early 1980s in Lake Michigan was driven by salmonine predation. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the extraordinarily warm water temperatures during the spring and summer of 1998 probably led to a moderately high recruitment of age-3 alewives in 2001, despite abundant salmonines.
Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC model
van Kempen Bob JH
Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. Methods The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1 internal and 2 predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3 External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. Results At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%, 3.60% (3.23%, 4.70% (4.80%, and 7.50% (7.96%, respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%, 9.90% (9.13%, 14.20% (15.12%, and 24.30% (23.42%. After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95% and 6.50% (6.29%. All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. Conclusions We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.
Davis, Shalisa W
Though the Marine Corps has historically met its recruitment and retention goals, recruiting has become more challenging and cultural indicators show that recruiting will become even more difficult in the future...
.... The survey results clearly validated the challenge of recruiting in 1998. Overall, military recruiters were more experienced, more likely to want to stay in recruiting and more likely to be working long hours than in 1996...
Thornton, Louise K; Harris, Keith; Baker, Amanda L; Johnson, Martin; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J
This study aimed to examine the feasibility of recruiting participants to addiction research via Facebook. Participants were recruited via an advertisement on Facebook, a local research register and university psychology courses. Participants completed a self-report survey regarding substance use, history of mental health issues and current psychological distress. The 524 participants recruited via Facebook cost $1.86 per participant; and 418 participants were recruited via more traditional methods. There were significantly fewer women in the Facebook sample compared with the non-Facebook sample (χ(2) = 196.61, P Facebook participants reported current use of tobacco (women: Facebook = 57%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2) = 39.71, P Facebook = 62%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2) = 32.429, P Facebook = 26%, non-Facebook = 7%, χ(2) = 14.364, P Facebook = 46%, non-Facebook = 24%, χ(2) = 6.765, P Facebook sample contained a higher percentage of high-severity cannabis users (women: Facebook = 24%, non-Facebook = 4%, χ(2) = 18.12, P Facebook = 43%, non-Facebook = 16%, χ(2) = 10.00, P Facebook, we were able to capture a greater proportion of people with high-severity substance use and mental health issues and were able to capture a greater and more severe range of substance use behaviours. This suggests social networking sites are efficient, cost-effective ways to recruit large numbers of participants, with relevant behaviours and conditions, to addiction research. [Thornton LK, Harris K, Baker AL, Johnson M, Kay-Lambkin FJ. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:494-502]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
...; family preparation, goal pressures and achievement, the recruiting market, out-of-pocket expenses, improprieties in recruiting, support from superiors, satisfaction with leadership, job satisfaction...
.... In many cases, recruiting stations are geographically isolated from military bases, with recruiters often tolerating a high cost of living, crime, and other such adverse conditions that characterize...
Luft, Julie A.; Wong, Sissy S.; Semken, Steve
The shortage of science teachers has spurred a discussion about their retention and recruitment. While discussion about retaining science teachers has increased dramatically in just the last few years, science teacher educators have not attended to the recruitment of science teachers with the same tenacity. This paper is our effort to initiate…
strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20
An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…
Journal of Career Planning & Employment, 1995
Presents results of a survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers of its employer members. Responding organizations (n=422) rated on-campus recruitment as the most effective method of attracting college graduates. General trends are analyzed in terms of diversity, downsizing, company growth, competition, and selectivity. (JPS)
This year there are still 70 limited duration staff vacancies to fill. Although the Web is proving a very effective way of attracting candidates, CERN people can play their part in the recruitment drive. To find out how you can help, read on. Despite the electronic era, word-of-mouth communication is still doing a good job! Over the last year about 23% of staff applicants found out about our vacancies through personal contacts. The article published last year in the Bulletin (10.4.and 24.4.2000) about recruitment at CERN had a very good initial response from people ready to spread the word about recruitment programmes in schools, universities and at conferences. As the article pointed out, it is still really important for CERN personnel to feel involved in this process. EST Division is now preparing its own initiative to send their engineers and technicians back to their schools in different Member States to attract candidates. We invite you once again to join in with this effort. The recruitment office is re...
Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.
The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.
equipment (55 lbs rucksack and 10 lbs weapon), culminating in a 40-mile trek to be completed in less than 20 hours.101 Those deemed not suitable, but who...involvement, targeted recruitment for interpersonal intelligence and cross-cultural capability could help achieve for SF what NASA achieved during its
Addresses the issue of teacher recruitment in Providence, Rhode Island. Explains that the Catholic education staff designed a campaign that involved creating marketing materials, advertising in daily newspapers, and holding job fairs and open houses. Stresses the importance of promoting teaching at Catholic schools as both rewarding and…
Guillermo, Artemio; Murray, Steve
Among the most effective tools of recruitment found in this survey were the college catalog, newspaper publicity, and brochures. "Word of mouth" from friends such as alumni, students, and the community, and publicity materials in newspapers, including advertising, were found to be the best sources of information about the college. (Author)
military relations, military history, and military sociology must be incorporated in the curriculum. JROTC comprises a critical element of the marketing mix for...factored into the marketing mix . Using commercial telemarketing practices to generate leads from centrally produced lists of potential recruits, and
National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010
The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted its annual survey of employer members from June 15, 2010 to August 15, 2010, to benchmark data relevant to college recruiting. From a base of 861 employers holding organizational membership, there were 268 responses for a response rate of 31 percent. Following are some of the major…
Zhao, Hao; Liden, Robert C.
In this study, we examined internship as a recruitment and selection process. On the basis of impression management theory, we hypothesized that both organizations and interns make efforts to impress the other party during the internship if they intend to hire or be hired. Using longitudinal data collected at 3 points from 122 intern-supervisor…
Gelinas, Luke; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E; Cohen, I Glenn
It is not uncommon for multiple clinical trials at the same institution to recruit concurrently from the same patient population. When the relevant pool of patients is limited, as it often is, trials essentially compete for participants. There is evidence that such a competition is a predictor of low study accrual, with increased competition tied to increased recruitment shortfalls. But there is no consensus on what steps, if any, institutions should take to approach this issue. In this article, we argue that an institutional policy that prioritises some trials for recruitment ahead of others is ethically permissible and indeed prima facie preferable to alternative means of addressing recruitment competition. We motivate this view by appeal to the ethical importance of minimising the number of studies that begin but do not complete, thereby exposing their participants to unnecessary risks and burdens in the process. We then argue that a policy of prioritisation can be fair to relevant stakeholders, including participants, investigators and funders. Finally, by way of encouraging and helping to frame future debate, we propose some questions that would need to be addressed when identifying substantive ethical criteria for prioritising between studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen
Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…
Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.
In this paper the tools are developed for forecasting and recruitment planning in a graded manpower system. Basic features of the presented approach are: - the system contains several grades or job categories in which the employees stay for a certain time before being promoted or leaving the system,
Palm, T; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A
a more massive recruitment of exchange area during exercise (a factor 12) than suspected on the basis of ultrafiltration in animals made with the prolonged venous stasis technique (showing a factor 2-5). The estimated variability in exchange surface area indicates, that animal studies of muscle...
Fred C. Simmons
This is the second in a series of papers about the supervisory part of the logging job. It deals with recruiting and training men for logging; it stresses the need for safety. The previous paper in the series (Station Paper 18) dealt with choosing methods and equipment; other papers planned will be about job lay-out, purchase of timber, and marketing timber products....
Many college alumni wear their love for their alma maters on their sleeves, if not their sweatshirts. They are practically a walking advertisement for the college, so it often makes sense to rely on them when recruiting, a new survey of admissions officers suggests. The survey, however, also showed that admissions offices with budgets of less than…
The maintainability of a manpower system is studied under a Markov framework. The classical method of controlling only one factor of flow is extended to highlight the case in which two factors are under control simultaneously. One special case of this extension, where recruitment of units faces partial embargo, is given, ...
Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.
Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…
Lewis, Edmund L., Ed.
The recruitment and selection of a new superintendent is a difficult and time-consuming task. It is the single most critical responsibility of a school board. The decision will ultimately affect the entire education program of the district. Careful and thoughtful preparation, definition of orderly and effective procedures, conformity with ethical…
Wessels, J.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.
In this paper the tools are developed for forecasting and recruitment planning in a eraded manpower system. Basic features of the presented approach arc: - the system contains several &fades or job catea:ories in which the employees slay for a certain time before being promoted or leaving the
Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun
Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies…
Waheed, Waquas; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Woodham, Adrine; Allen, Gill; Bower, Peter
The ethnic minority population in developed countries is increasing over time. These groups are at higher risk of mental illness and demonstrate lower participation in research. Published evidence suggests that multiple factors like stigma, lack of trust, differences in explanatory models, logistical issues and lack of culturally aware researchers act as barriers to ethnic minority recruitment into mental health research. To reduce inequalities in participation, there is a need to devise innovative and culturally sensitive recruitment strategies. It is important that researchers share their experience of employing these strategies so that ethnic minority participation can be facilitated. We previously published a systematic review of barriers to recruiting ethnic minority participants into mental health research. The nine papers included in our prior review formed the basis for developing a typology of barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities into mental health research. This typology identified 33 barriers, described under five themes. We further extracted data on the strategies used to overcome these recruitment barriers, as described in the included studies. The strategies employed by the authors could be matched to all but two barriers (psychopathology/substance misuse and limited resource availability). There was evidence that multiple strategies were employed, and that these depended upon the population, clinical set-up and resources available. This typology of strategies to overcome barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities provides guidance on achieving higher rates of recruitment. It is important that researchers plan to deploy these strategies well in advance of initiating recruitment. Whilst adopting these strategies, the authors have not been able to quantify the positive impact of these strategies on recruitment. The typology should encourage researchers to employ these strategies in future research, refine them further and quantitatively evaluate their
Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt
This paper tests the hypothesis that social networks are crucial for regional recruitment and inflows of foreign labour. New survey data on 971 firms located in Region Southern Denmark show that the predominant recruitment method of foreign labour was through networks. Danish municipal data from...... 1997–2006 furthermore reveal spatial sorting since initial shares of employees with a foreign background out of total regional employment predict foreign labour inflow rates to regional employment. Thus, social networks appear crucial for the recruitment and inflows of foreign labour, suggesting...
Based on most of the literature, this paper reviewed the progress made in following aspects: cognition to cyanobacteria recruitment, various traps for studying cyanobacteria recruitment in lakes, recruitment patterns of some species of cyanobacteria, and the driving factors for recruitment. Additionally, perspective studies of ...
... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Providing recruitment services. 92.8... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional positive recruitment. 655.154... recruitment. (a) Where to conduct additional positive recruitment. The employer must conduct positive recruitment within a multistate region of traditional or expected labor supply where the CO finds that there...
Johnson, Kathy A.; Peace, Jane
The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that th...
Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E
Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.
Draper, R; Galbraith, D; Frost, B
Recruitment of Physicians/Psychiatrists to staff the Ontario Provincial Psychiatric Hospitals remains an ongoing problem despite the introduction of measures such as University Affiliation and Incentive Grants. Historically there has been heavy reliance upon Foreign Medical Graduates (GOFM's) who have been denied the possibility of professional mobility and advancement because of restrictive licences. Recent changes in regulations have severely restricted the recruitment of GOFM's. During 1987, details of all physicians employed in the provincial hospitals during the preceeding five years were entered into a computerized data base. This paper presents some initial analyses which indicate that Canadian graduates have provided low levels of service, especially outside major urban centres, quite insufficient to replace the GOFM's. These findings raise urgent social and professional concerns.
Tremendous progress has been made recently on the fascinating question of the origins and evolution of language (see e.g. (55), (7), (9), (31)). There is no widely accepted complete theory yet, but several proposals are on the table and observations and experiments are proceeding. This chapter focuses on the recruitment theory of language origins which we have been exploring for almost ten years now. This theory argues that language users recruit and try out different strategies for solving the task of communication and retain those that maximise communicative success and cognitive economy. Each strategy requires specific cognitive neural mechanisms, which in themselves serve a wide range of purposes and therefore may have evolved or could be learned independently of language.
Dahl Jørgensen, Simon Mark; Erikstrup, Christian; Dinh, Khoa Manh
As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we...... investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire...... to rule out predisposing risk factors. Second, eligible blood donors had blood and fecal samples examined. Of 155 blood donors asked to participate, 137 (88%) completed the electronic pre-screening questionnaire, 16 declined, and 2 were excluded. Of the 137 donors who completed the questionnaire, 79 (58...
Payne, Mark; Hatfield, E.M.C.; Dickey-Collas, M.
Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been an unpreced......Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been...... an unprecedented 6 sequential years of poor juvenile production (recruitment). Analysis suggests that the poor recruitment arises during the larval overwintering phase, with recent survival rates greatly reduced. Contemporary warming of the North Sea has caused significant changes in the plankton community...
Freed, Lindsey R.; Howell, Leanne L.
The following article describes the planning and implementation of a university student recruitment event that produced a high (new) student yield. Detailed descriptions of how staff and faculty worked together to plan and implement this event are described.
González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Fernández-Repollet, Emma
Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts.
Vander Hoek, N
There are three essential topics for radiology managers to consider in light of persistent staffing shortages: support of the profession and educational programs, perks as recruitment tools and incentives as retention tools. Some activities that can help support departments and educational programs for radiologic technologists are job shadowing, training for volunteer services, advanced placement for school applicants, sponsoring an educational program or clinical training site, creating a positive work environment and supporting outreach projects geared to local high schools. Traditional perks used in recruitment efforts have included relocation assistance, travel and lodging expenses during the interview process, loan repayment, scholarships and sign-on bonuses. Some common incentives for retaining employees are tuition reimbursement, cross training, availability of educational resources, continuing education opportunities, professional development and incremental increases in salary. There are many other tools that can be used, such as career ladders, creating an environment conducive to teamwork or a more personal atmosphere and showcasing talents of various staff members. There is much overlap among these suggestions in support of the profession and educational programs, recruitment and retention of qualified staff radiologic technologists. Radiology managers can and should be creative in developing different programs to build loyalty and commitment to a radiology department.
Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris
Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans.
Johnson, Kathy A; Peace, Jane
The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that the relationship with the source of the research and the purpose of the engaged social network should be a consideration in Internet or social network recruitment strategies.
denture 799 100.0 Partial denture 0.029 + 0.201 781 97.7 1 or more Other maxillofacial appliances 799 100.0 Oral Surgery Abscess , incision and drainage...0.089 + 0.740 782 97.9 1 or more Tooth removal 0.602 + 1.078 555 69.5 1 or more Tumors (all types) excision 0.003 + 0.050 797 99.7 1 Periodontics and oral...0.995 + 0.071 4 0.5 1 Scaling ( periodontal ) 0.811 + 0.468 177 22.2 1 or more Caries prevention treatment -------------- All recruits require 2
Full Text Available Twenty active e-recruitment platform users took part in this study for discovering the most asked for features in a web based hiring process. The respondents were chosen based on their history on such recruitment platforms. With the help of our Internet users we narrowed down the number of platforms, to research for outstanding features and tool efficiency, to five most impressive ones (e-jobs, hipo, bestjobs, LinkedIn, Freelancer. The results were as useful as we expected when we proposed an investigation related to the future of web recruiting platforms. They underlined in a specific manner that most of such web platform users need to have a professional and fully functional environment where they can list their accomplishments and experience and receive direct feedback from employers or employees. The study also shows in detail how much and why do users like to have certain functionalities when they are searching for a new job.
Roxana Cristina RADU
Full Text Available An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is recruitment and training. The originality of this article lies in the multidisciplinary character, combining elements of labor law, administrative law and human resources management, character reflected in the bibliography used. Another merit of this study is that the authors correlated the provisions of various laws: Constitution, Labor Code, Law no. 161/2003 on the transparency in exercising public dignities and public functions, Government Ordinance no. 137/2000 regarding the prevention and sanction of all discrimination forms, Government Ordinance no. 129/2000 concerning adults’ professional training.
Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954
Can understanding squid life-history strategies and recruitment improve management? ... range of potentially limiting conditions in different years, they store genetic diversity and stabilize recruitment in time. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Personnel Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Lagos State Civil Service of Nigeria. ... The results show that the strategy for personnel recruitment into the CS is based on mixtures of merit and political ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Academic staff recruitment and retention challenges at the University of Botswana medical school. ... To document the medical school's staff recruitment and retention trends and challenges, and to propose ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae) on two ... Keywords: condition index, Donax serra, histology, Namibia, recruitment, reproduction, sandy beach ecology ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in mozambique. ... This study characterizes the population structure and identifies nursery areas and recruitment seasons of penaeid shrimps in the ... AJOL African Journals Online.
South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals. ... The aim of this article is to provide insight into patterns of organised recruiting of skilled health personnel from South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...
Episodic recruitment of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778) on the Transkei coast. ... This single recruitment, which is 6 to 31 times the annual mean recorded over the last 6 to 7 years, represents 5 ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Multiple factors affecting South African anchovy recruitment in the spawning, transport and nursery. ... and are inversely linked to high rates of gonad atresia in anchovy and reduced subsequent recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Abundance, recruitment and residency of two sparids in an intermittently open estuary in South Africa. ... Abstract. The recruitment of distinct year-class cohorts in two sparid species, Rhabdosargus holubi and ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Perceived infrastructural factors afffecting adoption of e-recruitment among Human ... The emerging Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a vital tool in the conduct of staff recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Spatio-temporal patterns of coral recruitment at Vamizi Island, Quirimbas Archipelago, Mozambique. ... Spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment of reef corals were assessed for the first time in Mozambique ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Ostrich recruitment dynamics in relation to rainfall in the Mara–Serengeti ... To understand how rainfall influences ostriches, we related changes in ostrich recruitment in the Mara–Serengeti ecosystem to rainfall. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Forecasts of recruitment in South African anchovy from sarp field data using a simple deterministic expert system. ... A rule-based deterministic model is used to forecast recruitment of anchovy Engraulis ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in miombo woodlands of Tanzania. ... Individual tree diameter growth and mortality models, and area-based recruitment models were developed. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Modelling the effect of food availability on recruitment success of Cape anchovy ichthyoplankton in ... To characterise the recruitment dynamics of Cape anchovy ichthyoplankton, we used an individual-based ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Patterns and Processes of Recruitment and Trafficking into sex Work in Nigeria. ... The recruitment patterns and trafficking processes were characterized with incidences of deception, extortion, violence and ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Seedling recruitment of Colophospermum mopane on the Highveld of Zimbabwe: research note. ... Open areas with bare ground or sparse grass cover were favourable sites for seedling recruitment. Seedlings ... AJOL African Journals Online.
.... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...
.... An objective study of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of recruiting is necessary to meet the future needs of the Army, in light of strong possibilities of recruiting resource reduction...
... engaged in recruiting activity must recruit employees of both sexes for all jobs unless sex is a bona fide... advertisement in columns headed “Male” or “Female” will be considered an expression of a preference, limitation...
... Contractor Recruitment Standards AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Final notice... issuing this notice to announce recruitment standards that construction contractors are required to follow... B) by adding a new subsection (6). This provision prohibits contractors engaged in construction...
.... This paper reviews previous military manpower research and critically examines two recruit labor supply experiments the Multiple Option Recruiting Experiment of 1979, and the Educational Assistance Test Program of 1981...
.... Sixty recruiters and staff personnel at the brigade, battalion and company echelons were randomly selected and interviewed on how the various national and local incentives motivate recruiters to meet...
Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.
Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.
Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful
Ondina ROSOIU; Cristian POPESCU
Twenty active e-recruitment platform users took part in this study for discovering the most asked for features in a web based hiring process. The respondents were chosen based on their history on such recruitment platforms. With the help of our Internet users we narrowed down the number of platforms, to research for outstanding features and tool efficiency, to five most impressive ones (e-jobs, hipo, bestjobs, LinkedIn, Freelancer). The results were as useful as we expected when we proposed a...
Peckham, Emily; Arundel, Catherine; Bailey, Della; Callen, Tracy; Cusack, Christina; Crosland, Suzanne; Foster, Penny; Herlihy, Hannah; Hope, James; Ker, Suzy; McCloud, Tayla; Romain-Hooper, Crystal-Bella; Stribling, Alison; Phiri, Peter; Tait, Ellen; Gilbody, Simon
Randomised controlled trials (RCT) can struggle to recruit to target on time. This is especially the case with hard to reach populations such as those with severe mental ill health. The SCIMITAR+ trial, a trial of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention for people with severe mental ill health achieved their recruitment ahead of time and target. This article reports strategies that helped us to achieve this with the aim of aiding others recruiting from similar populations. SCIMITAR+ is a multi-centre pragmatic two-arm parallel-group RCT, which aimed to recruit 400 participants with severe mental ill health who smoke and would like to cut down or quit. The study recruited primarily in secondary care through community mental health teams and psychiatrists with a smaller number of participants recruited through primary care. Recruitment opened in October 2015 and closed in December 2016, by which point 526 participants had been recruited. We gathered information from recruiting sites on strategies which led to the successful recruitment in SCIMITAR+ and in this article present our approach to trial management along with the strategies employed by the recruiting sites. Alongside having a dedicated trial manager and trial management team, we identified three main themes that led to successful recruitment. These were: clinicians with a positive attitude to research; researchers and clinicians working together; and the use of NHS targets. The overriding theme was the importance of relationships between both the researchers and the recruiting clinicians and the recruiting clinicians and the participants. This study makes a significant contribution to the limited evidence base of real-world cases of successful recruitment to RCTs and offers practical guidance to those planning and conducting trials. Building positive relationships between clinicians, researchers and participants is crucial to successful recruitment.
Century, so everyone has a mobile device or tablet . They have access to all this information but sometimes you can’t specifically find the right...Integrated Reporting System MRI Mobile Recruiting Initiative; Laptop and IT solution for recruiters that uses wireless computing with 3G (third-generation...students are given a practice ASVAB (i.e., EST which is loaded on MRI recruiter laptops) and are blueprinted prior to recruiters meeting with parents
Galli, Leandro; Knight, Rosemary; Robertson, Steven; Hoile, Elizabeth; Oladapo, Olubukola; Francis, David; Free, Caroline
Recruitment is a major challenge for many trials; just over half reach their targets and almost a third resort to grant extensions. The economic and societal implications of this shortcoming are significant. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the processes that increase the probability that recruitment targets will be achieved. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to bring analytical rigour to the task of improving recruitment, thereby increasing the likelihood that trials reach their recruitment targets. This paper presents a conceptual framework that can be used to improve recruitment to clinical trials. Using a case-study approach, we reviewed the range of initiatives that had been undertaken to improve recruitment in the txt2stop trial using qualitative (semi-structured interviews with the principal investigator) and quantitative (recruitment) data analysis. Later, the txt2stop recruitment practices were compared to a previous model of marketing a trial and to key constructs in social marketing theory. Post hoc, we developed a recruitment optimisation model to serve as a conceptual framework to improve recruitment to clinical trials. A core premise of the model is that improving recruitment needs to be an iterative, learning process. The model describes three essential activities: i) recruitment phase monitoring, ii) marketing research, and iii) the evaluation of current performance. We describe the initiatives undertaken by the txt2stop trial and the results achieved, as an example of the use of the model. Further research should explore the impact of adopting the recruitment optimisation model when applied to other trials.
Planque, R.; van den Berg, G.J.B.; Franks, N.R.
Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method.
MacLean, Lisa; Pato, Michele T.
Objective: Residency programs compete for applicants and commit extensive resources to the recruitment process. After failing to fill in the match for 5 years (1999-2004), this program decided to make changes in its recruitment process. The authors describe one program's experience in improving recruitment outcomes. Methods: The new training…
Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.
Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required pre-filing recruitment. 655.15... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.15 Required pre-filing recruitment. (a) Time of filing of application. An... recruitment steps set forth in this section have been fully satisfied, except where specifically exempted from...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment costs. 31.205....205-34 Recruitment costs. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this subsection, the following costs are... positions; or (2) Includes material that is not relevant for recruitment purposes, such as extensive...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of positive recruitment. 655.158 Section 655.158 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... recruitment. Except as otherwise noted, the obligation to engage in positive recruitment described in §§ 655...
September 2008) 10Joint Advertising, Marketing Research Studies, 2008 Recruiter Quality of Life Survey: Preliminary Topline Findings, (Arlington, VA...Joint Advertising, Marketing Research Studies), http://www.dmren.org/jamrs/execute/mrs/studies/recruiter-study/2008, (accessed on 10 November 2008...October 2008, (Fort Knox, Kentucky, 17 October 2008), 19. 13 Ibid. 14 Joint Advertising, Marketing Research Studies, 2005 Recruiter Quality of Life
example of maximizing or minimizing decision variables within a model. Carol Stoker and Stephen Mehay present a comparative analysis of marketing and advertising strategies...strategy development process; documenting various recruiting, marketing , and advertising initiatives in each nation; and examining efforts to
Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.
Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829
It is no news that the labour market is still highly competitive, attracting and retaining talent has now become the number one challenge facing all companies. With Internet penetrating in our daily life, organizations are taking advantage of it by adopting online recruiting methods. Recruitment processes have changed a lot since we entered into information era, recruiting efforts have evolved from traditional newspaper ads to sophisticated web sites. The whole complexion of recruiting has ch...
One of the objectives of the IAEA is the provision of technical assistance to its Member States to carry out their peaceful nuclear activities more efficiently and safely. This involves looking for and supplying experts, equipment and fellowships. Since 1958 the Agency has provided the services of more than 1800 experts valued at $11.5 million, 4300 fellowships valued at $14.3 million, and equipment worth $10.8 million. The efficiency of the programme can only be increased by a more prompt consideration of proposals forwarded by the Agency, and the continuing co-operation from national Governments and private institutions. The IAEA recruits an average of 200 experts a year to implement its Regular Technical Assistance Programme. These projects are financed by voluntary contributions from Member States, and by the United Nations Development Programme for those projects for which the IAEA is the executing agency
Dixon, William Van Dyke
While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.
Brandt, A M
A range of social forces contributed to the effective recruitment of women to cigarette smoking in the crucial period between 1900 and 1940. Cigarette advertisers and public relations experts recognized the significance of women's changing roles and the rising culture of consumption, and worked to create specific meanings for the cigarette to make it appeal to women. The cigarette was a flexible symbol, with a remarkably elastic set of meanings; for women, it represented rebellious independence, glamour, seduction, and sexual allure, and served as a symbol for both feminists and flappers. The industry, with the help of advertisers and public relations experts, effectively engineered consent for women as smokers. The "engineering of consent" has a role to play in smoking cessation, since negative meanings for the cigarette can be engineered as well.
Wilson, Rhonda Lynne; Usher, Kim
the research project to potential participants requires a targeted approach, so that the participants will contribute to a data set that is sufficiently representative and analysis will elicit answers to the research questions. Societal changes in communication patterns and in media consumption have led......: Recruitment to a research study requires a strategy that matches the dynamics of the communication media used by potential participants. Nurse researchers need to be adept in the use of social media applied to health research contexts to ensure that data sets obtain representative samples and to reveal...... trustworthy, reliable, dependable and valid evidence to support clinical research and practice. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The general popularity of social media has led to the public expectation that health information, and in some cases treatment, will be available online. Such a change in communication...
Marian Pompiliu CRISTESCU
Full Text Available In any company, no matter the dimensions, a very important aspect is the selection of human resources and establishing a constant correspondence between the particularities of the job opened and candidate’s profile. Especially in big companies, engaged in big projects, and which must be performed in a fast rhythm, the recruitment process is in a continuum progress, due to the demand rhythm, the work force mobility and to assuring a diversify knowledge data base. Experience has shown that a selection made in advance in the candidates CV’s who apply for a scientific position, before programming the technical interview with them, is a real time saving for both the employers and the candidates.
Alcaraz Mateos, Eduardo; Guerra Pastrián, Laura; Pijuan Andújar, Lara; López Solache, Laura; Zucchiatti, Adriana; García Ángel, Rubén; Prieto Cuadra, Juan Daniel; Labiano Miravalles, Tania; Carvalho, Rita; Gardner, Jerad M; Terrádez, Cristina; de Álava, Enrique
Pathology is a speciality that is often poorly understood, not only by the general public, but also by clinicians. However, the recent widespread use of social media provides an opportunity to increase the visibility and comprehension of our profession. A working group was formed to carry out this task. The members of the Spanish Society of Pathology were contacted through its Communication and Social Projection Subcommittee to engage in the campaign #IWantYouForSEAP, to form a network on Twitter. The recruitment period was one month (August, 2016). The resulting project, developed during the XXVIII Congress of the SEAP-IAP, was registered using the analytical tools Symplur and Tweet Binder. 32 applications (29 pathologists, 2 histotechnicians, 1 administrative personnel) were received from all over Spain, including participants from 14 of the 17 Autonomous Regions, from 22 cities and 25 medical centres. The activity in relation to the hashtag #SEAP2017V used in the congress included 685 participants with 6704 tweets and 8,837,435 impressions. 28 of the 32 recruited by the #IWantYouForSEAP campaign participated, contributing with 2410 tweets, and generating 2,090,423 impressions (36% and 24% of the total, respectively). It is possible to promote and motivate teamwork within our discipline through social media networks. This preliminary experience of the use of social media networks in our scientific community has had encouraging results which have raised high expectations among participants. An appropriate use of social media networks could help to narrow the gap between pathologists and society. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Boehmer, Ulrike; Clark, Melissa A; Timm, Alison; Glickman, Mark; Sullivan, Mairead
Sexual minority women, defined as having a lesbian or bisexual identity or reporting a preference for a female partner, are not considered by cancer surveillance. This study assesses the representativeness of sexual minority breast cancer survivors, defined as having a lesbian or bisexual identity or reporting a preference for a female partner, who were recruited into a convenience sample compared with a population-based registry sample of sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Long-term survivors of non-metastatic breast cancer who self-reported as sexual minority were recruited from a cancer registry and subsequently from the community using convenience recruitment methods. Sexual minority breast cancer survivors who screened eligible participated in a telephone survey about their quality of life and factors associated therewith. Participants in the convenience sample were similar to the registry-based sample with respect to adjustment to cancer, physical health, trust in physician, coping, social support, and sexual minority experiences. Compared with the convenience sample, breast cancer survivors in the registry sample were more likely married, more educated, diagnosed more recently, at an earlier stage of cancer, and more likely treated with breast-conserving surgery; they differed on adjuvant therapies. Because sexual minority breast cancer survivors who volunteered for the community-based sample shared most characteristics of the sample recruited from the cancer registry, we concluded that the community sample had comparable representational quality. In the absence of cancer surveillance of sexual minorities, thoughtful convenience recruitment methods provide good representational quality convenience samples. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herbell, Kayla; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A
This brief details recent recruitment insights from a large all-online study of family caregivers that aimed to develop a measure to assess how family caregivers manage daily stresses. Online recruitment strategies included the use of Twitter and Facebook. Overall, 800 individuals responded to the recruitment strategy; 230 completed all study procedures. The most effective online recruitment strategy for targeting family caregivers was Facebook, yielding 86% of the sample. Future researchers may find the use of social media recruitment methods appealing because they are inexpensive, simple, and efficient methods for obtaining National samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dworkin, Jodi; Hessel, Heather; Gliske, Kate; Rudi, Jessie H
Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in-person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e-mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. In particular, MTurk resulted in the most demographically diverse sample, in a short period of time, with little cost. Listservs reached a large number of participants and resulted in a comparatively homogeneous sample. Facebook was not successful in recruiting a general sample of parents. Findings provide information that can help family researchers and practitioners be intentional about recruitment strategies and study design.
Llewellyn, Michael E; Thompson, Kimberly R; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L
A drawback of electrical stimulation for muscle control is that large, fatigable motor units are preferentially recruited before smaller motor units by the lowest-intensity electrical cuff stimulation. This phenomenon limits therapeutic applications because it is precisely the opposite of the normal physiological (orderly) recruitment pattern; therefore, a mechanism to achieve orderly recruitment has been a long-sought goal in physiology, medicine and engineering. Here we demonstrate a technology for reliable orderly recruitment in vivo. We find that under optical control with microbial opsins, recruitment of motor units proceeds in the physiological recruitment sequence, as indicated by multiple independent measures of motor unit recruitment including conduction latency, contraction and relaxation times, stimulation threshold and fatigue. As a result, we observed enhanced performance and reduced fatigue in vivo. These findings point to an unanticipated new modality of neural control with broad implications for nervous system and neuromuscular physiology, disease research and therapeutic innovation.
Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Banthia, Rajni; Gutierrez, Ivan; Varni, James W.
Multiple barriers contribute to the slow recruitment of participants to research studies, which in turn extends the time required to translate promising scientific discoveries into proven therapeutic interventions. A small but growing literature is developing on the extraordinary costs of recruiting participants to studies, and thereby demonstrating that underestimating the cost of participant recruitment can contribute to these recruitment problems. These recruitment challenges and costs are exacerbated when the participants’ study eligibility is determined by relatively narrowly defined illness parameters. Recruitment challenges are further compounded when dyads (two individuals engaged in a sociologically significant relationship, such as husbands and wives, siblings or extended families) must be recruited to an illness-focused study. For these latter groups, there are no data to guide researchers in how to anticipate those participant recruitment costs. This paper describes the staff costs for a variety of strategies used to recruit participants to a randomized supportive care study for couples who were within 18 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis. Pegged to the value of the U.S. dollar for the period, the average cost of staff time was $288 per recruited and enrolled dyad, plus a promised additional $100 incentive for study retention. Within the strategies used, the staff costs per recruited dyad ranged from $ 152 to $1,688. Accrual per strategy ranged from zero to 107 enrolled couples. When asked for secondary sources of information about the study, many participants reported more than one source of study referral, reflective of the multifaceted recruitment strategies deployed. In spite of innovative, culturally competent, and broad based recruitment methods, attainment of a diverse sample was difficult to accomplish in this study. Having estimates of the actual cost of recruiting dyads to research studies can help investigators prepare realistic study
Gautam, Kanak S
Worker shortage is among the foremost challenges facing US health care today. Health care organizations are also confronted with rising costs of recruiting and compensating scarce workers in times of declining reimbursement. Many health care organizations are adopting online recruitment as a nontraditional, low-cost method for hiring staff. Online recruitment is the fastest growing method of recruitment today, and has advantages over traditional recruiting in terms of cost, reach, and time-saving. Several health care organizations have achieved great success in recruiting online. Yet awareness of online recruiting remains lower among health care managers than managers in other industries. Many health care organizations still search for job candidates within a 30-mile radius using traditional methods. This article describes the various aspects of online recruitment for health care organizations. It is meant to help health care managers currently recruiting online by answering frequently asked questions (eg, Should I be advertising on national job sites? Why is my Web site not attracting job seekers? Is my online ad effective?). It is also meant to educate health care managers not doing online recruiting so that they try recruiting online. The article discusses the salient aspects of online recruiting: (a) using commercial job boards; (b) building one's own career center; (c) building one's own job board; (d) collecting and storing resumes; (e) attracting job seekers to one's Web site; (f) creating online job ads; (g) screening and evaluating candidates online; and (h) building long-term relationships with candidates. Job seekers in health care are adopting the Internet faster than health care employers. To recruit successfully during the current labor shortage, it is imperative that employers adopt and expand online recruiting.
Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T
The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A
Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.
UyBico, Stacy J.; Pavel, Shani
Background Members of vulnerable populations are underrepresented in research studies. Objective To evaluate and synthesize the evidence regarding interventions to enhance enrollment of vulnerable populations into health research studies. Data sources Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Web of Science database, personal sources, hand searching of related journals, and article references. Studies that contained data on recruitment interventions for vulnerable populations (minority, underserved, poor, rural, urban, or inner city) and for which the parent study (study for which recruitment was taking place) was an intervention study were included. A total of 2,648 study titles were screened and 48 articles met inclusion criteria, representing 56 parent studies. Two investigators extracted data from each study. Results African Americans were the most frequently targeted population (82% of the studies), while 46% targeted Hispanics/Latinos. Many studies assessed 2 or more interventions, including social marketing (82% of studies), community outreach (80%), health system recruitment (52%), and referrals (28%). The methodologic rigor varied substantially. Only 40 studies (71%) incorporated a control group and 21% used statistical analysis to compare interventions. Social marketing, health system, and referral recruitment were each found to be the most successful intervention about 35–45% of the studies in which they were attempted, while community outreach was the most successful intervention in only 2 of 16 studies (13%) in which it was employed. People contacted as a result of social marketing were no less likely to enroll than people contacted through other mechanisms. Conclusions Further work with greater methodologic rigor is needed to identify evidence-based strategies for increasing minority enrollment in research studies; community outreach, as an isolated strategy, may be less successful than other strategies. PMID:17375358
UyBico, Stacy J; Pavel, Shani; Gross, Cary P
Members of vulnerable populations are underrepresented in research studies. To evaluate and synthesize the evidence regarding interventions to enhance enrollment of vulnerable populations into health research studies. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Web of Science database, personal sources, hand searching of related journals, and article references. Studies that contained data on recruitment interventions for vulnerable populations (minority, underserved, poor, rural, urban, or inner city) and for which the parent study (study for which recruitment was taking place) was an intervention study were included. A total of 2,648 study titles were screened and 48 articles met inclusion criteria, representing 56 parent studies. Two investigators extracted data from each study. African Americans were the most frequently targeted population (82% of the studies), while 46% targeted Hispanics/Latinos. Many studies assessed 2 or more interventions, including social marketing (82% of studies), community outreach (80%), health system recruitment (52%), and referrals (28%). The methodologic rigor varied substantially. Only 40 studies (71%) incorporated a control group and 21% used statistical analysis to compare interventions. Social marketing, health system, and referral recruitment were each found to be the most successful intervention about 35-45% of the studies in which they were attempted, while community outreach was the most successful intervention in only 2 of 16 studies (13%) in which it was employed. People contacted as a result of social marketing were no less likely to enroll than people contacted through other mechanisms. Further work with greater methodologic rigor is needed to identify evidence-based strategies for increasing minority enrollment in research studies; community outreach, as an isolated strategy, may be less successful than other strategies.
Full Text Available Since 2001 and 7/7 the search to find out why and how Muslims born in Europe join political and violence orientated Islamist groups has occupied policy makers and social scientist. The search has produced explanations that suggest social grievance, Islam and physiological problems are the motivations for why some Muslims join and act on behalf of Islamist groups in the UK. However, the approaches tend not to focus the role emotions generated from events that involve Muslim suffering play in some individuals becoming interested in acquiring and acting upon them. These events are often experienced variously by Muslims living in Europe through the media and are used by Islamist groups as resources to recruit. Consequently, this paper is based on interviews carried out with Islamists in the UK and tentatively discusses two process that take into account the emotional effect of events that concern Muslims in order to make sense of how some Muslims become compelled to acquire extreme ideas, act upon extreme ideas (independently or behalf of a group or join Islamist groups.
Schmidt, C E; Möller, J; Schmidt, K; Gerbershagen, M U; Wappler, F; Limmroth, V; Padosch, S A; Bauer, M
There is a significant shortage of highly qualified personnel in medicine, especially skilled doctors and nurses. This shortage of qualified labor has led to competition between hospitals. Analyzing the circumstances of the competition, nurses and doctors of the so-called generation Y are of importance. Recruitment and retention of these staff members will become a critical success factor for hospitals in the future. An internet search was conducted using the key words "generation Y and medicine, demography, personnel and hospitals". A search in Medline/pubmed for scientific studies on the topics of labor shortage was performed using the key words "personnel, shortage doctors, generation X, baby boomer, personnel and demographic changes, staff". Finally, sources from public institutions and academic medical societies were analyzed. The data were sorted by main categories and relevance for hospitals. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive measures. The analysis confirmed the heterogeneous and complex flood of information on the topic demography and generation. A comparison of the generations showed that they can be separated into baby boomers (born 1946-1964 live to work), generation X (born 1965-1980 work to live) and generation Y (born 1981 and after, live while working). Members of generation Y "live while working" are oriented to competence and less with hierarchies. They exchange information using modern communication methods and within networks. Internet and computers are part of their daily routine. Employees of generation Y challenge leadership in hospitals by increasing the demands. However, generation Y can significantly increase professionalization and competitiveness for hospitals.
Chatters, Robin; Newbould, Louise; Sprange, Kirsty; Hind, Daniel; Mountain, Gail; Shortland, Katy; Powell, Lauren; Gossage-Worrall, Rebecca; Chater, Tim; Keetharuth, Anju; Lee, Ellen; Woods, Bob
Recruiting isolated older adults to clinical trials is complex, time-consuming and difficult. Previous studies have suggested querying existing databases to identify appropriate potential participants. We aim to compare recruitment techniques (general practitioner (GP) mail-outs, community engagement and clinician referrals) used in three randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies assessing the feasibility or effectiveness of two preventative interventions in isolated older adults (the Lifestyle Matters and Putting Life In Years interventions). During the three studies (the Lifestyle Matters feasibility study, the Lifestyle Matters RCT, the Putting Life In Years RCT) data were collected about how participants were recruited. The number of letters sent by GP surgeries for each study was recorded. In the Lifestyle Matters RCT, we qualitatively interviewed participants and intervention facilitators at 6 months post randomisation to seek their thoughts on the recruitment process. Referrals were planned to be the main source of recruitment in the Lifestyle Matters feasibility study, but due to a lack of engagement from district nurses, community engagement was the main source of recruitment. District nurse referrals and community engagement were also utilised in the Lifestyle Matters and Putting Life In Years RCTs; both mechanisms yielded few participants. GP mail-outs were the main source of recruitment in both the RCTs, but of those contacted, recruiting yield was low (recruited. Participants recommended that direct contact with health professionals would be the most beneficial way to recruit. Recruitment to the Lifestyle Matters RCT did not mirror recruitment to the feasibility study of the same intervention. Direct district nurse referrals were not effective at recruiting participants. The majority of participants were recruited via GP mail-outs, which may have led to isolated individuals not being recruited to the trials. Further research is required into
Although electronic recruitment is a widespread managerial practice of acquiring personnel, it still remains unclear exactly which organisational processes fall under its existing definitions. The research presented in this paper attempts to answer the fundamental question whether e-recruitment...... should be understood as means of automating the process of recruitment, or rather be treated as a more complex organisational concept. To clarify this issue the paper discusses the phenomenon from the open-system organisational perspective of virtual organising. The paper draws on the results...... of the qualitative exploratory study conducted in Denmark in 2008-2009. It concludes that as organisational concept e-recruitment is not only about application of technology to recruitment tasks. The process of e-recruiting spans organisational boundaries and directed to and affected by external environment...
Background Recruitment is a major challenge for many trials; just over half reach their targets and almost a third resort to grant extensions. The economic and societal implications of this shortcoming are significant. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the processes that increase the probability that recruitment targets will be achieved. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to bring analytical rigour to the task of improving recruitment, thereby increasing the likelihood that trials reach their recruitment targets. This paper presents a conceptual framework that can be used to improve recruitment to clinical trials. Methods Using a case-study approach, we reviewed the range of initiatives that had been undertaken to improve recruitment in the txt2stop trial using qualitative (semi-structured interviews with the principal investigator) and quantitative (recruitment) data analysis. Later, the txt2stop recruitment practices were compared to a previous model of marketing a trial and to key constructs in social marketing theory. Results Post hoc, we developed a recruitment optimisation model to serve as a conceptual framework to improve recruitment to clinical trials. A core premise of the model is that improving recruitment needs to be an iterative, learning process. The model describes three essential activities: i) recruitment phase monitoring, ii) marketing research, and iii) the evaluation of current performance. We describe the initiatives undertaken by the txt2stop trial and the results achieved, as an example of the use of the model. Conclusions Further research should explore the impact of adopting the recruitment optimisation model when applied to other trials. PMID:24886627
Gul, Raisa B; Ali, Parveen A
This article, based on the available literature, attempts to discuss the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. The inability to recruit and retain the required participants in a research project poses serious threats to both the internal and the external validity of a research study. Despite serious implications, the issues of recruitment and retention do not receive due attention in research and publications. Literature suggests a lack of coordinated efforts to collect information on the outcomes of recruitment experiences in clinical trials and population studies. Studies often mention the number of participants who refuse to participate; however, the majority of the studies often fail to mention the specific reasons insufficient recruitment or retention of the participants. A methodological paper. Various participant-, context-, environment- and research-related factors are examined that affect the phenomenon of recruitment and retention of the participants in a study. Delayed or inefficient recruitment also has financial and ethical implications. Although there are many pieces of information scattered throughout academic journals on recruitment and retention of participants in research, few authors have dealt with the issue holistically. It is imperative for researchers to understand the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. Appropriate recording and reporting of the problems faced while recruiting and retaining the participants in research studies can help not only in understating the challenge, but will also help in devising the strategies to overcome this problem. This article was an attempt to synthesise and review the available literature on recruitment and retention issues, which demand extensive theoretical and
Chang, Mark D.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent and subsequent growth of several new media technologies, violent extremist groups have incorporated social media into recruiting strategies. How are violent extremist groups using social media for recruiting? This thesis explores several new media technologies—websites, blogs, social media, mobile phones, and online gaming—to determine if violent extremist groups rely on social media for recruiting. By comparing the com...
Fisher, N B; Smith, H L; Pasternak, D P
What factors facilitate successful physician recruiting by health care organizations? Answers surfaced in a study of physician recruiting by a large HMO in the Southwest. Professional networking and word-of-mouth advertising appear to be the prominent means by which physicians learn of attractive staff positions. Successful recruiting also depends on a practice setting that fosters quality care, emphasis on patient care delivery, and collegial interaction.
Holm, Anna B.
Purpose - Up to now, there has been little research on the impact of the external environment on recruitment practices of organizations, and in part it lags behind practice. This paper attempts to rectify this by studying recent changes in recruitment practices of Danish organizations and the adoption of e-recruitment from a macro organisational perspective.Design/methodology/approach - The study employs new institutional theory as a theoretical lens in order to understand how external pressu...
Dr. B. L. Sairam Subramaniam; B. Naveen Kumar
Many organizations are carrying out recruitment process by using social media networking sites. Social networking sites are used to facilitate and improve process of recruitment method in HR management. Social networking sites address the needs of employers and job-seekers via internetworking on electronic platform likes face book, twitter, LinkedIn, naukri.com, and monster.com which increase the speed of employment, reducing the cost of recruitment, huge availability of jobseekers and improv...
Outsourcing has been around for over twenty years and is still growing, while outsourcing of recruitment is a relatively new phenomenon. Organisations outsource primarily because of the cost benefit and time saving, since there are also several reasons to outsource, there are also several types of outsourcing. Business process outsourcing is when an organisation outsources a whole business process such as Human Resources, which Recruitment Process Outsourcing is a part of. Recruitment Process...
Simić, Ivana; Marinović-Matović, Ivana
After a theoretical discussion about recruitment and selection, the key phases of the human resources management process, this paper analyzes the recruitment and selection practices in the Republic of Serbia. These practices, further, are compared with the recruitment and selection practices in certain European and non-European countries. The basis of the mentioned analyses is the data obtained from CRANET research, published in 2011.
Codruța OSOIAN; Monica ZAHARIE
The capacity to attract highly skilled human resources is dependent on the employee recruitment process implemented by organizations, which plays an important role for their competitiveness on the market. As the concern for the success of the recruitment process in public sectors is becoming more salient, the present study compares the use of recruitment practices in public and private sectors through a survey applied to 97 organizations. It also explores the outcomes in terms of quantity and...
Senter, Robert R.
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This study examines the goaling models used by the Navy Recruiting Command for the Nurse Corps and Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate (NUPOC) programs. These two programs serve as representative samples for the numerous officer recruitment programs administered by the Navy Recruiting Command. The intent of the study is to analyze and validate the accuracy of the current goaling models, to ascertain factors which could improve the accur...
The basis of this work is the recruitment and selection of employees, because if the company is able to attract and retain quality employees,it will gain a considerable advantage. All this depends on the quality of labor personnel department in the organization. The aim of my work is based on theoretical knowledge and scientific literature, evaluate and analyze the activities of recruitment and selection of employees in Accenture, evaluate procedures of recruitment and selection of employess ...
Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Wouters, Kristien; Bernheim, Jan
In science findings which cannot be extrapolated to other settings are of little value. Recruitment methods vary widely across chronic whiplash studies, but it remains unclear whether this generates recruitment bias. The present study aimed to examine whether the recruitment method accounts for differences in health status, social support, and personality traits in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Two different recruitment methods were compared: recruiting patients through a local whiplash patient support group (group 1) and local hospital emergency department (group 2). The participants (n=118) filled in a set of questionnaires: the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being, Symptom Checklist-90, Dutch Personality Questionnaire, and the Social Support List. The recruitment method (either through the local emergency department or patient support group) accounted for the differences in insufficiency, somatization, disability, quality of life, self-satisfaction, and dominance (all p values recruitment methods generated chronic WAD patients comparable for psychoneurotism, social support, self-sufficiency, (social) inadequacy, rigidity, and resentment (p>.01). The recruitment of chronic WAD patients solely through patient support groups generates bias with respect to the various aspects of health status and personality, but not social support. In order to enhance the external validity of study findings, chronic WAD studies should combine a variety of recruitment procedures.
Penney, Lisa M; Borman, Walter C; Bearden, Ronald M
.... the students were administered a trial predictor battery while at the school, and performance ratings and production data were collected after participants had been assigned to recruiting duty...
Luck, Lauretta; Chok, Harrison Ng; Wilkes, Lesley
Recruitment and retention of participants, as well as response rates, can be challenging in nursing research. This can be because of the questions asked; the choice of methodology; the methods used to collect data; the characteristics of potential participants; the sample size required; and the duration of the study. Additionally, conducting research with nurses as participants presents several issues for them, including the time needed to participate in the research, the competing commitments for clinical practice, the political and environmental climate, and recruitment itself. To report on research studies conducted by the authors at a tertiary teaching hospital, to show the lessons learned when recruiting nurses to participate in nursing research. The authors discuss factors that supported recruitment of nurses in these studies, including the use of the personal touch and multiple recruitment strategies in a single study. Videos and photography facilitate interdisciplinary research and can be a valuable means of non-verbal data collection, especially with participants affected by disabilities, and can support research methods, such as the use of questionnaires. Recruiting nurses for research can be challenging. We suggest that researchers consider using more than one recruitment strategy when recruiting nurse participants. Recruitment is more successful if researchers align the aim(s) of the research with nurse's concerns and contexts. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
RECRUITING COMPANY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the...including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and...Unit Recruiting Volume Production Within The Watertown Recruiting Company 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
Krestina L. Amon
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent recruitment into longitudinal health studies is challenging. The aim of this paper is to report the detailed process and costs of recruiting young adolescents and their families into an intensive longitudinal study of the effects of puberty hormones on health, behaviour and wellbeing in early adolescence, based in regional/rural Australia. Methods: Participants were recruited using a saturation strategy of targeted methods (including school visits and community events and non-targeted recruitment approaches (including print and electronic media advertising, and social media. Direct (face-to-face contact with the public and indirect (behind-the-scenes preparatory activities researcher hours were calculated for each of the recruitment strategies. Results: The study recruited 342 adolescent participants and a parent/guardian over two years. School and community-based recruitment required 6.2 and 6.0 researcher hours per activity, respectively. Direct researcher hours were primarily spent on delivering presentations and connecting with community members at community events. The majority of indirect hours were spent preparing and assembling information packs for distribution to students and parents during school visits. Non-targeted recruitment strategies using media advertising were the most frequently used methods. Researchers were estimated to have spent less than one hour for each media activity. In 27 months, an estimated $250,000 was spent on recruitment activities and resources. A combination of methods was used to recruit young adolescents and their families into a longitudinal health study. Conclusions: The financial costs and researcher time committed to this study highlight the labour-intensive nature of recruitment. The data presented are useful for researchers planning longitudinal studies in adolescents.
Doyle, Thomas W.
growth of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (fig. 1). Red mangrove propagules (recruits) of select sizes and genotypes (i.e., genetically similar groups) were planted both in greenhouses and in the field. Seedling growth was monitored in both studies on a quarterly basis for over a year; measurements included shoot growth, seedling height, and a final harvest of plant biomass.
Recruitment of early life stages into estuaries is an integral part of the life cycle of many marine fish species. Although estuaries are naturally environmentally dynamic, they also are subject to anthropogenic disturbances, including land use and climate change, which may affect recruitment. Rhabdosargus holubi is an ...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 19, 2012 through April 27...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 14, 2011 through April 29...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 15, 2010 through April 30...
Calsina, Àngel; Diekmann, Odo; Farkas, József Z.
In this work, first, we consider a physiologically structured population model with a distributed recruitment process. That is, our model allows newly recruited individuals to enter the population at all possible individual states, in principle. The model can be naturally formulated as a first-order
Wakeling, James M
Previous studies have reported how different populations of motor units (MUs) can be recruited during dynamic and locomotor tasks. It was hypothesised that the higher-threshold units would contribute higher-frequency components to the sEMG spectra due to their faster conduction velocities, and thus recruitment patterns that increase the proportion of high-threshold units active would lead to higher-frequency elements in the sEMG spectra. This idea was tested by using a model of varying recruitment coupled to a three-layer volume conductor model to generate a series of sEMG signals. The recruitment varied from (A) orderly recruitment where the lowest-threshold MUs were initially activated and higher-threshold MUs were sequentially recruited as the contraction progressed, (B) a recurrent inhibition model that started with orderly recruitment, but as the higher-threshold units were activated they inhibited the lower-threshold MUs (C) nine models with intermediate properties that were graded between these two extremes. The sEMG was processed using wavelet analysis and the spectral properties quantified by their mean frequency, and an angle theta that was determined from the principal components of the spectra. Recruitment strategies that resulted in a greater proportion of faster MUs being active had a significantly lower theta and higher mean frequency.
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the policies and processes of selection and recruitment from the perspective of equality. Focusing on tacit ideas of the ‘ideal worker,’ ideal recruitment, and selection that direct the recruitment process, we examine the ways in which implicit ideas and recruitmentrelated settings of daily interaction become informal practices of inequality. In this analysis, we rely on the conceptual framework of inequality regimes. The qualitative analysis of the semi-structured interviews focuses on the categories of gender, ethnicity, and age. We identified three categories of informal practices of inequality, which we have named as recruitment by the book, relocation of responsibility, and recruiting by addressing the difference. The findings suggest that although recruiters follow the legislation concerning equal treatment in recruitment, they do so because they want to avoid problems and possible litigation rather than because they are committed to promoting equality as an end in itself. However, equality promotion requires that gender, ethnicity, and age equality is itself the goal. If equality serves other goals, such as avoiding litigation or boosting business, the everyday practices of recruitment may turn into informal practices of inequality.
Managing Agent: The Trial Managing Agent has been implemented in Java , with support from a MySQL back-end database. This is used to conveniently exchange...these principles via simulation. • Recruitment Agent: The Recruitment Agent has been imple- mented in Java and has been used by 124 GPs so far
Intensity of intertidal mussel recruitment was compared across a range of different spatial and temporal scales around the coast of southern Africa between June 1995 and October 1996. Comparison of the east and west coasts revealed significantly higher recruit densities on the west coast, corresponding to larger adult ...
Set in a private parochial high school, this case invites consideration of the costs and benefits in a range of tactics that schools use for teacher recruitment. The case calls attention to the technical solutions that make one particular school an adept recruiter of teachers and to the extensive human and social capital at its disposal. At the…
are overweight , because overweight recruits are more likely to hurt themselves, or for some other reason, overweight recruits have not been as...born in other countries included Vietnam (193), Philippines (1,073), Columbia (203), Dominican Republic (301), Ghana (127), Peru (186), and South
Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S
Tissue engineering uses cells, signaling molecules, and/or biomaterials to regenerate injured or diseased tissues. Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have long been a cornerstone of regeneration therapies; however, drawbacks that include altered signaling responses and reduced homing capacity have prompted investigation of regeneration based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Recent successful proof-of-concept studies have further motivated endogenous MSC recruitment-based approaches. Stem cell migration is required for morphogenesis and organogenesis during development and for tissue maintenance and injury repair in adults. A biomimetic approach to in situ tissue regeneration by endogenous MSC requires the orchestration of three main stages: MSC recruitment, MSC differentiation, and neotissue maturation. The first stage must result in recruitment of a sufficient number of MSC, capable of effecting regeneration, to the injured or diseased tissue. One of the challenges for engineering endogenous MSC recruitment is the selection of effective chemoattractant(s). The objective of this review is to synthesize and evaluate evidence of recruitment efficacy by reported chemoattractants, including growth factors, chemokines, and other more recently appreciated MSC chemoattractants. The influence of MSC tissue sources, cell culture methods, and the in vitro and in vivo environments is discussed. This growing body of knowledge will serve as a basis for the rational design of regenerative therapies based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Successful endogenous MSC recruitment is the first step of successful tissue regeneration.
youth market through advertising and training. Even though recruiting numbers may wane from time to time, the overall messages are parallel to perceived...or nonmilitary service. This thesis demonstrates that USAREC is leveraging its knowledge of the youth market through advertising and training...current advertising and recruiter training strategies . Background Shortly before and during each major conflict the Army increases its wartime
Hoover, Eric; Supiano, Beckie
Admissions deans everywhere shared concerns about recruiting students during a recession as they tried to discern how, or if, the economy would affect demand for their institutions. Amid this uncertainty, colleges used many different strategies. Some recruited more here and less there. Some offered more merit aid, while others scaled back. Some…
Each Screening Center was responsible for establishing its own procedures for identifying and recruiting participants into the trial based on guidelines disseminated by the Coordinating Center and developed by NCI. Each Screening Center was also encouraged to develop and use other materials, such as introductory letters and answers to FAQs, to assist with recruitments. Once
Diehl Kevin A.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the 2017 Big Ten West Division football cycle models recruiting. The top ten recruit scores [(Rivals.com * 100 + [100 (outside surrounding; 75 (surrounding] + extra credit walk-ons (100; 75] allow proper ranking: Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Northwestern, Illinois, Minnesota, and Purdue.
Winter, Paul A.
A model was developed for recruiting experienced educators, extending the recruitment-as-marketing theory. To assess the model's utility, 168 experienced female teachers posed as job applicants responding to position advertisements. Participant reactions were more favorable when advertisements contained intrinsic job attributes, a personal tone,…
Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Salvermoser, Melanie; Rossaint, Jan; Pick, Robert; Brauner, Janine; Lemnitzer, Patricia; Tilgner, Jessica; de Jong, Renske J.; Megens, Remco T. A.; Jamasbi, Janina; Döring, Yvonne; Pham, Christine T.; Scheiermann, Christoph; Siess, Wolfgang; Drechsler, Maik; Weber, Christian; Grommes, Jochen; Zarbock, Alexander; Walzog, Barbara; Soehnlein, Oliver
Therapeutic targeting of arterial leukocyte recruitment in the context of atherosclerosis has been disappointing in clinical studies. Reasons for such failures include the lack of knowledge of arterial-specific recruitment patterns. Here we establish the importance of the cathepsin G (CatG) in the
The majority of universities and four-year colleges in the USA currently offer first-year seminars in at least one format. These programs often pride themselves in recruiting from among their institutions' best teachers to lead the seminars. In reality, this process of recruitment to teach in the program, as well as retention of faculty members…
Grønbech, Bettina Ellen; Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Svend Eggert
People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....
Harrington, Lauriane; Van Damme, Pierre; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Mali, Stéphanie
Recruitment of volunteers is one of the main challenges in clinical trial management, and there is little information about recruitment barriers for preventative vaccine trials. We investigated both the recruitment barriers and recruitment strategies for preventive vaccine trials in Belgium. A 10 min survey was used as well as interviews of staff at all clinical trial sites in Belgium that regularly perform vaccine trials. We observed that there are successful recruitment strategies and few recruitment issues for trials involving healthy adults and those over 65 years old. However, challenges face the recruitment of paediatric populations, pregnant women, patients and the very elderly (over 85 years old). From these results, we identified three priority areas to increase recruitment for prophylactic vaccine trials in Belgium. These are: the lack of public knowledge about infectious diseases; the lack of resources of healthcare professionals to take part in clinical trials; and the burden to potential volunteers to take part in a trial. These were discussed with stakeholders and solutions were proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demerouti, E.; Rispens, S.
This commentary argues that the quality and usefulness of student-recruited data can be evaluated by examining the external validity and generalization issues related to this sampling method. Therefore, we discuss how the sampling methods of student- and non-student-recruited samples can enhance or
... Contractor Recruitment Standards AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice... issuing this notice to announce the recruitment standards that construction contractors are required to... contractors engaged in construction projects related to the realignment of U.S. military forces from Okinawa...
Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.
The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…
... Organizations 731.205-70 Overseas recruitment incentive. Note: the term employee as used in this section means... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overseas recruitment... of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 911), such employee is eligible to receive an overseas...
Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn
Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…
Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a
Holm, Anna B.
and the adoption of e-recruitment from a macro organisational perspective. Design/methodology/approach - The study employs new institutional theory as a theoretical lens in order to understand how external pressures impact upon recruitment professionals and their practices. The empirical part is based...
Frolich, Nicoline; Brandt, Synnove; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Aamodt, Per Olaf
Growing national and international competition for students puts pressure on higher education institutions (HEIs) to develop marketing and student recruitment strategies; these are also driven by financial stress caused by performance-based funding mechanisms. In this paper we explore Norwegian HEIs' student recruitment strategies. What type of…
The sources from which organizations decide to select personnel from are central to its ability to survive, adapt, and grow (Noe et al, 2004:171). The paper examines a case study of recruitment and selection of quality academic staff into Covenant University. The paper addresses the factors that could affect recruitment ...
Ryde, Gemma C; Gilson, Nicholas D; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J
To conduct a systematic review to assess recruitment rates in workplace physical activity (PA) intervention studies and describe characteristics of studies with high recruitment rates. Data Source. Electronic and manual searches were conducted. Workplace PA intervention studies that reported the number of employees invited to participate and the number who responded were included. Studies with recruitment rates of ≥70% were categorized as high with the remaining studies (recruitment rate. Seventy-six percent of studies failed to report recruitment rates (n = 30 included for review). Studies with high recruitment rates (n = 8) tended to have longer study duration (mean 1.6 years) and target smaller cohorts of employees (mean n = 199) than comparison studies (3.9 months; n = 1241). For recruitment strategies and intervention components of high studies, involvement of employees was driven by the organization, with PA interventions provided as part of the working day in paid time. These findings suggest a potential to improve recruitment through targeting small cohorts of employees, incorporating PA as a long-term strategy, facilitating organizationally driven employee involvement, and providing PA interventions during paid time.
American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2009
This report contains case studies of international recruiters who help school districts in the United States acquire work visas and hire noncitizens. Recruiters sometimes use fees charged to workers to pay for U.S. school officials' overseas trips, where they stay in luxury hotels and handpick teachers at job fairs. Not surprisingly, some school…
The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…
Ritchie, Georgina; Ashworth, Lisa; Bades, Annette
The qualified district nurse (DN) role demands high levels of leadership. Attracting the right candidates to apply for the Specialist Practice Qualification District Nursing (SPQDN) education programme is essential to ensure fitness to practice on qualification. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the traditional panel interview discouraged candidates from applying and a need to improve the quality of the overall interview process was identified by the authors. The University of Central Lancashire in partnership with Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust adopted the National Values Based Recruitment (VBR) Framework to select candidates to gain entry onto the SPQDN course. This involved using 'selection centres' of varying activities including a multiple mini interview, written exercise, group discussion, and portfolio review with scores attached to each centre. The ultimate aim of utilising VBR was to align personal and profession values to both the nursing profession and the Trust whilst allowing a fairer assessment process. An evaluation of the VBR recruitment process demonstrated 100% pass rate for the course and 100% satisfaction with the interview process reported by all 16 candidates over three academic years. Interviewer feedback showed deeper insight into the candidates' skills and values aligned with the core values and skills required by future District Nurse leaders within the Trust.
Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew
This study characterizes hybrid control approaches for the variable recruitment of fluidic artificial muscles with double acting (antagonistic) actuation. Fluidic artificial muscle actuators have been explored by researchers due to their natural compliance, high force-to-weight ratio, and low cost of fabrication. Previous studies have attempted to improve system efficiency of the actuators through variable recruitment, i.e. using discrete changes in the number of active actuators. While current variable recruitment research utilizes manual valve switching, this paper details the current development of an online variable recruitment control scheme. By continuously controlling applied pressure and discretely controlling the number of active actuators, operation in the lowest possible recruitment state is ensured and working fluid consumption is minimized. Results provide insight into switching control scheme effects on working fluids, fabrication material choices, actuator modeling, and controller development decisions.
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Smith Jervelund, Signe; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted
Aims: This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational...... study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. Conclusions:The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite...... settings as sites for recruitment. Methods: Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion...
Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, José M. Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J. Egea; Vidal, José L. Martinez; Dornhaus, Anna; Ghani, Junaid; Serrano, Ana Roldán; Chittka, Lars
When the frenzied and irregular food-recruitment dances of bumblebees were first discovered, it was thought that they might represent an evolutionary prototype to the honeybee waggle dance. It later emerged that the primary function of the bumblebee dance was the distribution of an alerting pheromone. Here, we identify the chemical compounds of the bumblebee recruitment pheromone and their behaviour effects. The presence of two monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (eucalyptol, ocimene and farnesol) in the nest airspace and in the tergal glands increases strongly during foraging. Of these, eucalyptol has the strongest recruitment effect when a bee nest is experimentally exposed to it. Since honeybees use terpenes for marking food sources rather than recruiting foragers inside the nest, this suggests independent evolutionary roots of food recruitment in these two groups of bees.
Graae, Bente J; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Lang, Simone I
The inclusion of environmental variation in studies of recruitment is a prerequisite for realistic predictions of the responses of vegetation to a changing environment. We investigated how seedling recruitment is affected by seed availability and microsite quality along a steep environmental......, the experimental seed addition showed that the microsite environment was even more important. For all species, seedling emergence peaked at the productive end of the gradient, irrespective of the adult niches realized. Disturbance promoted recruitment at all positions along the environmental gradient, not just...... at high productivity. Early seedling emergence constituted the main temporal bottleneck in recruitment for all species. Surprisingly, winter mortality was highest at what appeared to be the most benign end of the gradient. The results highlight that seedling recruitment patterns are largely determined...
Nielsen, Mathias Wullum
According to the literature, women researchers are sometimes at a disadvantage in academic recruitment due to insufficient network ties and subtle gender biases among evaluators. But how exactly do highly formal recruitment procedures allow space for mobilizing informal, potentially gendered......, network ties? Focusing on the preliminary stages of recruitment, this study covers an underexposed aspect of women’s underrepresentation in academia. By combining recruitment statistics and interviews with department heads at a Danish university, it identifies a discrepancy between the institutionalized...... beliefs among managers in the meritocracy and the de facto functioning of the recruitment procedures. Of the vacancies for associate- and full professorships, 40% have one applicant, and 19% are announced under closed procedures with clear implications for gender stratification. The interviews reveal...
Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.
Horowitz, Carol R; Brenner, Barbara L; Lachapelle, Susanne; Amara, Duna A; Arniella, Guedy
Traditional research approaches frequently fail to yield representative numbers of people of color in research. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be an important strategy for partnering with and reaching populations that bear a greater burden of illness but have been historically difficult to engage. The Community Action Board, consisting of 20 East Harlem residents, leaders, and advocates, used CBPR to compare the effectiveness of various strategies in recruiting and enrolling adults with prediabetes into a peer-led, diabetes prevention intervention. The board created five recruitment strategies: recruiting through clinicians; recruiting at large public events such as farmers markets; organizing special local recruitment events; recruiting at local organizations; and recruiting through a partner-led approach, in which community partners developed and managed the recruitment efforts at their sites. In 3 months, 555 local adults were approached; 249 were appropriate candidates for further evaluation (overweight, nonpregnant, East Harlem residents without known diabetes); 179 consented and returned in a fasting state for 1/2 day of prediabetes testing; 99 had prediabetes and enrolled in a pilot randomized trial. The partner-led approach was highly successful, recruiting 68% of those enrolled. This strategy was also the most efficient; 34% of those approached through partners were ultimately enrolled, versus 0%-17% enrolled through the other four strategies. Participants were predominantly low-income, uninsured, undereducated, Spanish-speaking women. This CBPR approach highlights the value of partner-led recruitment to identify, reach out to, and motivate a vulnerable population into participation in research, using techniques that may be unfamiliar to researchers but are nevertheless rigorous and effective.
Oruche, Ukamaka M; Gerkensmeyer, Janis E; Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M; Scott, Eric; Lindsey, Laura M; Mullins, Kristen
The aim of this study was to describe strategies for recruiting participants into an intervention study that focused on improving problem-solving skills in caregivers of children with mental health problems. Caregivers of children with mental health problems report feeling physically and psychologically overwhelmed and have high rates of depression because of the demands of caregiving. Research on the needs of these caregivers and interventions to ameliorate their stress is needed. However, recruiting this population can be particularly difficult because of the stigma of mental illness. Available literature on recruitment of caregivers of persons with physical illness cannot be transferred to caregivers of children with mental health problems because of the different caregiving situations. There is a need to identify effective recruitment strategies to reduce cost and answer research questions. Clinical nurse specialists have the skills to facilitate the recruitment of research participants. We revised and expanded health system referrals, community outreach, and recruiting advertisement (ads). When these strategies did not increase recruitment, radio ads were used. The Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was selected as a guiding framework. Radio ads were the most effective strategy for recruiting caregivers of children with mental health problems for this study. Recruitment was ultimately successful because we were flexible and made decisions consistent with the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization. Clinical nurse specialists who study this population of caregivers should really consider the use of radio ads and systematically track which recruitment strategies lead to the greatest number of participants screened, eligible, and enrolled into studies.
Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa
Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the
Meller, Michael; Chipka, Jordan; Volkov, Alexander; Bryant, Matthew; Garcia, Ephrahim
Hydraulic control systems have become increasingly popular as the means of actuation for human-scale legged robots and assistive devices. One of the biggest limitations to these systems is their run time untethered from a power source. One way to increase endurance is by improving actuation efficiency. We investigate reducing servovalve throttling losses by using a selective recruitment artificial muscle bundle comprised of three motor units. Each motor unit is made up of a pair of hydraulic McKibben muscles connected to one servovalve. The pressure and recruitment state of the artificial muscle bundle can be adjusted to match the load in an efficient manner, much like the firing rate and total number of recruited motor units is adjusted in skeletal muscle. A volume-based effective initial braid angle is used in the model of each recruitment level. This semi-empirical model is utilized to predict the efficiency gains of the proposed variable recruitment actuation scheme versus a throttling-only approach. A real-time orderly recruitment controller with pressure-based thresholds is developed. This controller is used to experimentally validate the model-predicted efficiency gains of recruitment on a robot arm. The results show that utilizing variable recruitment allows for much higher efficiencies over a broader operating envelope.
Ryan, Courtney; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Baranowski, Tom
The most productive methods of recruitment for a videogame for health (G4H) trial are not known. Success or failure of recruitment methods has been reported for a variety of clinical trials, but few specifically for G4H trials. This study's goal was to recruit 444 overweight or obese (body mass index percentile between the 84.5th-99.4th percentiles) children between the ages of 10-12 years. The article reports the results of different methods of participant recruitment. Participants had to agree to three fasting blood samples (baseline, immediately after, and 2 months later); be willing to wear an accelerometer for 7 days at each assessment; read and speak English fluently (because the games were in English); have no history of any condition that would affect what he/she could eat or how much physical activity he/she could get; and have an eligible home computer purchased in the last 5 years with high-speed internet. Hardware criteria reflected the types of computers upon which Diab-Nano could be effectively played. Recruitment was conducted over a 35-month period and included electronic media, print advertising, community recruitment, and an internal volunteer list. Respondents were guided to a web-based screening questionnaire that asked for source of hearing about the study. Although diverse recruitment methods were used, slow recruitment resulted in obtaining only 45% of the recruitment goal (n = 199). Electronic media (e.g., radio, television, and internet), which reached millions of targeted parents, resulted in only 76 respondents, of whom 13 became participants; print media (e.g., magazine, newsletter/newspaper, and mail), which also reached large numbers of parents, resulted in 192 respondents, of whom 19 became participants; community recruitment (e.g., school, friend or family, doctors office, flyer, work, community program) resulted in 162 respondents, of whom 38 became participants; and the internal volunteer list resulted in 413 respondents, of
de Wit, N J; Quartero, A O; Zuithoff, A P; Numans, M E
The demand for family physicians (FPs) to participate in research is growing. The delicate balance between research participation and the daily practice routine might explain the often-disappointing number of patients recruited. We analyzed practice and physician characteristics associated with successful patient recruitment. We used a survey to conduct this study. There was a total of 165 FPs who participated in a combined randomized clinical trial/cohort study on drug treatment of dyspepsia in the Netherlands. We surveyed FPs about personal and practice characteristics and their motivation for participation in the project. These data were then related to the number of patients recruited. Univariate associations were calculated; relevant factors were entered into a logistic model that predicted patient recruitment. Data on 128 FPs could be analyzed (80% response rate); these FPs recruited 793 patients in the cohort study (mean = 6.3 per FP) and 527 in the clinical trial (mean = 4.2 per FP). The main reasons for participation were the research topic (59%) and the participation of an academic research group in the study (63%). Many FPs felt that participation was a professional obligation (39%); the financial incentive played a minor role (15%). The number of recruited patients was only independently associated with the participation of an academic research group. Successful patient recruitment in primary care research is determined more by motivation driven by the research group than by financial incentives, the research topic, or research experience.
Putensen, Christian; Muders, Thomas; Kreyer, Stefan; Wrigge, Hermann
Goal of mechanical ventilation is to improve gas exchange and reduce work of breathing without contributing to further lung injury. Besides providing adequate EELV and thereby arterial oxygenation PEEP in addition to a reduction in tidal volume is required to prevent cyclic alveolar collapse and tidal recruitment and hence protective mechanical ventilation. Currently, there is no consensus if and if yes at which price alveolar recruitment with high airway pressures should be intended ("open up the lung"), or if it is more important to reduce the mechanical stress and strain to the lungs as much as possible ("keep the lung closed"). Potential of alveolar recruitment differs from patient to patient but also between lung regions. Potential for recruitment depends probably more on regional lung mechanics - especially on lung elastance - than on the underlying disease. Based on available data neither high PEEP nor other methods used for alveolar recruitment could demonstrate a survival benefit in patients with ARDS. These results may support an individualized titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres used for recruitment taking into consideration the regional effects. Bedside imaging techniques allowing titration of PEEP or other manoeuvres to prevent end-expiratory alveolar collapse (tidal recruitment) and inspiratory overinflation may be a promising development.
Tusman, Gerardo; Acosta, Cecilia M; Nicola, Marco; Esperatti, Mariano; Bohm, Stephan H; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando
Ventilator-induced lung injury is a form of mechanical damage leading to a pulmonary inflammatory response related to the use of mechanical ventilation enhanced by the presence of atelectasis. One proposed mechanism of this injury is the repetitive opening and closing of collapsed alveoli and small airways within these atelectatic areas-a phenomenon called tidal recruitment. The presence of tidal recruitment is difficult to detect, even with high-resolution images of the lungs like CT scan. The purpose of this article is to give evidence of tidal recruitment by lung ultrasound. A standard lung ultrasound inspection detected lung zones of atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients. With a linear probe placed in the intercostal oblique position. We observed tidal recruitment within atelectasis as an improvement in aeration at the end of inspiration followed by the re-collapse at the end of expiration. This mechanism disappeared after the performance of a lung recruitment maneuver. Lung ultrasound was helpful in detecting the presence of atelectasis and tidal recruitment and in confirming their resolution after a lung recruitment maneuver.
Yi, Ping; Wang, Zhao; Feng, Qin; Chou, Chao-Kai; Pintilie, Grigore D; Shen, Hong; Foulds, Charles E; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chiu, Wah; O'Malley, Bert W
Nuclear receptors recruit multiple coactivators sequentially to activate transcription. This "ordered" recruitment allows different coactivator activities to engage the nuclear receptor complex at different steps of transcription. Estrogen receptor (ER) recruits steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) primary coactivator and secondary coactivators, p300/CBP and CARM1. CARM1 recruitment lags behind the binding of SRC-3 and p300 to ER. Combining cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure analysis and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that there is a close crosstalk between early- and late-recruited coactivators. The sequential recruitment of CARM1 not only adds a protein arginine methyltransferase activity to the ER-coactivator complex, it also alters the structural organization of the pre-existing ERE/ERα/SRC-3/p300 complex. It induces a p300 conformational change and significantly increases p300 HAT activity on histone H3K18 residues, which, in turn, promotes CARM1 methylation activity on H3R17 residues to enhance transcriptional activity. This study reveals a structural role for a coactivator sequential recruitment and biochemical process in ER-mediated transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The objectives of this article were to provide a comprehensive overview of the recruitment experience and participant characteristics in an antihypertensive dietary educational intervention pilot trial among Chinese Canadians. The recruitment was conducted in a community centre. Two recruitment approaches, self-referral and proactive recruitment, were used. Among 618 Chinese Canadians in the blood pressure screening, 105 (17.0%) individuals were eligible to participate in this trial. Of the 105 eligible individuals, 45 (42.9%) declined enrollment and 60 (57.1%) consented to participate in the trial and were recruited. The most common reason for refusal was being unable to access to the education location (n=19, 42.2%) followed by being too busy to participate (n=18, 40.0%). All participants were Chinese immigrants and the mean number of years living in Canada was 9.2. Most participants had low English proficiency, accepted Chinese culture more than Western culture, and had strong traditional health beliefs. It is concluded that both self-referral and proactive recruitment approaches were effective. Home-based interventions using Internet and telephone should be used as alternative delivery approaches to improve recruitment rate and facilitate participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The capacity to attract highly skilled human resources is dependent on the employee recruitment process implemented by organizations, which plays an important role for their competitiveness on the market. As the concern for the success of the recruitment process in public sectors is becoming more salient, the present study compares the use of recruitment practices in public and private sectors through a survey applied to 97 organizations. It also explores the outcomes in terms of quantity and quality of applications received when using various recruitment methods. Common points and differences were identified. Internal recruitment methods and e-recruitment based on job posting on the website of the organization are favored regardless of the type of organization (private or public. The differences weight mostly against public sector as public institutions use less often the recommendations received from acquaintances and networks, post fewer job adds on specialized online job boards, get fewer direct applications from candidates, and participate less often in job fairs. The largest number of applications is received through the use of online job boards, job posting on the website of the hiring organization and job advertising in written press. On the other hand, internal recruitment is perceived to result in attracting the highest quality applications.
Willis, William K; Muslin, Ivan; Timko, Karlyn N
To propose a theoretical based model approach to address the nursing shortage problem of recruiting qualified applicants. Vital industries such as nursing and trucking face a large labour shortage. A literature review focusing on recruitment and realistic job previews examines relevant theories and an indication of the focus of similar research. Game theory illustrates cooperative and competitive recruitment strategies in vital industries. Proposition and model development where cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can either increase or decrease the employee applicant pool. Institutional theory states that firms within a population become isomorphic in nature. Firms employing cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can change organisational practices through isomorphic processes. Industries facing a labour market shortage using cooperative strategy will use realistic job previews accurately to disseminate information about industry jobs. Realistic job previews will increase the applicant pool through individuals self-selecting into, rather than out of, the applicant pool. Recruitment in the nursing industry has been examined at the individual applicant and organisational level, yet the overall industry has been ignored. As nursing shortages continue, viewing recruitment at the macro level (the overall industry) is appropriate. Game theory as proposed provides opportunities for current research at the industry level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Parikh, Yasha; Mason, Maryann; Williams, Karen
Childhood obesity prevalence has tripled over the last three decades. Pediatric obesity has important implications for both adult health as well as the United States economy. In order to combat pediatric obesity, exploratory studies are necessary to create effective interventions. Recruitment is an essential part of any study, and it has been challenging for all studies, especially pediatric obesity studies. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to pediatric obesity study recruitment and review facilitators to overcome recruitment difficulties. Twenty four childhood obesity researchers were contacted. Complete data for 11 researchers were obtained. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Grounded Theory methodological approach was used, as this was an exploratory study. Investigators YP and MM coded the interviews using 28 codes. Barriers to recruitment included: family and study logistics, family economics, lack of provider interest, invasive protocols, stigma, time restraints of clinicians, lack of patient motivation/interest, groupthink of students in a classroom, and participants who do not accept his or her own weight status. Facilitators to enhance recruitment practices included accommodating participants outside of regular clinic hours, incentivizing participants, cultivating relationships with communities, schools and clinics prior to study recruitment, emphasizing benefits of a study for the patient, and shifting language to focus on health rather than obesity. Pediatric obesity researchers face many standard and some unique challenges to recruitment, reflecting challenges common to clinical research as well as some specific to pediatrics and some specific to obesity research. Both pediatric studies as well as obesity studies are an added challenge to the already-difficult task of general study recruitment. Our findings can be used to make researchers more aware of potential difficulties, approaches and on
King, Kelvin; Camfield, Peter; Breau, Lynn
The objective of the study was to survey recently hired physicians to Canadian Academic Departments of Pediatric and Internal Medicine to understand the factors that underlay successful recruitment. Recruits and Chairs agreed on the 10 most important values. Chairs overvalued the 10 least important Recruit values. Statistical analysis revealed five core themes - in order of importance they are: family lifestyle and opportunities, compensation methodology, children/community (housing, schools, recreational), professional working conditions (technology, staffing, facilities), and academic opportunities. Core themes varied by demographics and academic profile.
Gunby, Norris White
When recruiting nurses, long-term care facilities require an ability to identify salient organizational characteristics that are attractive to potential nursing services candidates vis-à-vis their competitors. The findings of this study suggest that information on administrative tenure can be utilized to attract applicants by appealing to criteria within their high-involvement job search activities. High-involvement applicants proactively seek recruitment content that provides essential job attributes that match their needs and skills and are more apt to be a higher quality candidate. Based upon the study's findings, managers are offered marketing strategy recommendations for tailoring recruiting messages that appeal to high-involvement job seekers.
Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jingwen; Kim, Sangmi; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Nishigaki, Masakazu; Yeo, Seon Ae; Shapira, Marilyn M; Mao, Jun James
The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in Internet recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities by analyzing an Internet intervention study conducted with Asian American breast cancer survivors, and to propose directions for recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for future Internet research. Six practical issues were identified: (a) a relatively fewer number of Internet communities/groups; (b) hindrances in establishing authenticity; (c) difficulties in gaining entrée from the webmasters or Web site owners of Internet communities/groups; (d) the necessity of racially/ethnically matched research team members; (e) flexibility required in recruitment strategies; and (f) strategies to overcome the low response rate.
Kristensen, Helene Bjørg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels
It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling...... is lacking. We addressed this question by quantifying cell densities, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation markers, and capillaries in human iliac crest biopsy specimens. We found that recruitment occurs on both reversal and bone-forming surfaces, as shown by the cell density and osterix levels...
Not unlike the recent report Filling the ranks on the recruitment problems of the British Army shows for the UK, the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) struggle badly to meet their recruitment goals and to fulfill the “Trendwende Personal” (the turnaround in the personnel strength) as proclaimed by the German Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen. Last year the recruitment department of the Bundeswehr tried a new way of targeting especially young people on YouTube. With a series of 59 episodes ...
This qualitative study examined recruitment and retention of home support workers (HSWs) providing home support in rural communities. Thirty-two participants were recruited across four island-based communities located in British Columbia, Canada. Thematic analysis of interview data revealed several key themes: (a) how the rural context shapes HSWs' employment decisions and opportunities; (b) why people become (and stay) HSWs in rural communities; and (c) how rurality influences the nature and scope of HSWs' work. These findings suggest that health human resource policies and programs aimed at HSW recruitment and retention should be tailored to characteristics, strengths, and challenges of rural communities.
Griffith, G M
On March 15, 1995, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) announced a proposed revenue ruling stating how certain physician recruitment practices could be implemented without threatening hospitals' tax-exemption. As proposed, the IRS ruling would provide flexibility for recruitment incentives rather than a list of strict physician recruitment guidelines. The proposed ruling is not legally binding until issued in final form, and there is no deadline for finalizing it. In the meantime, however, the standards outlined in the proposed ruling reflect arrangements the IRS likely would approve, which should be an incentive for tax-exempt hospitals to follow reasonable physician recruitment practices. Assuming a hospital complies with other legal requirements such as fraud and abuse laws, it must answer two key tax-exempt status questions for its recruitment or retention package: Will the incentives result in a disguised distribution of profits from the operation of the organization? Is the total incentive package reasonable under all the facts and circumstances, both in absolute total value for physician(s) recruited and in relation to services required by the hospital and the community? The proposed ruling also provides guidance on basic documentation requirements and a process for approving recruitment arrangements.
Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Thompson, Morgan J; Reilly, Jeremiah D; Menefee, Hannah K; Bennici, Maria S; Williams, Ishan C; Rexrode, Deborah L
Obtaining access to a demographically and geographically diverse sample for health-related research can be costly and time consuming. Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the potential of using social media-based advertisements to overcome these challenges. Our aim was to develop and assess the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of recruiting for research studies related to consumer health information technology (IT) by leveraging the social structures embedded in the social networking platform, Facebook. Two recruitment strategies that involved direct communication with existing Facebook groups and pages were developed and implemented in two distinct populations. The first recruitment strategy involved posting a survey link directly to consenting groups and pages and was used to recruit Filipino-Americans to a study assessing the perceptions, use of, and preferences for consumer health IT. This study took place between August and December 2013. The second recruitment strategy targeted individuals with type 2 diabetes and involved creating a study-related Facebook group and asking administrators of other groups and pages to publicize our group to their members. Group members were then directly invited to participate in an online pre-study survey. This portion of a larger study to understand existing health management practices as a foundation for consumer health IT design took place between May and June 2014. In executing both recruitment strategies, efforts were made to establish trust and transparency. Recruitment rate, cost, content of interaction, and characteristics of the sample obtained were used to assess the recruitment methods. The two recruitment methods yielded 87 and 79 complete responses, respectively. The first recruitment method yielded a rate of study completion proportionate to that of the rate of posts made, whereas recruitment successes of the second recruitment method seemed to follow directly from the actions of a subset
Hansen, Dana; Sheehan, Denice K; Stephenson, Pam
Illness blogs are a way seriously ill people communicate publicly about their illness journey. As communication about serious illness increases on social media, it is important to evaluate how this affects the family caregiver. However, identifying and accessing family caregivers remains challenging, especially via social media. The aim of this article is to report the opportunities, challenges and lessons learned from using social media to recruit family caregivers. Recruitment methods included posting study invitations on illness blogs, advertising through Facebook and placing study fliers in the community. Using social media to recruit was inexpensive and provided a wide geographical reach. One important finding was discovering the importance of using language in the recruitment materials that family caregivers could identify with to help deem themselves as eligible to participate in the study.
.... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.
Tatiana P Flanagan
Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.
This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections
Moss, Erin L; von Ranson, Kristin M
Previous, uncontrolled research has suggested a bias may exist in recruiting participants for eating disorder research. Recruitment biases may affect sample representativeness and generalizability of findings. This experiment investigated whether revealing that a study's topic was related to eating disorders created a self-selection bias. Young women at a university responded to advertisements containing contrasting information about the nature of a single study. We recruited one group by advertising the study under the title "Disordered Eating in Young Women" (n = 251) and another group using the title "Consumer Preferences" (n = 259). Results indicated similar levels of eating pathology in both groups, so the different recruitment techniques did not engender self-selection. However, the consumer preferences group scored higher in self-reported social desirability. The level of information conveyed in study advertising does not impact reporting of eating disturbances among nonclinical samples, although there is evidence social desirability might. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The system also allows a periodic recruitment and retrenchment for a finite time interval. In addition to the ... manpower planning models which are based on Markov chain models. .... Moreover fractional values are approximated to be integers ...
A program to recruit and retain minority group optometry students is described, including the program's design, student financial aid, a preenrollment enrichment program to ease the adjustment to professional school, and the personal and academic program outcomes. (MSE)
... (b) of this section; (2) Approve a recruitment incentive for an employee under § 575.105; (3... outside the Federal Government for similar positions; (3) Recent turnover in similar positions; (4...
Cadigan, N G; Wang, S
We study the sensitivity of fishery management per-recruit harvest rates which may be part of a quantitative harvest strategy designed to achieve some objective for catch or population size. We use a local influence sensitivity analysis to derive equations that describe how these reference harvest rates are affected by perturbations to productivity processes. These equations give a basic theoretical understanding of sensitivity that can be used to predict what the likely impacts of future changes in productivity will be. Our results indicate that per-recruit reference harvest rates are more sensitive to perturbations when the equilibrium catch or population size per recruit, as functions of the harvest rate, have less curvature near the reference point. Overall our results suggest that per recruit reference points will, with some exceptions, usually increase if (1) growth rates increase, (2) natural mortality rates increase, or (3) fishery selectivity increases to an older age.