Sample records for riron ni yoru

  1. Hydrogenation of heteroaromatics by high pressure DTA techniques. 3; Koatsu DTA ho ni yoru hokozoku kagobutsu no suisoka (rutenium tanji shokubai ni yoru kakusuisoka datsu hetero hanno)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    Ring-opening of heteroaromatics and heteroatom-removal reaction were studied experimentally using the acidic catalyst containing phosphoric acid for improvement of an upgrading method of coal derived oils. In experiment, some Ru-carrying metal oxide catalysts such as RMZ, RML and RMN catalyst, and MNP catalyst containing phosphoric acid were used as specimens. Nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of dibenzothiophene and carbazole were compared with each other. The experimental results are as follows. Both RMN and RMNP catalysts offer a superior selectivity in nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of carbazole. Although both catalysts offer an extremely high nuclear hydrogenation activity at 360{degree}C, these offer the high selectivity of denitrogenation products at 430{degree}C. In comparison of the activities of MN and MNP catalysts with the same Mn2O3:NiO ratio, MNP catalyst offers the higher denitrogenation activity than MN catalyst at 430{degree}C. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  2. Formation of NiCrAlY laser cladding with preplaced method; Funtai tofu reza kuraddingu ho ni yoru NiCrAlY himaku no keisei

    Iwamoto, H. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Sumikawa, T. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Nishida, K. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Graduate School; Nishida, M.; Araki, T. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Cladding technique on the surface of structure materials using high corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials has been used in many fields as compared to conventional one. The heat source for cladding was mainly arc welding, however, these recent years, laser cladding where laser having special characteristics like high control, high output density and so forth is used as a heat source, has been studied. In this report, in order to cope with the change in composition of base material, coating layer formation with preplaced method was studied systematically using NiCrAlY powder formed by mixing mechanically commercial metal powder with raw material powder and low power (1200W) CO2 laser. As a result, good NiCrAlY cladded layer with good composition and with no defect was achieved using basic powder formed by mixing mechanically the metallic powder and commercial organic binder. Cladding of broad area was possible by weaving method even at low power (1200W) CO2 laser. Cladded layer with lower dilution ratio and higher cross sectional area was achieved with smaller powder particle diameter. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Assessment of fatigue life for a crack emanated from a notch. ; Algorithm of fatigue life assessment by [delta]K[sub RP] approach without distinguishing between the crack Initiaion and the propagation. Kirikakitei kara hasseisuru bishi bisho kiretsu no hiro kiretsu jumyo hyokaho ni tsuite. ; Hassei to denpa no toitsu riron ni yoru jumyo yosoku no algorithm (RPG kijun ni yoru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo no kenkyu)

    Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Fatigue life has been estimated as a sum of crack initiation life and crack propagation life, by using a fracture dynamical method. In order to make the method more reliable, a method is being discussed to estimate a growth curve for fatigue cracks from notch bottom under a unified theoretical system without a need of introducing the presence of initial cracks. Subsequently to the previous report, this paper describes a fatigue test that uses CT test pieces with the notch bottom finished in arc, an investigation on initiation and propagation behaviors of micro cracks, and discussions on their possibilities. From a large number of findings obtained, an algorithm was proposed to estimate the crack growth curve in approximation. The proposal was made by introducing a hypothesis that the growth of compressed plastic region is restricted by such a barrier as crystal particle boundaries until a developed crack can reach the first crystal particle boundary when the effective loading is maintained constant. The estimated curves and the experimental results have agreed well with each other. Stagnating crack phenomenon at a notch bottom and coaxing effect were explained qualitatively. 30 refs., 24 figs.

  4. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Ishida, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Evaluation of hot corrosion resistance of Ni-base alloys using immersion test, coating test and embedding test; Shinseki shiken , tofu shiken , maibotsu shiken ni yoru Ni ki gokin no koon taishoku sei hyoka

    Zang, G.; Nishikata, A.; Tsuru, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    Coating test, immersion test and embedding test are usually employed as the methods for testing high temperature corrosion caused by molten salts. In this study, corrosion-resistant properties of twelve kinds of Ni-based alloys are evaluated systematically by immersion, coating and embedding tests using a sulfate, a chloride and a mixture thereof as the molten salts, and the differences of the results obtained by each testing method are examined. The main results of this study are described herein. The reproducibility of said tests is getting higher in an order of embedding test, coating test and immersion test. Especially an extremely high reproducibility is shown by the immersion test. In all corrosive ashes of sulfate, chloride and the mixture thereof, a good correlation is shown between the results of the immersion test and those of the coating test. The results of embedding test are correlated well with those of other tests in sulfate and sulfate/chloride mixture circumstance, while no such a correlation is indicated in chloride. In chloride corrosive ash and sulfate/chloride mixture corrosive ash, the corrosion amounts in coating and embedding tests are rather bigger than that in immersion test. In particular, a large amount of corrosion more than one digital is shown in the alloys with excellent corrosion-resistance. 33 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Development of generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system using hydrogen absorbing alloy; Suiso kyuzo gokin ni yoru hatsudenkinai suiso jundo kojo system no kaihatsu

    Nishimura, Y.; Sato, J.; Haruki, N.; Kogi, T.; Okuno, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Takeda, H.; Wakisaka, Y. [The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system was developed by utilizing hydrogen absorbing and discharging functions of hydrogen storage alloy. For demonstration test with an actual machine, four elements, Ca, Ni, Mm and Al, were used as hydrogen storage alloys. To treat hydrogen gas with a wide range of purity and reduce hydrogen gas feed, flow operation for hydrogen purity improvement, batch operation, and recycle operation for maintaining the hydrogen purity were performed. As a result of the generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement demonstration test, it was found that the hydrogen purity can be enhanced from 97.69% before operation to 99.9% after operation for 104 hours and to 99.95% after operation for 140 hours. The hydrogen recovery rates during flow test and batch test were between 92 and 95%. For the hydrogen purity maintaining test, it was confirmed that the high hydrogen purity of 99.9% has been continuously maintained for 140 days, and that the hydrogen recovery rate was over 99%. 2 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Part 2. ; Effect of alloying elements and transformation temperature on stress releasement. Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa. 2. ; Oryoku kanwa ni oyobosu gokin genso oyobi hentai ondo no eikyo

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan))


    Steel test pieces having various transformation temperatures (M {sub S}) were fabricated varying Ni and Cr contents, and tests were done on their torsional transformation resistance in cooling process, and stress relaxing characteristics due to transformation superplasticity, using a forced twisting equipment. The test pieces, while being twisted, were heated by high frequency induction from an external source to 1000 {degree} C in 50 seconds, retained for 50 seconds, and then their transformation resistance was detected during cooling. The motor was so controlled in five steps that the added shear distortion speed is constant per unit temperature reduction. The Ni and Cr contents and M {sub S} are in linear relation, and its experimental formula was sought. Even if Ni and Cr contents differ, similar stress relaxing characteristics were presented as long as the M {sub S} points are identical. Therefore, hardness and corrosion resistance can be controlled in welding metals by means of so varying Ni and Cr contents that the M {sub S} point is maintained in a certain range. The transformation resistance showed the minimum value lower by 70 to 80 {degree} C than the M {sub S} point. To apply the phenomena of transformation superplasticity, the temperature difference between preheating paths is important in addition to chemical constituents. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effect of transformation on stress releasement of stress concentration area in welding. Part 6. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga oryoku shuchubu no oryoku kanwa tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo. 6. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N.; Iiyama, T. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    As the various contrivances are being done for raising the strength and reliability of the joints in the usual welding execution, the welding defects out of them are thought that they impair the reliability of the joints, and therefore the efforts not so as to let them occur, and in addition, to secure the safety by screening them through the nondestructive inspection, are being performed. In this report, through the double end constraint thermal cycle tests by using the smooth and notched round bar specimen prepared by the friction pressure welding of 9%Ni steel, which could transform at a low temperature, with SUS 304, and moreover through welding by using the welding rod prepared experimentally of the Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature, and furthermore through measuring the thermal contraction stress when the extreme strains have been concentrated in the weld metal parts on the way of cooling off, the fracture character of the weld metal has been investigated. In case of actual welding, even when the extreme stress concentration has been created so excessively as D4316 has started to be fractured on its way of cooling off, no crack has occurred in the welding rod of the low temperature transformation. This is thought because of that the superplasticity phenomena due to the martensite transfomation act effectively on the stress releasement. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Wrong Forms of some Yorùbá Personal Names: Some Phonological and Sociolinguistic Implications

    Reuben Olúwáfẹ́mi Ìkọ̀tún


    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentences that have become personal names through compounding. The data were extracted from the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB lists of candidates that were considered for admission into three Nigerian Universities between the 2005 and 2010 academic sessions. The names extracted from that source were compared with names written in the staff lists of the three Universities in Nigeria. The wrongly written names were recorded on tapes and some native speakers were asked to listen to them to determine their correctness. We argue that wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentential/personal names are common occurrences and establish that they are traceable to the freedom granted by Yorùbá orthography developers. We also argue that, the confusion that results from the different spelling forms of some Yorùbá personal names is seriously observable in social interactions, labour market, schools or Colleges of Education/Universities, Embassies and Nigerian civil service both Federal and State and that court affidavits become imperative to authenticate or reconcile both the wrong and the correct forms for the purposes of admissions, appointments and overseas travelling documents. Similarly, we show that the position of the Yorùbá orthography developers has resulted in a loss of the actual pronunciation of some Yorùbá personal names which has severe implications for the semantic contents of the names as well as implications for the rich religious, cultural and philosophical heritage of the Yorùbá people.

  10. Effect of transformation on residual stress in welding. Part 5. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga yosetsu zanryu oryoku ni oyobosu eikyo. 5. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    The residual stress and angular deformation occurred in welding are the important factors for the welding design. In the previous report, by measuring the welding angular deformation caused by the welding rod prepared experimentally with the various transformation temperatures, it was shown that the materials, which could transform at a low temperature, have been effective to restrain the welding deformation. In addition, also the elongation and stress variation in transformation after welding have been examined in detail, and consequently it has been shown quantitatively, that not only the transformation expansion, but also the transformation superplasticity have acted effectively for the stress relaxation during transformation depending on the condition. In this report, the same as in the previous report, the welding with the multilayers and multi-passes has been performed by using the welding rod prepared experimentally and of Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature and had a high stress releasement effect, and then the effect of phase transformation on the welding residual stress has been investigated. As a result, the phase transformation had a tight relation with the welding residual stress, and furthermore the compression stress has been observed on the welding metal depending on the transformation temperature. In addition, it was found that in the welding metal, the compression stress has occurred, the tensile stress has remained directly under it, and it has been connected with a peak part of the tension, and has been redistributed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. BTX production by in-situ contact reforming of low-temperature tar from coal with zeolite-derived catalysts; Zeolite kei shokubai wo mochiita sekitan teion tar no sesshoku kaishitsu ni yoru BTX no seisei

    Matsunaga, T.; Fuda, K.; Murakami, K.; Kyo, M.; Hosoya, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College


    On BTX production process from low-temperature tar obtained by pyrolysis of coal, the effect of exchanged metallic species and reaction temperature were studied using metallic ion-exchanged Y-zeolite as catalyst. In experiment, three kinds of coals with different produced tar structures such as Taiheiyo and PSOC-830 sub-bituminous coals and Loy Yang brown coal were used. Y-zeolite ion-exchanged with metal chloride aqueous solution was used as catalyst. Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and In{sup 3+} were used as metal ions to be exchanged. The experiment was conducted by heating a pyrolysis section up to 600{degree}C for one hour after preheating a contact reforming section up to a certain proper temperature. As a result, the Ni system catalyst was effective for BTX production from aromatic-abundant tar, while the Zn system one from lower aromatic tar. In general, relatively high yields of toluene and xylene were obtained at lower temperature, while those of benzene at higher temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Sputter deposition of pure titanium onto complete denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming. Chososei keiseishita Ti-6Al-4V gishi zenbusho eno sputter jochaku ni yoru jun Ti no hifuku

    Kato, M.; Sonoda, T. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))


    In order to improve the biocompatibility of TiNi shape memory alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy of functional Ti base alloys which are paid attention as the dental materials or implant materials, the sputter deposition coating using bio-inactive Ti metal was studied. DC source was superior to RF source in characteristics of sputtered film and the rate of deposition. The wiping with gauze impregnated by acetone followed by the ultrasonic cleaning was more effective for the precleaning of the substrate. The sputtered Ti film thickness was nearly proportional to electric power and showed the orientation which depended highly on the heating temperature of the substrate. The complete surface of denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming was well coated with pure Ti and the prospect of biocompatibility of this Ti alloy could be obtained. But the film deposited by the heating condition showed the different characteristics of film compared with that formed under the cooling condition, and it is necessary that the effect of this on the biocompatibility must be investigated. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Wakabayashi, K.; Morooka, S.; Arai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study


    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  14. FY 1998 annual report on the decomposition/removal of harmful compounds in the gaseous phase by porous membrane provided with a catalytic function; 1998 nendo shokubai kinotsuki fuyo takomaku ni yoru kisochu yugai busshitsu no bunkai jokyo chosa hokokusho



    Harmful compounds, e.g., dioxins and nitrogen oxides, released into the air are causing severer environmental problems on a global scale. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to efficiently remove the released compounds in the vicinity of the living environments, while preventing, as far as possible, their formation at the sources. An attempt has been made to develop porous membranes impregnated with composites of a variety of metallic oxides showing activities as photocatalysts and for dark reactions by the ion engineering method, in order to drastically solve the above problems. Described herein are the FY 1998 results. Thin films of various titanium oxide crystals (anatase, rutile, and their combinations) are formed on Si substrates by the ion engineering method, as the photocatalysts for decomposition of aldehyde and water (for hydrogen production), to validate the optimum crystalline structures for the photocatalysis. Porous bodies of Ni and carbon are also impregnated with anatase TiO{sub 2} for decomposition of harmful gaseous compounds and water, to validate the effects of the porous membranes provided with catalytic functions. (NEDO)

  15. Studies on water treatment by adsorption. Kyuchaku ni yoru mizushori

    Suzuki, M. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)


    This paper summarizes studies on the water treatment by adsorption, as for the adsorption during water treatment, reactivation of activated charcoal, and clarification of heating process. Reactivation of activated charcoal for the water treatment is carried out through drying in the heating furnace. Basic problems are the recovery degree of adsorption performance of reactivated activated charcoal and the recovery yield. Behavior of the activated charcoal in the heating reactivation furnace is divided into three stages including drying process, heating process, and gasification process. Among these processes, behaviors of organic matters during heating process are described. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted for activated charcoals adsorbing various organic matters in aqueous solutions. Three types of organic matters were classified from the TGA pattern, i.e., organic matters with relatively low boiling point (type-I), organic matters with higher boiling point (type-II), and phenol and lignin (type-III). Organic matters belonging to type-I and type-II are desorbed or decomposed, to be disappeared. Effectiveness of alkali cleaning is suggested for the type-III organic matters. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Study on practical application of a longitudinal hull strength theory considering camber in cross section; Yokodanmen no sori wo koryoshita sentai tate kyodo riron no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Nose, M.; Suzuki, K.; Furuno, H. [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan); Suzuki, K.


    Discussions were given on practical application of a stress analyzing method for thin-wall deformed cross-sectional beam considering cross section camber in longitudinal bending. The non-static calculation method described in the previous report can be applied to a box-type cross section having multi-connected cells, bulk cargo transport vessels and container ships with dual hull structure, and oil tankers with dual hull structure of medium size. The calculation method was capable of achieving remarkable enhancement in efficiency over that of conventional calculation methods. The present study is intended to make the method applicable also to multi-connected cross section shapes having more than one longitudinal partitions as used in dual hull VLCC and ULCC. As a result, an expanded non-static calculation system was developed, which has introduced into the conception described in the previous report a new conception of triple point and independent start point members. As a result of applying the method to dual hull bulk cargo transport vessels, container ships, dual hull oil tankers of medium size, VLCC and ULCC, it was verified that the system operated properly. Remarkable efficiency improvement has been made possible as compared with conventional analysis methods applied to individual ships. The system is capable of automatic calculation, and makes possible the practical application of the hull strength theory considering cross section camber. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Propagation of shock waves in dilute bubbly liquids. 4th Report. Comparison between theory and experiment for a uniform bubbly mixture; Kihoryuchu ni okeru shogekiha no denpa. 4. Kin`itsu kiho bunpuji no jikken to riron tono hikaku

    Kameda, M.; Shimaura, N.; Higashino, F. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Matsumoto, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Transient shock wave phenomena in a liquid containing non-condensable gas bubbles are studied experimentally and numerically. In order to obtain a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles experimentally, an upwardly directed bubbly flow, whose initial gas volume fraction is 0.2%, is generated in a shock tube. The liquid used is silicone oil. Nitrogen, argon, and SF6 gas bubbles are tested to show the thermal effects of the bubble interior. The transient pressure profiles determined in the experiments for the upwardly bubbly flow agree well quantitatively with those obtained by numerical calculation using a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles. Since the thermal diffusivity of SF6 is much lower than that of nitrogen and argon, the damping on the radial oscillation of the SF6 bubble is mainly due to the compressibility of the liquid. Thus, the radial motion of the bubble should be estimated by solving an equation in which the liquid compressibility is taken into account. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Application of the system free energy theory to the ferrite/pearlite transformation in hypo-eutectoid steel; Akyosekiko no ferrite pearlite hentai ni taisuru soshiki jiyu energy riron no oyo

    Toda, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    The kinetics of pearlite transformation in Fe-0.5mass%C steel has theoretically been investigated based on the system free energy theory proposed by us, by which the kinetics of phase transformation for each phase can be estimated according to its energy priority. The inter-lamellar spacing of pearlite is precisely predicted by the energy analysis, and the calculated time-temperature-transformation diagrams consist with the experimental ones. It is obvious that the system free energy theory is also effective for analyzing the lamellar structure produced by, e.g., the pearlite transformation in steel. (author)

  19. Adsorption of rare earth metal ion by algae. Sorui ni yoru kidorui ion no kyuchaku

    Kuwabara, T.; Yazawa, A. (Miyagi National College of Technology, Miyagi (Japan))


    This paper reports the result of investigations on adsorption of rare earth metal ion by using algae, and adsorption of different metal ions by using egg white and soy bean protein. Rare earth metal ion is adsorbed at a considerably high rate with alga powder of different kinds. The adsorption has been judged to be cation exchange reactive adsorption, while with use of spirulina and chlorella a maximum value of adsorption rate has been observed at pH from 3 to 4.5. Therefore, selective adsorption and separation of metal ions other than rare earth metal ion has become possible. When the blue pigment extracted from spirulina, the spirulina blue, is used, the rare earth metal ion had its selective adsorption and separation performance improved higher than using spirulina itself at pH from 3 to 4.5. As a result of adsorption experiment using egg white and soy bean protein, it has been found that the metal ion adsorption behavior of the spirulina blue depends on coagulative action of protein structure to some extent. However, the sharp selective adsorption performance on rare earth metal ion due to particular pH strength has been found because of actions unique to the pigment structure of phycocyanin, a major component in the spirulina blue. 7 refs., 19 figs.

  20. Indoor air pollution by particulate matter; Ryushijo busshitsu ni yoru osen

    Irie, T. [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education


    This paper explains the standards and the purport of the law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings, the outbreak of sickness relating to the sick-building syndrome and its countermeasures, etc., in connection with particulate matters in the indoor environment. The law of 1970 specified 0.15mg/m{sup 3} as the standard of indoor maintenance control for suspended particulate matters. As a number of data were subsequently accumulated, however, it was revealed that tobacco smoke particles were the very cause of the indoor particulate pollution though it was unpredicted at the beginning. As a result, it led to the development of high level filters, improvement of air conditioning operation, measures for smoking, and so on, for which the regulation of 0.15mg/m{sup 3} has been believed to be correct after all. The most frequently disqualified item was particulate matters at the initial enforcement of the law, but the moisture standard has been ranked first in recent years. The problems of tobacco smoke, asbestos and allergens are particularly to be watched among many problems involved. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science


    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Laser material purification of neodymium. Hikari reiki seiseiho ni yoru neodymium no kojundoka

    Ogawa, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Yoshimatsu, S. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)); Chiba, K.; Umeda, H.; Saeki, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Selective photoexcitation and photoionization of neodymium atoms were studied basically by using laser. Also, using their properties, feasibility of laser material purification (LPM) technology in gaseous phase was presented. In the selective 3-step ionization, laser beam with two kinds of proper wave length causes resonance exitation of the target element, which goes up to the excitation level of the first step, and the element is ionized by the second laser beam and the third laser beam. The 3-step ionization scheme by a single wave length laser beam of 577.612nm was used for the ionization of Nd. Nd ionized selectively by laser beam was recovered as thin layer at the negative potential side of plane electrodes placed at both sides of the laser irradiation area. In the layer formed by the TPD technology with this scheme, it is possible to decrease impuritis such as Pr by 1/16 and to form highly purified thin layer. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Continuous gravity monitoring of geothermal activity; Renzoku juryoku sokutei ni yoru chinetsu katsudo no monitoring

    Sugihara, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    To clarify the geothermal activity in the geothermal fields in New Zealand, gravity monitoring was conducted using SCINTREX automatic gravimeter. The measurements were conducted between the end of January and the beginning of March, 1996. Firstly, continuous monitoring was conducted at the standard point for about ten days, and the tidal components were estimated from the records. After that, continuous monitoring was conducted at Waimangu area for several days. Continuous monitoring was repeated at the standard point, again. At the Waimangu area, three times of changes in the pulse-shape amplitude of 0.01 mgal having a width of several hours were observed. For the SCINTREX gravimeter, the inclination of gravimeter is also recorded in addition to the change of gravity. During the monitoring, the gravimeter was also inclined with the changes of gravity. This inclination was useful not only for the correction of gravity measured, but also for evaluating the ground fluctuation due to the underground pressure source. It is likely that the continuous gravity monitoring is the relatively conventional technique which is effective for prospecting the change of geothermal reservoir. 2 figs.

  4. Groundwater exploration by self-potential method; Shizen den`iho ni yoru chikasui tansa

    Onaru, I.; Irie, S.; Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes results measured from the field experiments and data analysis of the groundwater exploration by self-potential method. The field survey was conducted in the vicinity of spring water source in the suburbs of Fukuoka City. For the field experiments, potential differences from the standard potential electrode set at the distance about 200 m were measured at multi-points, simultaneously. For the laboratory experiments, assuming that the groundwater flows in a permeable layer, streaming potential change was observed against the changes of flow rate and electrical conductivity. Thus, the generation of streaming potential was investigated. For the experiment using specimens obtained at the spring water source, the potential changed to negative and was stabilized in around -80 mV after 15 minutes. Numerical simulation was conducted by means of the three-dimensional finite difference method using parameters obtained from the laboratory experiments. From these results, the groundwater flow image could be obtained. It was also confirmed that the self-potential observed in the spring water source area was caused by the streaming potential. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  5. 3D pre-stack time migration; Kiruhihoffuho ni yoru sanjigen jugo mae jikan migration shori

    Nakajima, Y.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports pre-stack migration in elastic wave exploration as to its algorithm and examples of processed data. The time migration processing hypothesizes that seismic waves propagate linearly. It calculates travel time by dividing the sum of the straight distance from a vibration transmitting point to an image point and the straight distance from the image point to a vibration receiving point with RMS velocity given as a parameter. To maintain the relative relation of amplitude sizes, the signal on an elliptic body is made smaller in inverse proportion to the size of that elliptic body. With regard to apparent interval of input trace as seen from the reflection surface, or with regard to density, the signal is made smaller by cos{theta} times. While this program deals with three-dimensional migration, its output turns out as an arbitrary two-dimensional plane. The program requires a huge amount of data processing, whereas a method is used, that the input trace is divided, each group is processed by using separate computers, and the results are summed up. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Depolymerization of coal by oxidation and alkylation; Sanka bunkai to alkyl ka ni yoru sekitan kaijugo

    Tomita, H.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    Change in depolymerization degree and coal structure was studied for depolymerization treatment of coal in various alcohol containing aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In experiment, the mixture of Yallourn coal, alcohol and aqueous hydrogen peroxide was agitated in nitrogen atmosphere of normal pressure at 70{degree}C for 12 hours. As the experimental result, the methanol solubility of only 5% of raw coal increased up to 35.2% by hydrogen peroxide treatment, while the yield of insoluble matters also decreased from 94% to 62%. Most of the gas produced during treatment was composed of inorganic gases such as CO and CO2, and its carbon loss was extremely decreased by adding alcohol. From the analytical result of carbon loss in hydrogen peroxide treatment, it was clarified that alkylation advances with introduction of alkyl group derived from alcohol into coal by hydrogen peroxide treatment under a coexistence of alcohol, and depolymerization reaction of coal itself is thus promoted by alcohol. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Surface improvement of asbestos by wet process. Shisshiki shori ni yoru asbesto no hyomen kaishitsu

    Yasue, T.; Kojima, Y.; Obata, H.; Ogura, T.; Arai, Y. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering)


    The eluting process of each ion in asbestos was pursued up to the decomposition by processing with hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid to verify the acid processing condition making asbestos harmless and holding the fibrous structure. The decomposition of asbestos is significantly affected by the eluting condition. When treated by 3N hydrochloric acid, Mg{sup 2+} in asbestos elutes perfectly after 7days at 20 centigrade and after 30 minutes at 100 centigrade, remaining amorphous silica of comparatively high purity. When asbestos fiber which was acid-processed to exchange almost all sites with Ca{sup 2+} ion after Mg{sup 2+} in the first to fifth layers eluted, is put in Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, hydroxyapatite is formed on the surface. When this asbestos is hydrothermally processed in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution adjusted so that the atomic ratio of Ca{sup 2+}/Si{sup 4+} to silicate radical remained on the surface becomes 0.8, calcium silicate hydrate is formed on the surface. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Preparation of hydroxyapatite whiskers by hydrothermal method; Suinetsuho ni yoru hidorokishi apataito hoisuka no gosei

    Asaoka, N. [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Electronics Technology Research Center; Suda, H. [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshimura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Lab. of Engineering Materials


    In order to make good use of crystallographic anisotropy of hydroxyapatite (HAp : Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) positively, synthesizing method for whiskery HAp crystals which are elongated along the C-axis has been investigated. Adding suitable amounts of citric acid (Cit.) on HAp slurries with two different concentrations of 1.7 and 4.4 wt%, these slurries became clear solutions. Each solution of 1.0L was hydrothermally treated respectively in an autoclave at a temperature 200{degree}C for 0,1,2,3,5 and 10h. As a result, no HAp whiskers could be obtained from the solutions containing 4.4 wt% of HAp. From the solutions containing 1.7% of HAp, whiskers could be obtained only when the Cit. /HAp ratio was more than 14.8 and the time of hydrothermal treatment was more than 3h. The whiskers were from 10 to 30{mu}m in length and about 0.5{mu}m in diameter. Excepting the above conditions, plate-like calcium hydrogenphosphate (monetite) was obtained in return. This writer took into consideration about the reason on the rise and fall of obtaining the whiskers. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Countermeasures for increasing sequence continuous casting; Renchu kinosei taikabutsu zaishitsu, kozo kaizen ni yoru renrenchusu kojosaku

    Tsuda, Masato; Shinagawa, Hiroaki; Kamada, Ryuji; Hiraga, Yutaka; Hara, Takayasu [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the second continuous casting line of Kure Iron Works, Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. improvement of the continuous casting counts per tundish was attempted for a target of max. 20. The results are as follows: (1) Non-SiO{sub 2} conversion of material for the long nozzle immersed part: About 20% improvement of durability compared with a conventional material to clear 0.059 mm/min of the targeted erosion speed when 20 CCC/TD is realized, (2) Durability improvement of SN plate: About 20% durability improvement was attained compared with a conventional material by the adoption of a non-SiO{sub 2} material, (3) Erosion resistance improvement of the immersed nozzle slug line part: Castable period was extended to 1 ch life improvement by increasing zirconia content, (4) Rise of stopper full open position: The rise of the full open position produced less variation of melt level than the conventional structure without increase of the SN opening, enabling plugging prevention between the stopper head and the upper nozzle which was an objective of this improvement, (5) Structure improvement of the upper nozzle: This improvement successfully prevented leaks from damage of the casting stop nozzle metal case and enabled casting under low gas flow even in TD nozzle plugging. These improvements gave a possibility to achieve max. 20 CCC/TD. (NEDO)

  10. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Tsuchiya, T.; Ejiri, T.; Yamada, N.; Narita, N.; Aso, H.; Takano, H.; Matsumura, M. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  11. Foods hygiene management according to HACCP.; HACCP ni yoru shokuhin eisei kanri

    Seki, T. [Niigata Enginering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    New foods hygiene management system HACCP(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) was explained, which prevents food poisoning. Followings are described; (1) Outline of HACCP, (2) History of HAPPC, (3) Process to perform HACCP, (4) Infrastructure for HACCP, (5) How to promote HACCP, (6) Certification system in Japan. HACCP secures the safety in foods hygiene by making rules of Critical Control Points (CCP) on foods hygiene and by administrating strictly their performance. Details of works, frequency and person in charge of the work and methods to confirm and record the work are prescribed in PP (Prerequisite Program) and SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operation Procedure). (NEDO)

  12. Active control of aerodynamic noise; Active control ni yoru furyoku soon no seigyo

    Nishimura, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces summary and examples of active noise control (ANC) and active flow control (AFC) as the aerodynamic noise control techniques. The ANC is a technique to generate noise of a reverse phase which cancels the original noise. Noise reduced especially effectively by the ANC is noise from fans and ducts used for engine air supply and exhaust. The ANC is effective in low frequencies, and when used with a passive method, a compact exhaust silencer can be realized, which has high noise reducing performance over the whole frequency band and has low pressure loss. Signal processing in active noise reduction system is always so adjusted that noise is discharged from a secondary noise source in which signals detected by a detection microphone is given a digital filter treatment, and output from an error microphone is minimized. The AFC has been incapable of realizing a reverse phase over a wide frequency band when depended on analog treatment. However, the authors have developed an adaptive type feedback control system, and verified that the system can be applied to any frequency variation and control it in a stable manner. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Characterization of earthquake fault by borehole experiments; Koseinai sokutei ni yoru jishin danso no kenshutsu

    Ito, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishizawa, O.; Kuwahara, Y.; Kiguchi, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A borehole was excavated to penetrate the Nojima fault at the Hirabayashi area, to investigate the underground structures of the fault by observation of the cores and well logging. The borehole was excavated from 74.6m east of the fault surface. Soil is of granodiorite from the surface, and fault clay at a depth in a range from 624.1 to 625.1m. Observation of the cores, collected almost continuously, indicates that the fault fracture zone expands in a depth range from 557 to 713.05m. The well logging experiments are natural potential, resistivity, density, gamma ray, neutron, borehole diameter, microresistivity and temperature. They are also for DSI- and FMI-observation, after expansion of the borehole. The well logging results indicate that resistivity, density and elastic wave velocity decrease as distance from fault clay increases, which well corresponds to the soil conditions. The BHTV and FMI analyses clearly detect the fault clay demarcations, and show that elastic wave velocity and BHTV results differ at above and below the fault. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)


    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Berthing control with multi-agent system; Multi agent system ni yoru chakusan seigyo

    Ito, H. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)


    The berthing of a ship is a kind of control operations of position, speed and direction of a ship in order to bring a ship alongside a quay. Berthing control is accompanied with a hard problem in which the 6 freedoms of position and speed in 3 directions such as fore and behind, right and left and a revolution must be controlled. In this study, a concept of the agent was introduced as a means of berthing. The agent is a computer program which can be worked in a person`s place. If an autonomous intelligence is carried on each element such as a tugboat or a propeller of ship, the element is able to act based on judgement decided by itself without an instruction from a control center. Thereby, the berthing control system as a multi-agent system having an adaptability and a cooperativeness will be realized. Then the multi-agent system to help berthing was constructed by applying the Muller`s three phase model as a cooperative autonomous agent and by sharing the role of each phase. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)


    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Spray visualization by laser sheet tomography; Laser sheet ni yoru funmu danmen no kashikaho

    Oda, T.; Hiroyasu, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Laser sheet tomography was applied to the visualization of the cross section of a spray. In this method, fluorescent dye, eosine-Y(C20H6Br4Na2O), was used at a concentration of 10 g/l of the injectant, water, and the light source which illuminated the spray was a Nd: YAG laser (532 wavelength, 20ns pulse width) in laser sheet tomography. The thickness of the laser sheet which was scattered by the spray was measured to elucidate the effect of the concentration of fluorescent dye in the injected liquid. In the case of water without eosine-Y, multiscattered light-illuminated drops were observed outside of the laser sheet therefore the thickness of the laser sheet increased. However, in the case of water with eosine-Y, there were few drops which were illuminated by the multiscattered light, and only drops which existed within the laser sheet scattered green laser light and emitted the yellow fluorescent light of eosine-Y. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Biomodification of edible fats and oils by yeasts; Kobo ni yoru shokuyo yushi no seibutsugakuteki kaishitsu

    Fujimoto, K.; Endo, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture


    Lipid-biomodification ability was examined for yeasts isolated from soil using culture medium containing beef tallow (2%). Some yeasts, e.g. Candida, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species were able to grow on fats and oils. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were modified in lipids of some strains. Candida sp. MIS-1 and YM1-1 preferentially produced oleic acid. Candida sp. MIS-1 had high level of triacylglycerol with a melting point like olive oil. Fatty acid composition of lipids in Candida lipolytica IAM4948 and Rhodotorula sp. AO3-5 was similar to that of cacao butter. Yeast oils obtained from C. lipolytica provided the melting characterization different from beef tallow. 30 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Simulation of Korotkoff sounds by starling resistor; Sutaringu rejisuta ni yoru korotokofu on no mogi

    Hayashi, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science


    Starling resistor is a device in which the both ends of a collapsible tube are connected to a solid tube and external pressure is applied from the circumference to flatten the tube, and is used as a constant flow maintenance device in biological experiments. The validity of a mathematical model is established by numerical analysis of the static characteristics of starling resistor, stability of constant flow, and produced self-excited oscillation. Using the model, transient artery blood flow is simulated under the same conditions as those of human indirect blood pressure measurement. Oscillatory waves similar to Korotkoff sound are obtained in sectional area time differential waveform when the external pressure is between the blood pressure in contraction stage and that in expansion stage. It is confirmed by the locus of phase plane that this characteristic oscillation is produced in unstable region of the tube static characteristics. This fact seems to suggest that Korotkoff sound is closely related to unstable behavior due to non-linearity particular to collapsible tubes. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Ground water contamination by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui osen chosa

    Irie, S.; Fujii, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A report is made about the result of vertical electric sounding conducted in the MK district, Fukuoka City, where Kyushu University is about to move. As for the method of electrical prospecting, in consideration of the need for probing a depth of 50m at the shallowest, vertical electrical sounding with a Schlumberger array of electrodes was employed. Measurements were made for 57 locations on the planar ground, the interval between electrodes gradually increased from 1 to 200m. In the 2D structure model analysis, a 2D inversion program was utilized in the ABIC minimization method. Also investigated were the relationship of electric prospecting and the geology, geological conditions, water level in the well, water quality, salt water, and pore rate from the previously-conducted investigative boring. As the result, it was estimated that the boundary between the first and second layers detected by electric prospecting reflected the level of underground water and that the boundary between the second and third layers reflected the portion where the N-value sharply increases. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Archaeological prospecting by DEF method; Denkai zansaho ni yoru iseki tansa

    Kishikawa, H.; Aono, T.; Tanaka, T.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A study is made of a newly-developed differential electric field (DEF) method, wherein potentials between potential electrodes equidistant from a current electrode is measured for directly detecting the secondary potential attributable to an anomalous-resistivity body. In this method, a current is fed into the ground from a point source C1, and four potential electrodes, two each on the X-axis and Y-axis, are provided equidistant from the point source C1 for the measurement of the potentials in the directions of X and Y. Numerical experiments and field experiments in a playground were conducted for this DEF method, and it was found that this method is effective in detecting an anomalous-resistivity bodies (ruins, etc.) situated in a homogeneous medium or in a horizontal multi-layer structure, is capable of displaying anomalous vectors enabling the estimation of the direction from the observation point of the anomalous-resistivity body, improves on work efficiency over the conventional mapping method, enables the estimation of the boundary of the anomalous-resistivity body on the basis of the peak of the anomalous electric field residue on the display, and that the obtained data can be easily processed by use of a personal computer on the site. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Seismic traveltime tomography by use of gridpoints discritization; Koshitenho ni yoru danseiha tomography kaiseki

    Hirai, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Efforts were made to enhance analytical precision and stabilize the results in seismic traveltime tomography by use of a method wherein the velocity distribution is expressed as a continuous function interpolated by parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints. In this method, the slowness data are regarded as the parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints, and the slowness value at a given point is determined after interpolation by the gridpoints surrounding the said point. A method based on the variation principle was used for ray tracing. As the result, it was confirmed that this method determines the ray path and traveltime with high precision. A method of least squares using Lagrange`s multiplier was applied for inversion. Comparison was made between the use of cells and the use of gridpoints in the results of inversions performed for an inclined 4-layer structure model, when it was found that the values involving the boundaries between layers, inclinations of the layers, and velocities of seismic waves are ambiguous with the cells while those with the gridpoints are reconstructed roughly correctly. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. FY1995 community support by mobile agents; 1995 nendo mobile agent ni yoru community keisei shien



    The purpose is to develop fundamental technologies for navigation systems and mobile computing systems in museums, theme parks and cities. Concretely, we implement software agents into the mobile computing environment which consists of PHS, mobile computers and mobile robots, and realize various functions to access regional information. We have studied on Communityware which supports human activities and communities by using mobile agents implemented into mobile computers and town robots. The mobile agents, which intelligently process information obtained in physical and virtual worlds, access regional information which is omnipresent in the environment. With respect to the approach using mobile computers, we have provided one hundred mobile computers in the international conference on multiagent systems 1996 and carried out the first experimentation of mobile computing in the world. The mobile computer has two functions: Community Viewer which displays interactions between members of communities and Social Matchmaker which supports to hold meetings by searching for people who have common interests. With respect to the approach using town robots, we have developed a robot system which can robustly behave in a complex outdoor environment by using vision agents embedded in the environment. The system aims at support of people in streets. (NEDO)

  4. Keynote report by special guest. Tokubetsu guest ni yoru kicho hokoku


    A lecture at the Maui meeting of U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Consultations was delivered by Mr.Yoichi Funabashi, General Director in the U.S., Asahi Shimbun Publishing Company. The historical significance of Japan's diplomatic policy since the U.K.-Japan Alliance and the present situation in Japan, the U.S. and China were explained. As a present problem in Japan, it was pointed out that the votes of urban electors were not fully reflected in the number of parliamentary seats, and votes in agricultural and rural districts applied imbalanced pressure to Japanese politics, and negative pressure to politic parties insisting market liberation and with an international global view. In addition, since the Hosokawa administration, there has been power vacuum, political and financial power weakened, and the Ministry of Finance has filled the vacuum. According to his lecture, it was unclear who promoted regulation relaxation, and administration reforms in their true sense. The economic community should propose policy plans independently, and should have them reflected in decision making of the nation. Also it was important to maintain and strengthen the value of the U.S.-Japan alliance relation.

  5. Separation of flavonoids by means of solvent extraction; Yobai chushutsuho ni yoru flavonoid rui no bunri

    Kitazaki, H.; Ishimaru, M. [Tsumura and Co., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, K.; Nakamura, S. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    Some herb medicines may contain various flavonoids. The bioactivity of them has been attracted attention. In this paper, the separating purification method by solvent extraction was investigated. The extractant is di (ethylhexyl) amine, tributyl phosphate, N,N-dioctyl hexanamide, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and Cyanex 925. Flavonoids are considered to be separated based on the difference of solubility in an ethanol solution, the existence of a glycoside in flavonoids, and the number of hydroxyl groups or their bonding position. For example, flavone, flavonol, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein, and baicalin are used as the representative substance of flavonoids. If a target substance is baicalin, this mixture is dissolved in an ethanol solution to eliminate insoluble matter such as flavonol. Next, flavone is extracted and eliminated by hexane. In the last step, the target baicalin is left in raffinate by TOPO or Cyanex 925. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Three dimensional wavefield modeling using the pseudospectral method; Pseudospectral ho ni yoru sanjigen hadoba modeling

    Sato, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Discussed in this report is a wavefield simulation in the 3-dimensional seismic survey. With the level of the object of exploration growing deeper and the object more complicated in structure, the survey method is now turning 3-dimensional. There are several modelling methods for numerical calculation of 3-dimensional wavefields, such as the difference method, pseudospectral method, and the like, all of which demand an exorbitantly large memory and long calculation time, and are costly. Such methods have of late become feasible, however, thanks to the advent of the parallel computer. As compared with the difference method, the pseudospectral method requires a smaller computer memory and shorter computation time, and is more flexible in accepting models. It outputs the result in fullwave just like the difference method, and does not cause wavefield numerical variance. As the computation platform, the parallel computer nCUBE-2S is used. The object domain is divided into the number of the processors, and each of the processors takes care only of its share so that parallel computation as a whole may realize a very high-speed computation. By the use of the pseudospectral method, a 3-dimensional simulation is completed within a tolerable computation time length. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Nondestructive material characterization with laser ultrasound. Laser choonpa ni yoru hihakai zaishitsu keisoku

    Suzuki, N.; Takamatsu, H.; Arai, A.; Yanai, S.; Ogawa, T.; Akamatsu, M. (Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Electronics Research Lab.)


    From the requirement of shortening time for delivery of goods, an equipment of evaluating the characteristics of steel plates in on-line is expected. Concerning this problem, development of an equipment for measuring the lankford value (r-value) of the cold rolled steel plates at outlet in the continuous annealing line by using the Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) was reported. However, since measurement is performed by using the electromagnetic force in this equipment sensor is necessary to be put near a steel plate, so that its application is limited. In this paper, the multiple reflecting echos of laser ultrasound to the thin steel plates were measured by using the Fabry-Perot interferometer that is suitable to be applied in the wide-band measurement of ultrasound. Application to measurement of crystal grain size of steel plates by using this method was clarified. In evaluating the measurement of crystal grain size, the necessaries were described concerning which bottom echos would be selected for reducing the errors caused by widening range of echos due to the irradiating diameter of excitation laser. Components of low frequencies occurred among multiple reflects would be removed by a filter. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. High-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS; DGPS ni yoru sensoku keisoku no koseidoka ni tsuite

    Yamaguchi, S.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics


    The differential global positioning system (DGPS) can eliminate most of errors in ship velocity measurement by GPS positioning alone. Through two rounds of marine observations by towing an observation robot in summer 1995, the authors attempted high-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS, and also carried out both positioning by GPS alone and measurement using the bottom track of ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler). In this paper, the results obtained by these measurement methods were examined through comparison among them, and the accuracy of the measured ship velocities was considered. In DGPS measurement, both translocation method and interference positioning method were used. ADCP mounted on the observation robot allowed measurement of the velocity of current meter itself by its bottom track in shallow sea areas less than 350m. As the result of these marine observations, it was confirmed that the accuracy equivalent to that of direct measurement by bottom track is possible to be obtained by DGPS. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Research on crystal growth by using pressure as a control parameter; Atsuryoku seigyo ni yoru kessho seicho ni kansuru kenkyu



    This research project aims to establish a technique for crystal growth using pressure as a principal control parameter, and combining it with a microgravity condition, to develop a novel process material fabrication. Since the solubility of materials depends on pressure, it is possible to control a supersaturated condition for crystal growth by changing pressure. The growth condition can be controlled precisely, which is not possible by conventional methods that vary temperature and other factors. On the other hand, because a concentration diffusing field is formed autonomically around crystals in association with their growth, density convection is generated under gravity as a result of difference in the concentrations, making the growth conditions severely complex and uncontrollable. Ideal crystal growth condition control may be possible if the pressure control is performed under micro-gravity by which generation of the density convection can be suppressed. Realization has been achieved on in-situ observation by using high-magnification microscope which uses a diamond anvil cell, development of a hydraulic type optic pressure cell, and a high- speed crystal growing technology by means of pressure control utilizing the cell. New findings were also obtained on effects of pressure on crystal forms, and the pressure induced solid phase transfer mechanism. 67 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Flat plate approximation in the three-dimensional slamming; Heiban kinji ni yoru sanjigen suimen shogeki keisanho ni tsuite

    Toyama, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A slamming load generated by interactive motions between a ship body and water face is an important load in ensuring safety of the ship. A flat plate approximation developed by Wagner is used as a two-dimensional slamming theory, but it has a drawback in handling edges of a flat plate. Therefore, an attempt was made to expand the two-dimensional Wagner`s theory to three dimensions. This paper first shows a method to calculate water face slamming of an arbitrary axisymmetric body by using circular plate approximation. The paper then proposes a method to calculate slamming pressure distribution and slamming force for the case when shape of the water contacting surface may be approximated by an elliptic shape. Expansion to the three dimensions made clear to some extent the characteristics of the three-dimensional slamming. In the case of two dimensions or a circular column for example, the water contacting area increases rapidly in the initial stage generating large slamming force. However, in the case of three dimensions, since the water contacting area expands longitudinally and laterally, the slamming force tends to increase gradually. Maximum slamming pressure was found proportional to square of moving velocity in a water contacting boundary in the case of three dimensions, and similar to stagnation pressure on a gliding plate. 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Feasibility of hydrogen production from seaweeds by fermentation; Kaiso wo kishitsu ni riyoshita hakoho ni yoru suiso seisan no kanosei ni tsuite

    Tanisho, Shigeharu; Suganuma, Takeshi [Yokohama National University, Kanagawa (Japan)


    To use kelps as a substrate for fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005, hydrogen evolution rates and yields from mannitol were measured under various salt-concentration cultures. Under non-salt condition, they were 13 mmol per litter culture per hour and 1.6 mol H{sub 2} per mol mannitol, as compared with these, under salt condition 1%, 2%, and 3%, they were 9.9 and 1.5, 4.3 and 1.2, and 3.0 and 0.9, respectively. From these results, we concluded that the production of hydrogen is suitable under non-salt condition, but lower salt condition than seawater especially around 1% is allowable for practical production of hydrogen. The higher yield of H{sub 2} from mannitol than from glucose was clearly shown from the mass balance between evolved H{sub 2} and calculated H2 from metabolite. (author)

  12. Drag reduction of high altitude airships by active boundary layer control. Effect of a cusp on the reduction; Nodo kyokaiso seigyo ni yoru koso hikosen no teiko teigen. Cusp ni yoru teigen koka

    Yamamura, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuuchi, K.; Yamazaki, S.; Sasaki, A. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Onda, M. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)


    The aerodynamic character of station-keeping airships at high Reynolds numbers is examined. The boundary layer developing on the surface is sucked by an axial flow fan through a slot located at the rear part of the airship and the sucked gas is blown out as a jet. To know the effect of the cusp two models with and without a cusp attached to the inlet of the suction slot were used. The flow field near the inlet, in particular the pressure on the surface, was measured as the suction discharge was varied. We obtained the form drag by integrating the pressure distribution in a wide range of Reynolds number and of suction discharge. Taking into account the jet thrust and the calculated friction drag, we finally determined the total drag and evaluated the role of the cusp. It was found that the cusp plays an efficient role in reducing the drag. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Study on the active noise control method and the effect of noise reduction due to the multi-connected branch dusts. Gyakuiso no fukaon ni yoru soon seigyoho no kento to tarengata bunkikan ni yoru soon keigen koka

    Nakao, Kiyoatsu.


    This paper reports the results of experimental studies on the utility of the active noise control method, and the effects of the multi-connected branch pipes silencer, concerning the reduction of noise. In the experiments of active noise control by using ducts, when the canceling sound was produced by the speaker set at the end of the short-length pipe corresponding to the one forth wave-length, the sound pressure of canceling noise was less one sixth as compared with setting the speaker at the wall of pipe. The noise reduction quantity to the random noise by the active noise control method was about as much as 15db. This method is not adaptable for noise with wide ranges of frequency. A branch pipe silencers, when it was used as multi-connected branch pipe, could extend the bounds of noise frequency which was able to be reduced and could increase the noise reduction quality. This silencer can deal with the fluctuation of frequency od noise and has higher practicability. 10 refs., 21 figs.

  14. Imaging technique for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity by electromagnetic tomography. 1. Numerical experiments; EM tomography ni yoru taijiritsu to hiteiko no imaging gijutsu. 1. Suchi jikken ni yoru kisoteki kento

    Sakashita, S.; Fukuoka, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper proposes imaging techniques which utilize electromagnetic waves in a wide frequency band for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity, and describes the basic investigation results by numerical experiments. The electromagnetic tomography generates electromagnetic waves by passing current through a receiving coil, to measure their magnetic components by an induction coil. The magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic waves can be handled as a pseudo-static one, when the current is passed at a sufficiently low frequency, and the field response measured by an induction coil contains information mainly regarding magnetic susceptibility. The field generates induction as transmitting frequency is increased, and the measured magnetic response contains mainly regarding resistivity. They can be measured for imaging susceptibility, when distance between the holes is 50 to 100m or less and transmitting frequency is 100 to 10Hz or less. The use of the expanded Born approximation allows to establish a high-speed model for imaging resistivity. 23 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Decomposition of water-soluble dyes by ozonation and its evaluation by color measurement methods; Suiyosei senryo no ozon sanka ni yoru dasshoku to shikido sokuteiho ni yoru hyoka

    Takahashi, N.; Nakai, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to control colors in waste waters from dye making factories and dying factories, aqueous dye solutions having different hues and coloration were ozonated to measure and discuss the decoloration process by using different hue measurement methods. Sixteen kinds of dyes were selected, which have poor treatment efficiency in bio-treatment or coagulative precipitation. For absorbance method for hue measurement, two methods were used: a method to estimate absorbance at wavelengths of every 50 nm from 350 nm to 700 nm to measure its reduction rate, and a method for reduction rate of absorbance at the maximum absorption wavelength. The color difference method performed calculations using the permeability and coefficient at selected wavelengths divided into ten segments. In the dilution method, the hue was indicated by distilled water dilution magnification which was compared with that for the reference liquid. The absorbance method expressed the decoloration reaction in a pseudo-first order reaction expression, but the color difference method was incapable of indicating the decoloration process. The dilution method was capable of indicating the decoloration process by a behavior close to that in the absorbance method. Values derived from the absorbance method and the dilution method are related by a certain expression, based on which a proposal was made on a due control method approximated to visual decoloration sense. 13 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Formation of concentrated solid cluster in a liquid-solid mixture by ultrasonic wave. 3rd Report. Simulation by superposing Oseen`s flow field; Choonpa ni yoru suichu ryushi no cluster keisei. 3. Oseen sokudo kasaneawaseho ni yoru simulation

    Asakura, K.; Nakajima, I. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Imai, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The numerical calculation was carried out on the reported empirical result in the cluster formation of particles in water by ultrasonic wave. In addition, the attenuation of an ultrasonic wave was measured from sound pressure in a tube. Since the Reynolds number of the particles was less than 2, a method of using a local analytical solution was employed as the calculation method. A method superposing Oseen`s flow field was used for calculating the relative speed of the particles and the fluid. The following knowledge was obtained. It was observed from the actual measurement that the soundwave attenuated with the energy consumed through dispersion and absorption by the polyethylene particles in the fluid. The attenuation coefficient became larger in proportion to the particle concentration, with no difference caused by the particle size. Improvement was found necessary for the method of measuring attenuation factor in a high concentration area. It was judged possible, by verifying the mathematical method, to qualitatively calculate the interaction of the particles by the 1st order Oseen approximation. This method was applicable to a particle flow such as a standing wave in which particle movement is different in direction depending on the position. The method was effective to grasp the interaction of a discrete small number of particles but was limited in a large number. 14 refs., 16 figs.

  17. Exhaust heat recovery in internal combustion engine; Netsukokan ni yoru nainen kikan no hainetsu kaishu no kento

    Goto, E.; Kase, S.; Dong, D. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given as measures to solve thermal efficiency and environmental problems on recovery of waste heat from an internal combustion engine by means of heat exchange. Means are used to increase the thermal efficiency and the output without changing any of the compression ratio, maximum temperature and maximum pressure in the internal combustion engine. The means consist of nearly isothermal compression of suction air and simultaneous exchange of heat in the compressed suction air with that in high-temperature exhaust gas to recover the heat. Since the isothermal compression and simultaneous heat exchange with the exhaust gas are carried out in place of adiabatic compression, the thermal efficiency increases by 4% to 11% in the compression ratio ranging from 10 to 20, and the output per working fluid unit flow rate increases by 19% to 37%. If the heat generated in catalytically purifying exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is recovered by means of heat exchange, the thermal efficiency in an automotive engine may improve by more than 10%, serving for reducing pollutant production and saving the fuel consumption. Such concepts may also be conceivable as recovering vehicle braking energy as air pressure to be re-utilized for accelerating the restarting, and recovering the backpressure of exhaust gas by converting it into mechanical energy through expansion. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Production of energy and chemical substances by microalgae. Bisai morui ni yoru energy oyobi kagaku busshitsu no seisan

    Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Miura, Yoshiharu (Osaka Univ., Osaka, (Japan). Faculty of Pharamaceutical Science)


    Microalgae can fix carbon dioxide by photosynthesis but the conversion rate is only 5 to 6%. Dried algae contain different lipids of 20 to 40%. Therfore, it is desirable to culture a large amount of an alga or algae having high photosynthetic and lipid producing abilities in order to effectively convert photoenergy to liquid fuel. It is reported that US established the target of 50g dry wt/m{sup 2}/day by greatly improving the productivity for 4 years since 1982 and the lipid amount exceeded 60% in 1986. A method to make photosysnthesis during daytime to avoid the interference with oxygen and to generate hydrogen by decomposing stored organic substances during night is studied and regarded as promising. In addition, the production of vitamines and other fine chemicals by microalgae is also paid attention. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 tabs.

  19. Method for analyzing electromagnetic-force-induced vibration and noise analysis; Denjiryoku reiki ni yoru dendoki no shindo hoshaon kaisekiho

    Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)


    In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Glass marking with diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser; Handotai reiki Nd:YLF laser ni yoru glass marking

    Sakai, F.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The compact marking system based on a beam scanning system in which the fourth harmonic (FHG: 262 nm in wavelength) of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYf4) laser is used for the source of ultraviolet light is described. The result of application to the glass marking that caused a problem due to the generation of cracks is also explained. The machining characteristics significantly vary depending on the type of glass. During actual marking, sample processing must be beforehand carried out to optimize the processing conditions after confirming that there is no problem in practical use. For marking on the glass used for liquid-crystal board, it is valid to improve the density of a dot and increase the number of shots per dot for obtaining high visibility. However, cracks may occur in the clearance of each dot because of the thermal effect. Therefore, the processing conditions must be optimized according to the glass type and crack generation state. The generation of cracks can be suppressed by setting the processing conditions to the optimum level. As a result, satisfactory marking is obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Glyco change of the vancomycin due to the chemical glycosylated; Kagaku gurikoshiruka ni yoru bankomaishin no tohenkaku

    Fukuzawa, Seiketsu


    Glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin is drawing attention of the organic composition chemist as a target of the composition from the peculiarity of that structure and the demand in medical treatment. I had the part of the aglycone, which consists of peptides made all the composition in 1997. However, effective activation isn`t shown, and the addition of the part of the sugar is indispensable only with an aglycone. The glycosylated of the part of the aglycone was done, and the re-composition was attained, and this completed all the formal composition. (NEDO)

  2. Application of vector CSAMT for the imaging of an active fault; CSAMT ho ni yoru danso no imaging

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukuoka, K. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to identify three-dimensionally resistivity in deep fault in the Mizunawa fault in Fukuoka Prefecture, a measurement was carried out by using the CSAMT method. The measurement was conducted by arranging seven traverse lines, each line having observation points installed at intervals of about 500 m. Among the 68 observation points in total, 33 points performed the vector measurement, and the remaining points the scaler measurement. For observation points having performed the vector measurement, polarized wave eclipses were depicted in the electric field to discuss which direction the current will prevail in. For analyses, a one-dimensional analysis was performed by using an inversion with smoothing restriction, and a two-dimensional analysis was conducted by using the finite element method based on the result of the former analysis. The vector measurement revealed that the structure in the vicinity of a fault was estimated to have become complex, and the two-dimensional analysis discovered that the Mizunawa fault is located on a relatively clear resistivity boundary. In addition, it was made clear that the high resistivity band may even be divided into two regions of about 200 ohm-m and about 1000 ohm-m. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Structural changes in deashed coals induced by heat treatment; Kanetsu shori ni yoru dakkaitan no kozo henka

    Sugano, M.; Sekita, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology


    Change in structures of 3 kinds of coals with different coal ranks and their deashed coals was studied by heat treatment below 200{degree}C. In experiment, crushed Adaro, Taiheiyo and Huaibei coals below 200mesh and their deashed coals were used as specimens. The coal and deashed coal specimens dried in vacuum at 110{degree}C for 3 hours were filled into an autoclave, and the heat-treated coal specimens were prepared by holding them under initial nitrogen pressure of 2kg/cm{sup 2} at a fixed temperature for 30min. Extraction using pyridine as solvent, volumetric swelling using methanol or benzene as solvent, and measurement of the amount of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl functional groups were conducted for these coal specimens. The experimental results are as follows. Huaibei coal has developed aromatic ring structure, and its structure is hardly affected by heat treatment. The oxygen containing functional groups decrease by heat treatment over 100{degree}C in Adaro coal and 150{degree}C in Taiheiyo coal, and PS, MQ and BQ also decrease due to aggregation between molecules. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Wide area stabilization of a magnetic bearing using exact linearization; Genmitsuna senkeika ni yoru jiki jikuuke no koiki anteika

    Matsumura, F.; Namerigawa, T.; Murata, T. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)


    An active magnetic bearing (AMB) is a bearing to suspend a rotor by magnetic forces without any contact. Feedback control is indispensable for a magnetic bearing, because it is essentially an unstable system. To design a feedback control system, a linear mathematical model of the plant is convenient, however the force of electromagnet is highly nonlinear. Then usually a linear approximation around the operating point is employed, but the obtained linearized model can not express the exact behavior of the system at any other operating points. In this paper, we discuss the wide area stabilization of magnetic bearing using exact linearization approach. At first, we derive a nonlinear mathematical model for a magnetic bearing, then we show this nonlinear system is belong to a class of exactly linearizable nonlinear systems. Next, by using exact linearization method, we transfer the nonlinear model of a magnetic bearing to a linear time invariant state model in spite of change of the operating point and the rotational speed of the rotor. Then we construct the state feedback control system by conventional LQ method. Finally, we evaluate the validity of our proposed method by experiment. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Quantification of tactile effect of building materials. Shokkaku ni yoru kenchiku shiage zairyo no kaiter dot fukaikan no teiryoka

    Okajima, T.; Wu, J. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)); Takeda, Y. (Imamiya Technical High School, Osaka (Japan))


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the quantification of the tactile effect of building finishing materials from their physical properties. On the basis of psychology and physiology, sensation and perception were interpreted. Three fundamental physical values, i.e., warmth, hardness, and roughness were taken up as the physical properties of the materials, and the relationship between these physical properties and the pleasant and unpleasant sensation was analyzed. For the measurement of perception of pleasant and unpleasant sensation, the method of sensory inspection or mental measurement was applied. Then, the concept of psychophysio-dynamics was proposed connecting psychophysics with psychodynamics. As a result, it was found out that the tactile effect of building finishing materials can be predicted from the physical values of warmth, hardness, and roughness. Furthermore, a psychological experiment was performed using 66 building finishing materials. As a result, the applicability of the method proposed in this paper was verified. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Investigation of iron current measurement to detect combustion quality; Ion denryu ni yoru nensho jotai kenshutsu no kento

    Nakata, K.; Mogi, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    The possibility and problems were investigated in detecting the combustion quality by means of ion current measured at the spark plug. The ion current has two peaks during one combustion stroke; first peak is generated by flame around the spark plug just after ignition and second one appears with the rise in temperature of burned gases. As the result of investigations, it was confirmed that the first ion peak might be useful to forecast the combustion quality, but it would be hard to practice owing to the spark duration. And the second peak offered the information of combustion chamber pressure. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimizu, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Tachibana, H.; Kojima, A.; Chiba, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Modeling of power train by applying the virtual prototype concept; Kaso genkei ni yoru power train no model ka

    Hiramatsu, S.; Harada, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Komori, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S. [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Wavefield analysis in inhomogeneous media by wavelet transform; Wavelet henkan ni yoru fukinshitsu baitai no hadoba kaiseki

    Matsushima, J.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ichie, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Data processing techniques have been investigated for clarifying structures and physical properties of geothermal reservoirs in the deep underground by seismic exploration using multiple wells. They include the initial motion time-distance tomography, amplitude tomography, diffracted wave tomography, and structure imaging using reflected wave or scattered wave. When applying these data processing methods to observed records, weak and minor signals essentially required are canceled due to averaging the analytical fields. In this study, influence of inhomogeneous media on the wavefield was evaluated. Data were analyzed considering frequency by using wavelet transform by which time-frequency can be easily analyzed. From the time-frequency analysis using wavelet transform, it was illustrated that high frequency scattered waves, generated by scatterer like cracks or by irregularity on the reflection surface, arrive behind direct P-wave and direct S-wave. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Monitoring of EOR operations by electrical prospecting. 2; Denki tansaho ni yoru sekiyu kyosei kaishuho no monitoring. 2

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Tanaka, T.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tamagawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was applied to monitor the behavior of underground fluid in steam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for oil sand reservoirs. FFT uses electrode arrangement of a mise-a-la-masse method, and continuously measures time variation in charged and spontaneous potential at various surface points to obtain realtime the images of underground seepage flow. It continuously measures ground surface potentials of 120 channels at intervals of 2s by applying alternative DC between a casing pipe and distant current electrode. It separates charged and spontaneous potential components, and converts them into time series data. It estimates the time and spacial distributions of seepage flow from time variation in spontaneous potential. It determines the change rate distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity from charged potential to estimate the scale and area of seepage flow. As the experimental result, positive and negative electrodes in the change rate distribution were observed, and the direction connecting each electrode agreed with that of resistivity anomaly. FFT could observe realtime time variation in apparent resistivity due to steam injection. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Monitoring of IOR/EOR operations by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru IOR/EOR monitoring

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Ikeda, H.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was developed to monitor enhanced oil recovery IOR/EOR operations. This method uses a casing pipe as linear current source by connecting a current electrode with a well inlet, and the other electrode is grounded at a point far different from the well. Potentials are rapidly measured at the same time by multi-channel receiving electrodes installed on the ground to obtain time series data composed of charged potential and superimposed spontaneous potential. After separation of both potentials, the charged potential data are processed by the conventional mise-a-la-masse method to extract local anomaly, determine the residual distribution and relative change distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity, and obtain the 3-D profile of fluid. The spontaneous potential is also processed to obtain the deflection distribution of time-sliced potential at a specific time. Quantitative 3-D interpretation is conducted focusing attention on the generation mechanism of spontaneous potential. Behavior of underground permeated flow is determined as time series animation images to image fluid direction. This method was effective in real fields. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Hydrogen production from garbage by the bacterium enterobacter aerogenes; Daidokoro no namagomi wo riyoshita bakuteria ni yoru suiso seisan

    Tanisho, S.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This writer, aiming at hydrogen production by fermentation using biomass, has studied production from various carbohydrates, organic acids and alcohols by using Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005 which bacterium was picked from leaves of four-o`clock and has high ability of hydrogen production. This bacterium being facultative anaerobic, it need not intercept O2, and the gas generated from its common culture solution which contains inorganic ingredients (YNOB3), peptone and glucose was composed of only H2 and CO2. As the tests for kitchen garbage, from each garbage of apples, oranges, bananas and spinage, H2 were obtained at the rate of 0.51, 0.27, 0.09 and 0.15 m mol/g respectively. Guts of fishes, tofu, tofu-refuse and eggs were alternative nitrogen sources of peptone. Especially, miso, soy sauce and soybean flour were very good substrates for hydrogen production as well as good nitrogen sources. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Production of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru alcohol no seizoho

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagashima (Japan))


    This invention aims to present a production method of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method in which each batch fermentation is performed rapidly with high concentration of yeast to overcome weak points of conventional procedures and the end point of the fermentation is determined accurately and quickly to switch to the next batch with long-term stability. This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol with repetitive batch fermentation by use of carbohydrate and starchy raw materials, in which a gas flow meter to measure velocity water head is equipped and the end point of the fermentation is judged when the flow rate of fermentation exhaust gas is 0.35-0.1 m[sup 3]/kl[center dot]hr or under. This invention produces ethyl alcohol effectively from raw materials and enables efficient repetitive batch fermentation with less damage of the yeast. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Production of ethyl alcohol by a repeated batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru arukoru no seizoho

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagoshima (Japan))


    This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol from sugar and starch raw materials by a repeated batch fermentation method and aims to provide a method to produce ethyl alcohol efficiently by accurate repetition. Conventional batch fermentation methods require the experiences and skill to confirm an end point of the fermentation and have a problem in a control of repeated batch fermentation. This invention uses a gas flow meter of a velocity head measurement type and judges an end point of fermentation at a time when the amount of the exhaust gas flow from the fermentation is 0.35 to 0.1 m[sup 3] per hour and per 1 kl fermentation liquid or below and the next batch fermentation is started. By this invention, ethyl alcohol is produced efficiently from the raw materials with less damage of the yeast and efficient repeated batch fermentation is realized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    小峰, 由美子


    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  19. Hydrogen production from food processing waste by anaerobic bacteria; Kenkisei saikin ni yoru shokuhin kako haikibutsu kara no suiso seisei

    Mizuno, O.; Ohara, T.; Noike, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    To produce hydrogen from bean-curd refuse discharged from bean-curd production process, effects of solid concentration on the hydrogen production activity and the final amount of hydrogen production are clarified using hydrogen production sludge obtained from a soybean silo with hydrogen explosion. Decomposition characteristics of bean-curd refuse by hydrogen fermentation are also investigated. Hydrogen contents of fermentation gas produced from decomposed bean-curd refuse were between 54 and 78%. It was found that bean-curd refuse can be used for hydrogen fermentation. The final amounts of hydrogen production were between 0.014 and 0.020 m{sup 3}centre dotkgVS{sup -1}, which was not greatly affected by the solid concentration. Even under high solid concentration conditions, sufficient hydrogen was produced. The hydrogen production activity was affected by the solid concentration. During the hydrogen production process, concentrations of alcohol and volatile fatty acid increased with decreasing the concentration of soluble sugars in the liquid phase. Acetate, propionate, n-butyrate and ethanol were the main metabolic products. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Fracture mapping in rock slope using geophysical instruments; Butsuri tansa ni yoru ganban shamennai no kiretsu bunpu hyoka

    Kurahashi, T.; Inazaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    An attempt was made to visualize distribution of cracks in a rock slope by applying geophysical survey onto a rock slope. Geophysical logging and seismic survey using the reflection method were used as the methods for the geophysical survey. The rock slope subjected to the survey is located in a gorge along the Yoshino river in Yamashiro Town, Tokushima Prefecture. The slope has a width of 25 m and a height of 30 m. Its overhang in a nose form may has a possibility of causing collapse due to sliding. Cracks developed by horizontal schistosity were detected by performing geophysical logging on VSP, calipers, natural gamma-ray spectra, temperature and borehole in a borehole drilled vertically from the top of the slope. The seismic survey using the reflection method detected the cracks by emphasizing joints in the perpendicular direction. A possibility was shown to visualize the crack distribution with high resolution by using the above geophysical survey on the rock slope. In order to detect the crack distribution with still higher resolution, development into a three-dimensional exploration in the future is desired, not to speak of improvement in signal receivers, and discussions on geometry. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  1. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Sora reshiba karano shizen tairyu ni yoru netsu sonshitsu

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)


    Heat loss by free convective heat transfer from the solar furnace is investigated experimentally, and the result is arranged in formulas. It may be unjustifiable somewhat to apply the result of the experiment as it is to actual systems, but it seems that the result is not apart so far from those of actual systems, at lease when there is no wind. Moreover, arrangement of the experimental point in a formula can be considered to be a very useful result. A simulated receiver system is prepared which heats air in the cavity of the receiver by an electric heater, and has been used for experiments. In addition, a glass receiver having affixed transparent heaters on the bottom and side surfaced is prepared separately for the observation of convective phenomenon of air in the receiver and leaking of heat with air flow from the aperture, which enables visualization of the air flow. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Fundamental study of noise reduction by active noise control. Active soon seigyo ni yoru soon taisaku no kiso kenkyu

    Sugiyama, T.; Naganawa, A. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))


    Fundamental experiments were conducted on active noise control as sound insulation fence. This control method generates a sound source with the same amplitude and opposite phase as noise, and reduces noise through the interference of acoustic wave from the source. However, this method has too many problems with the three-dimensional sound field to be actually exploited in this environment. The following experiments were conducted to apply the active noise control to the sound insulation fence: one method of installing a geometric path along the inner side of the sound insulation fence used the acoustic delay process generated on the source side to attenuate the sound pressure level on top of the fence through interference of routing difference sound. The other method used an additional sound source attached to the bottom of the geometric path above to obtain a higher attenuation than using the simple sound insulation fence. At the second step, the active control duct model was used for the test. Then, the three-dimensional model test was conducted for active control of the sound insulation fence. The results of these fundamental experiments have indicated that each method can reduce the relative sound pressure level and the active noise control system using the acoustic phase difference can effectively reduce noise with dominant components in a low frequency band. There are still several problems with the three-dimensional mock-up model. 4 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Vision system for driving control using camera mounted on an automatic vehicle. Jiritsu sokosha no camera ni yoru shikaku system

    Nishimori, K.; Ishihara, K.; Tokutaka, H.; Kishida, S.; Fujimura, K. (Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Okada, M. (Mazda Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)); Hirakawa, S. (Fujitsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report explains a vision system, in which a CCD camera, used for the model vehicle automatically traveling by fuzzy control, is used as a vision sensor. The vision system is composed of input image processing module, situation recognition/analysis module to three-dimensionally recover the road, route-selecting navigation module to avoid the obstacle and vehicle control module. The CCD camera is used as a vision sensor to make the model vehicle automatically travel by fuzzy control with the above modules. In the present research, the traveling is controlled by treating the position and configuration of objective in image as a fuzzy inferential variable. Based on the above method, the traveling simulation gave the following knowledge: even with the image information only from the vision system, the application of fuzzy control facilitates the traveling. If the objective is clearly known, the control is judged able to be made even from vague image which does not necessitate the exact locative information. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Biological treatment of dialysis wastewater by PUF fluidized-bed; PUF ryudoshoho ni yoru toseki haisui no seibutsugakuteki shori

    Toyoda, A. [Envisys Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Kanki, T.; Momoda, S.; Marukami, M.; Maeda, Y. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)


    For the purpose of high-efficiency microorganism treatment in bicarbonate type saccharated dialysis wastewater, a study has been made on a fluidized-bed method using porous polyurethane foam (PUF) as a carrier. Discussions have been given especially on the effects of substrate load, carrier size, and the number of carrier cells on the treatment characteristics from the initial stage of cultivation to the steady-state operation. The carried and suspended microorganisms grew while showing oscillatory variation. The larger the number of carrier cell becomes, the more the carried microorganism quantity becomes, and the less the suspended microorganism quantity becomes. A carrier with a size of 10 mm forms more stable living organism phase than that with a carrier with a size of 5 mm. While the carried and suspended microorganism quantity increases with the load, the lower the load, the carried microorganism ratio increases. With regard to the microbial phase immediately after the substrates having flown in, the dispersive bacteria and the Colpidum group grow preferentially. In the steady-state region, the flock-forming bacteria and the Vorticella group grow preferentially. The carried microorganisms disperse over the whole carrier during the initial stage, form flock-formed lumps thereafter, and grow concentratedly in the vicinity of the carrier surface in the steady-state region. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of permeability of Nojima fault by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru Nojima danso no tosuisei hyoka

    Kiguchi, T.; Ito, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The multi-offset hydrophone VSP experiments were carried out using a 750m deep borehole as the oscillation receiver, which penetrates the Nojima fault, to detect water-permeable cracks and evaluate their characteristics. Soil around the borehole is of granodiorite, and fault clay is found at a depth in a range from 623 to 624m. A total of 4 dynamite tunnels were provided around the borehole as the focus. The VSP results show that the tube waves are generated at 22 depths, including the depth at which fault clay is found. However, these waves are generated at only 6 depths in an approximately 150m long fracture zone, suggesting that the cracks in the zone are not necessarily permeable. It is also found that crack angle determined by the analysis of tube waves almost coincides with that of fault clay determined by the core, BHTV and FMI, and that permeability is of the order of 100md at a depth of fault clay or shallower. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Velocity structure of Nojima-fault by VSP method; VSP ho ni yoru Nojima danso no sokudo kozo

    Kuwahara, Y.; Ito, H.; Kiguchi, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to investigate in detail structures of the fractured fault band, the VSP tests were conducted using a 750m deep borehole penetrating the Nojima fault in Awaji Island. The borehole penetrates the fault clay band at a depth of 624m in the Hirabayashi area. The offset VSP survey, conducted by the aid of hydrophone through the naked borehole, detects many characteristic phenomena resulting from the fault fracture. Largely fractured lithofacies are found by the core observation at a depth in a range from 557 to 673m. P-waves propagate at 4.6 and 5.1km/s above and below the fractured band, respectively. The fractured band is subdivided into 2 sections, both being of low speed of 4.5 and 3.1km/s. The X1 and X2 phases resulting from the fault fracture are also observed, above and below the fractured band. The causes for these wave phases are now under investigation. 4 figs.

  7. Structural analysis of microtubule-kinesin complex; Mota tanpakushitsu bunshi no kozo kaiseki ni yoru undo hassei kiko no kenkyu

    Toyoshima, Yoko [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Arts and Sciences


    To understand the molecular mechanism of motor proteins which work in cell motility, the information of three dimensional structure of the complex between motor proteins and cytoskeletal filaments is important. Although crystal sacarato of kinesin motor domain and tubulin are determined respectively, their relative position in interacting state is unidentified. In this study, we made a series of several mutant kinesin motor domains which have reactive cystein using protein engineering methods, and labelled with gold clusters. Next, we formed the complex of these proteins and microtubules, and then embedded in amorphous ice. Three dimensional reconstitution of the complexes from the electron microscopic images can decide the position of the specific residue and relative position of kinesin motor domain and microtubules, which brings the structural basis to elucidate the molecular mechanism of motor proteins. (author)

  8. SCWO characteristics of organics in a vertical type continuous reactor; Renzokushiki tategata hannoki ni yoru yukibutsu no chorinaki suisanka kyodo

    Sekikawa, R.M.; Usui, T.; Nishimura, T.; Sato, H.; Hamada, S.; Sekino, H. [Ebara Research Co., Kanagawa (Japan). Center for Advanced Research


    SCWO characteristics are investigated for a vertical type, down stream continuous reactor system with mixing nozzle and sapphire windows. 2-propanol, hexane and biphenyl solution are used as fuel and air as oxidizer. 2-propanol is observed to be effective as makeup fuel to keep a stable autogenic SCWO reaction. Even for low air ratio as 1.1, high decomposition rate without CO, NO, NO{sub 2} or soot production is achieved. Calculated and experimental flue gas composition is in good agreement for a wide range of air ratio. Spontaneous flame formation is observed for SCWO of 2-propanol using air ratio over 1.8. These flame formations are not particular to 2-propanol and are also confirmed when using hexane and biphenyl solution as fuel. (author)

  9. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Centeral Research and Development Lab., Aichi (Japan))


    A study was conducted on properties of exhaust gas of diesel engine by using high pressure injection type diesel engine equipped with pressure-reservoir for changing injection pressure, together with improvement of combustion conditions by high pressure injection of fuel. Equipments for the experiments were explained by figures. As for experiment, effects of injection pressure and its timing on emission quantities of NO {sub x} and paticulate were measured. Based upon the obtained results, those were understood that NO {sub x} and particulate were to be reduced by adjusting injection pressure and injection timing, and that, by reducing initial injection pressure, trade-off effect between NO {sub x} and particulate were improved. Observation of combustion conditions by inside-visible engine, those were recognized that low injection pressure caused poor atomization and, by that, delay of vaporization, that propagation of flame rapid to whole combustion room in case of pressure-reservoir type, and that lower injection rate at initial stage suppressed combustion rate and reduced NO {sub x} generation. 4 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Test on qualitative improvement of reservoir water by fountain. Funsui ni yoru chosuichi suishitsu kaizen no kokoromi

    Miyanaga, Y.; Toyota, K. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Kimura, M. (The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))


    Qualitative improvement of water was tested by fountain as measures for enriching the water reservoir with nurture. Moored at a bank which was 5km upstream from the dam, a fountain unit sucked cold water at a water depth of 10m. Then, a region of 35m in diameter was sprayed with it by 32 nozzles. The flow rate was 5.0m[sup 3]/min. In the region of 30m in distance from the unit, it was confirmed from the experiment that the largest drop in water temperature and that in concentration of chlorophyll-a were 0.9 centigrade and 4.0mg/m[sup 3], respectively. It was also known that a flow existed at a 1m-waterdeep spot which was 20m distant from the unit. Judging from the above, the water was qualitatively improved by the fountain as far as 30m in radius. The field experiment was analyzed by a numerical analysis model which treated the fountain flow as a two-dimensional axially symmetric flow. It was confirmed that the change in water temperature and flow can be roughly evaluated, if the oblique incidence of fountain flow is taken into consideration. It was also known that the fountain flow converges in a 1 to 2m-waterdeep surface layer. Though there is a possibility of amplifying the region to be influenced, it is not a specifically effective method. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H.; Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi, (Japan) Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Aichi, (Japan))


    Accumulator type high pressure fuel injection equipment (HPIE), able to freely set the fuel injection pressure, was applied to a 94mm bore small type high speed direct injection Diesel engine (with turbo-charger), of which exhaust gas characteristics were investigated. Also by using a 102mm bore visualized single-cylinder engine, was observed combustion improvement effect by the HPIE. As a result, partial load exhaust gas characteristics were investigated at the rotation, 60% of the maximum number of rotations. That accumulator type HPIE changed in initial injection ratio due to the injection pressure. NO {sub x} emission depending upon both the injection pressure and timing, increase in NO {sub x} emission due to increase by 20MPa in injection pressure could be balanced with a CA delay by about 2 degrees in injection timing angle. Particulate is different by load in exhaust characteristics. In combustion observation, soot decreased in produced quantity with diminution in luminous portion of flame. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Separation of baicalein from baicalin by means of solvent extraction; Yobai chushutsuho ni yoru baicalein /baicalin no bunri

    Kitazaki, H.; Ishimaru, M. [Tsumura and Co., Ibaraki (Japan); Inoue, K.; Yoshida, K. [Saga University, Saga (Japan)


    In this work, solvent extraction behaviors of some commercial extractants such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 925 for baicalein and baicalin decocted from Suctellaria root, which is a crude drug, were examined to elucidate their mutual separation by solvent extraction. Baicalein was extracted selectively by trialkylphosphine oxides over baicalin. From analyses of the extraction mechanism the equilibrium constant of extraction reaction and enthalpy change were evaluated. A porous resin impregnated with Cyanex 923 in XAD-7 was prepared to remove baicalein from baicalin by using a column packed with the resin. Baicalein was able to be completely removed by this column operation. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Phase Transformation of Zirconia Ceramics by Annealing in Hot Water; Jirukoniaseramikkusu no suichu aniru ni yoru soten`i

    Omichi, Nobukatsu.; Kamioka, Kunikazu.; Ueda, Kuniyoshi.; Matsui, KOji.; Ogai, Michiharu. [Tosoh Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} polycrystals (Y-TZP) was investigated by annealing at 140 degree C in hot water. Sintered bodies of Y-TZP were prepared by sintering at temperatures ranging between 1300 and 1500 degree C, using a 3 mol% Y-TZP fine powder, synthesized by means of the hydrolysis method, as a starting powder. X-ray diffraction measurements on the sample surfaces and Rietveld analyses revealed that the amount of cubic phase increased and the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration within the tetragonal phase decreased as the sintering temperature increased. Scanning electron microscopy measurements also showed that the grain size on the sample surfaces increased as the sintering temperature increased. When the sinered bodies were subjected to annealing in hot water, the phase-transformation rate on their surfaces increased as the sintering temperature increased. This behavior can be explained by both the decrease in the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration within the tetragonal phase and the increase in the grain size. (author)

  15. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    小峰, 由美子


    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  16. Suppression of 3D coherent noise by areal geophone array; Menteki jushinki array ni yoru sanjigen coherent noise no yokusei

    Murayama, R.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    For improving the quality of data collected by reflection seismic exploration, a lattice was deployed at one point of a traverse line, and the data therefrom were used to study the 3D coherent noise suppression effect of the areal array. The test was conducted at a Japan National Oil Corporation test field in Kashiwazaki City, Niigata Prefecture. The deployed lattice had 144 vibration receiving points arrayed at intervals of 8m composing an areal array, and 187 vibration generating points arrayed at intervals of 20m extending over 6.5km. Data was collected at the vibration receiving points in the lattice, each point acting independently from the others, and processed for the composition of a large areal array, with the said data from plural vibration receiving points added up therein. As the result of analysis of the records covering the data collected at the receiving points in the lattice, it is noted that an enlarged areal array leads to a higher S/N ratio and that different reflection waves are emphasized when the array direction is changed. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  17. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  19. Tidal energy conversion. Renewable energy; 3-3 choseki / choryu hatsuden. II. saisei kano energy ni yoru hatsuden

    Makino, T. [Tobishima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    There are not much examples applying tidal energy conversion, but tide and tidal current phenomena can be forecasted so correctly regardless of weather that the applying tidal energy is to be expected in the future. The largest tidal power plant is at Reims in France and install 24 Kaplan turbines each of which outlet power is 10,000kW (rotational direction is reversible) on the breakwater (750m is length). Tidal range at this place being 8.5m on an average, during the period of flowing seawater into the reservoir and on the contrary during the period of discharging seawater to the sea generation is both performed. Though there is no actual result of tidal power plant in Japan, in tidal current power system experimental generators have been installed at Kurushima channel and Naruto channel. Nihon University carried out various kinds of experiment using a Darius turbine (1.6m in dia.) at Kurushima channel and got outlet power of 3kW at the maximum (1983-`88). There are few coasts which have sufficient tide range in Japan, but there are so good many applicable coasts in China and Southeast Asia that the tidal power generation is to be expectatively. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology; Teihin`itan kaishitsu ni yoru CWM seizo gijutsu

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsurui, M.; Suto, Y.; Asakura, M. [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, J.; Yui, M.; Takano, S. [Japan COM Co. Ltd., Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    A CWM manufacturing technology was developed by means of upgrading low rank coals. Even though some low rank coals have such advantages as low ash, low sulfur and high volatile matter content, many of them are merely used on a small scale in areas near the mine-mouths because of high moisture content, low calorification and high ignitability. Therefore, discussions were given on a coal fuel manufacturing technology by which coal will be irreversibly dehydrated with as much volatile matters as possible remaining in the coal, and the coal is made high-concentration CWM, thus the coal can be safely transported and stored. The technology uses a method to treat coal with hot water under high pressure and dry it with hot water. The method performs not only removal of water, but also irreversible dehydration without losing volatile matters by decomposing hydrophilic groups on surface and blocking micro pores with volatile matters in the coal (wax and tar). The upgrading effect was verified by processing coals in a pilot plant, which derived greater calorification and higher concentration CWM than with the conventional processes. A CWM combustion test proved lower NOx, lower SOx and higher combustion rate than for bituminous coal. The ash content was also found lower. This process suits a Texaco-type gasification furnace. For a production scale of three million tons a year, the production cost is lower by 2 yen per 10 {sup 3} kcal than for heavy oil with the same sulfur content. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Confinement of solar thermal energy by Nesa film; Nesa maku ni yoru taiyo netsu energy no fujikome

    Shimizu, A.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M.; Daigo, Y. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports a Nesa (SnO2) film as selective transmissive film for effective confinement of solar thermal energy. Solar light spectrum ranges from 0.3 to 2.0{mu}m, while thermal radiation from bodies at 100-200degC is infrared ray more than 2{mu}m. Consequently, a solar water heater using the film which can pass rays below 2.0{mu}m while reflect rays over 2.0{mu}m for windows is very efficient. The Nesa film reflects rays with wavelengths more than plasma wavelengths (controllable from 1 to several {mu}m) by plasma action of free electrons. The Nesa films with different carrier densities were fabricated by spraying deposition method at dopant rates (Sb/Sn) from 0 to 2mol%. The solar water heaters were prepared using normal glass and specific glass coated with the Nesa film as selective transmissive film. The heater using the glass coated with the Nesa film of 2{mu}m plasma wavelength for windows could efficiently confine solar heat. The Nesa film of 700nm plasma wavelength which can pass visible light while reflect infrared ray was effective to reduce cooling/heating losses. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Realization of an accelerator for environmental refreshment in case of soil; Fukyugata kasokuki ni yoru kankyo sosei eno koka

    Isogai, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Learning from a history of the earth of ancient times, the paper studies effects of refreshing environment and soil or making them natural and harmless mostly using primitive bacteria, and develops element technology which is industrially accelerating. The spread type accelerator working only by solar energy was installed and operated for experiment. As indices of refreshment effects, a study was comparatively made between a sugar degree of sweet potato and a yield shown in the number of potatotimesunit weight. An EM propagation garbage layer is formed, and the two sections were installed of a site of the actual installation of the spread type accelerator and a site naturally left alone. Other effects of weather, temperature and humidity which are external factors and general fertilization are offset as common modes, and a consideration was so made that only refreshment effects of primitive bacteria can be relatively compared. Acceleration effects in using accelerator for growing sweet potato could be quantitatively confirmed. As to sugar degree, because the last study was made in the beginning of summer, the underground temperature was high enough. Even only EM effects were fully effective. This time, the weather was much colder, and it was found to be a must to use accelerator. 2 figs.

  3. Preparation of mullite fiber sol-gel method. Sol-gel ho ni yoru mullite sen prime i no gosei

    Nishio, T. (Unichika Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Fujiki, Y. (National Institute for Research and Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba (Japan))


    This report discribes a method to prepare mullite fiber by a new process using aqueous solution of aluminum nitrate, aluminum isopropoxide, and tetraethoxisilane(TEOS). Presursors of mullite were obtained by a method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS simultaneously to the solution of aluminum nitrate, or by another method to add TEOS after adding aluminum isopropoxide. Then, structural analyses on the spinning solution, precursor fibers, and calcination process were carried out by {sup 27}Al- and {sup 29}Si-NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, and DTA. The spinnable range of the method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS at the same time was wider when it was shown with H{sub 2}O mol/(Al+Si)mol and Al(OPr{sup i}){sub 3} mol/Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} mol. Manifastation of spinnability deeply related to the bonding condition of Al and Si formed in the solution. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Treatment wastewater containing dyestuffs by adsorption technology; Kyuchaku gijutsu ni yoru senryo gan`yu haisui no shori

    Yoshida, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For treatment of wastewater containing dyestuffs, the adsorption/separation recovery method using chitosan fiber was studied. Acid orange as acid dye and brilliant yellow as direct dye were used in experiment, and the pH, inorganic electrolyte and temperature dependency of dye adsorption into chitosan fiber were studied together with the dissolution curve of dyestuffs by NaOH aqueous solution. The result showed the possibility of adsorption, dissolution and concentrating recovery of dyestuffs. This method has the following features: (1) Efficient separation of dyestuffs and water + dyeing auxiliaries from dyeing wastewater, (2) recycling of water and dyeing auxiliaries in dyeing process, (3) high- concentrating recovery of dyestuffs by NaOH aqueous solution and recycling of fibers, (4) separation of dyestuffs from NaOH aqueous solution by cooling and salting out of desorption solution, (5) recycling of NaOH aqueous solution in desorption process, and (6) the possible closed system discharging no new wastewater in wastewater treatment. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Three-dimensional TDEM modeling using integral equation method. 2; Sekibun hoteishikiho ni yoru TDEM no sanjigen modeling. 2

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    A study was made about integral equation-assisted numerical calculation in a time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) 3D modeling. The total number of cells should be minimized now that the time required for calculation depends a great deal upon the total number of cells. On the assumption of a thin plate-like layer of anomaly in presence, with its center positioned just below the receiving point and with its entirety buried in a homogeneous 100 Ohm m medium, the correlation between the distance and the maximum cell length in the horizontal direction and the method of dividing were examined. As the result, it was found that a dividing method respecting the exponential function shortens the calculation time and that, for obtaining a true response and for minimizing the calculation time, the length of the horizontal side of the cell nearest to the transmission source needs be set to be not more than 1/2 of the distance. It was also found that the length of the side in the direction of depth of the topmost cell needs be set to be not more than approximately 1/3 of the depth of the upper surface of the plate-shaped anomaly. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Three dimensional reflection velocity analysis based on velocity model scan; Model scan ni yoru sanjigen hanshaha sokudo kaiseki

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  7. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)


    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Solar receiver kara no shizen tairyu ni yoru netsusonshitsu

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Free convective heat loss from solar heat receivers was studied, using three laboratory model receivers (different in depth L and aperture diameter d) heated by electric heaters. Most of the heat produced by heaters was transmitted to the air inside. The cylindrical vessel walls were fully insulated against heat. Heat loss being supposed to result mainly from transfer by free convection, the experiment results were edited by use of Nusselt number Nu and Rayley number Ra. Relations between Nu(D/d){sup m1} and Ra(L/D){sup m2} were plotted in a chart. Here, D is the receiver inner diameter, and m1 and m2 are constants that can be determined by computation. Tests points were provided approximately lineally, irrespective of D, L, or receiver inclination. Air currents were found to produce one or more swirls inside, thanks to the current visualization technique, when the receiver inclination was not sharper than 120{degree} (except 0{degree}). The number of swirls increased as the inner wall temperature rose. This kind of behavior of air currents directly affects the degree of heat loss. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Cooling effects of artificial water facilities by using a moving type turbulence promoter; Kudo ranryu sokushintai ni yoru suireikyaku jikkenho

    Miyake, K.; Nomura, T.; Nishimura, N.; Iyota, H. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan)


    Artificial water facilities present an effective means to alleviate trying micrometeorological phenomena such as warming of the urban space. For the reproduction of such an alleviating means by use of a model in a wind tunnel, a moving disturbance promoter (moving spire) was developed so as to render disturbances in a wind tunnel current similar in scale to ones in the real atmosphere, and an air current cooling experiment was conducted using a model fountain. The effort was intended for a small-size wind tunnel without a space large enough for disturbance promoter installation, and a moving type spire was developed for promoting disturbance effectively. The new spire is driven by a driving unit consisting of a motor and cam and can change its angle relative to the main current by 140{degree} at a rotation cycle of 1.7Hz., and this changes the flow direction of the main current periodically. As compared with the generally used combination of a roughness block and stationery spire, this new spire produced a disturbance intensity two times greater and a disturbance scale three times larger. When the disturbance intensity and scale were increased, the cooling characteristics of the air current changed in response to changes in the state of flow. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Membrane thickness of microcapsules generated by complex coacervation method; Coacervation ho ni yoru microcapsule no capsule makuatsu

    Kage, H.; Ogura, H.; Matsuno, Y. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Yada, N. [Idemitsu Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kunimasa, M. [Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    Microencapsulation of glass beads was carried out by complex coacervation of gelatin and acacia. Glass beads were chosen as the core material, because their surface was easily treated to be hydrophobic. We succeeded in excluding the complicated influence of emulsion on microencapsulation by the use of the coacervation method and a solid core material with narrow size distribution. The membrane of the microcapsule became thick with the increase of acetic acid dosage, while encapsulation was prevented by its excess addition because of the low pH value in the hardening process. Hydrophobizing of the core surface decreased the amount of acetic acid required to microencapsulate. A thin membrane was obtained due to the existence of salt, however the membrane thickness conversely became thick with a minute quantity of salt. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Detection of multiple AE signal by triaxial hodogram analysis; Sanjiku hodogram ho ni yoru taju acoustic emission no kenshutsu

    Nagano, K.; Yamashita, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)


    In order to evaluate dynamic behavior of underground cracks, analysis and detection were attempted on multiple acoustic emission (AE) events. The multiple AE is a phenomenon in which multiple AE signals generated by underground cracks developed in an extremely short time interval are superimposed, and observed as one AE event. The multiple AE signal consists of two AE signals, whereas the second P-wave is supposed to have been inputted before the first S-wave is inputted. The first P-wave is inputted first, where linear three-dimensional particle movements are observed, but the movements are made random due to scattering and sensor characteristics. When the second P-wave is inputted, the linear particle movements are observed again, but are superimposed with the existing input signals and become multiple AE, which creates poor S/N ratio. The multiple AE detection determines it a multiple AE event when three conditions are met, i. e. a condition of equivalent time interval of a maximum value in a scalogram analysis, a condition of P-wave vibrating direction, and a condition of the linear particle movement. Seventy AE signals observed in the Kakkonda geothermal field were analyzed and AE signals that satisfy the multiple AE were detected. However, further development is required on an analysis method with high resolution for the time. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Photoelasticity analysis of thermal stresses in the plastic ICs. Hikari danseiho ni yoru IC package nai oryoku no keisoku

    Hasegawa, T.; Shibuya, Y. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Recent highly integrated semiconductors have tendencies of being finer patterns and larger silicon chip area. Plastic packages excellent in productivity have been proved to be highly reliable in moisture resistance due to improved sealing resin and have become the main part of IC packages. However, in such devices featuring larger chip area and finer circuit pattern as large capacity memories, the problem of internal stress due to sealing resin contraction has been highlighted as a new problem. In this study, a photoelasticity which is a relatively simple method is employed to evaluate stress within sealing resin, and the review on effects of stress on the interior of sealing resin and chip are reported. Further, the effect of a buffer coat formed on the chip to reduce the stress on a silicon chip, and the effect of package shape on the thermal stress has been examined by means of photoelasticity, and the result is also shown. 10 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Leveling of battery load and extension of battery life by serial connection of electric double layer capacitors with batteries for electric vehicles. Experimental results on the small model; Denki jidoshayo denchi to denki nijuso capacitor no chokuretsu setsuzoku ni yoru denchi futan no heijunka oyobi denchijumyo no enshinka. (kogata model ni yoru jikken seika). Kogata model ni yoru jikken seika

    Takehara, J.; Okubo, N.; Miyaoka, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The load leveling method of batteries for electric vehicles was studied for extension of a battery life and mileage every charging. Under large load fluctuation conditions such as deceleration and acceleration, use of electric power sources other than battery for peek load at acceleration can improve a battery life, output power capacity and mileage every charging. Combination of effective recovery of regenerative power at deceleration with its discharge at acceleration is one of the effective methods. The electric double layer capacitors are serially connected with the batteries, regenerative power is charged only into the capacitors, and both voltages of the battery and capacitor are applied to a power circuit. Battery load is reduced by load on the capacitor. Until the capacitor is re-charged by regenerative power after full discharge, power is supplied only by battery through a diode. Capacitor power is used as effectively as possible until approaching considerably low voltage. As peak load of the battery is reduced by 30%, the mileage increases by 5.7%, and the battery cycle life becomes 1.5 times longer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Learning theory and system identification; Gakushu riron to system dotei

    Adachi, S. [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The relationship between learning theory and system identification theory is described. The learning theory is mainly being studied by neural network community, while the system identification theory is mainly being discussed in the community of control system design and failure detection. The relation between the two theories has been studied. In this paper, the relation is explained by focusing on the following two points: (1) The relationship between learning method such as error reverse propagation method and on-line system identification is discussed from the viewpoint of robust estimation. (2) The relationship between PAC (probably approximately correct) learning which is recently attracting the attention among many learning theories and system identification theories is investigated. 33 refs.

  16. Estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method; Kosokutei no rankinsosuho ni yoru seino suitei ni tsuite

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method. An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point, and is made dimensionless by using the hull length. The catamaran boat or the single hull boat being the subject of the discussion is supposed to have a transom stern, and to be sailing at a constant speed in the -X direction. A governing equation and a border condition were formulated using disturbance speed potential and X-direction speed differentiation. An inverse specular image was employed as a specular image system upon considering attitude change in the high-speed boat. As to the division of hull surface, the portions protruded above the static water surface were cut off from among the panel data of boat CAD. Considering a high speed condition in which the water surface is completely separated at the transom section, the water level at the transom section was supposed to be at the same height as at the rear end of the hull. Blow-out intensity at the water surface was derived in such a way that a CAD panel of the rear end of the hull is searched and wave height agrees with the height of the transom in the Z direction. A resistance curve may be obtained easily by using a personal computer. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Experimental study on condensation heat transfer enhancement by various kinds of integral finned tubes. Hankei hoko ni tokki wo motsu shuhoko fin ni yoru gyoshuku netsudentatsu sokushin

    Hijikata, K. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology., Tokyo (Japan)); Wang, S.


    Condensation heat transfer enhancement by a finned tube having radial ridges on the fin surface (called the R-tube), was investigated. Thermoexcel-C has a flat fin surface, while the R-tube has ridges on the fin surface, consequently the mean heat-transfer coefficient of the R-tube is 30-40% higher than that of Thermoexcel-C, in spite of same condensing areas in the two. The function of ridges on the fin surface of the R-tube to heat transfer enhancement, is remarkable. It is considered that a thin condensate film is formed on the tip of ridges, in the same way as that on the tip of fin without having ridges. The ridges disturb the flow of condensate in the channel, and promote a convective heat transfer due to an agitation action. Though the R-tube shows superior performance than other heat transfer tubes, the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement are different in the upper part and the lower part of the tube. In the upper part of the tube, the effect of heat transfer enhancement due to the formation of thin film region by the ridges, is predominant. And in the lower part, the enhancement effect due to the convective heat transfer by the agitation of the condensate, is important. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fundamental study on leak detection of underground gas pipeline using passive acoustic method; Judogata onkyo keisoku ni yoru maisetsu gas dokan hason kasho no kenshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Jinguji, M.; Imaizumi, H.; Kunimatsu, S.; Isei, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    With an objective to detect gas leaking from an underground gas pipeline, discussions have been given on a method which utilizes acoustic characteristics of leakage. On leaking sound generated from damaged portions, the form of damaging was hypothesized as pinholes, and spectra of leaking sounds from holes with different diameters were measured. The dominant frequency decreases as the hole diameter increases, while it is in a region of relatively high frequency of 1 kHz or higher. However, detection from the ground surface was impossible when cover soil has thickness from 0.5 to 1.5 m. In an experiment to measure leaking sound inside the pipe, pressure in the pipe was adjusted to 0.02 atm which is a standard pressure for a low-pressure pipe, and the sound was measured when the hole diameters were varied. In any of the results obtained by varying the hole diameter, spectra having the dominant frequency in the region of 1 kHz or higher were measured. In addition, it was found that sound pressure difference of as much as 50 dB at maximum is generated as compared with a case of no sound leakage. The above results verified that monitoring the high frequency of 1 kHz or higher is effective in detecting leakage from small damages. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Regulation of gene expression by carbohydrates. Part 1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene; Tansui kabutsu ni yoru idenshi hatsugen seigyo ( 1 ). Phosphoenolpyruvate san carboxykinase idenshi ni tsuite

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    Focusing on Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), recent knowledge on the transcription regulating function by carbohydrates via hormone is introduced. PEPCK exists mainly in the liver, kidney, adipose tissue, and small intestine, and the synthetic rate of PEPCK protein is regulated virtually by the transcription of PEPCK gene. Most part of the change is regulated via insulin and glucagon, and glucagon accelerates transcription while insulin suppresses transcription. Suppression by insulin becomes smaller in transgenic mice having reporter genes which lack RE containing part, but sufficient suppression of PEPCK gene expression by high carbohydrate diet is observed. Fasting and high protein diet increase glucagon concentration in the blood to increase cAMP concentration in cells. High PEPCK gene expression is observed with diabetes, which is the main cause for the increase in the value of blood glucose in diabetes. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Detection of bit location by acoustic emission technique in horizontal directional drilling. Kojo sakushin koho ni okeru bit ichi no AE ho ni yoru hyotei

    Abe, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sugimori, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Grauduate School); Nakajima, T. (NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The accuracy of the bit location in the excavation of pilot holes with horizontal drilling technique must be kept less than several tens of centimeters. Such an accuracy is hard to be achieved by the existing controlling technology. The depth of the bit tip can be measured comparatively accurately using a clinometer and the like. The azimuth meter, gyroscope, underground radar, locator, etc. are used for the detection of azimuth of the bit, but every one of them has its own problem. Therefore, new measuring methods to be used in combination with the conventional methods are required which can cover up the shortcomings of the conventional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technique is employed for the detection of the bit location, and the accompanying problems as well as detecting performance are investigated. It is used for the measurement in the drilling test performed at the reclaimed land on the premises of Keihin ironworks of NKK Corp. In connection with the detection of the bit location in horizontal pilot drilling, a study is made on the zone detection technique for AE signals generated by the bit when striking ground and those generated during drilling. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Encouraging chemical biology / international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education; Chemical biology no susume / monbusho ni yoru kokusai gakujutsu koryu no suishin ni tsuite

    Imanaka, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Described herein is encouraging chemical biology. Chemistry to elucidate fundamental elementary reactions involved in various phenomena and actual conditions of key molecules must be supported by physics for understanding behavior of electrons. The research themes attracting attention recently include sex pheromones of insects, photosynthesis, reactions involving antigens or antibodies, recognition of molecules, memorizing and leaning, and so on. Fundamentals of the life-related phenomena are being elucidated from structures of the related substances and reaction mechanisms involved by the NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses to determine structures of these substances and also by theoretical quantum chemistry to understand electron transfer phenomena within life-related molecules. Also described are international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education. Academic researches for the pursuit of truth are crossing the borders in nature. International exchange to promote information exchange and joint researches by researchers of different nationalities pursuing common themes is indispensable for scientific development. The Ministry of Education has been promoting the international academic exchange programs by providing subsidies for international academic researches, promoting international exchange projects at various institutions, such as national universities, inter-university organizations and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and supporting scientific projects promoted by UNESCO. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Matsuda, K.; Shinjo, H.; Harada, M.; Ohata, K.; Sakata, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Global environmental benefits of industrial heat pumps (fiscal 1993); 1993 nendo koon heat pumping gijutsu ni yoru chikyu ondanka keigen koka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho



    An investigational study was conducted aiming at making a quantitative grasp of effects of the spread of industrial heat pumps on energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction and at promoting the spread. Finally, the following eight countries joined this international joint research: Canada, France, Japan, Holland, Norway, Sweden, the U.K. and the U.S. Each country share the work and expenses for the research with each other. Japan made investigational researches on the application of heat pumps to processes of the chemical industry, oil refining industry, food industry, paper/pulp industry, and dyeing/weaving industry, and on the effects of greenhouse gas reduction. As procedures taken, values up to 2010 were estimated of energy prices in each country, energy supply/demand, rates of the heat source configuration for electric power supply, etc., the heat flow of the above-mentioned process was made clear, and analyses were conducted of annual profits, energy consumption, and depreciation period in the case of adopting heat pumps. Moreover, the energy conservation amount and greenhouse effect gas reduction amount were estimated based on the result of the analyses. 69 figs., 196 tabs.

  4. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Evaluation for characteristics of around the Nojima fault; Butsuri tansa ni yoru `Nojima jishin danso` shuhen no jiban bussei ni kansuru ichihyoka

    Shimizu, K.; Tsuji, T. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan); Tsuji, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Various surveys were conducted for the area around the Nojima fault, including ground surface, two-dimensional electrical and boring surveys and elastic wave tomography, in order to grasp properties of the ground around the `Nojima earthquake fault.` The resistivity image method as one of the two-dimensional electrical methods was used to grasp fault shapes over a wide range of the 1.6km long section extending between Esaki and Hirabayashi. The courses of traverse were set in the direction almost perpendicular to the fault. Boreholes were excavated and elastic wave tomography was conducted between the boreholes on the 9th and 17th courses of traverse, to confirm ground/mountain conditions and to compare the results with observed elastic wave velocities. Very low resistivities are observed at places where granite is distributed, suggesting that the fault-induced changes are not limited to the area around the fault. The zone in which elastic wave velocity decreases is narrow, 10m at the longest, at a velocity of 2.4km/s or lower, which is a low velocity for that propagating in granite. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Study on load levelling by means of the control of air conditioner operation; Kuchoki kado seigyo ni yoru fuka heijunka ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Sadakuni, S. [Japan Broadcasting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The recent drastic increase in the number of air conditioners has caused sharp and narrow peaks in summer seasons due to the inherent temperature sensitive characteristics. The authors proposed to reduce the peak power demand by controlling air conditioner operations, verifying its effectiveness on peak demand clipping. However, the former study has shortcomings in that any qualitative treatment of room temperatures or pleasant feeling was not attempted and it did not provide a way of assessing peak demand clipping in a power system as a whole. In this paper, we shall first propose a new control method that can compromise pleasant feeling and reduction in power demand. Although air conditioners are used to pursue `pleasant feeling`, this contradicts to reduce power consumption and further more the concept of `pleasant feeling` is very vague. Hence, `Weber-Fechner`s law` is utilized to quantify the pleasant feeling which is treated as fuzzy quantity. Fuzzy co-ordination method is used to compromise power demand curtailment and pleasantness. In the second part of this paper, we shall propose an approach of assessing the amount of peak load clipping when the newly proposed control strategy is adopted in a real size power system: A decrease in the required generation capacity is estimated provided that the Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) is maintained at the same level before and after the application of the new control strategy. The reduction can be regarded as a dividend of load management. 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Application of information theory to the sensitivity analysis of cogeneration system performance; Johoryo no gainen ni yoru kojenereshon system ni okeru fuka deta eikyo bunseki

    Takahashi, K.; Ishizaka, T.; Honnma, I. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)


    Cogeneration system (CGS) is anticipated by department of energy to play an important role in environment preservation. Cogeneration system`s estimation is depended on the preconditions, heat and electricity load data. Since the recognition of heat and electricity load is difficult, efficiency in load data is demanded repeatedly for the evaluation of cogeneration system. Necessary load factors for the estimation of cogeneration system from the energy department`s point of view as well as what measure may become good while recognizing load factors are investigated in this paper. Based on this, a proposal is made by considering load factors of buildings as a standard for estimation of the system. Further fixed quantity assessment is made with the results of computer simulation. From the obtained results, following observations are noted. Recognization of total load capacity is become very important when base load is introduced considerable amount for houses. Load factor`s information is very important for hotel when heat and electricity are used in balance. It is concluded that irrespective of motor capacity, whole day load factor information is necessary for office buildings. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Improvement of performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator by means of segmented loads; Hiheiko disk gata MHD hatsudenki ni okeru bunkatsu fuka ni yoru seino kaizen

    Kobayashi, H.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator with segmented loads is examined with {gamma}-{theta} two dimensional numerical simulations. The use of segmented loads is found to improve the generator performance when a low electron temperature plasma is introduced to the channel. The simulation results reveal the desired values of load resistances connected in upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The concept of the segmented loads is considered to be superior to rearranging seed fractions and load resistances. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Optimization of the ship type using waveform by means of Rankine source method; Rankine source ho ni yoru hakei wo mochiita funagata saitekika ni tsuite

    Hirayama, A.; Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Among the numerical calculation methods for steady-state wave-making problems, the panel shift Rankine source (PSRS) method has the advantages of rather precise determination of wave pattern of practical ship types, and short calculation period. The wave pattern around the hull was calculated by means of the PSRS method. The waveform analysis was carried out for the wave, to obtain an amplitude function of the original ship type. Based on the amplitude function, a ship type improvement method aiming at the optimization of ship type was provided using a conditional calculus of variation. A Series 60 (Cb=0.6) ship type was selected for the ship type improvement, to apply this technique. It was suggested that optimum design can be made for reducing the wave making resistance by means of this method. For the improvement of Series 60 ship type using this method, a great degree of reduction in the wave making resistance was recognized from the results of numerical waveform analysis. It was suggested that the ship type improvement aiming at the reduction of wave-making resistance can be made in shorter period and by smaller labor compared with the method using a waveform analysis of cistern tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Evaluation stationariness of triaxial seismic while drilling and detection of reflected wave; Kosei kussaku ni tomonau danseiha no sanjiku kaiseki ni yoru hiteijo hyoka to hanshaha no kenshutsu

    Yoshida, T.; Asanuma, H.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports a method to detect reflected wave components contained in an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling. Measurement was made on an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling in an experimental field by using a triaxial elastic wave detector disposed in a measurement well. Analyzing the particle motion tracks in the derived elastic wave signals (to derive the main axial direction of a three-dimensional hologram) revealed that oscillation direction of the signals changes non-steadily by time centering around the S-wave oscillation direction. In addition, a sound source position was estimated during the drilling. Existence probability of the S-wave signal in the non-steady continuous signals was estimated by handling the particle motion tracks stochastically. In addition, this existence probability was used as a weighting function for a correlative analysis to detect a reflected wave from directly reaching wave components in the non-steady continuous signals. Thus, improvement in reliability of reflected wave detection was attempted. Effectiveness of this method was endorsed by the field data. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T.; Kawahira, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Interpretation of seismic section by acoustic modeling. Study of large amplitude events; Hadoba modeling ni yoru jishin tansa danmen no kaishaku. Kyoshinhaba event ni taisuru kosatsu

    Tamagawa, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Sato, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A large amplitude event difficult to interpret was discovered in the overlap section in offset data beyond 10km targeting at deep structures, and the event was examined. A wave field modeling was carried out by use of a simplified synclinal structure model because it had been estimated that the large amplitude event had something to do with a synclinal structure. A pseudospectral program was used for modeling the wave field on the assumption that the synclinal structure model would be an acoustic body and that the surface would contain free boundaries and multiple reflection. It was found as the result that a discontinuous large amplitude event is mapped out in the synclinal part of the overlap section when a far trace is applied beyond the structure during a CMP overlap process. This can be attributed to the concentration of energy produced by multiple reflection in the synclinal part and by the reflection waves beyond the critical angle. Accordingly, it is possible that phenomena similar to those encountered in the modeling process are emerging during actual observation. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Inagaki, Y.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  14. Experimental study on onset of asthma like symptoms by diesel exhausts particles (DEP); Diesel haiki biryushi (DEP) ni yoru zensoku yo byotai no hassho ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Sagai, M. [National Research Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)


    By experiments using mice, facts which suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) produce a large amount of superoxide (O2{sup -})by chemical or biochemical reaction and this superoxide causes lung injury with a result of asthma like symptoms. It is verified, by the use of mice, that four fundamental symptoms of the onset of asthma like symptoms, i.e. rise of blood vessel permeability, mucus hypersecretion, inflammation accompanying chronic eosinophil infiltration, and airway hyperresponsiveness, are caused by DEP. It can be derived from the fact that mankind asthma may also be caused by DEP. The knowledge obtained by this experiment, which indicates that DEP causes chronic inflammation accompanying eosinophil infiltration, may add important information to the study on the causal relationship of DEP with asthma symptoms. 31 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Research on giving antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials; Gin ion ni yoru shikayo zairyo no kokinsei fuyo ni kansuru kenkyu



    The secondary dental caries easily occur by breeding of bacteria in cavities between living body and composite resin, false tooth or root of tailored tooth as tooth repairing materials. The antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials was thus studied by implanting Ag ion. The antibacteria effect with time after culture of caries bacteria was studied by implanting Ag ion into SiO2 powder, PMMA samples and Ti alloy samples at 20 and 200keV in energy of ion. In addition, the antibacteria activity of SiO2 powder as composite material was found at 25keV which was previously effective for the antibacteria activity. This SiO2 filler (Ag{sup +} filler) showed the antibacteria activity on every bacteria sample after 2h, and in particular, could kill all of 3 kinds of bacteria obtained from a composite resin surface after 12h. The number of living S. salivarius was reduced by half after 12h. The application of the composite resin filler implanted with Ag{sup +} is significant to prevent recurrence of caries. 5 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Investigation on innovation of technology development by means of strategic energy intelligence; Energy senryakurontekina approach ni yoru gijutsu kaihatsu no kakushin ni kansuru chosa



    For the purpose of developing the future innovative energy technology, the paper described a strategic point of view. Effects of the energy issue are remarkable on the next generation and thereafter as seen in the finite of energy resource, global-scale environmental changes, the increasing energy demand, natural/social influences of large-scale technology development. If the technological development is going on in the same way as until now, there will appear limits. Relating to the strategies, to seek what energy should be among the strategies, it is necessary to consider not only global-scale problems but particular conditions in Japan (self-sufficiency, international cooperation, creativity, etc.) Also, wisdom and technique are necessary to attain it. Technological development in a wide sense plays a major role in the energy strategy. Technology innovation must be advanced according to the energy strategy. Integrating ideology into the development of energy technology and selecting therefrom developmental subjects which meet the purpose, required is the construction of the energy system with high flexibility and functionality. Looking at the conventional way of thinking from a different angle and posing a future pull plan, Japan should show leadership to the world. 20 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Maneuvering response of slender ship with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters; Sensuiiki ni okeru saichosen no seigen soda ni yoru soju oto

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to grasp memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering hydrodynamic characteristics and motions in shallow waters, this paper discusses maneuvering performance of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering. The unsteady slender body theory is used for analyzing the hydrodynamic characteristics acting the hull obliquely advancing or turning around, and hinge-flap model is employed for analyzing the rudder force characteristics. A method has been proposed by which variable components of bearing and transverse displacement of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters can be calculated. Differential coefficient of hull and rudder was calculated by varying the frequency. It was confirmed that the differential coefficient of hull agreed with the test results using cistern. Using this method, maneuvering response using hydrodynamic coefficient in the actual motion frequency was compared with that near the zero frequency. As a result, it was found that memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering response of ship can not be ignored in very shallow waters. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Development of multi-filter spectroradiometry; Filter hoshiki ni yoru bunka hosharyo no keisoku hoho to sono supekutoru no hyogen hoho ni tsuite

    Miyake, Y.; Aoshima, T.; Minoda, T.; Kato, T.; Kondo, S. [Eiko Instruments Trading Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Described in this paper is a technique of solar radiation spectroradiometry in which high-resolution wavelength computation adds to a multi-filter method. The solar spectrum upon entering the atmosphere is scattered and absorbed by parameter-constituting elements such as gas, aerosol, cloud particles, etc., and its spectral contour is complicatedly deformed relative to wavelength. Taking advantage of the fact that the scattering and absorbing characteristics of some of the elements are constant relative to wavelength, a simple equation was constructed to enable high-resolution spectrum measurement wavelength-wise, and this compensates for the limit in measurable wavelength that the conventional multi-filter method suffers from. The new method discussed here is not so expensive as the grating method thanks to the employment of filters, is capable of determining spectral radiation quantities with a precision of {plus_minus}5%, and is reduced in terms of the capacity of memory for data storage. The new method enables data collection under various atmospheric conditions that the four seasons present, which the difficult-to-apply and expensive spectroradiometer fails. It is expected that this method will find its use in collecting basic data for the designing of photovoltaic power generation systems, in the study of photochemical reaction in agriculture, and in collecting basic data for daylight lighting. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Research of environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information. Part 2; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio ecosencing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2



    Basic considerations of exploring and cultivating environmental reporter organisms are summarized. Mechanism of genetic engineering amplification and molecular biological amplification, and approach to combining them to a hardware as a bioindicator system are investigated. For the current status of molecular biological measurement technology for measuring ecological environment and its application, environmental diagnosis from a phyropathological viewpoint, environmental diagnosis using microorganisms, test fabrication of genetic sensor, and overseas examples of environmental monitoring network are described. For the application of ecological information and functions for developing innovative environmental remediation technology, issues and potential areas for research and development regarding the bioremediation technology in which the US has achieved a progress for the benefit of soil environment remediation are summarized. For the phytoremediation, an area of bioremediation, the metabolism of microorganisms which live in the rhizosphere, and the technology for controlling the microorganisms in the soil through plants are investigated. 66 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Study on vibration fatigue damage due to the blow of OPGW aluminum tube; OPGW aluminium kan no kyofu ni yoru shindo hiro hason ni kansuru kenkyu

    Aikawa, S.; Kohara, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The cause of damage in the cashing portion of an aluminum tube incorporating OPGW (OPAC 120mm{sup 2}) was investigated and proper measures for the prevention of recurrence were examined. The investigation result of the past accident of the same kind or the result of stress measurement showed that the cause of aluminum tube damage is the fatigue rupture based on the repeated stress occurring by the rolling of OPGW. Moreover, it was known that the attached wire in a jumper lead-in system is most effective and valid as preventative measures of damage. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Development of technology for organic wastewater treatment by microorganisms and production of materials for conserving environment. Part 1. ; Organic wastewater treatment by photoshynthetic bacteria and microalgae. Biseibutsu ni yoru yukikei haisui shori to yojo biseibutsu no shigenka ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. ; Kogosei saikin to sorui ni yoru haisui shori ni kansuru kihonteki kento

    Kato, A.; Kita, D.; Kubotera, T.; Tsuji, H. (Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report introduces a system which simultaneously executes the purification of organic wastewater and recovery of recyclable matters. The system uses photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae as well as the conventionally used activated sludge bacteria. Environmental maintenance use agents are produced by processing bacteria and algae generated during the wastewater treatment. The photosynthetic bacteria are purple non-sulfuric bacteria, which also contain amino acid, vitamin and other useful physiologically activated matter. The wastewater treatment which utilizes them has the advantage of miniaturizing the plant and lowering the power. As algae, chlorella and spirulina are used in order to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus in the water to be treated. The following is an actual result of wastewater treatment in a beancurd maker's plant: if purple non-sulfuric bacteria are used, high concentration organic wastewater can be treated without dilution so that the plant can be miniaturized. The chlorella culture is so effective that the nitrogen and phosphorus remaining in the wastewater are absorbed and removed by the chlorella with its increasing. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Development of a new numerical method for visco-elastic flows using the GSMAC-method and the MUSCL-TVD method. Flows of Maxwell fluid through planer abrupt contraction; Kosei hoteishiki ni TVD gata MUSCL ho wo mochiita GSMAC ho ni yoru nendansei ryutai no kaiseki ni tekishita scheme kaihatsu. Maxwell ryutai no kyushuku shoheibannai nagare ni yoru kensho

    Fujieda, T.; Tanahashi, T.; Okada, A. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Kato, Y. [Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In this paper, we propose a new GSMAC-FEM (generalized simplified marker and cell-finite element method) which is suited to the numerical analysis of visco-elastic fluids. The equation of continuity and the equation of momentum are solved by the GSMAC-FEM algorithm and the constitutive equation is solved by the finite volume method. This scheme employs the third order MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Law) in order to guarantee the absence of spurious oscillation near the steep gradients of the variable. This method uses a minmod limiter in order to satisfy the TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) condition. The present method employs the simultaneous relaxation of velocity and pressure for the incompressible condition. The flows of Maxwell fluid through two-dimensional planer abrupt contraction are calculated by the present method and the effects the Weissenberg number and the Reynolds number are discussed. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Detection of the oscillation mode of measured waveforms in power systems by Prony analysis; Puroni kaisekiho ni yoru denryoku keito ni okeru jissoku hakei no doyo mode kenshutsu ni tsuite

    Shibata, K. [Kansai Electaric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the detection method of the oscillation modes by Prony analysis from measured data on power systems. A Prony analysis method can obtain the oscillation frequency and logarithmic damping rate corresponding to eigenvalue directly, and is suitable for detecting the oscillation modes. The analysis result showed that longer sampling intervals of 0.2-0.4s allows detection of the long-period oscillation modes from less data, and the index corresponding to waveform areas allows evaluation of the significance of each mode. It was also confirmed that a low-pass filter with a time constant of nearly 0.2s is effective for poor data including various noises, and correction of amplitude and phase shifts is possible by filter. In addition, the study result on application of a Prony analysis method to instantaneous value waveforms showed that analysis of harmonic characteristics is possible by selecting proper analytical parameters, and a Prony analysis method is applicable to analysis of measured data enough. (NEDO)

  4. Study on computer graphics. PC graphic system for supposed landscape images of substations and transmission lines; Computer graphics ni kansuru kenkyu. Pasokon ni yoru hendensho sodensen keikan kansei yosozu sakusei system ni tsuite

    Matsuda, Y.; Usagawa, Y.; Kawamoto, A. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    In order to obtain the understanding of residents around sites for landscape images in construction of power plants, substations and transmission lines, preparation of supposed landscape images was studied using computer graphics (CG). The system developed on a graphics workstation in 1994 was expensive and poorer in operability than PC although real clear images were obtained. The system was thus improved to be usable on PC. The improved system is usable on OA systems in offices, and possible to transmit image data and print out high-quality images. In addition, the system offers the preparation function of facility layouts and computer graphics. The system is featured by necessary training only for 2-3 days, lower cost and necessary lower initial investment. Since its user interface was, in particular, considered to make it possible for designers to easily operate and timely cope with demands of residents, flexible selection out of various cases, rapid simulation and efficient business became possible. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Topographic effects on SP anomaly caused subsurface fluid flow. Numerical approach; Chikasui ryudo ni tomonau shizen den`i ijo ni taisuru chikei no koka. Suchi modeling ni yoru approach

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Self-Potential (SP) anomaly at the ground surface caused by subsurface fluid flow is numerically calculated for two-dimensional models using a simulation code PTSP to investigate the topographic effects on the SP profile. The result shows that the negative SP anomaly generally seen in higher elevation can be explained as a result of topographic effects on the near surface fluid flow system for cases of homogeneous earth. However, heterogeneous permeability distribution possibly changes the fluid flow pattern and its derived SP profile. Heterogeneity in electrical resistivity and cross-coupling conductivity also affects on the SP pattern, causing the shift of peak anomaly location. Therefore, a numerical approach applying hydrogeological and physical property distributions is invaluable for detailed interpretation of SP survey data. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Development of hydroponic system using agricultural waste. 2. Utilization of ozone for sterilization of nutrient solution; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 2. Ozone ni yoru baiyoeki sakkin ni kansuru kento

    Terazoe, H.; Yoshihara, T.; Nakaya, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on a sterilizing effect of ozone on Fusarium bacteria in hydroponic culture, and its effect on components in the culture solution. In an experiment, dry air with O3 concentration of 3.5 ppm was sent into aqueous solution inoculated with Fusarium bacteria at a flow rate of 5 liters per minute. The Fusarium bacteria was sterilized nearly completely in about five minutes. No change was observed in pH, EC and dissolved oxygen concentration of the O3-treated culture solution. However, iron and manganese among the soluble components have been oxidized by O3 and precipitated, hence these components must be added after the O3 treatment. In spinach culture performed on a culture medium inoculated with Fusarium bacteria, ozone water containing dissolved O3 at 0.8 ppm was flown into a urethane foam medium and vegetable roots. This treatment has resulted in reduction of the number of strains occurred with a wilt symptom below that in the section flown with distilled water. The spinach has grown normally without showing an effect of the ozone water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Studies on power augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine with variable speed control. 2nd Report. Determination of optimum slip due to second-power torque control; Kahensoku unten ni yoru field suiheijiku fusha no koseinoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Jijo torque seigyo ni yoru saiteki suberi no kettei

    Shimizu, Y.; Takada, M.; Maeda, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kamikawa, H.; Marumo, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan)


    An inverter-assisted variable speed power generation system is subjected to a field test and the optimum slip for optimum operation against changing wind velocities is determined. The system is a horizontal-axis wind turbine of the up-wind type provided with three variable-pitch blades. The rotor is 8.2m in diameter, the rotation axis is positioned 12.7m above the ground, and the output is rated at 8kW. The rotation of the rotor is multiplied nine times by a step-up gear using a timing belt, and drives the 8-pole/3-phase squirrel-cage 8kW induction generator whose rotation is rated at 900rpm. The generated AC power is converted into DC by transistors before being charged into storage batteries. In the experiment, power is generated at variable speeds using the inverter and four types of second-power torque control are tested, different from each other in the magnitude of slips. After an overall evaluation of the amount of generated power and system efficiency, it is found that a slip of -2.0% is the optimum for the control of power generation in this type of wind turbine. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  9. Study on rapid curing for laminated rubber using induction heating. 3rd Report. Uniform heating by ultra low frequency magnetic field; Yudo kanetsu ni yoru sekiso gomu no kosoku karyu ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Choteishuha jiba ni yoru kin'itsu kanetsu

    Fukumoto, H.; Kurokawa, Y.; Sakiyuama, K.; Adachi, S. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    The authors are doing research to develop a rapid curing device by using inductive heating for the production of a laminated rubber bearing. In the previous paper, it was shown that three problems exist; i.e. (i) the slit mold necessary, (1) lower uniform temperature in the radial direction, and (3) necessary temperature control by the internal location temperature, when the e frequency (60 Hz) induction heating was used to vulcanize a laminated rubber. This paper demonstrates that ultra low frequency heating is adequate to cope with the above problems. It will be shown that (i) the mold is not necessary a slit, (2) the radial temperature difference is within {+-}5 degree C, and (3) the internal temperature can be controlled by the side mold temperature, as the result of ultra low frequency induction heating test. (author)

  10. Technology to prevent deposition of marine organisms by means of electrically conductive coating. Discussions on current and potential distribution by using experiments; Doden tomaku ni yoru kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi gijutsu. Denryu den`i bunpu ni kansuru jikken ni yoru kento

    Usami, M.; Masaki, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, K.


    Steel structures in sea water and surface of hulls are deposited with such marine organisms as microorganisms, algae and shellfish. The deposition causes a large problem such as occurrence of abnormal local corrosion in the structures, and increase in cruising resistance in ocean vessels. The present study has introduced a simplified equation of estimation for current and potential distribution in parts coated with an electrically conductive film, and verified its reasonability by an experiment. The equation of estimation was introduced by following a model of current flow in the electrically conductive coating. The experiment has the conductive coating applied to the interior of a concrete water tank with a length of 10.8 m, a width of 5 m and a depth of 3 m to measure potential at different locations. The conductive coating was energized from copper foils attached on each applied face, whereas the current was applied to two faces between the conductive films as a pair among the four coating applied faces to measure potential in each location. A simulated calculation revealed that the potential range in the depth direction is made smaller if specific resistance of the conductive film is decreased, and made greater if increased. Effectiveness of the equation of estimation was verified by an experiment. This method has provided a prospect of achieving optimization of the specification for application of the conductive film. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Direct control of stabilization for nonlinear systems using power state feedback; Hisenkei system no beki jotai feedback ni yoru chokusetsutekina anteika seigyo

    Okubo, S. [Yamagata Univ. (Japan)


    The design method for stabilization of nonlinear systems by direct feedback without using evaluation function is shown. This method is a very important controlling method which is the basis for nonlinear system control, and it is expected to be applied to very wide fields. It is made clear that numerical solution is not possible because the number of equations exceeds that of variables in the extended Lyapunov equation which becomes an equation for the design. There is no concept of pole of linear system in nonlinear systems although stabilization of nonlinear system is natural extension of stabilization of linear system in case of using Lyapunov function. Numerical difficulty is avoided by the use of genetic algorithm in the design calculation, and strict designing with finite degree becomes possible as a result. This method can design strictly nonlinear feedback control law of bounded power degree to stabilize globally nonlinear system of odd highest degree polynomial. The effectiveness of this system is shown an instance of numerical calculation. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Fission track dating using sphene. ; Example of the Hanawa pluton. Sphene wo mochiita fission track ho ni yoru nendai sokutei. ; Hanawa shinsei gantai no rei

    Ohira, H. (Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)); Honda, T. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Laboratory)


    As for the Hanawa pluton which distributes near the boundary between Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures, the fission track (FT) dating was conducted by using sphene. The inside surfaces of the polished samples of sphene crystal were stuck by outside detectors and the grain-by-grain method was used to determine the age by the calibration method where a Mount Dromedary Complex sphene was used as the age standard sample. The spontaneous track density differed greatly from a sample to another sample, and even in the same sample the number of crystal grains which could be the measuring subject was limited. The FT ages determined on 5 samples were 67.4Ma for mylonite-like subfacies, 91.9 Ma and 92.5Ma for large shpene bearing subfacies, and 92.5 Ma and 93.1 Ma for fine grained quartz diorite-tonalite. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of Th content to U content on the measured age was also studied. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Investigation of flow field inside a savonius rotor by image processing technique with conditional sampling. Joken chushutsuho ni yoru savonius fusha no naibu nagareba no gazo keisoku

    Fujisawa, N.; Taguchi, Y.; Sato, T.; Nagaya, K.; Ikai, S. (Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Uemura, T. (Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The particle image measuring system, or particle-tracking velocimetry was applied and validity estimation was made for the purpose of quantitatively estimating the flow rate field inside a Savonius rotor. This image measuring system is constituted by a CCD camera, image processing board, microcomputer, and 120byte hard disk. The experiment was carried out at a mean flow rate of 0.1m/s and a Reynolds number of 4[times]10[sup 3]. The binary correlation algorithm was applied to two consecutive images with an interval of 1/60s to make correspondence between tracer particles and calculate the instantaneous velocity vector. The experimental results showed that the instantaneous velocity distribution for each of various rotational angles of rotor in the inner flow of a Savonius rotor was obtained and consistent with the visualization data using the smoke-wire method. As for the output mechanism of the windturbine a wind-collecting effect contributing to generation of windturbine torque in the flow field of the advancing blade was recognized. On the other hand, formation of a separated shearing layer was found in the vicinity of the blade tip on the return blade side. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

    Ando, J.; Matsumoto, D.; Maita, S.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru katamaran no zoha teiko keisanho

    Kataoka, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes a method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method. Two Wigley models were put side by side to make a catamaran, speccular images were taken on a face symmetrical in the left and right sides, and only one side (the demi-hull) was used as a region to be calculated. Considering blow-out onto the demi-hull surface and still water surface, a model was constituted, in which discrete vortices were distributed on the demi-hull camber to flow the vortices out to an infinitely distance place from the stern. A free surface condition according to double model linearization by Dawson was derived for this model in terms of numerical analysis. The Kutta`s condition is incorporated when SQCM is used concurrently with the Rankine source method, but not incorporated when not used. Calculations were performed on both conditions. Wave resistance was derived by using pressure integral on the hull surface. It is better to consider the Kutta`s condition when the distance between the demi-hulls is small. However, if the distance is large, or speed is great for the boat length resulting in less interference between the demi-hulls, there is very little difference due to the Kutta`s condition. Difference in the wave shapes causes how waves are made to vary. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties. Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  17. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties; Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  18. Control of population of excited nitrogen molecules by mixing hydrogen in low pressure discharge; Chisso jun`antei reiki bunshi mitsudo no quenching ni yoru seigyo no kento

    Uematsu, K.; Yumoto, M.; Sakai, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The authors have studied on surface treatment of PTFE by a low pressure discharge. It is deduced that excited nitrogen molecules contribute to introduce polar components on the surface. To confirm the speculation, we tried to change population of metastable nitrogen N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) by quenching precursor N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g), with hydrogen molecule. The decrease of relaxation time which indicates a change of excited molecule and measured by emission spectroscopy using a time after glow method was obtained. As a result, the relaxation times of N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g) and N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) decreased to 55% and 20% respectively, when mixing ratio of hydrogen was 3%. It was also deduced that hydrogen atom may take a part in a quenching process of N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}). 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Numerical simulation of an excited round jet under helical disturbances by three-dimensional discrete vortex method; Helical kakuran ni yoru reiki enkei funryu no uzuho simulation

    Izawa, S.; Kiya, M.; Mochizuki, O. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The evolution of vortical structure in an impulsively started round jet has been studied numerically by means of a three-dimensional vortex blob method. The viscous diffusion of vorticity is approximated by a core spreading model originally proposed by Leonard (1980). The jet is forced by axisymmetric, helical and multiple disturbances. The multiple disturbances are combinations of two helical disturbances of the same mode rotating in the opposite directions. The multiple disturbances are found to enhance both the generation of small-scale structures and the growth rate of the jet. The small-scale structures have highly organized spatial distributions. The core spreading method is effective in aquiring the core overlapping in regions of high extensional rate of strain. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Production of Nd-Fe-B alloys by mechanical alloying; Mechanical alloying ni yoru Nd-Fe-B gokin no sakusei

    Saito, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)


    Nb-Fe-B system magnet known as a high performance permanent magnet is produced by powder metallurgy and quench solidification methods. At present, although for a magnetic powder for Nd-Fe-B magnet an isotropic powder coarsely crashed after conducting heat treatment to and Nd-Fe-B amorphous thin belt produced by melt-spin method, research and development on an anisotropic magnetic powder are being propagated earnestly for magnetic powder with high magnetic property alternating with this. For a new producing method of magnetic powder alternating with the melt spin method, manufacturing methods using mechanical alloying method and using hydrogen storing feature of the Nd-Fe-B alloy called HDDR method are studied. In this study, mechanical alloying of mixed powders of Nd, Fe and B was conducted under hydrogen or nitrogen atmosphere to investigate the reaction to atmospheric gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen and so forth. And, by conducting the obtained powders to vacuum treatment, it was also investigated if Nd2Fe14B ferromagnetic phase formed or not. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Change of the electron attachment coefficient caused by corona discharge in oxygen. Sanso gas chu, corona hoden ni yoru denshi fuchaku keisu no henka

    Kajita, Shogo; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ushiroda, Sumio (Toyota College of Tech., Aichi (Japan))


    The relationship between the electron attachment coefficient of ozone which is one of gases genearated during discharge and the ozone concentration was determined by discharging negative corona discharge in pure oxygen to research and develop a small and highly efficient ozonizer. These measured results are useful as the basic data necessary for simulation of a ozonizer using oxygen as the raw material. The experiment was carried out by releasing photo-electrons generated by pulse glow discharging with a Xe lamp in oxygen sealed into a drifttube, by generating negative ions due to attaching electrons to gaseous molecules and by measuring the induced current accompanied by the transfer. As the results, if ozone of hundreds of ppm is contained in oxygen, followings were confirmed: electron attachment coefficient increased for E/N of about 10Td or less, where E is electric charge and N is molecular density of gas; electron attachment coefficient increased by the dissociative attachment of ozone for E/N of about 10Td or less; and further, the cross section of dissociative attachment for ozone could be estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. 12 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Numerical simulation for submerged body fitted with hydrofoil by boundary element method; Kyokai yosoho ni yoru yokutsuki bossuitai mawari no nagare keisan

    Masuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ashidate, I. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In a high-speed boat of a type using hydrofoils, lifting force increases in proportion to square of its length, while displacement is proportional to the third power. Therefore, an idea has come up that speed of a large boat may be increased by combining the hydrofoils with a submerged body. In other words, the idea is to levitate a ship by using composite support consisting of buoyancy of the submerged body and lifting force caused by the hydrofoils. Insufficiency of the lifting force may be complemented by the buoyancy of the submerged body which increases in an equivalent rate as that in the displacement. However, combining a submerged body with hydrofoils render a problem that lifting force for hydrofoils decreases because of interactions among the submerged body, hydrofoils, and free surface. Therefore, assuming a model of a submerged body with a length of 85 m cruising at 40 kt, analysis was given on decrease in lifting force for hydrofoils due to interactions between the submerged and lifting body and free surface by using the boundary element method. As a result, it was verified that the lifting force for the hydrofoils decreases as a result of creation of a flow that decreases effective angle of attach of the hydrofoils. It was also made clear that making the submerging depth greater reduces the decrease in the lifting force. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Numerical prediction with `DMDF` model of pack ice motion in the Okhotsk sea; DMDF model ni yoru Okhotsk kai ryuhyo undo no suchi yosoku

    Matsuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Suzuki, S.; Kato, H. [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Rheem, C. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    A simulation was performed on pack ice motion in the Okhotsk Sea in winter by using the distributed mass/discrete floe (DMDF) method that carries out a dynamic numerical calculation of pack ice motion. Several kinds of cases were compared and calculated. As a result, effectiveness was verified on a DMDF model with boundary conditions which are relatively large in range and complex in nature. At the same time, it was possible to estimate part of the characteristics of pack ice motion in this sea area. The numerical calculation used the floe distribution on February 1, 1994 as the initial condition, and performed calculations on conditions until February 8 giving considerations on meteorological and hydrographic data. As a result, the calculation result showed the same movements as those in the observed ice conditions. If an ocean current is hypothesized steady, the calculation is affected more than necessarily by the ocean current, and it derives a result departed from reality. From these findings, it was elucidated that floe motions are governed mainly by wind; and in making a numerical modeling, a consideration including composition with the ocean current is necessary. Shear stress of wind has its acting direction displaced from the wind direction because of effect of the Corioli`s force. 6 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Simulation of tandem hydrofoils by finite volume method with moving grid system; Henkei koshi wo tsukatta yugen taisekiho ni yoru tandem suichuyoku no simulation

    Kawashima, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Miyata, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to clarify possibility of application of time-advancing calculated fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation by using a finite volume method with moving grid system, a simulation was performed on motion of a ship with hydrofoils including the control system therein. The simulation consists of a method that couples a moving grid system technology, an equation of motion, and the control system. Complex interactions between wings and with free surface may be considered automatically by directly deriving fluid force from a flow field by using the CFD. In addition, two-dimensional flows around tandem hydrofoils were calculated to solve the motion problem within a vertical plane. As a result, the following results were obtained: a finite volume method using a dynamic moving grid system method was applied to problems in non-steady tandem hydrofoils to show its usefulness; a method that couples the CFD with the equation of motion was applied to the control problems in the tandem hydrofoils to show possibility of a new technology for simulating motions; and a simulation that considers such wing interference as wave creation, discharged vortices, and associated flows was shown useful to understand characteristics of the tandem hydrofoils. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Vibration suppression of robot arm feedforward control with on-line parameter identification; Online kansei dotei ni yoru robot arm no feedforward shindo yokusei seigyo

    Iwasaki, M.; Kuze, Y.; Otsuka, K.; Matsui, N. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    Generally, robot arms with flexible joints are multi-mass resonant systems, thus causing mechanical vibration. Since the vibration deteriorates the arm position control accuracy, the vibration suppression is indispensable to achieve the high performance arm motion. The authors have already proposed a feedforward vibration suppression scheme using an optimal control command shaping. The scheme is suitable for practical industrial use because of its simple control algorithm, however, there still remains a problem inherent in feedforward techniques that parameter setting errors in controller have significant effects on the suppression control accuracy. This paper presents an adaptive feedforward control of the vibration suppression with on-line mechanical parameter identifier, based on the proposed command shaping. In this scheme, the on-line identification of arm inertia using a method of least squares is performed during acceleration in arm motion. The identified parameter is used during deceleration to suppress the residual vibration. Experimental results using a prototype show the effectiveness of the proposed control. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by use of a simulated moving bed reactor. Mogi idoso wo mochiita kyusoku shoon ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sano, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of CArbonaceous Resources Conversion); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Iwakiri, H. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan))


    An experiment to manufacture coke with rapid temperature raising was carried out using an equipment simulating a vertical moving bed coke oven. Two kinds of trial manufacturing patterns were tested: Pattern A to raise coal temperature rapidly to about 450[degree]C, which is held for about 20 minutes, and then raised again to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min, and pattern B to raise the temperature from about 300[degree]C to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min. An experiment on test samples from heavy caking coal (PDH coal) and light caking coal (OP coal) revealed the following results: The PDH coal applied with the pattern A produced in about two hours a coke with quality equivalent to or better than practically used coke; the temperature raising pattern B resulted in no full lump formation even with the PDH coal; according to the temperature raising pattern A, manufacturing coke from the OP coal is impossible; however, if the PDH coal or pitch is mixed with the OP coal, coke may be manufactured. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum in the fluid of hydroponic culture using DNA analysis; DNA kaiseki ni yoru suiko saibai yoekichu no horenso ichobyokin

    Oyama, K.; Kawabata, T. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    In the case of circularly using a fluid of the hydroponic culture for crops such as vegetable, the destructive damage is caused when specified harmful germs multiply in the growing crop. therefore, it is necessary to find the germs in question out and deal with them as quickly as possible. In this paper, studies were made on a sure identification technology of F. oxysporum using DNA analysis and the measures to prevent crop damages caused by diseases. The results of the study are reported. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Development of power transmission tower monitoring system. Landslide detection by GPS carrier sensor; Soden tetto ijo kanshi system no kaihatsu. GPS carrier sensor ni yoru jisuberi kenshutsu



    In order to reduce labor required for monitoring, patrolling, and checking anomalies in power transmission towers, a development has been made on a remotely controlled monitoring system that can detect landslides easily by detecting carrier waves from the global positioning system (GPS) in combination with use of cellular phones. The present system does not use code signals from the GPS, but receives carrier waves used for its transmission at two locations, measures precisely the phase difference therein, and calculates a very small change in the distance between two points from difference in arrival time of the waves. Receivers are placed at base points (substations) and GPS measuring points (transmission towers). Pocket bells are called from a personal computer at the maintenance location (a power center) during observation, and power is supplied into the receivers from solar cells. The data of GPS carrier waves received at both locations are transmitted to the power center through a cellular phone. The phase difference is calculated and the amount of movement is displayed on the personal computer screen to carry out remote surveillance. A measurement of accuracy of about 1 cm may be realized. Demonstration tests have begun in 1995 at towers installed in the Shiga plateau district where landslide occurs frequently, and the feasibility of the system was verified. 5 figs.

  9. Potential evaluation of cold heat and hot heat supply by solar heat; Taiyonetsu ni yoru reinetsu onnetsu no kyokyu potential hyoka

    Akizawa, A.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    When the recovered solar heat is supplied to demands such as heating, cooling by absorption refrigerator and hot water supply, the maximum available heating value was determined using a model in which solar heat collector was installed in the residence, to investigate the possibility of alternative demand. In this study, the supply temperatures were 80 {degree}C for cooling, 50 {degree}C for heating, and 50 {degree}C for hot water supply, where a flat plate type heat collector was employed. It was assumed that the heat storage can be conducted for 24 hours. Results obtained are as follows. For detached houses, most of the monthly demand can be supplied due to the actual predominant fine days in each month. For the cold and intermediate periods, it was supposed that monthly demand can be supplied by using excess heating value of fine days in the case of sufficient capacity of heat storage tank. For the model with heat insulating structure, demands except hot water supply can be supplied from solar energy. It was found that the heat insulation greatly contributes to the energy saving. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ultra long-term simulation by the integrated model. 1. Framework and energy system module; Togo model ni yoru tanchoki simulation. 1. Flame work to energy system module

    Kurosawa, A.; Yagita, H.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper introduces the study on the ultra long-term energy model `GRAPE` with considering global environment and the results of trial calculation. The GRAPE model is to consist of modules of energy system, climate change, change of land use, food demand/supply, macro economy, and environmental impact. This is a model that divides the world into ten regions, gives 1990 as a base year, and enables the ultra long-term simulation. In this time, emission of carbon is calculated as a trial. In the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission, energy supply in the latter half of 21st century is to compose photovoltaic energy, methanol from coal gasification, and biomass energy. In addition, the shear of nuclear energy is to remarkably increase. For the constitution of power generation, IGCC power generation with carbon recovery, wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, and nuclear power generation are to extend their shears. In the case of constrained concentration of carbon emission, structural change of power generation option is to be delayed compared with the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Archaeological prospecting using electrical resistivity method. Case history of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb; Denki tansaho ni yoru iseki tansa. Kaibukiyama kofun no chosarei

    Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K.; Kishikawa, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    To grasp the three-dimensional structure of ancient tomb during the archaeological prospecting of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb, various electrical resistivity methods were tried. For the survey, firstly, in order to clarify the electrical resistivity structure of rear circular part of ancient tomb, roughly, mapping was conducted by means of two-electrode method using a multi-channel measuring system. Then, the vertical prospecting was conducted densely with a mesh form having VES intervals of 2 m as a detailed survey by means of Schlumberger method. For the three-dimensional inverse analysis of apparent electrical resistivity data by the two-electrode method, a program with high calculation speed was developed by using algorithm where Jacobian with a homogeneous model is adopted for the Jacobian calculation. As a result of the analysis, an outline of underground 3-D resistivity structure was determined. The resistivity anomaly with high values obtained from the results of 2-D inverse analysis of VES curve by means of Schlumberger method agreed well with the central part of the ancient tomb, which was confirmed during the archaeological survey. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Three dimensional numerical modeling for investigation of fracture zone filled with water by borehole radar; Borehole radar ni yoru gansui hasaitai kenshutsu no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Sanada, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, K.; Yabuuchi, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Water bearing fracture zones existing in rock mass largely influence the underground water flow and dynamic property of rock mass. The detailed survey of the location and size of water bearing fracture zones is an important task in the fields such as civil engineering, environment and disaster prevention. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency zones can be grasped as a wave phenomenon, and the record obtained in the actual measurement is wave forms of time series. In the exploration using borehole radar, this water bearing fracture zone becomes the reflection surface, and also becomes a factor of damping in the transmitted wave. By examining changes which these give to the observed wave forms, therefore, water bearing fracture zones can be detected. This study made three dimensional numerical modeling using the time domain finite difference method, and obtained the same output as the observed wave form obtained using borehole radar. By using this program and changing each of the parameters such as frequency and resistivity in the homogeneous medium, changes of the wave forms were observed. Further, examples were shown of modeling of detection of water bearing fracture zones. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Cavity detection based on EM migration of TEM data; TEM ho data no denji migration ni yoru kudo kenshutsu no kokoromi

    Shiga, N.; Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T. [Toda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to discuss applicability of resistivity imaging using electromagnetic migration to detection of underground cavity, an applicability test was carried out on calculation of a numerical model and measurement data. By using the numerical model, a calculation was performed on a hypothetical case that a cubic cavity with sides each at 40 m exists in a homogenous medium of 200 ohm-m, with the cavity top located 20 m below the ground surface. As a result, it was possible to structure in a very short calculation time an image of the cavity which cannot be identified by one-dimensional inverse analysis. In the case of this cavity, a center of the image was structured on its lower face. It was shown that a location to indicate the image must be changed according to difference in the measurement locations. In a test on data measured in an underground cavity in the city of Utsunomiya, Tochigi Prefecture, it was found that the result may vary largely depending on structure of the background necessary for migration. Referring to a result of measurement performed in a location in which no target has been set can provide a good result. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Fault detection by Turam TEM survey. Numerical model studies and a case history; TEM ho Turam sokutei haichi ni yoru danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. Model keisan to jisshirei

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeuchi, A. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Science; He, P. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to detect faults estimated to exist along the Shigesumi valley in the Kamioka mine, discussions were given by using electromagnetic survey, which uses the Turam measurement arrangement based on the TEM method, and three-dimensional model calculations. The Turam measurement arrangement, which installs transmission loop fixedly, is used to identify nature and distribution of electrically conductive objects upon noticing abnormal portions in magnetic fields in the measurement data. In the model calculation, the plate model calculation method and the FDTD method were used, and so was the calculation code TEM3DL. The result revealed that strong topographical influence is seen from steep V-shaped valley existing along the traverse line in the measurement data, but an abnormal resistivity band accompanying remarkable distortion in the curve was detected. According to the result of the model calculation, anomaly detection may be found difficult in locations where a low resistivity band has not grown enough locally. It was possible from these facts to assume a model in which the low resistivity band exists directly below the Shigesumi valley, suggesting existence of faults. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Laboratory study on streaming potential for exploring underground water flow; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru ryudo den`i wo mochiita mizu michi tansa no kanosei no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    To investigate a possibility of exploration of underground water flow as well as to grasp the underground fluid flow by measuring streaming potential at the ground surface, some experiments were conducted using a model unit by considering the difference of permeability. For this experimental unit, water is driven by adding head difference between the polyethylene vessel filled with water and the experimental water tank. The size of water tank is 350{times}160 mm with a height of 160 mm. Twenty platinum electrodes are set on the cover of water tank. Toyoura standard sand and Kanto loam were used for the experiments. For the experiments, fluid was injected in various combined models by considering the permeability, to measure the streaming potential. As a result, it was explained by the streaming potential that the fluid flows in a form of laminar flow in the experimental water tank, and that the movement of fluid in the Kanto loam is quite slow. It was also confirmed that the streaming potential method is an effective technique for grasping the movement of fluid. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Experiment for buried pipes by stepped FM-CW radar; Step shiki FM-CW radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa jikken

    Suzuki, K.; Ito, M. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The underground radar exploration is adopted to surveys of cavity under the road and buried pipes since the result of high resolution is obtained. However, the explorative depth of the radar is shallow, 2-3m in soil basement, and its applicable field has been limited. The continuous wave radar (FM-CW radar) was devised to get deeper explorative depth, but has been used for the geological structure survey such as the fault survey since it is lower in resolution as compared with the pulse radar. Therefore, to make use of characteristics of the continuous wave radar and enhance resolution in the shallow part, an experiment on buried pipes was conducted for the purpose of assessing and improving the FM-CW radar. In this processing, the wave form treatment used in the reflection method seismic survey was adopted for the radar survey. There are some problems, but it is effective to adopt the same algorithm to that used in the seismic survey to the radar exploration. The explorative depth was discussed from the damping rate of electromagnetic waves and dynamic range of facilities of the experimental site, and 7m was obtained. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Polarimetric borehole radar measurement near Nojima fault and its application to subsurface crack characterization; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru Nojima danso shuhen no chika kiretsu keisoku jikken

    Sato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Miwa, T.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, R. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Makino, K. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Practical application of subsurface crack characterization by the borehole radar measurement to which the radar polarimetric method was introduced was attempted to measuring objects for which the borehole radar has not been much used, for example, the inside of low loss rock mass or fracture zone where cracks tightly exist. A system was trially manufactured which makes the radar polarimetric measurement possible in the borehole at a 1000m depth and with a about 10cm diameter, and a field experiment was conducted for realizing the subsurface crack characterization near the Nojima fault. For the measuring experiment by the polarimetric borehole radar, used were Iwaya borehole and Hirabayashi borehole drilled in the north of Awaji-shima, Hyogo-ken. In a comparison of both polarization systems of Hirabayashi borehole, reflected waves at depths of 1038m and 1047m are relatively stronger in both polarization systems than those with the same polarization form and at different depths, whereas reflected waves around a 1017m depth are strong only as to the parallel polarization system. Characteristics of the polarization in this experiment indirectly reflect crack structures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Improvement of D.I. diesel engine combustion using numerical simulation; Chokufun diesel kikan no nensho kaizen shuho. Suchi kaiseki ni yoru torikumi

    Minami, T.; Adachi, T.; Isyii, Y. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of improving DI diesel engine combustion, it is important to predict air flow of intake and exhaust manifold, intake port flow, combustion chamber swirl and fuel spray combustion. This paper describes the application of numerical simulation to the engines, the analysis of phenomena and a problem of simulation model modification. (author)

  19. Dynamic stability analysis of circular arch subjected to follower forces with small disturbances; Judo kaju wo ukeru enkei arch no yuran ni yoru doteki kyodo to anteisei kaiseki

    Fukuchi, N.; Okada, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the deformation and dynamic stability of circular arch subjected to follower forces in a submerged membrane type marine structure reinforced by arch frames. Governing equations for finite deformations of the circular arch subjected to follower forces are introduced using an embedded curve coordinate, which are formulated by applying Galerkin method. In addition, equations of motion due to small disturbances under given condition of loading are introduced. Based on these equations, dynamic stability of the arch is analyzed by means of Runnge-Kutta-Gill method, to clarify the relationship between disturbances and instability regions and the resulting phenomena. Near the boundary regions of stability, both amplitude and cycle of deformation are greatly affected by the amplitude of disturbances. The dynamic instability is governed by the inverse symmetry primary mode with minimum characteristic frequency which is specific for the circular arch. The dynamic stability has high parameter dependency, and the instability regions have a complicated shapes. Although flattened arch has a smaller static critical load, it provides the dynamic stability against the disturbance. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Development of spherical fine powders by high-pressure water atomization using swirl water jet; Senkaisui jet wo mochiita koatsusui atomize ni yoru kyujo bifun no kaihatsu

    Kikukawa, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Inaba, T.; Iwatsu, O.; Takeda, T. [Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)


    In order to obtain spherical fine powders, a new high-pressure water atomization method using swirl water jet was developed. In this paper the effects of jet swirl angle ({omega}) upon the properties of powders were investigated. Cu-10 mass%Sn alloy was atomized by this method at the constant water pressure of 83.3 MPa and constant metal orifice diameter of 4mm, while {omega} was varied from 0 to 0.18 rad. Median diameter of the powder by the laser diffraction method (D{sub 50}) decreased from 12.5 {mu}m to 7.5{mu}m with increasing {omega}, and this corresponded to Fisher average diameter (D{sub FS}) at about w=0.18 rad. The apparent and tap density of the powder increased about 1 and 1.5 Mg/m{sup 3} respectively, and the particle shape observed by SEM became spherical with increasing {omega}. (author)

  1. Treatment of photographic processing wastewater by biological activated carbon fixed-bed reactor. Seibutsu kasseitan ni yoru shashin haieki no shori

    Shirota, H.; Kishino, T. (Ube College, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ukita, M.; Nakanishi, H. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Since photographic processing wastewater includes very small quantity but high density of organic and inorganic chemicals, it is one of the difficult wastewaters for water treatment. Although ozone oxidation methods or chemical oxidation methods to reduce COD or BOD have been examined as treatment processes for photographic wastewater, their commercialization have not been progressed yet from the view of efficiency or of costs. In this paper, aerobic microbial film fixed-bed reactor, of which microbes carrier was granular activated carbon (GAC), was used to treat photographic processing wastewater, and its characteristics of biological treatments have been examined. As a result, by treatment experiments of photographic processing wastewater distinguished depending on their resources, it was clarified treatment characteristics were different depending on a sort of photographic wastewater, and that COD was increased by biological treatments. Moreover, based on experiments to be carried out by changing COD loads using mixed wastewater by each photographic processing wasterwater with generic propotion, it could be considered that loading quantity without pH adjustment was approximately 10g{center dot}Kg{sup {minus}1}GAC {center dot}d{sup {minus}1} of COD loading based on carrier weight. Further, there was closed relationship between COD load and COD removal speed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Solution to non-steady two-dimensional hydrofoil problems by using a simple panel method; Kantanna panel ho ni yoru hiteijo nijigen`yoku mondai no kaiho

    Maita, S.; Ando, J.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A simple panel method, the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) was expanded to two-dimensional non-steady hydrofoil problems. Discussions were given on the results of calculations on two-dimensional hydrofoils making a simple non-steady motion. In calculating hydrofoils which move suddenly from a still state with angle of elevation {alpha} at a velocity U, the following results were obtained: the time differential item in a pressure equation gives a considerably strong effect on lifting power; and the lifting power converges to a steady state with lapse of time, and the lifting power coefficient in that state shows that the lifting power increases as hydrofoil thickness increases. This result agrees with the hydrofoil thickness effect in the two-dimensional steady problem, proving the reasonability of this calculation method. In the calculations of time history of the lifting power acting on hydrofoils passing a sinusoidal gust and hydrofoils in a pitching motion, the calculated values from the SQCM were found to approach analysis solution to thin hydrofoils as the hydrofoil thickness becomes thinner for both cases. This result also proves the result of calculations on non-steady state by using the SQCM reasonable. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Marine pollution by heavy oil and bio-purification. Bacteria decomposing oil hydrocarbon; Juyu ni yoru umi no osen to seibutsu joka. Juyu tanka suiso wo bunkaisuru saikin

    Itagaki, E. [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Science


    It is said that 23 genuses of bacteria decomposing hydrocarbon such as bacterium species, actinomycetes species, mold species and yeast of 10-10{sup 5}/ml live in seawater. No survey has been made on bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon in the area contaminated by heavy oil from Russian tanker `Nakhodka` in the Sea of Japan. Survey was thus made on the existence and distribution of bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon along the coast of Kaga district, Ishikawa prefecture. Such bacteria were successfully separated by repeated cultivation. The bacteria are short bacillus of nearly 1{mu}m long, and show a spherical shape as preserved at low temperature. Since the bacteria change their shape according to growth conditions, those are the germ of `Arthrobacter` genus. The bacteria of nearly 10{sup 5}/g lived along the sand beach in spite of low seawater and air temperatures in the early spring. The bacteria increased to nearly 10{sup 7}/g in May, however, decreased with a progress of oil decomposition in June. 3 figs.

  4. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Depolymerization of coal by O2 oxidation followed by acid hydrolysis; Sanso sanka-kasui bunkai ni yoru sekitan no teionkai jugo

    Aizawa, S.; Hayashi, J.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to elucidate characteristics of oxygen addition to coal, and characteristics of solvent extraction by means of depolymerization, experiments were performed on oxygen oxidation and acid hydrolysis of brown coals. Coals used for the experiments are Morwell (MW), Yallourn (YL) , South Banko (SB) and Wyoming (WY) coals. Test samples were suspended in weak alkaline aqueous solution, and then oxygen was blown into them with pressure kept at atmospheric pressure. After a lapse of a predetermined time, the samples were cooled, and made as acidic as pH 1.3 in hydrochloric acid, followed by acid hydrolysis. Oxygen consumption increased with the reaction time, and with the MW coal, one mol oxygen reacted to 11 mols of coal. Spectral analysis on the YL and WY coal experiments revealed that aliphatic carbon combined with aromatic carbon or ether group has turned to peroxide, whose C-C or C-O bond was broken down as a result of acid hydrolysis of the peroxide, producing oxygen containing compounds. As a result of the depolymerization, the rate of extraction by using DMF, DMSO and methanol/THF mixed solvent increased to 90% or higher. Proportion of bond and cutting-off affects largely collapse of the cross-link structure. The carbon conversion to volatiles was at most 4%. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  8. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Energy-saving by teh reduction of the pressure loss in tge water supplying system of boilers. Boiler kyusui keito no atsuryoku sonshitsu keigen ni yoru sho energy

    Nakayama, T. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))


    In the water supplying system of boilers for the power generators scale deposits are mainly composed by Fe {sub 3} O {sub 4}. With removing this scale by the chemical cleaning the recovery of the heat transfer efficiency and the reduction of the pressure loss were expected. Generally scale in the narrow tubes is removed with the jet cleaning which uses high pressure water, but in this method scale is not removed completely. To raise the pH of the supplying water is also tried, but it is not sufficient to solve the problem. Therefore, the chemical cleaning using the citric acid and the hydroxy acid was done. In this case, a part of scale which can not be solved in the cleaning water might be left in the pipe as sludge. So the best conditions of the solvent flow for the removal of this sludge were investigated in the experiments and those conditions were applied. Further, the sludge catchers were used. As a result of those cleaning, the gains obtained in 2 years were 199 million yen in No.5 generator, 519 million yen in No.6 generator in Chita thermal power plant, and 187 million yen in Chita second thermal power plant. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Sterilization of microorganisms by photocatalyst of thermal sprayed TiO{sub 2} coatings; Chitania yosha himaku ni yoru biseibutsu no sakkin

    Horie, Y.; Hirano, T. [Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Shimane Prefecture, Shimane (Japan); Shibata, H.; Kono, Y. [Shimane University, Shimane (Japan)


    It has been known that when titania (TiO{sub 2}) is exposed to light in the presence of water, active oxygen species such as {center_dot} OH and O{sub 2} are generated through photocatalysis. These oxygen species degrade poisonous compounds and bad smells and also have antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the amount of {center_dot} OH generated from thermal sprayed TiO{sub 2} coatings and their sterilizing effects on microbials. (1)Malondialdehyde assay revealed that a photocatalytic reaction was induced on the coatings by UV light at less than 366nm and {center_dot} OH was generated. The amount of malondialdehyde production (Y:nmol/10{sup -4}m{sup 2}/1.8ks), corresponding to the amount of {center_dot} OH was proportionate to the content of anastase titanium oxide (X:wt%) in the coatings, showing the presence of a relation expressed as Y=e{sup -0.397}X{sup 0.867} between the two. (2)Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichta coli and Salmonella enteritidis were spread on the coatings to examine the sterilizing effects through photocatalysis induced by fluorescene. All of these bacteria died within 1.2-1.8ks. For anti-bacterial ceramic tiles on the market, the survival rates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia colt and Salmonella enteritidis after UV exposure for 1.8ks were 60.4, 52.7 and 26.9%, respectively, showing that these tiles are inferior to the coatings in respect to sterilizing effects. (author)

  11. Implementation of IIR ADF for narrow band noise elimination by using of DSP; DSP ni yoru kyotaiiki zatsuon jokyoyo IIR-ADF no jitsugen

    Nakanishi, T.; Yamaguchi, E.; Takumi, I.; Hata, M. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Nakano, M. [Denso Corp., Nagoya (Japan)


    An Adaptive Digital Filter (ADF), which has palarel connected 2nd order IIR filters, for narrow band noise elimination is proposed already. The proposed adaptation algorithm, however, does not take account of delay caused by anti-alias Low-Pass Filter (LPF) and Analogue to Digital (A/D), and Digital to Analogue (D/A) converter. So, in real applications, the ADF implemented with Digital Signal Processor (DSP) shows poor capability of eliminating narrow band noise. In this paper, we propose a method to compensate phase of output signal from ADF. The compensation is accomplished with 1st order FIR filter inserted in the output line of the ADF. We also show how to set the coefficient values of the FIR filter. And, we scrutinize ability to eliminate noise and computational cost through practical implementation of the ADF and the proposed phase compensation filter. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Evaluation of the force rum flotation result by the ion exchange using the rubidium; Rubijiumu wo mochiita ion kokan ni yoru karamu fusen kekka no hyoka

    Kamiyama, Jun' ichi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, Hidekazu; Matsukata, Masahiko


    The following are contained: Hydroxyl group and carbonyl, functional oxygen group and mineral like the carboxyl group in which the coal is the hydrophilic component. The column flotation result is greatly different, since existence proportion of these components is different by the coal type. We regarded it as whether it could not simply evaluate the force rum flotation result of the coal at area proportion of the syneresis site on the coal particle exterior. In this study, the force rum flotation was carried out using balance wheel (bituminous coal), mountain west (anthracite), bituminous coal, and Illinois (lignit) charcoal it is almost same (bituminous coal). The ladder of carbon material recovery rate was the balance wheel > Kawanishi > almost same > Illinois charcoal. Next, area proportion ({alpha}{sub ex-OH}, {alpha}{sub in-OH} respectively) of the hydrophilic site in coal particle exterior and particle inside {alpha}{sub ex-OH} was obtained. In case of the almost same charcoal, was bigger than {alpha}{sub in-OH}. It seems to slightly oxidize the particle surface the almost same charcoal. In 3 kinds of bituminous coal, the ladder of carbon material recovery rate and {alpha}{sub in-OH} agreed. However, it is necessary to consider not only area proportion but also wettability of the hydrophobic site of the hydrophilic site for the planktonic of mountain west charcoal which is the anthracite. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Immobilization of biocatalysts using crosslinked acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels. Acetoacetyl ka polyvinyl alcohol kakyo suisei gel ni yoru seitai shokubai no kateika

    Kondo, M.; Mannen, T. (Food Research Institute, Aichi Prefectural Government, Nagoya (Japan)); Shimokawa, w.; Fukumori, k. (Hoechst Gosei Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))


    In order to develop crosslinked hydrogels competent for immobilization of biocatalysts, gelation of acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol (AA-PVA) and immobilization of biocatalysts using the gel were investigated. AA-PVA solution formed crosslinked hydrogels when it was treated with bifunctional gelating agents such as albehyde and hydrazide. Since the gelating times were adjustable at appropriate pH, the hydrogels were able to be formed in various shapes such as granules and thin films. The appearance of the hydrogels was similar to calcium alginate gels, and they were stable under conditions which would cause decomposition of the latter. Acetic acid fermentation by immobilized growing cells were tested using the hydrogels, and then acetic acid productivity up to 3.7 g{center dot} l{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h {minus}1 and stability over six months were exhibited. In addition, activities of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase using the hydrogels were measured. As the results, the hydrogels were concluded to be useful as immpbilization supports for microorganisms and enzymes. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Hydrophobization og the surface fo malachite with some fluorosurfactants. 2,3 no fussokei kaimen kasseizai ni yoru malachite hyomen no sosuika

    Kobayashi, M. (National Reserach Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)); Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto University, Kyoko (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The depleting trends of high-grade ores in recent years make it unavoidable to float ores in fine powder forms. To achieve this, research and development is important on such a recovering agent that can hydrophobize the surfaces of useful ores selectively and powerfully. This paper describes the discussion on three kinds of fluorosurfactant, namely perfluorooctanoic acid, Ftergent-100 and Ftergent-150, whic were used to hydrophobize the surface of malachite, and compared of its utilization possibility as a recovery agent with other surfactants. As a result, it was found that the Ftergent-100, which contains five CF{sub 3}{sup {minus}} in one molecule having extremely low critical surface tension, and the Ftergent-150 can hydrophobize sufficiently the malachite surface and provide good deposition. The region providing good deposition was at a weak-acidic to weak-alkali region in the case of the Ftergent-150. Therefore, both materials are thought they could be used as a recovering agent. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Development of fuel cells using biogas and effects for environmental protection; Bio gas ni yoru nenryo denchi no kaihatsu to kankyo hozen no torikumi

    Saito, K. [Sapporo Breweries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Chiba plant of Sapporo Breweries Ltd. has introduced a biogas-using fuel cell system as one of its efforts for environmental protection, and the system generated power in June, 1998, for the first time in the world. This paper discusses the efforts for environmental protection, power generating system, and future tasks. The biogas-using fuel cell system makes use of fermentation gas (biogas), produced when wastewater from the plant is subjected to anaerobic treatment, as fuel for the generation of electricity (200kW), steam (160 degrees C, 5.3kg/cm{sup 2}), and higher-temperature water (80-120 degrees C). The biogas is a low-calorie gas consisting of approximately 70% methane gas and approximately 30% CO2 gas. Since the gas contains trace quantities of approximately 1,000-1,500ppm sulfur compounds, and salts and ammonia not higher than several dozens in ppm, a pre-treatment device is installed upstream the fuel cell power generation unit for their removal. The merits brought about by the adoption of the system include the lowered electricity rate, reduced CO2 emission, damped noise, and enhanced maintainability. It is believed that the system introduced here will work advantageously in satisfying the ISO14001 requirements. (NEDO)

  17. Impact three-point bending tests on FRP by split-Hopkinson bar technique. Hopkinson boho ni yoru FRP no shogeki santenmage shiken

    Higashida, F.; Ogawa, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) are widely used as high ratio strength structural material and strong interest is taken in their impact strength. In their impact bending test, observation is made of stress waveform, with which largely interferes high frequency fluctuation. Various measurement methods being studied to eliminate that interference, the present report used a split-Hopkinson bar technique, not influenced by the reflection of stress wave in the tester, and made impact three-point bending tests, up to about 15cm/s in impact speed, on CFRP and GFRP by having loosely ramped incident stress act. The result gave a smooth relation, almost free from high frequency fluctuation, between the load and time, which relation could accurately derive bending rigidity, breaking strength, etc. Of the CFRP and GFRP, elucidation was further made of independency of bending strength upon the strain speed, relation between the maximum stress and strain speed, effect of deformation speed on the three-point bending strength, etc. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the acoustic wave-equation; Onkyoha hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The effect of initial models on full-wave inversion (FWI) analysis based on acoustic wave-equation was studied for elastic wave tomography of underground structures. At present, travel time inversion using initial motion travel time is generally used, and inverse analysis is conducted using the concept `ray,` assuming very high wave frequency. Although this method can derive stable solutions relatively unaffected by initial model, it uses only the data of initial motion travel time. FWI calculates theoretical waveform at each receiver using all of observed waveforms as data by wave equation modeling where 2-D underground structure is calculated by difference calculus under the assumption that wave propagation is described by wave equation of P wave. Although it is a weak point that FWI is easily affected by noises in an initial model and data, it is featured by high resolution of solutions. This method offers very excellent convergence as a proper initial model is used, resulting in sufficient performance, however, it is strongly affected by initial model. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Study of heart rate variability in driving situation by fractal analysis; Fractal kaiseki ni yoru untenchu no shinpaku hendo no bunseki

    Hirata, Y.; Nagaoka, M. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    This paper will explain method of fractal analysis for heart rate variability, as measuring method of mental stress in vehicle driving. In the previous, although there was a measuring method of mental stress by RSA, a issue arise such as reliability of analysis, because driver`s heart rate affect by respiration and muscle motion as well. We have established a method to measure mental stress by fractal dimension. And tried it is the proving ground and public road driving. We have confident that it is more reliable than RSA to quantify driver`s mental stress and fatigue. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan with end wall injection and suction; Hekimen fukidashi suidashi ni yoru han'yo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

    Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The experimental studies are conducted to reveal the mechanism of stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan by injection or suction from the end wall. In case of injection, the largest improvement is obtained by the injection at about 0. 14 {approx} 0 .21 times axial chord length downstream from leading edge. The reason for large improvement is that stall vortex, shed intermittent separation vortex and tip leakage vortex are dissipated by this injection, and also that this blowing suppresses the separation of boundary layer. In case of suction, the largest improvement is found for the suction from the end wall near leading edge. The amplitude of periodic static pressure after stall inception becomes smaller in comparison with injection cases. These effects are increased with the increase of suction flow rate, because the discharge of the vortex occurs more easily. On the other hand, the suction from the upstream of leading edge reduces the axial velocity near rotor tip, and then it induces stall. Also we tried to visualize the tip region flow, The suppression mechanism is discussed based on the visualization. The suppression of stall is successfully photographed. (author)

  1. Life prolongation and cost reduction of steel ladles with improving refractories and their structure; Taikabutsu zaishitsu to kozo kaizen ni yoru shuka taikabutsu no chojumyoka to kosuto teigen

    Nakai, Masato; Kasahara, Hajime; Fukutani, Fujio; Imai, Hiroyuki [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Steel Making Plant, Hirohata Iron Works, Nippon Steel Corp. succeeded to reduce the cost of furnace materials by measures described below down to 49% compared to that in 1992. (1) For tuyre bricks, cleanability against oxygen was improved by compacting by vacuum cast forming. (2) For SL bricks, the cost was reduced by applying imported bricks and optimization of the range of use. (3) For alumina-magnesia amorphous refractories for side walls, low expansion and breaking resistance were improved by optimization of magnesia quantity and silica ultra fine powder quantity. (4) For side wall structure, improvement of tie-in between the ground part and the side wall and lining with efficient thickness were carried out. (NEDO)

  2. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  3. Application of monolithic lining to tundish and extension of tundish life with improvement of refractories; Tandeisshu futeiseika to taikabutsu kaizen ni yoru jumyo kojo

    Mori, Eiichiro; Fujta, Takashi; Tanikawa, Kanji [Kobe Steel Corp., Hyogo (Japan)


    As a part of realization of monolithic liming of a tundish lining refractory, a study on 2CC and 3CC tundish monolithic refractories was carried out to improve placing efficiency and extend its life. Main inspection points were set on (1) casting facility specifications and (2) structure and material. A force feeding pump system with a high degree of freedom for placing layout was selected. It was judged preferable than a hopper dolly type ladle repair facility in the degree of freedom for a placing site and facility expenses, though little inferior at maintenance. A force feeding pump is combined with a boom to enable the facility to cast for plural objects. Low expansion and creep properties were given to the refractory by reviewing the addition of the expansive material and the structure was improved by setting anchor blocks at corner parts. The cost of refractories was reduced and labor saving of refractory placing workers was achieved by widely extending the life. (NEDO)

  4. Improvement of wells turbine performance by means of 3D guide vanes; Sanjigen annai hane ni yoru wells turbine seino no kaizen

    Takao, M.; Kim, T.H. [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Setoguchi, T. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Inoue, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Performance of a Wells turbine was improved by equipping 3D guide vanes before and behind a rotor. For further improvement, 3D guide vanes have been proposed in this paper. The performance of the Wells turbine with 2D and 3D guide vanes have been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions. Then, the running and starting characteristics in irregular ocean waves have been obtained by a computer simulation. As a result, it is found that both of the running and starting characteristics of the Wells turbine with 3D guide vanes are superior to those of the turbine with 2D guide vanes. (author)

  5. Improvements of diesel combustion with pilot and main injections at different piston positions; Piston iso wo koryoshita pilot funsha ni yoru diesel nenshono kaizen

    Li, C.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with a pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to avoid the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separated the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. The experiments showed that more smoke was emitted with pilot injection in an ordinary cavity without the central lip while smokeless and low NO{sub x} operation was realized with pilot injection in a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emitted smoke so much. The indicated specific energy consumption ISEC was a little bit higher with the pilot injection, mainly because of the reduction in the degree of constant volume combustion. With the advanced pilot injection, ISEC was improved more than that with the retarded pilot injection while the NO{sub x} is a little higher than the retarded pilot injection maintaining still much lower than in ordinary operation. (author)

  6. Quantitative measurements of air-fuel mixture distribution in a cylinder using LIF; LIF ni yoru tonai kongoki nodo no teiryoteki keisoku

    Kato, S.; Kadoi, N. [Subaru Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of mixture formation in a cylinder to improve engine performance, especially for a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, a quantitative air-fuel mixture measurement technique using PLIF was developed. Across a laser sheet, a transparent liner was placed between two calibration cells which increased the reliability of fuel concentration. This technique was applied to gasoline direct injection engine to clarify the effect of injection timing on stratified charged mixture. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Analysis of combustion in an ATAC engine with measurement of radical luminescence; Radical hakko keisoku ni yoru ATAC engine no nensho kaiseki

    Park, Y.; Oguma, H.; Ueda, H.; Iida, N. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to make clear of the combustion mechanism and the frame structure in two stake, so called, active thermo-atmosphere combustion (ATAC) engine fueled by gasoline and methanol, we measured the 2-demensional images of OH, CH and C2 radical band spectra in both ATAC and SI combustion mode. From the results of pressure data in the cylinder, the heat release rate was calculated. We evaluated the correlation of radical luminescence intensity and the rate of heat release. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Measurements of apex seal behavior in a rotary engine using four displacement sensors; Rotary engine no apex seal kyodo. Yon`i sensor ni yoru sokutei

    Matsuura, K. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering


    Behavior measurements of an apex seal of three-piece slanted horizontal split type were made, using an overhanging eccentric shaft-type single-rotor engine equipped with a multichannel packaged slip ring. To analyze the behavior, a computer plotting program was developed, by means of which the sequences of the configuration of top and bottom parts in the slot at given eccentric shaft angles were plotted on the trochoidal curves from the measured displacement data. The measurement results revealed the details of the behavior. Under high working chamber pressure, the top part of the leading apex seal is flush with the leading side of the slot, while that of the trailing apex seal is considerably tilted with respect to the trailing edge of the slot. 8 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Improvement of power system stability by high speed power control of adjustable speed machine; Kahensokuki no koshutsuryoku seigyo ni yoru denryoku keito no anteido kojo

    Nojiri, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Nakagawa, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Goto, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nohara, H. [Hitachi Nuclear Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Large capacity adjustable speed machines (ASMs) at pumped storage power station have been put into full operation and the operating characteristics of ASM have been highly evaluated from the view point of power system operation. The output power (input power) of ASM can be controlled very quickly by applying a vector control scheme to the excitation control. This quick responsive feature of ASM can make it possible to improve the stability of the neighbor sub-power system. For improvement of transient stability, the output power of ASM is reduced very quickly in order to control the acceleration of neighbor generators during and after transmission line faults. For improvement of dynamic stability, the output power of ASM is modulated in accordance with the stabilizing signals detected from the swing of generator rotor or the power flow fluctuation on the transmission line. This paper describes the design concepts and method of control system for improving the transient and dynamic stability and proposes a power system stabilizing control system. The effects of the proposed stabilizing control system have been verified by a power system simulator. 9 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. SVC control method to improve the stability of power systems applying fuzzy control. Fuzzy seigyo wo riyoshita SVC ni yoru denryoku keito no anteika seigyoho

    Uezato, K.; Senju, T.; Shiroma, T. (University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan))


    The SVC (static var compensator) control method featured by fuzzy control is proposed to improve the stabilization of power systems. The method is applicable to a simple single-machine infinite bus system, and SVC is allocated at the center of a transmission line to keep the line terminal voltage constant. The SVC controller is composed of the PI controller to keep the terminal voltage constant and the fuzzy controller-1 parallel to the PI controller for determining SVC admittances to suppress system fluctuation. The fuzzy controller-2 switches control between stabilizing control during system fluctuation and constant voltage control in normal operation. The fuzzy rules are remarkably simple because those are constructed qualitatively on the basis of sliding mode control. System fluctuation can be also reduced rapidly by using not only the terminal information such as terminal voltage and power flow on an interconnection line but also the generator information such as load angle and slip. 10 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Power system stabilizing control by superconducting magnetic energy storage using neural network; Newral network wo mochiita chodendo energy chozo sochi ni yoru keito anteika seigyo

    Osawa, Y.; Kanemitsu, T.; Kawakami, T.; Shintaku, M.; Arai, K. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    In order to solve the difficulty of realizing power system stabilization using non-linear optimal control, this paper discusses a power system stabilization control by superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) using a neural network. This system consists of a kind of feedback control system that derives an optimal stabilizing control on various initial system operating conditions and failure conditions applied with the maximum principles, and learns the best stabilization using the control as tutorial signals and using the neural network. The object model system is a one-unit infinite busbar system, whose generator terminal is installed with the SMES. With respect to the system learning using the neural network, the network output to the learned failure patterns has agreed with the tutorial signals nearly completely. As a result of simulating example systems, it was confirmed that the operating conditions within a reasonable range and failure conditions were learned well, control effects close to the optimal control were shown, and the oscillation suppressing effect of the SMES can be utilized effectively. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Operating condition and membrane thickness of microcapsules generated by complex coacervation method; Coacervation ho ni yoru seisei microcapsule no sosa joken to capsule makuatsu

    Kage, H.; Ogura, H.; Matsuno, Y. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Kunimasa, M. [Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, H. [Dainippon Ink Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Microencapsulation of glass beads with a narrow size distribution was carried out by complex coacervation of gelatin and acacia. The coacervation process was observed in detail and the effects of agitation strength, cooling rate, addition time of core material, addition plans of acetic acid and distilled water, and heating rate in the hardening process on membrane thickness of the microcapsules were investigated systematically. The membrane thickness of the microcapsules increased under the operating conditions where low cooling rate and relatively strong agitation were utilized, and pH was changed moderately by discrete addition of acetic acid or distilled water over a certain time interval. It became clear that strict control of operating conditions at 19{degree}C in the cooling process where the viscosity of the coacervate suddenly increases is remarkably important for the control of membrane thickness. 3 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Laboratory investigation on streaming potential for sandy soil and weathered rock; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru sashitsu jiban oyobi fuka ganban no ryudo den`i no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Laboratory experiment on sandy soil and weathered rock was conducted to clarify the generation mechanism of streaming potential due to underground fluid. Streaming potential is caused by underground fluid flow, namely by fluid flow in porous substances as electrokinetic phenomenon. In experiment, Inagi sand, Toyoura sand and strongly decomposed weathered granite were used. In Inagi and Toyoura sands, positive streaming potential was observed downstream in fluid flow. Streaming potential could be nearly determined as primary function of fluid velocity, and generated streaming potential increased with fluid resistivity. Streaming potential was higher in Inagi sand than Toyoura sand, probably depending on hydraulic radius, size of bleeding channel, and conductivity of sand surface. In weathered granite, negative streaming potential was measured. In the case of positive {zeta} potential, negative streaming potential is theoretically generated downstream in fluid flow. This experiment suggested possible generation of negative streaming potential in some kinds of ground. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Inversion of Love wave phase velocity using smoothness-constrained least-squares technique; Heikatsuka seiyakutsuki saisho jijoho ni yoru love ha iso sokudo no inversion

    Kawamura, S. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization was applied to the inversion of phase velocity of surface waves during geophysical exploration, to confirm its usefulness. Since this study aimed mainly at the applicability of the technique, Love wave was used which is easier to treat theoretically than Rayleigh wave. Stable successive approximation solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement of velocity model of S-wave, and an objective model with high reliability could be determined. While, for the inversion with simple minimization of the residuals squares sum, stable solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement, but the judgment of convergence was very hard due to the smoothness-constraint, which might make the obtained model in a state of over-fitting. In this study, Love wave was used to examine the applicability of the smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization. Applicability of this to Rayleigh wave will be investigated. 8 refs.

  15. Studies on utilization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for saving energy; Chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Uozumi, T.; Koyama, R.; Horiuchi, M.; Hidaka, M.; Masaki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, T.; Inoue, A. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    This paper describes analysis and enhancement of nitrogen-fixing gene of rice root bacteria, such as Klebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferumn and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, for realizing energy saving through conservation of nitrogenous fertilizers. For K. oxytoca, modified strain R-16 was developed, which can fix nitrogen effectively even in the presence of NH4{sup +}. Nitrogen-fixing ability of A. lipoferumn depends on the activity control by the modification of nitrogen-fixing enzyme as well as on the adjustment of transcription level by the transcription activating gene, nifA. The control gene relating to the above was analyzed by making clones. As a result, a modified strain TAl without the control by NH4{sup +} was developed. The R-16 and TAl strains were inoculated into rice sterile-cultured without nitrogen. Consequently, inoculated strains were settled in the root, which resulted in the increased vegetation weight of plant to two times heavier than that without inoculation. 9 refs.

  16. Quality assurance in welded structures. Part 3. ; NDT technology enhanced by computer. Yosetsu kozobutsu no hinshitsu hosho. 3. ; Computer riyo ni yoru hihakai shiken no kodoka

    Matsumura, H.; Ogata, T. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan))


    The basic theory of nondestructive testing (NDT) technology enhanced by computer and its practical example are outlined. Higher reliability of the products, reduction in production cost by automation, countermeasures for dirty, hard and dangerous works, technical communication by skilled workers, and higher efficiency of the products are the principles of enhancement of nondestructive testing. The fields of application of computer to the NDT specially handy, light and cheap micro-computer are numerical analysis, drawings, image processing, automation, artificial intelligence, measurement/control, data reserve and so forth. As for the trend of NTD advancement, radiation penetrating test, automation of probe in ultrasonic flow detection or real time measurement of inspection, three dimensional graphic expression of defect results and so forth are advanced. Future topics are the normalization of appropriate thinking of quality level and improvement and clarification of reliability of NDT. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Concurrent multidisciplinary mechanical design based on design task analysis and knowledge sharing; Sekkei task bunseki to joho kyoyu ni yoru mechatronics kyocho sekkei

    Kondo, K.; Ozawa, M.; Mori, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have developed a systematic design task planning method based on a design structure matrix(DSM) and a lumped model- based framework for knowledge sharing in a concurrent design environment as key techniques for developing higher quality products in a shorter design time. The DSM facilitates systematic analysis of dependencies among design tasks and optimization of the design process. The framework based on a lumped model description of mechanical systems enables concurrent and cooperative work among multidisciplinary designers at an early stage of the design process. In this paper, we also discuss the relationships between these techniques and the product development flow from product definition to detailed design. (author)

  18. Improvement of diesel engine performance by hydraulically powered electronic control (mechatronics) system. Hakuyo diesel kikan no mechatronics system ni yoru seino kojo

    Sonoda, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kajima, T.; Sato, S.; Fujii, T.; Tobe, Y. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes new hydraulically-actuated mechanisms for both fuel injection and inlet/exhaust valve operation of diesel engines through solenoid valves, which obviate the conventional cam-driven system. These mechanisms were integrated with an electronic control unit also developed in this study and they were mounted as a mechatronics system'' on a power-increased single-cylinder engine. This mechatronics system was mainly composed of an injection control. boost and accumulation component, an inlet and exhaust valve control component, a solenoid valve, an electronic control equipment, a hydraulic power unit, and a maneuvering unit. The verification test was carried out for the improvement of diesel engine performance by the hydraulically powered mechatronics system. As a result, it was proved not only that these mechanisms provide stable operating characteristics over a wide range of conditions, but also that the electronic control system allows accurate, smooth response. 3 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Mass spectra of benzaldehyde using time resolved ion trapping mass spectrometer. Jikan bunkai ion trapping shitsuryo bunsekikei ni yoru benzaldehyde no mass spector

    Ishigane, M.; Isa, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Education); Nishioka, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    An ion trapping mass spectrometer for time resolved analysis has been set up. The time resolved analysis function of this system is excellent and the ion detecting sensitivity is also high. Benzaldehyde is used as the specimen for the measurement of the A group of the mass spectra (m/z 105 106 and 107) by this system and similar mass spectra are obtained at delay time zero to those reported by now. Big changes are observed in the spectra when the delay times are varied. It is found that mass spectra which are different from those reported already are obtained when the mass spectrometer is pulse operated. In other words it can be said that the time dependence of the data on ion decomposition ( fragmentation) and ion/molecule reactions can be obtained in the state where solvent has no influence if this new system is adopted. 6 refs. 12 figs.

  20. On-line temperature control of fluidized bed incinerator using fuzzy algorithm; Fuzzu seigyo donyu ni yoru ryudosogata shokyakuro unten no jidoka

    Okayasu, S.; Kuratani, T.; Imai, H. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Automatic control of incinerators for their stable operation has been desired for the preservation of the environment in the factory. An on-line fuzzy control system has been successfully introduced for temperature control of the fluidized bed of incinerator for industrial wastes. In this case, manual control can be applied to the plant instead of a PID control system, because of the complexity of the waste materials and the large delay in detection of the temperature change in the fluidized bed sand. On the basis of analyzing the dynamic performance of the process and the know-how of skilled operators, membership functions and fuzzy control rules are selected, then determined carefully for the system. Introduction of the system resulted in almost the same performance as manual control. Subsequently the operators are freed from manual operation in the control room for an hour. 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Preparation and space charge accumulation characteristics of acrylate-grafted polyethylenes using reaction extrusion; Hanno oshidashi ni yoru acrylate polyethylene no seizo to kukan denka chikuseki tokusei

    Lee, C.; Okamoto, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Suh, K. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Space charge accumulation characteristics of chemically modified polyethylenes which were grafted with acrylates like acrylic acid and n-butylacrylate using reactive extrusion were investigated. In LDPE-g-Acrylic Acid (LDPE-g-AA), it was showed that the heterocharge found in low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) decreased with the increase of acrylic acid graft ratio and changed to the homocharge formation above 0.1 wt% due to the introduction of carbonyls. Conduction currents and charge mobilities of LDPE-g-AA decreased with the increase of AA graft ratio, while the conduction mechanism remains unchanged. However, in the LDPE-g-n-Buthylacrylate (LDPE-g-nBA), the change of space charge accumulation characteristics were not observed and charge mobilities of them not affected by the graft ratio. The differences of space charge formation between two grafted polyethylenes were closely related to the ability of trap site in monomer grafted to LDPE and the chemical structure of it. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Evaluation of anticorrosive films on copper by a low-energy photoelectron emission measurement. Tei energy hikari denshi ni yoru do hyomen boshoku himaku no hyoka

    Asabe, Y.; Wakasa, H.; Mori, S. (Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    As a result of investigation on the effect of inhibitor based on the emission initiating energy E{sub t} (threshold) of low energy photoelectron emitted from the surface of the BTA (benzotriazole) treated specimen, it is found that E{sub t} shifts to the high energy side if copper is treated with effective inhibitor BTA, but no shift is observed with iron even if it is treated with BTA. The shift of E{sub t} is eminent at BTA concentration of larger than 1{times} 10{sup {minus}4} mol/l, which agrees well with the tendency of corrosion inhibition obtained from the polarization curves. When copper specimens are coated with films of oxide and others, E{sub t} shifts to the high energy side. From this fact, the shift of E{sub t} to the high energy side when copper is treated with BTA can be considered to be corresponding to the thickness of anticorrosion film. The effect of inhibitor on copper surface can be evaluated easily by this method even in low BTA concentration region. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Interactive steering of supercomputing simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from square cylinder; Supercomputer wo mochiita steering system ni yoru kakuchu kara hoshasareru kurikion no suchi kaiseki

    Yokono, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Precision Engineering Lab.


    This paper describes extensive computer simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from a square cylinder using an interactive steering supercomputing simulation system. The unsteady incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method using a steering system which can visualize the numerical process during calculation and alter the numerical parameter. Using the fluctuating surface pressure of the square cylinder, the farfield sound pressure is calculated based on Lighthill-Curle`s equation. The results are compared with those of low noise wind tunnel experiments, and good agreement is observed for the peak spectrum frequency of the sound pressure level. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Experimental analysis of the structure attenuation characteristics on engine noise by pseudo cylinder pressure excitation; Giji tonaiatsu kashin ni yoru engine kozo no soon tokusei hyoka

    Ozawa, H.; Nakada, T. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The engine structure attenuation has been experimentally analyzed by the newly developed in-cylinder excitation system. It can reproduce the complete cylinder pressure in non-running engine conditions by adopting the hydraulic and the piezoelectric actuator. The structure attenuation measured in this system has a good coincidence with the ones measured in actually engine operating conditions, meanwhile the current method, which applied only high frequency components as the excitation pressure, was shown to have the unsatisfied agreement. As a result, the proposed system has been concluded to be very useful to estimate the engine noise characteristics in non-running conditions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Case study of geostructural prospect of a tunnel by using geophysical methods; Butsuri tansa ni yoru tunnel chisan yosoku to jissai

    Ueda, H. [Japan Railway Construction Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kawakami, J. [Taisei Construction Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nagasue, I.; Hiwatashi, S.; Wakuno, M. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A preliminary survey was carried out by combining elastic wave exploration (using a refraction method) and electrical exploration (using a resistivity imaging method) on a long tunnel planned in a granite distributed area. This paper describes a case of verifying geological condition in the area by using a trial survey well and horizontal boring. This tunnel goes through the Seburi mountainous area on the border of Fukuoka Prefecture and Saga Prefecture for a total distance of 12 km. The refraction method and the resistivity imaging method were selected from the necessity of identifying the weathering condition in natural ground, and distributions of fault crush zones and underground water in a section extending 560 m from the well entrance. As a result of comparing the natural ground condition interpreted from the geophysical survey results with the construction records, the fault was detected as a cracked or deformed section in the part where the resistivity value changes abruptly or where the resistivity is low. The tunnel natural ground classification showed a good correspondence with the elastic wave velocities. The largest flooding section showed a good agreement with the section where the resistivity changes suddenly to a lateral direction. Thus, the geological information interpreted from both surveys presented a good correspondence with the construction records, leading to a judgment that the prediction is possible. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Solidification point measurements of high melting ceramics by digital pyrometry with solar furnace; Taiyoroyo tanshoku hosha ondokei ni yoru koyuten ceramics no gyokoten sokutei

    Yamada, T. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Yoshimura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    In order to measure a solidification point or melting point, it is necessary to the heating methods to be sufficient to melt the subject to be measured. In particular, as for the method to melt ceramics having high melting point (>200K), radiation heating, plasma heating, electron beam heating, resistance heating, induction heating and so forth are cited. This time, a solar furnace utilizing natural energy is used as a heating method. Authors carried out the remesurement of the solidification point of high melting ceramics using apparatus equipped a digital pyrometry with solar furnace system. Samples and in the experiment are MgO(3063-3124K), CaO(2873-3223K) and HfO2, comparative less evaporation at high temperature, especially having a large scattering value on literatures. Based on the measurements of effective emissivity and luminance temperature, the solidification points were determined to be 314K{+-}13K for MgO, 3174K{+-}7K for CaO and 3076K{+-}3K for HfO2, respectively. 21 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Nonlinear system control by extended feedback system with forward model; Jun moderu wo riyoshita kakucho fido bakku kei ni yoru hisenkei system no seigyo

    Oyama, E. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tachi, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For controlling a nonlinear system with unknown characteristics, utilization of learning elements such as multi-layer neural networks has been studied. For such control, the techniques of control by learning an inverse model of the target system have been proposed, but there are many drawbacks to obtain an inverse model. The technique to calculate a control command by using a forward model is based on iterative methods, including the Newton`s method, which are based on local information, and there could be the cases when the precise control command cannot be calculated including the case when it converges to the local optimal solutions. In this paper, as the control technique of a discrete nonlinear system with unknown characteristics, the control method by an extended feedback system utilizing a forward model of the target system and the utilization technique of the inverse model have been proposed and their effectiveness have been shown by simulation. In case when an inverse model is not available or in case when an inverse model has not been learned, the search for the initial value and the iterative methods are repeated in calculating control signals by the extended feedback system, but this will be avoided thanks to the improvement of the computer capacity. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Forward prediction of tunnel face by use of equi-traveltime planes; Tosojimen no riyo ni yoru tunnel kiriha zenpo tansa

    Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, T. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The result is reported herein of a depth transform algorithm application utilizing equi-traveltime planes in reflection seismic exploration for the purpose of knowing the structure configuration in front of the tunnel face in a tunnel excavation process. A vibration producing hole was provided 0.5m above the ground surface while a vibration receiving hole was provided at 1.5m above the ground surface, and the excavated lengths were 1.5m and 0.5m, respectively. There were 24 recording channels, from which inline offset records were taken. The on-site records were subjected to 100-1000Hz band pass filtering. The elastic wave propagation rate in the rock used for depth conversion was set at 400m/s in consideration of the distance and direct wave travel time from the vibration source to the vibration receiving point. As the result of study, weak layers were found in the neighborhood of 230-240m, 260-270m, and 280-290m. This method requires less core memory for calculation and completes calculation in a shorter period of time, which enables a conclusion that it will be effective in grasping the 3-dimensional structure in front of the tunnel face in the working scene. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Preparation of Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salt (2); Yukisan'en tofu netsubunkai ho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei (2)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    A method of forming superconductive film by firing substrate coated organ solution consisting of organic metal compound and organic solvent was investigated. After spin coating of octyl acid salt solution on Ag tape, YBCO film was produced by heat treatment at 920 degrees of centigrade for 10-60 minutes. Three kinds of Ag tapes with different of surface roughness was used, but oriented film in film plane of them could not be obtained. However, oriented YBCO film in film plane could be obtained on (100) substrate of LaAlO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  11. Preparation o Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salts; Yukisanen tofu netsubunkaiho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    Critical current characteristics in the magnetic field is excellent in the Y system oxide superconducting wire rod, and it is expected as next generation wire rod, because the magnetic field dependence is good even in the liquid nitrogen temperature. We have carried out the examination of the Bi system superconductor tape wire rod by the applicator in respect of organic metal raw material on the metal tape state backing since the convention continue. This time, we newly made the octyl acid salt to be a raw material, and we examined the Y system superconductive film manufacture on the polycrystal Ag tape substrate. (NEDO)

  12. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Controllability of expansion of light-weight aggregates with natural zeolites on firing. Tennen zeolite ni yoru keiryo kotsuzai no shoseiji no bochosei no control

    Guo, Y. (Tsinghua University, Beijing, BJ (China))


    Light-weight aggregates were prepared by using raw materials of natural zeolites consisting mainly of clinoptilolites from Heilongjiang Province, China. Chemical analyses and ion exchange of the natural zeolite materials were carried out. By the ion exchange method, only chemical composition of the natural zeolite was able to be changed without destroying their structures. Changes in shape during firing and expansion of the prepared light-weight aggregates were illustrated. In addition, fracture surfaces were observed by using a scanning electron microscope. For the Ca type, Na type, and Ca-Na type zeolites obtained by the ion exchange, volume expansion took place at relatively low temperatures during their firing, and they exhibited high expansion coefficients. Consequently, it was found that expansion of the natural clinoptilolite during firing can be controlled by this preparation method. An optimum chemical composition range of zeolite was provided for obtaining the light-weight aggregates with high quality. 13 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Load leveling by a battery system in an electric power system with a photovoltaic system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ga donyusareta denryoku keito no chikudenchi ni yoru fuka heijunka

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Storage battery-aided load leveling system is introduced into a power system having a photovoltaic power generation (PV) system, and the effect of the introduction is examined. For this purpose, the resultant improvement on the load factor and reduction in the annual cost are evaluated. Used as the load factor in the studies are the hourly records of power transmitted and received by Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., in 1995. The output of the PV system is calculated using weather data collected in Nagoya City in the same year. Findings as the result of the studies are stated below. The maximum power is suppressed but a little if it is only the PV system that is introduced into the system. That is, a 2GW PV system introduced into the system suppresses the maximum power only by 0.5GW or less. The maximum power is suppressed more effectively when a storage battery is added, and it decreases linearly with an increase in the storage battery capacity. As for reduction in the cost, the reducing effect is higher when the rate of storage battery capacity/introduced PV capacity is higher in the presence of an introduced PV capacity of 0.8GW or more. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Thermochemical recuperative combined cycle with methane-steam reforming combustion; Tennengasu kaishitsu nensho ni yoru konbaindo saikuru hatsuden no kokoritsuka oyobi denryoku fuka heijunka taio

    Kikuchi, R.; Essaki, K.; Tsutsumi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Kaganoi, S.; Kurimura, H. [Teikoku Sekiyu Co., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Ogawa, T. [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)


    Thermochemical recuperative combined cycles with methane-steam reforming are proposed for improving their thermal efficiency and for peak-load leveling. For targeting higher thermal efficiency, a cycle with methane-steam reforming reaction heated by gas turbine exhaust was analyzed. The inlet temperature of gas turbine was set at 1,350 degree C. Low-pressure steam extracted from a steam turbine is mixed with methane, and then this mixture is heated by part of the gas turbine exhaust to promote a reforming reaction. The rest of the exhaust heat is used to produce steam, which drives steam turbines to generate electricity. The effect of steam-to-methane ratio (S/C) on thermal efficiency of the cycle, as well as on methane conversion, is investigated by using the ASPEN Plus process simulator. The methane feed rate was fixed at constant and S/C ratio was varied from 2.25 to 4.75. Methane conversion shows an increasing trend toward the ratio and has a maximum value of 17.9 % at S/C=4.0. Thermal efficiency for the system is about 51 % higher than that calculated for a conventional 1,300 degree C class combined cycle under similar conditions. A thermochemical recuperative combined cycle is designed for peak-load leveling. In night-time operation from 20 : 00 to 8 : 00 it stores hydrogen produced by methane steam reforming at S/C=3.9 to save power generation. The gas turbine inlet temperature is 1,330 degree C. In daytime operation from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00 the chemically recuperated combined cycle operated at S/C=2.0 is driven by the mixture of a combined cycle operated at constant load with the same methane feed rate, whereas daytime operation generated power 1.26 times larger than that of the combined cycle. (author)

  16. Ion exclusion chromatography for the purification of L-glutamine; Ion haijo chromatography ni yoru L-glutamine no seiseiho no kenkyu

    Ito, H.; Nishi, A.; Naruse, M. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki (Japan)


    Ion exclusion chromatography for the purification of L-glutamine is studied. L-glutamine is usually produced by fermentation and used in pharmaceuticals. By using a model solution of L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid, the optimum cation exchange resin is examined. As a result of the experiments, it is found that a cation exchange resin which has smaller crosslinkage and smaller diameter is better. Ammonium sulfate, L-glutamic acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, which are usually contained in fermentation broth as impurities, are effectively separated by this method. Moreover, the experimental data of the chromatography is expressed fairly well by the differential equations which express the mass transfer in the fixed bed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Cultivation of spirulina platensis and its growth behavior controlling cultivation medium; Baiyoeki sosei no seigyo ni yoru spirulina platensis no baiyo oyobi sono zoshoku kyodo

    Kobayashi, K.; Fujita, K. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)


    Cultivation of Spirulina platensis while controlling pH and nitrate ion in the culture medium was investigated in order to obtain a high density culture. In the cultivation of Spirulina platensis using sodium bicarbonate as a carbon source, the pH value increased during growth of Spirulina, and then the growth stopped at a pH value of more than 12. The cell concentration reached 2.2g/l by maintaining a pH range of 8.5 to 10.0 using CO2 gas without controlling the nitrate ion concentration. By controlling the pH and adding nitrate to a concentration of 2.0g/l, the cell concentration reached 4.2g/l at 350 hours. It was found that the cell concentration was about four times that of the culture without controlling pH and nitrate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Calculation of electric potential around line electrode by 2.5-D FEM; 2.5 jigen FEM ni yoru sen denkyoku shuhen no den`i keisan

    Sugimoto, Y. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A new method to calculate 2.5-D electric potentials around line electrodes in an inhomogeneous medium was developed. While certain conventional analyses of electric potentials due to line sources have assumed that current density is constant along the line source, this assumption is invalid for electrically inhomogeneous media. In the newly developed method, line electrodes are modeled approximately using line elements of 1-D FEM. Since line elements cannot be combined directly with a 2.5-D FEM model, equivalent scattered sources were introduced to evaluate the effect of the line elements on the 2.5-D potentials (equivalent scattered source method). The equivalent scattered sources represent current interchange between the line elements and the 2.5-D FEM elements. A simulation test was carried out and the following results were obtained. 1. In the uniform formation model, potentials calculated by the equivalent scattered source method agreed with the solutions obtained by analytical and charge simulation methods. 2. The results of the equivalent scattered source method indicate that current density increases slightly as depth increases and is concentrated at the tip of the electrode. This phenomenon was also observed in the results of the charge simulation method. Current concentration is considered an effect of the finite radius of the electrode. 3. In the horizontal multi-layered model, calculated current density along line electrodes is inversely proportional to the layer resistivity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Detecting technology of buried pipes and hollow areas by using physical detecting method; Senbu chika deno butsuri tansaho ni yoru maisetsukan, kudo chosa

    Nagashima, Y. [NTT Technical Assistance and Support Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    No precise records are available on positions of buried pipes which constitute such life lines as electric power, water supply, gas supply, and telecommunications under roads. This record unavailability is causing troubles of damaging these pipes when road excavating constructions are carried out. Therefore, a technology has been demanded, which can measure positions of buried pipes non-destructively from the ground surface. To meet this requirement, development has been performed on a technology to explore pipes buried in depths up to 3 meters. Research results thereon have made achievements today causing a large number of practically usable devices to emerge into existence. Major exploration methods include the electromagnetic wave method and the electromagnetic induction method. This paper describes principles, problems, and exploration application examples of the pulse radar electromagnetic wave method and the electromagnetic induction method, and some considerations thereon. No devices have been completed to date, which can fully satisfy the requirements in exploring buried objects. This is because electromagnetic waves get attenuated sharply under the ground, and because a large number of boundary faces exist underground to reflect electromagnetic waves. It is necessary to continue research and development efforts. 7 refs., 32 refs.

  20. New magnetotelluric inversion scheme using generalized RRI method and case studies; GRRI ho ni yoru MT o nijigen inversion kaiseki to sono tekiyorei

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, K. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inversion scheme. For the 2-D Frechet derivative scheme, the model correction values are calculated from the Jacobian matrix after the Taylor expansion of Maxwell`s equation. Although numerical solutions with high calculation accuracy and reliability can be obtained, it requires very large computer capacity and high speed load. While, the RRI (rapid relaxation inversion) approximation scheme proposed by Smith and Booker provides high efficiency in the computer capacity and speed load. However, since horizontal changes in the electric field or magnetic field are determined only from a single observation point for the calculation of model correction values, the calculation accuracy is inferior to that by Frechet scheme. In this study, improvement in the calculation was tried with keeping the efficiency of RRI scheme. The Maxwell`s equation was modified into form of perturbation method using magnetic field or electric field and conductivity of ground. The perturbed equation was then multiplied by a test function, to relate the boundary integral and region integral. A modified equation with 2-D property similar to RRI scheme could be obtained. Thus, results similar to those from the Frechet scheme could be obtained in a period similar to that by the RRI scheme. 11 refs., 17 figs.

  1. Estimation of bainite transformation temperatures in steels by the empirical formulas; Hagane no bainite hentai ondo no jikkenshiki ni yoru suitei

    Okada, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kunitake, T.


    Relational formulas were proposed for bainite transformation temperatures and chemical compositions in steels. Thirty-one isothermal transformation charts were selected, whose forms are such that transformation regions in both of pearlite stage and bainite stage are separated, and bainite transformation starting temperature reaches a constant value on the longer duration side in isothermal retention. Multiplex analysis was performed on the charts. Then, an experimental formula was presented to derive the bainite transformation temperature from chemical compositions of the steels. An assessed value very close to the measured value was derived. Another experimental formula was presented to estimate the bainite transformation temperature from the chemical compositions of the steels during continuous cooling, which is more practicable than isothermal transformation in heat treatment of the steels. Two kinds of parameters, B {sub 1} and B {sub 2} were introduced into the formula. The parameter B {sub 1} is a bainite transformation starting temperature in the case when cooling is performed at a critical cooling rate in which the pearlite transformation can appear, and B {sub 2} is a bainite transformation starting temperature when cooling is performed at such a critical cooling rate that a structure containing bainite is transformed completely to a pearlite transformed structure. A formula more versatile than conventional formulas was obtained. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Electricity demand and the structure in Japan. Examination using time series analysis; Nippon denryoku juyo no suii to sono kozo. Jikeiretsu bunseki ni yoru kento

    Kato, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Stable supply of power was studied by applying the time-series analytical technique to the analysis of domestic power demand time series shift and power demand structure. Unit root tests were performed for four series of demands for power, that is, the great demand, business demand, small demand, and lighting demand. Then, the null hypothesis advocating the presence of unit roots in them could not be rejected but, on the other hand, the null hypotheses was discarded in some tests advocating their steady presence. Furthermore, a power demand function was derived and the relationship of power demand with the cointegration component as the income and price factor was examined, when it was found that the power demand function itself gives a long-range, stable relationship. Utilizing this conclusion, an error correction model and vector autoregression model were induced. It was then shown that a short-range disequilibrium in the long-range stable relationship is corrected approximately in 2 years in the case of the great demand, and approximately in 9 months in the case of the lighting demand. Again, a conclusion was reached that the price factor did not involve any causality in the case of the lighting demand. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Flow channel design of a multi-cavity mold by filling simulation for thermosets. Netsu kokasei jushi ryudo kaiseki ni yoru cavity tasuko tori kanagata no ryuro sekkei

    Saeki, J. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kaneda, A. (Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A study was made on the flow channel design of a multi-cavity mold by filling simulation for thermosets. A practical analytic method was developed for the calculation of pressure losses at various locations in the channel following the estimation of viscosity change in the thermosets in the mold with optional shape. The runner and gate are designed for equal flow distribution to each cavity, and a newly developed model and a conventional type model were trially made for various evaluation using the conditions set at the time of designing. Ideal filling was achieved with the newly developed type model, and the design method of the type was confirmed to be reasonable. Characteristic values were studied which can be considered to give effect on the deformation of gold wires and void formation in molded devices. The effects on the prevention of gold wire deformation, decrease in void formation, and widening formation margin were confirmed. By the developed mold designing method, less diameter gold wire may be used without decreasing the quality of the package. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Analysis of forces from the subframe into sidemembers for road noise reduction; Riya subframe keijo no saitekika ni yoru road noise no kaizen

    Arakawa, M.; Asai, M.; Kiyota, Y.; Akiyama, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In a rigidity added rear subframe structure, an analysis was made of the internal force working on the joint with the sidemember, for studying how to reduce road noise. In the frequency domain giving rise to low noise related problems in a rigidity added rear subframe structure, the rear subframe and floor crossmember produces bending oscillation with the sidemember section serving as the point of articulation. Now that the floor is the location wherein the low noise originates, what is important in the effort to reduce noise is to suppress the up-and-down oscillation of the floor crossmember. The result of the analysis indicates that the floor oscillation, responding to the up-and-down force inputted by the rear subframe, reduces when the position of installation of the rear subframe is changed and rigidity is secured two times more than the rigidity required for optimization in the central cross section. In an application to a service vehicle, the road noise during a run along a tennis court evaluation road resulted in a 2.0dB reduction, which enables the conclusion that the technique introduced herein is better than the technique of providing a rear subframe with a dynamic damper. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Production of L-aspartic acid by bioreactors using immobilized microorganisms. Koteika biseibutsu wo mochiiru baio riakuta ni yoru L-asuparagin san no seizo

    Sato, T. (Tanabe Seiyaku Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))


    A developmental progress of a continuous process is introduced, wherein L-aspartic acid is produced in an industrial scale from fumaric acid with immobilized aspartase. First, immobilization of aspartase extracted from Escherichia coli was tried by entrapping it in polyacryllamide gel. The enzyme was proved unstable to be used in an industrial scale because of being taken out of bacterial organism. It was found that E. coli with 10-fold high enzymic activity can be held by entrapping the bacteria in polyacrylamide gel without extracting enzyme. In consideration of optimum temperature, pH, heat resistance and other properties of E. coli, and of exothermic reaction, a continuous enzyme reactor was designed of a radiation (heat exchanger) type with E. coli packed multi-step columns. Using this reactor, the production cost of L-aspartic acid could be reduced to about 60 % of that by conventional batch-wise type. Further, the productivity has been raised remarkably by improving immobilizing efficiency with use of [kappa]-carrageenan instead of polyacrylamide and by using mutant strains with 7-fold high aspartase activity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Tidal simulation of a bay with a very large floating structure using multi level model; Taso moderu ni yoru choogata futai mawari no ryukyo keisan

    Hu, Changhong; Kyozuka, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School


    Tidal currents and drift currents in a bay with a pontoon type very large floating structure are calculated using a multi-level model. A method of solving two dimensional Poisson equation is proposed to obtain the hydrodynamic pressure under the floating structure. Vertical displacement of the floating structure due to the calculated surrounding water levels can also be calculated. Computation is performed also for tidal flows of a bay to study the effect of the vertical displacement of the pontoon. Lastly, building an airport in the Ariake Sea is assumed as an example, and the effect of the structure on tidal currents is calculated using this method. A floating airport has less effect on tidal currents and residual currents in comparison with a reclaimed island. The horizontal flow velocity under a floating structure increases more than in the case of no platoon, and the effect on the flow rate becomes smaller relatively. There is a little difference in the vertical flow rate between the case of allowing vertical displacement of the platoon and the case of restricting the displacement, but the change in the horizontal flow rate is very little. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Studies on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability. Kotai sagyo ni yoru suimin dotai to hiro oyobi sono sagyo tekiosei no kenkyu

    Matsuoka, N.; Yokota, A. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Studies were made on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability with respect to the following items: (1) With a nurse work system as the object, a survey of rectum temperature, heart rate and rhythm before and after a midnight shift, and sleep at rising in the morning using the OSA survey method; (2) To analyze actual conditions of cumulative fatigue felt by shift workers and fatigue factors, a survey on shift work history, overtime work time, work patterns, symptoms of cumulative fatigue, and and life satisfaction; (3) A survey on daytime sleep record maintained at working places of guards including those of middle or advanced age, and sleep as affected by a nap; (4) A method of improving complains of circadian rhythm disorders because of variations in sleep and emergence rhythms experienced by shift workers, and discussions of usability of light radiation; and (5) Establishment of a technique to indicate effects of psychological burdens and psychogenic stress on visual functions of shift workers using tensions in focal adjustment. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Vowel recognition by fuzzy inference and application to recognition of continuous Korean speech. Fuzzy suiron ni yoru boin ninshiki to kankokugo renzoku onsei eno oyo

    Choi, W.K.; Akizuki, K. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Lee, H.H. (Fukuoka Inst. of Tech., Fukuoka (Japan))


    The target of voice recognition is to recognize continuous speech which is effective for speech recognition of unspecified persons. As a new matching method, the variations of feature parameters of speakers are represented as fuzzy variables to express the variation by membership functions. It is a new pattern matching method of fuzzy inference using feature parameters, fuzzy relation and synthesis of each formant, and the fuzzy rule. It is a recognition method for the inference of best formant which matches the fact by providing each characteristic quantity and fuzzy rule for composite calculation. For consonant recognition, pitch, logarithmic energies, zero crossing rates, etc. are used which represent features of each formant. KOSRES 2, recognition system for continuous Korean speech, was structured using this method which was subjected to recognition experiments on continuous Korean speech, and the recognition method by fuzzy inference is found to be effective for speech recognition of unspecified persons. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Study on the inside gas flow visualization of oxygen sensor cover; Kashika ni yoru O2 sensor cover nai no gas nagare hyoka

    Hocho, S.; Mitsuishi, Y.; Inagaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hamaguchi, S.; Mizusawa, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In order to make clear the difference of the response time between the oxygen sensors with different protection covers, we visualized gas flow inside of sensor covers by means of two experimental methods: One is `Smoke Suspension Method` using liquid paraffin vapor as the smoke. With smoke suspension method, we detected the streamlines inside of the covers. The other is `Color Reaction Method` using the reaction of phenolphthalein and NH3 gas. With color reaction method, we confirmed the streamline inside of the cover and furthermore detected the difference of the response time of each sensor. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Improvement of heat degradation in Y-TZP by surface modification. Y-TZP no hyomen kaishitsu ni yoru netsu rekka no kaizen

    Shikata, R.; Yamamoto, T. (Osaka Cement Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Shiono, T.; Nishikawa, T. (Kyoto Inst. of Tech., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering and Design)


    Since Y-TZP (stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) shows superior mechanical properties, it is expected to be applied to structural ceramics. However, currently, anxiety for a long term reliability to heat degradation has been still observed. Therefore, in order to enhance the long periodical heat stability in low temperature as well as to keep the high intensity of Y-TZP, it is desirable to reform only the surface of Y-TZP to the one which has a superior characteristic of heat stability. In this paper, to obtain such Y-TZP with heat stability on the surface, zirconia product was fabricated at first using sintered raw material powder in low temperature, and subsequently impregnate it by nitric acid yttium solution to increase Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} solids on the surface. As a result, impregnation depth from the surface of cubic zirconia and nitric acid yttrium on the surface of Y-TZP has been increased in proportion to the impregnation volume of nitric acid yttrium, and the surface of Y-TZP could be completely coated by cubic zirconia. 20 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Construction of a highway tunnel with TBM. ; No. 2 Yuda tunnel of Akita motorway. TBM ni yoru doro tonneru no seko. ; Akita jidoshado Yuda daini tonneru

    Miura, M. (Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan))


    The tunnel excavator TBM has an ability of executing excavation works rapidly and is attractive for excavating speedily and efficiently a tunnel which has a trend to be larger in cross section and longer in length in the future. In order to study possibility and workability of the excavation techniques using this TBM, TBM has been adopted for excavating No.2 Yuda tunnel of Akita motorway. It is the technique to execute an excavation work of a top heading with a TBM whose diameter is 3.5m, then to expand the heading by cutting the earth to a predetermined cross section through the total cross sectional excavation technique with an auxiliary bench. The total length of the tunnel is 2,413m. The temperature in the winter is low, snowfall is heavy and rocks are volcanic. In planning the usage of TBM, it has been considered to design and build a TBM capable of digging the soft earth, not to let the TBM caught by the expansive earth, to be able to take muck out even in case of voluminous gushing water and to grasp the earth in front quickly and exactly. Also an automatic operation system has been adopted taking into consideration that no individual difference of operator would be reflected and manpower saving would be expected in the future. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Geoelectrical structure by electrical logs and Schlumberger sounding at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture; Denki kenso oyobi Schlumberger ho ni yoru Akinomiya chinetsu chiiki no hiteiko kozo

    Kajiwara, T.; Takemoto, S.


    Based on the electrical logging data of the existed well and Schlumberger sounding data obtained in 1974, a two-dimensional inversion analysis of the specific resistance profile was conducted at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture. From the electrical logging data, relationships between the geology and the specific resistance were illustrated. The specific resistance values of basement rocks showed more than 100 ohm-m, which were higher than those of the other seams. Intrusive rocks and tuffs in the basement rocks showed locally low values less than 100 ohm-m. Younger volcanic rocks showed low values around 10 ohm-m. As a result of the two-dimensional inversion analysis, the basement rocks could be detected as high specific resistance layers. Accordingly, it was considered that the basement rocks in this field can be detected as high specific resistance layers by analyzing the results of field survey sufficiently. Low specific resistance zones were observed in the shallow depth, which corresponded to the fumarolic gases. There were some layers with remarkably varied specific resistance values, which were considered to be related with alteration. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Identification of dynamic characteristics by field vibration test in Tsurumi Tsubasa bridge; Tsurumi Tsubasakyo no shindo jikken ni yoru doteki tokusei no dotei

    Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, H.; Ogasawara, M.; Shimosato, T. [Metropolitan Expressway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, M.; Okada, J. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Field vibration test of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, a long span cable stayed bridge, has been conducted. Focusing on its dynamic characteristics, an identification method from test results and its validity were investigated. The natural frequency identified using mode circle and resonance curve from steady vibration test agreed with that identified by the peak method from free damping test. Accordingly, there was no difference due to identification methods, and both methods provided appropriate accuracy. The natural vibration mode obtained from the steady vibration test agreed with that obtained by the eigenvalue analysis. The dispersion of experimental values, which indicates the adaptation to mode circle method, became a scale indicating reliability of identified values. When the damping obtained by the half power method for the microtremors test is compared with that identified from the steady vibration test and free damping test, it is required to compare them at lower amplitude level region, considering that the amplitude level of microtremors test is very low. For the dynamic characteristics of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, it was found that it has lower natural frequency and higher modal damping compared with other cable stayed bridges with similar scale of span. 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Reduction of seismic response long-span PC cable-stayed bridge by passive dampers; Damper ni yoru saidai PC shachokyo no jishinji oto no teigen

    Takeda, T.; Yamanobe, S.; Niihara, Y. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is important in designing a PC cable-stayed bridge to properly estimate the seismic response of the bridge for reduction of the response. In this paper, an improvement of the seismic resistance of PC cable-stayed bridges when dampers are installed between the deck and piers and lateral vibration of the deck is restricted is investigated using a time history response model. PC cable-stayed bridges with a span length of 400 m, particularly two types of bridges of harp and semi-harp are investigated and the following is found by analyzing the case where there are installed hysteresis type dampers (with 1 cm yield displacement and secondary rigidity assumed to be 1/10 times that of initial rigidity, the initial rigidity being parametrically changed.) or viscous type dampers (a damping factor is changed.) The result shows that the dampers can reduce the seismic response of a PC cable-stayed bridge and that a semi-harp configuration of stay cables where stay cable members are substantially vertically arranged is more effective than a harp configuration for the seismic performance of PC cable-stayed bridges. The damper partly bear inertial force of the bridge upon earthquake whereby tension of the stay cable members is reduced and bending moment of the deck is reduced. There is existing an optimum characteristic value of the damper concerning the bending moment of the piers. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Rational design for SPAC to counter wash-away by waves and discharge waster; Nami to hosuiryu ni yoru senkutsu taisakuko SPAC no goriteki sekkei

    Shimizu, T.; Ikeno, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Ujiie, H.; Yamauchi, I. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan)


    Investigations were made as to how to design an SPAC (Spreading Armor Coat) for the prevention of wash-away from landfill-protected shores by warm water discharge. In this method, the sandy sea bottom in front of the discharge outlet is dredged and a stone layer is placed therein, and the spread of the layer forms an armor coat. This method is advantageous in that it requires less stone and less dredging than others. In the experiment, a discharge outlet model was used, and data were collected concerning the spread of the stone layer, etc. Findings are to be stated below. The deployment width of the stone layer is to be determined in view of the coverage of the junction slope sharing an angle of repose of 20 degrees with the wash-away width. In case the discharged current drifts under attacks by tall waves coming in obliquely, some allowance needs be added to the SPAC width in consideration of the drifting. A drift may be evaluated by some empirical formulae now available. For the prevention of sand from being drawn out through between the stones after the stone layer deployment, pebbles (1/3 of the stone in diameter) should be mingled with the stones, which will narrow the gap to 5% from 20%, the latter being the percentage with stones only. Pebbles work effectively when they are placed on the dredge-formed slope in the SPAC deployed area. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Survey of ancient river trace in Hotta stockade site using vertical electrical method; Denki tansa (suichoku tansa) ni yoru futsudenssaku sekinei no kasenseki chosa

    Nishitani, Tadasho; Takano, Kasumi; Matsuno, Katsutoshi [Akita University, Akita (Japan); Kodama, Jun


    The vertical electric prospecting was carried out at a high density to investigate the characteristics of ancient river trace in Hotta stockade site, and therefore the ancient river trace at the final stage, the distribution of sand soil and gravel layers due to flooding were clarified. It has been known that the rive terrace was roughly divided into two and merged into one near the government office trace. When estimating the river trace at the final stage, it was also found that the watercourse was divided into two on the east side. It was considered that there were two watercourses existing simultaneously or the watercourse had changed and moved. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Flame-Retarding of Cotton/Polyester Blended Yarn Fabrics Using Two-Component Sequential Treatment; Nidankai shori ni yoru men/poriesuteru konboshifu no nannenka

    Kubokawa, Hiroo. [Textile Research Institute of Gunma Prefecture, Gunma (Japan)


    Cotton/polyester (C/P) blended yarn fabrics were treated with several flame retardants used for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) using pad-dry-cure method. The relationships between the chemical structures of the flame retardants and their partition into PET fibers were investigated. When tetrabromobisphenol A (TBP-A) was tested, the amount of sorption increased with increasing concentration of TBP-A in treating acetone solution, and reached 4.0%o.w.f. (% on the weight of the fibre) at 10 wt%. THis treated fabric was again treated with a flame retardant for cotton, Pyrovatex CP New, which contains dimethyl 2-(N-hydroxymethylcarbamovl)ethylphosphonate as a main component. However, sufficient flame retardancy was not obtained. The second partition of TBP-A to cotton during heating was thought to lower the sorption efficiency of Pyrovatex CP New. Based on this assumption, for the case of the two-component sequential treatment, the Pyrovatex CP New treatment, which generates covalent bonds with hydroxy groups of cellulose, should be carried out prior to the TBP-A treatment. When a C/P blended yarn fabric was treated with Pyrovatex CP New and then with TBP-A, the amount of sorption of Pyrovatex CP New was 9.6%o.w.f. and the amount of sorption of TBP-A was 4.6%o.w.f. The limiting oxygen index of the treated fabric was 27.2%, a sufficient value for flame retardancy. Fromthis result, it was concluded that the practica flame-retardant finishing of c/p blended yarn fabrics could be carried out by using a simple finishing machine. (author)

  19. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Edo, S.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)


    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Economical effect of introducing a photovoltaic system on future electric power system; Shorai no denryoku keito eno taiyoko hatsuden system donyu ni yoru keizaiteki eikyo

    Akata, N.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)


    Economic impact of introduction in the future of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems into the commercial power system is discussed from the electric utilities` point of view. In the discussion, future demand for power is predicted from the demand for power in the base year, and the optimum power source configuration corresponding to the future demand and power generation curve are worked out by use of linear programming. Then, the fixed cost and variable cost are calculated for each of the power source components, and then the expected reduction in cost per unit of power generated is calculated. As the power sources, the hydroelectric, pumped storage, oil-fired, coal-fired, LNG-fired, combined cycle, and atomic technologies are considered. The conclusion is stated below. Upon introduction of PV power equivalent to 10% of the maximum demand power, the maximum power in the service area of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., will be reduced by 1.23GW in 2025, and the yearly demand power by 5472GWh. Since PV lowers the peak, an increased number of power sources low in variable cost will be used although such will be low in tracking capability. An increase in power demand will enhance the cost reducing effect of the PV system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Investigation of the simulation for the solar DHW system by TRNSYS; TRNSYS ni yoru kaihogata tank wo mochiita solar kyuto system no simulation chosa

    Oishi, M.; Noguchi, T. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan); Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    With an objective of establishing a method for evaluating performance of a photovoltaic hot water supply system, a discussion was given on utilization of the simulation program, TRANSYS. The discussion was addressed on a photovoltaic hot water supply system of forcible circulation type using commercially available open-type heat storage tanks. An experiment was performed as an indoor test using an artificial solar light source. The TRANSYS makes available a type 04 which handles each node as a complete mixture by fixing and dividing the heat storage tank, and a type 38 which expresses heat transfer between temperature layers by means of piston flow as a heat transfer coefficient. Both types were subjected to calculation. The result of the discussion may be summarized as follows: both types provided values close to the experimental values of quantity of heat derived by utilizing solar heat; however, with the type 04, heat transfer cannot be modeled if the system is left still with temperature difference in the heat storage tank being large; and with the type 38, modeling is possible when the system is left still with temperature difference in the heat storage tank being large, but temperature gradient is difficult to be modeled during heat collection and when hot water is supplied. 1 ref., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Simulation by using model of two species of biomass on biological phosphorus removal processes. Seibutsugaku teki datsu rin katei no niso seibutsu model ni yoru simulation

    Cho, H.; Suzuki, M. (Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science)


    This study experimented with a simple model on the process of biological phosphorus removal by anaerobic/aerobic processes in order to estimate the changes in the concentration of phosphorus and biomass. In this model, assuming that an active sludge is constituted of two phases of phosphorus removability and non-phosphorus removability in microorganisms, characteristics in the change of concentrations of phosphous and biomass in a cycle period were examined. According to the study on the factors affecting the phosphorus concentration change during a cycle period, content of microorganisms capable of removing phosphorus in the chamber and the concentration of organic materials in the initial anaerobic stage greatly influence the behavior of phosphorus. In addition, the comparative study with the experimental results indicates that this model can roughly, accurately express the characteristics of concentration change. However, the future problem left is a proposal of a model which can apply to the accummulation and and decomposition of the biomass in the non-phosphorus microorganisms. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Resistance test of high-speed ship by means of attitude control method. Part 2; Shisei seigyo hoshiki ni yoru kosokutei no teiko shiken. 2

    Hayashida, S. [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)


    The previous paper has proposed a resistance test method by controlling the attitude of a high-speed model ship using a personal computer without making a data base. For this method, the fluid force acting on the hull of model ship is measured, to change its attitude based on the measurement, and then, the fluid force is measured again, to change the attitude again. The traveling attitude is created by repeating this, to measure the force acting on the hull. Since the attitude is changed by calculating using the fluid force measured, various factors can be considered in the calculation process. For example, a test with an arbitrary displacement in an arbitrary position of center of gravity can be conducted in spite of actual displacement and position of center of gravity of the model ship. A test for a high-speed ship was conducted through this method, to obtain nearly satisfactory results compared with a usual resistance test. Occasionally, a lot of repetitions were required to satisfy the balancing condition of the force. In this study, the improvement of testing efficiency has been planned by modifying the analyzing program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Study of underground structure of Osaka basin and seismic ground motions; Osaka bonchi no chika kozo chosa to Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru jishindo

    Iwasaki, Y. [Geo-Research Institute, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the following matters on the study of underground structure of Osaka Basin and seismic ground motions caused by the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. Elastic wave investigations using reflections intended for deep structures were carried out in the Hyogo prefectural area and the Osaka bay area by an association of the Geological Survey Institute, Hyogo Prefectural Government, Kobe Municipality and Universities. Reflection investigations were conducted in the Osaka land areas using the east-west traverse line along Yamato River (by the Geological Survey Institute), the south-north traverse line along the Naniwa street in the city of Osaka, and the east-west traverse line at the south end of the Uemachi fault. In addition, investigations using shallow bed reflections were performed in the Osaka bay area by the Hydrographic Office. Results of the active fault investigations using the reflection method may not agree with positions of faults which are estimated topographically. An existing structure model of the Osaka basin (something like of a primary approximation) and the result of inverse analysis on epicenter faults in the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake were used as the base for calculating seismic motions in the Abeno area in Osaka City. The result agreed relatively well with observations if the calculation is intended for waves having cycles longer than about two seconds. 6 figs.

  8. Simulation on breakage of heterogeneous materials caused by detonative loading; Bakugo shogeki ni yoru fukinshitsu zairyo no hakai gensho no simulation

    Sassa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Investigations were conducted by simulation of breakage of inhomogeneous materials (rock) attributable to detonative loading, which simulation used the Days-2 Code. During the simulation, one-free-face blastings were used for testing a homogeneous structure, horizontal 2-layer structure, and horizontal 3-layer structure. Property values were assigned to the rocks on the assumption that they were sedimentary rocks such as sandstone or mudstone or hard rocks such as granite. As the result, it was found that a detonative loading resulted in shear failure in a sphere near the focus that was followed by radially developed cracks due to tension breakage, that more area is damaged in a soft rock than in a hard rock, that cracks due to breakage are produced by the overlapping of waves directly from the focus and those reflected from the free face in case of one-free-face blastings, that such cracks propagated along the soft rock layer in case there is a soft rock layer in a hard rock, but that breakage does not extend beyond the soft rock layer. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Subsurface geology by shallow seismic reflection survey and microgravity survey in Kobe area; Senso hanshaho danseiha tansa oyobi seimitsu juryoku tansa ni yoru Kobe chiiki no chika chishitsu

    Endo, H.; Makino, M.; Murata, Y.; Watanabe, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper reports discussions on subsurface structure of the Kobe area by means of microgravity survey. A Bouguer anomaly distribution graph was obtained (which is close to a near straight line) by measuring the gravity at measurement points with an interval of about 25 m along a traverse line (with a total length of about 1.7 km) in an approximately NNW-SSE direction crossing the downtown of the city of Kobe. Viewing the residuals to a straight line linking the values at both ends of the traverse line revealed that the gradient in the Bouguer anomaly distribution changes as if it is bent at a point near the center of the traverse line as a boundary. Deriving the residuals from fine changes seen in a distribution graph for the residuals made clear that this residual distribution has two discontinuous points. The paper indicates that the bending point in the former case corresponds to a reverse fault in a base bed of a flat land as compared with the result of model calculation on the base structure and gravity distribution. The discontinuous points in the latter case agree with positions of fault distribution derived by a reflection elastic wave survey. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Sensitivity study of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    An examination was made by a model analysis on sensitivity and the like against a resistive anomalous body, in connection with an electromagnetic tomography system with surface earthquake sources and underground receiver arrangements. A resistivity model was of a three-dimensional structure, and built with a 5 ohm{center_dot}m low resistivity anomalous body assembled in a 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous medium. As a result of the examination, it was shown that the size limitation of an analyzable anomalous body was 50{times}50{times}20m at a frequency of 8 to 10kHz and that a system with high precision in a high frequency range was necessary. The examination of effects under a shallow anomalous body revealed, for example, that the fluctuation of a low frequency response was large compared with a deep anomalous body and that, where a second anomalous body existed under it, the effect also appeared with a surface earthquake source positioned in the opposite side from the anomalous body. The examination of effects under the three dimensional structure revealed, for example, that a remarkable change appeared in the data with the change in the inclined angle of the transmission line against the strike of the anomalous body. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Estimation of subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement; Kiretsuha sanjiku keisoku ni yoru chika kiretsumen no hoko suitei

    Nagano, K.; Sato, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    This paper reports experiments carried out to estimate subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement. The experiments were performed by using existing subsurface cracks and two wells in the experimental field. An air gun as a sound source was installed directly above a subsurface crack intersection in one of the wells, and a three-component elastic wave detector was fixed in the vicinity of a subsurface crack intersection in the other well. Crack waves from the sound source were measured in a frequency bandwidth from 150 to 300 Hz. A coherence matrix was constituted relative to triaxial components of vibration in the crack waves; a coherent vector was sought that corresponds to a maximum coherent value of the matrix; and the direction of the longer axis in an ellipse (the direction being perpendicular to the crack face) was approximated in particle motions of the crack waves by using the vector. The normal line direction of the crack face estimated by using the above method was found to agree nearly well with the direction of the minimum crust compression stress measured in the normal line direction of the crack face existed in core samples collected from the wells, and measured at nearly the same position as the subsurface crack. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Fundamental principles of a new EM tool for in-situ resistivity measurement; Denji yudoho ni yoru den`ichi hiteiko sokutei sochi no kento

    Noguchi, K.; Aoki, H. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of measuring in-situ resistivity without contact with the rock, a study was made about a measuring device using electromagnetic induction. This measuring device has two concentric transmission loops and a receiving point at the center of the loops, and performs focusing by canceling the primary magnetic field at the receiving point. Using this device, a trial was made to eliminate the influence of surface undulation. In the model calculation, response was calculated after the structure with a heavily undulated ground surface was replaced by a two-layer structure with the first layer provided with a higher resistivity. In the model, the first layer had a resistivity of 10000 Ohm m, and the second layer 1000 Ohm m. Using the ratio between the transmission loop radii as a parameter, relationship with the thickness of the first layer was studied, and it was found that the sensitivity to the second layer resistivity increases when the inner and outer loops are nearer to each other in terms of radius and that this eliminates the influence near the surface layer. A decision needs to fall within a scope assuring good reception because response intensity decreases as the ratio between the transmission loop radii approaches 1. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Robust control of wire-driven system using linear DC motor; Linear DC motor ni yoru wire kudokei no robust seigyo

    Ikeda, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    The driving system and its control method were studied to miniaturizing the robot and multiplying its degree of freedom. Through designing the composition of force-transferring device driven by wire and actuator done by thin linear motor, the space can be saved by separating the places needing the force-transferring device and those doing the actuator. However, the driving by wire has the unknown stiffness, backlash, friction and other hardly controllable elements. Three types of robust control, observer-based control, sliding-mode control and H{infinity} control were applied and mutually compared. The H{infinity} control was a H{infinity} norm which was adopted, with optimization, into the evaluation function to measure the objective transfer function. Enabling the comparatively easy designing of high-gain controller to comply with the objective, the H{infinity} control theory was known to be effectively applicable even to the objective having the backlash, friction and resonance point. The present control was robust also against the fluctuation in load. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ultra long-term simulation by the integrated model. 1. Framework and energy system module; Togo model ni yoru tanchoki simulation. 1. Flame work to energy system module

    Kurosawa, A.; Yagita, H.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper introduces the study on the ultra long-term energy model `GRAPE` with considering global environment and the results of trial calculation. The GRAPE model is to consist of modules of energy system, climate change, change of land use, food demand/supply, macro economy, and environmental impact. This is a model that divides the world into ten regions, gives 1990 as a base year, and enables the ultra long-term simulation. In this time, emission of carbon is calculated as a trial. In the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission, energy supply in the latter half of 21st century is to compose photovoltaic energy, methanol from coal gasification, and biomass energy. In addition, the shear of nuclear energy is to remarkably increase. For the constitution of power generation, IGCC power generation with carbon recovery, wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, and nuclear power generation are to extend their shears. In the case of constrained concentration of carbon emission, structural change of power generation option is to be delayed compared with the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Potential evaluation of cold heat and hot heat supply by solar heat; Taiyonetsu ni yoru reinetsu onnetsu no kyokyu potential hyoka

    Akizawa, A.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    When the recovered solar heat is supplied to demands such as heating, cooling by absorption refrigerator and hot water supply, the maximum available heating value was determined using a model in which solar heat collector was installed in the residence, to investigate the possibility of alternative demand. In this study, the supply temperatures were 80 {degree}C for cooling, 50 {degree}C for heating, and 50 {degree}C for hot water supply, where a flat plate type heat collector was employed. It was assumed that the heat storage can be conducted for 24 hours. Results obtained are as follows. For detached houses, most of the monthly demand can be supplied due to the actual predominant fine days in each month. For the cold and intermediate periods, it was supposed that monthly demand can be supplied by using excess heating value of fine days in the case of sufficient capacity of heat storage tank. For the model with heat insulating structure, demands except hot water supply can be supplied from solar energy. It was found that the heat insulation greatly contributes to the energy saving. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of biomass resources using SD method-aided world energy/land utilization model; SD shuho no sekai energy tochi riyo model ni yoru

    Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    For the evaluation of the world-wide conflict between the utilization of biomass resources and the restrictions on land utilization, analysis was made using the system dynamics method. In the advanced area, there is scarcely any changes in land utilization, thanks to stable demand for biomass and perfect forestry protection. On the other hand, in the developing area, demand for biomass is increasing and areas of mature forests are decreasing due to imperfect forestry protection. In 2050 and after when the forests will be enjoying the same protection as that in practice in the advanced area, the forest area will stabilize. Mature forests, however, will not stop shrinking, and there will be only 400-million ha of mature forests remaining in 2100. There will be serious food shortage in the developing area because there will be a huge demand for food for livestock. Accordingly, there will be no room at all for the production of energy making crops. Both in advanced and developing areas, the potential is high of cereal residue, livestock`s dung, raw material timber residue, by-products, and refuse energy resources. On the contrary, the potential is low of kitchen refuse, paper, and chemical industry products refuse. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Measurement of a jet issuing from a circular pipe with a laser doppler velocimeter. Laser ryusokukei ni yoru enkan kara no funryu no keisoku

    Kita, Y.; Kitamura, Y.; Yamamoto, K. (Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Yoshinaga, K. (Daikin Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Hirose, K. (Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan))


    In case that the liquid jet issues under gravity from a vertical circular pipe into the atmosphere, the present research investigated the aspect of jet prior to forming the flapping free surface with droplets and then, measured the flow rate, by a laser Doppler velocimeter, in the jet immediately before and after its issuing. Thus, the jet surface profile and change in flowing condition were demonstrated to be relatively expressible by the three dimensionless numbers, i.e., Reynolds, Froude and Weber numbers. The experimental unit forms a circulating loop of lower water tank to pump to main water tank to valve to sub water tank (fitted with an air valve) to acrylic pipe (1m in length, and 8, 12 and 16mm in diameter) to laser probe to lower water tank. The outlet of acrylic pipe is contracted to 30{degree} and opened in the lower water tank. As liquid, used were water, aqueous solution of glyceline and kerosene. As an experimental result, the in-pipe flow also properly maintain its characteristics for the Poiseuille velocity distribution in the flowing region from approximately 12mm in diameter to the issuing extremity in the vicinity of outlet. The other different particulars are also expressible by the above three dimensionless numbers. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Characterization of the interface states in ZnO varistors by DLTS method. DLTS ho ni yoru ZnO barisuta kaimen jun'i no hyoka

    Tsuda, Koichi; Mukae, Kazuo (Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Kanagawa, (Japan))


    The Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy(DLTS) technique was applied to characterize the interface states at the grain boundaries of ZnO varistors, such as Bi-type and Pr-type. The ordinary DLTS method gave similar spectra showing two peaks, which were assigned as bulk traps. Then, a new technique called zero-biased DLTS method was tried for observing the interface states at the grain boundaries. A peak for the interface states of ZnO varistors was detected at higher temperatures for the first time. The Arrhenius plots of the emission rate gave the depths of the interface states of 1.03eV and 0.94eV for Pr-type and Bi-type varistors respectively. Numerical simulation of the DLTS peak revealed that the interface states are distributed monoenergetically. Furthermore, since the nonlinear exponent({alpha}) depended strongly on the peak height, the concentration of the interface states should give a large effect on the nonlinearity of the ZnO varistors. The origin of the interface states was suggested to be identified as chemisorbed oxygen ion at the ZnO grain boundaries. 22 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Characteristics on the heat storage and recovery by the underground spiral heat exchange pipe; Chichu maisetsu spiral kan ni yoru chikunetsu shunetsu tokusei

    Imai, I. [Kure National College of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Taga, M. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)


    The consistency between the experimental value of a soil temperature and the calculation value of a soil temperature given by a non-steady heat conduction equation was confirmed. The experimental value is obtained by laying a spiral heat exchange pipe in the heat-insulated soil box and circulating hot water forcibly in the pipe. The temperature conductivity in soil significantly influences the heat transfer in soil. The storage performance is improved when the temperature conductivity increases because of the contained moisture. As the difference between the initial soil temperature and circulating water temperature becomes greater, the heat storage and recovery values increase. A thermal core heat transfer is done in the spiral pipe. Therefore, the diameter of the pipe little influences the heat storage performance, and the pitch influences largely. About 50 hours after heat is stored, the storage performance is almost the same as for a straight pipe that uses the spiral diameter as a pipe diameter. To obtain the same heat storage value, the spiral pipe is made of fewer materials than the straight pipe and low in price. The spiral pipe is more advantageous than the straight pipe in the necessary motive power and supply heat of a pump. 1 ref., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Clearness index in cloudy days estimated with meteorological information by multiple regression analysis; Kisho joho wo riyoshita kaiki bunseki ni yoru dontenbi no seiten shisu no suitei

    Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Study is under way for a more accurate solar radiation quantity prediction for the enhancement of solar energy utilization efficiency. Utilizing the technique of roughly estimating the day`s clearness index from forecast weather, the forecast weather (constituted of weather conditions such as `clear,` `cloudy,` etc., and adverbs or adjectives such as `afterward,` `temporary,` and `intermittent`) has been quantified relative to the clearness index. This index is named the `weather index` for the purpose of this article. The error high in rate in the weather index relates to cloudy days, which means a weather index falling in 0.2-0.5. It has also been found that there is a high correlation between the clearness index and the north-south wind direction component. A multiple regression analysis has been carried out, under the circumstances, for the estimation of clearness index from the maximum temperature and the north-south wind direction component. As compared with estimation of the clearness index on the basis only of the weather index, estimation using the weather index and maximum temperature achieves a 3% improvement throughout the year. It has also been learned that estimation by use of the weather index and north-south wind direction component enables a 2% improvement for summer and a 5% or higher improvement for winter. 2 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Heat storage characteristics of latent microcapsules using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange; Onshitsu kihogun to sennetsu microcapsule tono chokusetsu sesshohku kokan ni yoru chikunetsu tokusei

    Nakagawa, K.; Sugiura, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    This paper has dealt with the heat storage characteristics of fine microcapsules packed with latent heat storage material in the water layer. The heat storage operation to the latent microcapsules was carried out using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange. The microcapsule consists of n-paraffin as a core latent-heat storage material and melamine resin as a coating substance. The relation of the completion time of latent-heat storage to some parameters was examined experimentally. The non-dimensional correlation equations for the completion time of latent-heat storage process had were derived in terms of the ratio of water layer height to diameter of microcapsule, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and modified Stefan number for absolute humidity of flowing air. (author)

  2. Microbial degradation of crude oil on the sea surface by adding nutrient microcapsules. Eiyo ennaiho microcapsule no tenka ni yoru kaimen deno genyu no biseibutsu bunkai

    Yamane, Akiko; Okada, Mitsumasa; Murakami, Akihiko (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Tech., Tokyo (Japan))


    Microbial degradation of spilled crude oil on the sea surface has been studied. It was found that the concentration of nutrient was a large rate-determining factor in microbial degradation of oil, consequently microbial degradation can be enhanced by adding nutrient. While, a nutrient microcapsule was developed so as to keep a certain concentration of nutrient on the sea surface, and the biodegradation capacity and the dosing condition were investigated through experiments. In the up-and-down shaking apparats modeled on sea surface, crude oils were degraded by a marine bacteria. The percentages of total oil removal were 18-22% in the sea water, on the other hand, by dose of the nutrient microcapsules they were enhanced to 43-56%. On the biodegradation of 5g of crude oil, the oil removal was amounted roughly to maximum when 116mg of the microcapsule per vessel (11.6% to crude oil) was added 5 times every 4 days, and the dosage effect was not increased even if more nutrient microcapsules were added. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Synthesis of calcium-deficient by hydroxyapatite-collage composite by the electrolytic deposition method; Denkai sekishutsu ho ni yoru karushiumu kesson hidorokishiapataito-coragen fukugotai no gosei

    Okamura, H. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School Of Science and Technology; Yasuda, M.; Oota, M. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    Hydroxyapatite is known as that it has a good joining property with teeth and bone, and a study on the application to the living body was conducted by using this property. Its application examples were given as the cement used in dentistry, the artificial tooth root, the artificial bone, the bone cement and the artificial joint. However, they were a sinter heated at more than 1000degC, and were put into use by means of reinforcement using a titanium alloy since their mechanical strength was low. In this study, synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (DAp) and collagen composite by the electrolytic deposition method was attempted in order to develop bionic materials, and the correlation of various physical properties of the obtained composite and the electrolytic deposition conditions were investigated. When the electrolytic voltage is more than 22.0V, a single phase of DAp could be obtained. It was clarified that a DAp and collagen composite was synthesized from results of IR and ESR. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Cross-polarization borehole radar system with a RF analog optical transmission link. Hikaridenso ni yoru chokko henpa bore hole radar keisoku system

    Miwa, T.; Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The cross-polarization borehole radar system (BRS) was reported. The RF analogue optical transmission system (using the optical fiber cable) was introduced into the signal transmission between the sonde and the surface station to broaden the band and to heighten the S/N ratio. The sonde consisted of cable head (to transmit the trigger signal), receiving antenna, and transmitting antenna. The transmitting antenna was excited by the trigger signal from the surface to generate the pulse by the pulse generator. The signal received by the receiving antenna was sent to the oscilloscope on the surface. The field test of cross-polarization borehole system revealed that the effect of noise associated with the BRS employing the eccentric cable did not appear on the BRS. Examples of field test of the cross-polarization borehole measurement system employing the BRS were described. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Improvement of output characteristics of a wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyoho ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no shutsuryoku tokusei kaizen

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Conformity was studied between the wind turbine and generator's output characteristics to effectively collect the wind energy which fluctuates with time. According to the theoretical analysis, it is necessary for the generator-driving torque to be proportional to the revolving speed (n) squared of wind turbine in order that the wind turbine may generate the highest output always regardless of wind velocity. In the output current control method by current controller, the generator's output current (i[sub a]) is controlled so as to satisfy i[sub a]=cn[sup 2], where c is the output current control coefficient, the optimized value of which is 2[alpha][sup 2]Kw/Kt if the generator loss is nil. Therefore, that value is fixed independently of the wind velocity. [alpha] and Kw are the characteristic constants of wind turbine while Kt is the torque coefficient of generator. In order to confirm the effect of the present control method, the output characteristics were studied through simulation with already known systems. In both cases of constant and variable wind velocity, the change in output is similar against the change in c. Different from the resistance load control method, the present control method improves the output characteristics in a wide range of wind velocity even if the c remains fixed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Maximizing output power of wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyo ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no denryoku saidaika

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan))


    This paper reports a method in a wind power generation system to control output current from a generator so that it fits automatically the wind turbine characteristics where the turbine characteristics are unknown and the generator characteristics are known. The paper details the following methods: a method that rotation speed of a wind turbine is observed to make the output current from the generator proportional to a square of the turbine rotation speed, and optimize the proportion coefficient so that the generator output at an equilibrium operation point of this system (wind turbine generated torque is in equilibrium with the generator driven torque) is maximized; and a method to derive an optimal proportion coefficient in discrete time control using a digital computer. The paper then describes the following matters: a simulation that assumes a pseudo natural wind velocity has verified the effectiveness of this control method; discovering an optimal proportion coefficient has required about ten minutes; and the way this control method handles fluctuation in wind velocity has a room of further improvement. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recognition and detection of seismic phases by artificial neural network detector; Jinko neural network ni yoru jishinha no ninshiki to kenshutsu

    Yamazaki, K.; Wang, W. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Initial parts of P-waves, medium or high in intensity, are detected using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is the generic name given to information processing systems of the non-Neumann type configured to human brain in point of information processing function, and is packaged into computers in the form of software capable of parallel processing, self-organizing, learning, etc. In this paper, a hierarchical ANN-assisted seismic motion recognition system is constructed on the basis of an error reverse propagation algorithm. It is reported here, with a remark that this study wants much more data from tests for the evaluation of the quality of the recognition, that P-wave recognition has been achieved. When this technique is applied to the S-wave, much more real-time information will become available. For the improvement of the system, a number of problems have to be solved, including the establishment of automatic refurbishment through adaptation-and-learning and configuration that incorporates frequency-related matters. It is found that this system is effective in seismic wave phase recognition but that it is not suitable for precision measurement. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the elastic wave-equation; Dansei hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Development of micro capacitive accelerometer for subsurface microseismic measurement; Micromachining ni yoru chika danseiha kenshutsu no tame no silicon yoryogata kasokudo sensor no seisaku

    Nishizawa, M.; Niitsuma, H.; Esashi, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A silicon capacitive accelerometer was fabricated to detect subsurface elastic waves by using micromachining technology. Characteristics required for it call for capability of detecting acceleration with amplitudes from 0.1 to 1 gal and flat amplitude characteristics in frequency bands of 10 Hz to several kHz. For the purpose of measuring transition phenomena, linear phase characteristics in the required bands must be guaranteed, cross sensitivity must be small, and resistance to water, pressure and heat is demanded. Sensitivity of the sensor is determined finally by noise level in a detection circuit. The sensor`s minimum detection capability was 40 mgal in the case of the distance between a weight and an electrode being 3 {mu}m. This specification value is a value realizable by the current micromachining technology. Dimensions for the weight and other members were decided with the natural frequency to make band width 2 kHz set to 4 kHz. Completion of the product has not been achieved yet, however, because of a problem that the weight gets stuck on the electrode plate in anode bonding in the assembly process. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Study of lightning attack location by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW; OPGW denpako no henpa hendo ni yoru sodensen raigekiten hyotei no kento

    Kurono, M.; Kuribara, M.; Asakawa, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    A method has been established by which lightning attack location can be automatically measured by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW. A return transmission method and a two way transmission method were proposed, and their characteristics were made clear. For the both methods, optical fiber is used as detecting and transmission media. Additional equipment such as fault locator, the conventional linkage apparatus to transmission line is not required. Optical fiber can be also used as optical communication circuit using wavelength multiplex. For the return transmission method, two times of rising polarization fluctuations can be separated using delaying fiber. Tailings of the fluctuation are often overlapped. A value of polarization fluctuation velocity d{beta} was determined from instantaneous differential values of three measured polarization components. Thus, a method has been proposed by which the lightning attack time can be derived from the peak time. The fluctuation peak could be distinguished from the waveform of d{beta} using data of largest lightning attack polarization fluctuations, and the distances to the lightning attack spots could be calculated. The lightning location agreed well with the result of location by LLS. 9 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Experiment on measuring temperature distribution in OPGW as a result of electric heating; OPGW tsuden kanetsu ni yoru ondo bunpu sokutei jikken

    Yamashita, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    An experiment was performed on measuring variation in temperatures in the lengthwise direction when optical fibers laid on an overhead power transmission line (OPGW) are heated electrically and by using arc discharge. The OPGW has a structure that the optical fibers are wrapped by a metallic sheathing made of aluminum for example. The OPGW can be heated when the sheathing is energized electrically or given arc discharge. A 40-m OPGW was laid in insulated condition with a tensile force of 500 kg. The core wire was extended for 100 m by using an optic fiber cord, and connected to a temperature measuring instrument. Large current pulse was applied for electric heating to measure temperature variation in the OPGW. A change in which temperature rises sharply during the energization was measured successfully. The measured value agreed well with that from a thermocouple. Both ends of the OPGW were grounded, and arc discharge was made from a discharge electrode connected to a central voltage generator. Experiments were carried out with three patterns of charge of 50C, 100C and 200C with the discharge time set to 20 ms. It was possible to measure the temperature rise variation during the discharge. Measurements using GI fibers achieved good results on time resolution and temperature resolution, verifying the effectiveness of an optical fiber sensor as the temperature measuring technology. (NEDO)

  13. The exchange bias effect in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles

    Kou, Angela; Feygenson, Mikhail; Kreno, Lauren; Patete, Jonathan; Tiano, Amanda; Zhang, Fen; Wong, Stanislaus; Aronson, Meigan


    We used magnetic measurements, X-ray diffraction, and HRTEM to study the exchange bias field in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles made by a modified wet chemistry method. We oxidized re-dispersed powders of bare Ni nanoparticles in air at 400^oC and 900^oC. HRTEM showed that annealing at 900^oC of bare Ni nanoparticles led to the formation of exceptionally high quality NiO nanoparticles, resembling perfect bulk-like crystalline order. To our knowledge, there are no reports of NiO particles of such quality in the literature. The loop shift was 1000 Oe at 300K for the NiO nanoparticles, while it was only 120 Oe at 10K for the Ni/NiO nanoparticles. The difference is explained by the different origins of the loop shift in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles. In Ni/NiO nanoparticles, the loop shift is associated with exchange interactions between ferromagnetic Ni and antiferromagnetic NiO. In NiO nanoparticles, however, the origin of the shift is an uneven number of ferromagnetic sublattices present in NiO nanoparticles, which interact differently with an applied magnetic field (Kodama, 1999).

  14. Suppression of inducer stall based on inlet recirculation in a centrifugal impeller. 1st Report. Improvement in stall limit by ring groove arrangement; Enshin haneguruma iriguchi junkanryu ni yoru inducer shissoku no yokusei. 1. kanjoko ni yoru shissoku genkai no kaizen

    Ueki, H.; Ishida, M.; Sakaguchi, D.; Sun, Z. [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A ring groove arrangement is proposed to suppress unstable flow or surge in a centrifugal blower. The ring groove arrangement connects the upstream position of impeller inlet and the inducer throat tip through a bypass. The recirculation flow 'vas formed by the pressure difference between the two positions, and the recirculation flow rate was changed by increasing the ring groove widths. The inlet recirculation results in a decrease in the flow rate of unstable flow inception, and an up to 800 improvement in stall limit was obtained by the ring groove arrangement at a small expense of the delivery pressure drop. The improvement of stall limit in the present experiment seems to be mainly due to decrease in flow incidence based on the inlet recirculation flow. Tre flow incidence decreases more as the recirculation flow rate increases, thus resulting in a larger improvement in stall limit. (author)

  15. Developments of DPF systems with mesh laminated structures. Performances of DPF systems which consist of the metal-mesh laminated filter combustion with the alumina-fiber mesh, and the combustion device of trapped diesel particles; Mesh taso kozo no DPF no kaihatsu. Kinzokusen to arumina sen`i mesh ni yoru fukugo filter to filter heiyo heater ni yoru DPF no seino

    Kojima, T.; Tange, A.; Matsuda, K. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)


    For the purpose of continuous run without any maintenance, new DPF (diesel particulate filter)systems laminated by both metal-wire mesh and alumina-fiber mesh alternately, are under the developments. The perfect combustion of trapped diesel particulate can be achieved by a couple of the resistance heating devices inserted into the filter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Investigation of the near-field structure of jet diffusion flames by the laser sheet method. 2nd Report. Mechanism of flame stabilization by speaker excitation; Laser sheet ho ni yoru funryu kakusan kaen no kibu kozo no kaimei. 2. Speaker kashin ni yoru kaen anteika no mechanism

    Noda, S.; Kamitakahara, Y.; Onoreda, K.; Onuma, Y. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kamiya, S. [Yokogawa Analytical Systems Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    The near-field structure of jet diffusion flames excited by a speaker has been investigated to make clear the mechanism of flame stabilization obtained by the excitation. Vortices in flames induced by the excitation were visualized using laser sheet method. The acoustic excitation lifts flames off under the stretch of large scale vortices, but the higher frequency excitation leads reattachment of lifted flames. This phenomenon has been reproduced by the numerical approach under the axisymmetric assumption. Consequently, the vortex push mechanism of flame propagation caused by small-scale vortex rings has been clarified. Moreover, the laser sheet visualization unveiled azimuthal structures attributed to streamwise vortices. Roles of baloclinic torque and pressure pushes related to the azimuthal structure have been also discussed. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  18. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)


    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  19. Prediction method for VC-value of roller compacted dam concrete using neural network; Neural network ni yoru RCD yo concrete no VC chi no suitei shuho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Yasuda, N.; Tsutsumi, T.; Sekine, Y.; Akamatsu, H. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Matsushima, M. [Tokyo Electric Power Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The applicability of a neural network was investigated to predict the quality management item (i.e., VC-value) of roller compacted dam (RCD) concrete. In this study, the aggregate amount, binding agent amount, input water amount, water amount on the fine aggregate surface, aggregate specific gravity, water absorption percentage, and power consumption during mixing were set as an input value to construct the neural network according to the result of the mixing test made in an actual plant during test construction. Moreover, the real-time VC-value in an actual plant was predicted. As a result, the conclusion below was given. The VC-value could be predicted in higher precision by adding the moisture percentage measurement data on the fine aggregate surface as well as mixing conditions and power consumption to the input items. The prediction system for a VC-value of RCD concrete using a neural network has a precision of about 5 sec. Considering that the conventional management standard of a VC test made by the test examiner is 20 {+-} 10 sec, the precision is high sufficiently. 20 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Research cooperation project in fiscal 1998. General report on research cooperation related to mine waste water treatment technology by utilizing biotechnology; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku sokatsu hokokusho



    This paper describes cooperative development of bio-treatment technology for mine waste water generated by operating mines in China. Certain types of bacteria have capability to oxidize ferrous iron in the waste water into ferric iron ions. The bacteria cause ferric iron oxides in low pH regions to get deposited, and can remove them from sedimentation by using cheap calcium carbonate as a neutralizer. Volumetric reduction in waste sediments may also be achieved during removing heavy metals in a pretreatment process. Great advance may be expected in taking actions to prevent water quality contamination. This paper summarizes activities taken in fiscal 1998. Eight site surveys in total were carried out using 47 persons in total. Major activities included operation study guidance of a pilot plant, and surveys for measures on heavy metal generation sources in Wushan Mine. In addition, site surveys were performed at Dexing Mine and Yinshan Zinc Mine. Subsequently from fiscal 1997, a bench scale testing equipment used in Japan and consumables were transported to China. The operation study data on the pilot plant were put into order and analyzed. Concept design was also made on a waste water treatment facility for Wushan Mine. (NEDO)

  1. Condensation heat transfer on finned tubes with radial ridges on the fin surfaces. 2nd Report. ; Theoretical study. Hankei hoko ni tokki wo motsu shuhoko fin ni yoru gyoshuku netsu dentatsu sokushin. 2. ; Rironteki kenkyu

    Hijikata, K.; Nakabeppu, O. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Wang, P.


    A model of finned tubes is developed to predict condensation performance of R-tubes with radial ridges circumferential fin surfaces. Results predicted by this model make an accurate explanation of experimental data, and the condensation mechanism of R-tubes and freon {prime} s condensation heat transfer to R-tubes are predicted by the model R-tubes have high condensation heat transfer coefficients because the ridges on the fin surfaces of the R-tube extend the thin condensate film area and also promote convective heat transfer in the film. In condensation of high performance finned tubes, load values like local temperature differences, local heat flux, local heat transfer coefficient change circumferentially. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this change using theoretical models. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 3. Removal of organic solvents by catalytic oxidation method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 3. Shokubai sankaho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper summarizes circumstances of a catalytic oxidation type deodorizing experiment and a demonstration test on exhaust gas discharged actually from a print shop. The catalytic oxidation method is a method to burn the odor constituents, which are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, at temperatures of 200 to 300 degC. Space velocity was used as a parameter, and two kinds of platinum systems and two kinds of manganese + copper systems were used as catalysts. Elucidation was made on the space velocity and removal efficiency, removal efficiency of each catalyst, unreacted decomposition originated constituents at low temperatures (150 to 180 degC), and efficiency of each catalyst to remove each constituent. The result revealed that nearly 100% removal is possible at a space velocity of 33000 hr {sup -1} when the platinum-based catalyst and the manganese + copper based catalyst (both in pellet form) are combined. It was also found that the combination is advantageous in terms of cost. A demonstration test was performed at a new factory. Under a condition of combination of the above catalysts at 1:1 ratio, the space velocity of 30000 hr {sup -1}, and gas temperature at catalyst layer inlet of 200 degC, the removal efficiency was 97.9% to 98.7%, which clears the exhaust regulation value specified by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Average concentration in the working environment was 120.9 ppm, which cleared the maximum permissible concentration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 1. Removal of organic solvents by activated carbon adsorption method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 1. Kasseitan kyuchakuho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the state of discharge of organic solvents from a print shop and a deodorizing experiment using a deodorizing equipment of activated carbon adsorption type of a bench test scale. The subject existing print shop has a working space volume of 2000 m{sup 3} and total air exhaust volume of 32000 m{sup 3} per hour. The identified main solvents are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene. Solvent exhaust concentration at a duct was more than two times greater than the exhaust regulation value. The experiment was performed by using an equipment having an adsorption tower filled with activated carbons of particle form and pellet form made from coconut shell respectively. The gas concentration at an inlet to the deodorizing equipment was 394 ppm as the total concentration, exceeding the exhaust regulation value of 200 ppm. It was verified that the activated adsorption process has high removal effect. The break-through time which expresses life of activated carbon was 38 hours for the particle-formed carbon and 29 hours for the pellet-formed carbon when the total outlet gas concentration was set to 10 ppm. If the adsorption continues after the break-through time has been reached, a displacement phenomenon (displacement among constituents due to selective adsorption) can occur. The required length of the adsorption belt was derived. It was verified that the activated carbons can be regenerated and re-used. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1999 research result report. Research on improvement of boiling heat transfer characteristics by photocatalyst wall; 1999 nendo hikari shokubai hekimen ni yoru futto netsu dentatsu tokusei kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho



    Research was made on improvement of the wettability and boiling heat transfer characteristics of a photocatalyst wall. Measurement experiment of the wettability was made for anatase type titan oxide-coated Al, SUS and Pb plates, rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, raw plate, and oxide-plasma coated titan plate. In the ground experiment, the contact angles of distilled water and oil on specimen surfaces were measured. In the microgravity experiment, falling droplet images were recorded by using the facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). For obtaining the effect of radioactive emission, UV irradiation, {gamma} ray and neutron beam irradiation by nuclear reactor, and {gamma} ray irradiation by Co-60 were carried out. As the experiment result, the rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, nonconductor-coated titan plate, and zircaloy plate showed large improvement of the wettability by {gamma} ray irradiation with Co-60. It was also confirmed that in particular, titan shows the large effect of radioactive emission, and the wettability deteriorates rapidly after {gamma} ray irradiation. (NEDO)

  5. Relation between front suspension layout and handling performance. Analysis depending on the Taguchi method and ADAMS; Front suspension layout to soda tokusei no kankei ni tsuite. Kiko kaiseki gengo wo mochiita hinshitsu kogaku ni yoru kaiseki

    Okada, K. [Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    A variation of suspension layout gives an influence to the vehicle dynamics. Examined the suspension layout variation to make the handling performance change small. Analyzed the effect of suspension layout variation about steering response delay and gain besides the tire wear effect and movable load. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. FY1998 report on a survey related to joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network; 1998 nendo kokusai network ni yoru fukushi kiki kaihatsu data no kyodo riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    A survey was made in relation with joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network. Developing welfare devices requires data from ergonomic and medical systems, while the cope of the objects is wide, and the kinds are various. For proliferation of welfare devices, system compatibility evaluation including that on using environment is important, including living environments that are different by countries. The present survey has identified how data for aged, handicapped and help-needing persons are accumulated and utilized in research organizations in America and Europe for both of the ergonomic and medical areas. The survey also investigated major academic societies in overseas countries, and collected database and academic network information that support the advanced research and development. At the same time, investigations were also made on organizations and corporations who are moving forward the efficient data utilization. Welfare device and service information providing systems in Japan were investigated to compare them with the trends in other countries. Conceptions and methods were compiled to utilize data internationally and jointly. Database models for device development were considered, and a proposal was made on structuring a research and development supporting database, and the operation method thereof. (NEDO)

  7. Combustion characteristics of spark ignition and pilot flame ignition systems in a stratified charge Wankel type rotary engine; Sojo kyuki bankerugata rotary kikan ni okeru spark plug tenka to pilot kaen tenka ni yoru nensho tokusei

    Song, Y.; Moriyoshi, Y.; Wada, Y. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Muroki, T. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)


    A pilot flame ignition system, which has superior characteristics in the high ignition energy and the large flame contact area to a conventional spark ignition system, is experimentally examined by the indicated pressure analysis and the high speed direct photography. A model combustion chamber, which simulates a Wankel-type direct injection stratified charge rotary engine, was employed to test the ignition performance of both the pilot flame ignition and spark ignition systems. As a result, it was found that the pilot flame system successfully ignites the very lean charge stratified mixture which the spark system fails to ignite and that the combustion characteristic difference using different ignition systems becomes small as the overall equivalence ratio is increased. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Investigation on the dynamic response and strength of very long floating structures by beam modeling on an elastic foundation; Dansei shishojo no hari model ni yoru chodai futai kozo no doteki tawami kyodo tokusei ni kansuru kosatsu

    Tsubogo, T.; Okada, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A very large floating structure was replaced with the beam on an elastic foundation to examine the response characteristics in waves. Another evidence was regularly and numerically given for the basic characteristics of a very large floating body Suzuki found. New information was also obtained. The frequency response is mainly classified into a wave number control area and proper frequency control area when buoyancy elasticity exists. When the buoyancy structure is long and flexible, the proper frequency becomes continuous and the frequency control area becomes a resonance area. In the wave number control area, the Suzuki`s characteristic wave number becomes a control parameter, and various characteristic values are indicated by characteristic wave numbers. The response in the wave number control area becomes quasi-static when the distribution mass of buoyancy is fully small. The design in which the distribution mass of buoyancy is fully large must be avoided. In the displacement amplitude, the mass on the free end is severest. The proper frequency of vertical vibration relatively moves to the high-frequency side when buoyancy is considered as an elastic foundation. Attention must be thus paid to the proper frequency of vibration on the horizontal surface. 9 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Fundamental study on stabilizing control method for electric power system using distributed circuit model; Bunpu teisu kairo moderu ni yoru denryoku keito doyo mogi to anteika seigyo ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Hamada, A.; Kawasaki, K. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Takigawa, K. [Shikoku Reserch Institute Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Ariyoshi, H. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)


    To grasp the electric power system disturbance, the detailed simulation model of the electric power system is applied, however, it is not so easy to grasp the disturbance characteristics of a large scale electric power system in the broader aspects. On the other hand, from a shut down test of generator and electric load in the electric power system, it is well known that the power disturbance is transmitted from the test point to the other points with constant delay time. The phenomena shows that the electric power system has a similar dynamic characteristic to the distributed constant circuit. In this paper, the electric power system is expressed with the distributed constant circuit so that the main disturbance characteristics are obtained without difficulty. Moreover, the possibility of suppressing the disturbance is discussed by employing active sink method, and distributed constant circuit model and lumped constant circuit model are compared with the viewpoint of eigenvalue and its propriety is showed. Further, as an example, active sink method, the effectiveness of distributed constant model in the suppressing control of electric power system disturbance, is showed. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Measurements of fiber orientation in two-dimensional fiber suspension flow using image-processing method; Gazo shoriho ni yoru sen`i gan`yutai no nijigen nagare ni okeru sen`i haiko no sokutei

    Chono, S.; Tanoue, S.; Iemoto, Y. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Orientation profiles of fibers in fiber suspension flow between two parallel plates with a square cylinder on the center axis was studied by using the computer image analysis. The orientational order parameter S decreases near the square cylinder because the flow changes its direction and also a wake is developed, while it is large near the channel wall owing to high shear deformation. The preferred angle and S decrease in the downstream vicinity of the square cylinder, and reach fully-developed values at a farther area. S along the channel center axis increases with increasing a fiber concentration and the Reynolds number. The size of a square cylinder has an effect on the fiber orientation near the cylinder. Since a stagnation region and a large wake are developed before and after a cylinder for a viscoelastic fluid, a lower value of S near the cylinder is obtained for the viscoelastic fluid compared to that for a Newtonian fluid. At a downstream area, however, the viscoelastic fluid gives a higher values of S. 21 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Study on solidification and stabilization technique by steam treatment of the coal ash from fluidized-bed combustion boilers; Ryudoso sekitanbai no joki shori ni yoru koka / anteika gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Shibata, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    In fluidized-bed coal combustion boiler supporting one end of boilers for power generation and process heating, coal ash comprised of the products of ash of coal and lime stone used for desulfurizer was used for raw material. The fluidized-bed combustion boiler really working at present is of normal pressure (AFBC) type due to bubbling or cycling system, and pressure type of the bubbling system (PFBC) due to high pressure of about 1.0 MPa is promoted development for a next generation type power generation. Then, by using the coal ash obtained from the AFBC boiler with different kind of coal, volume of boiler, and so on (AFBC ash) and the coal ash obtained from the PFBC boiler under actual proof operation, a study on properties of coal, lime stone and solids after steam treatment of mixture with water (kind/volume, strength and elution of hazard heavy metals of hydrates) were conducted to investigate to use for civil engineering materials such as road materials, filling back materials, and so forth. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of geological conditions by ''drilling logging system''. Yuatsu drill ni yoru sakuko data wo mochiita ganban hyoka oyobi kiriha zenpo chishitsu no yosoku gijutsu ni tsuite

    Aoki, K.; Inaba, T.; Shiogama, Y.; Tezuka, Y. (KajimaCorp., Tokyo (Japan))


    In order to predict precisely geological conditions ahead of a face changing with the progress of excavation work of rock caverns such as a tunnel, the drilling logging system was developed which allows to measure, store and analyze drilling data during drilling by hydraulic rotary percussion drilling machines, and the quantitative prediction of geological conditions ahead of a face was tested applying the system to a granite site. As a result, by adopting the drilling energy rate (workload per rock volume of a drilling machine during drilling) as an analytical parameter, the good correlation was found between the drilling energy rate and geological condition (rock property classification) such as a hardness of rocks and quantity of cracks. In addition, the geological condition ahead of a face was probably predictable by estimating the distribution of the drilling energy rate in a wide area by geostatistics mehtod. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Estimation of subsurface structures in a Minami Noshiro 3D seismic survey region by seismic-array observations of microtremors; Minami Noshiro sanjigen jishin tansa kuikinai no hyoso kozo ni tsuite. Bido no array kansoku ni yoru suitei

    Okada, H.; Ling, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tsuburaya, Y.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Japan National Oil Corporation Technology Research Center has carried out experiments on the three-dimensional seismic survey method which is regarded as an effective means for petroleum exploration. The experiments were conducted at the Minami Noshiro area in Akita Prefecture. Seismometer arrays were developed in radii of 30 to 300 m at seven points in the three-dimensional seismic exploration region to observe microtremors. The purpose is to estimate S-wave velocities from the ground surface to the foundation by using surface waves included in microtremors. Estimation of the surface bed structure is also included in the purpose since this is indispensable in seismic exploration using the reflection method. This paper reports results of the microtremor observations and the estimation on S-wave velocities (microtremor exploration). One or two kinds of arrays with different sizes composed of seven observation points per area were developed to observe microtremors independently. The important point in the result obtained in the present experiments is that a low velocity bed suggesting existence of faults was estimated. It will be necessary to repeat experiments and observations in the future to verify whether this microtremor exploration method has that much of exploration capability. For the time being, however, interest is addressed to considerations on comparison with the result of 3D experiments using the reflection method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Decomposition of yallourn coal by microwave plasma. Effect of Plasma source on the product distribution; Maikuroha purazuma ni yoru yarun tan no tenkan hanno. Purazumagasu shu ga seiseibutsu bunpu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Kamei, Osamu; Marushima, Wataru; Kobayashi, Motoki; Onoe, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Tatsuaki [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan). Department of Industrial Chemistry; Kawai, Satoshi; Ito, Yoichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This report described the experiments that used plasma reaction between plasma source gases and brown coal (Yallourn). The properties of the products were influenced by changes of the experimental conditions. The reaction experiments were carried out with 2.45 GHz microwave plasma by using hydrogen, helium and argon systems. Ratios of coal conversion (X{sub c}) were as follows; X{sub c} (H{sub 2}) was 33.2%, X{sub c} (He) was 13.7%, and X{sub c} (Ar) was 24.8% at reaction time 1 minute. No practical difference was detected after 3 minutes. Yields of benzene soluble oily fractions (Y{sub oil}) were as follows; Y{sub oil} (H{sub 2}) was 6.0%, Y{sub oil} (He) was 3.4% and Y{sub oil} (Ar) was 8.7% at 1 minute, while at 3 minutes Y{sub oil} (H{sub 2}) was 4.9%, Y{sub oil} (He) was 4.1% and Y{sub oil} (Ar) was 7.7%. In addition at 1 minute, no difference of molecular weight distribution measured by MALDI-TOFMS spectra and GC was observed, while the polymerization of oily products under argon or hydrogen system was occurred after 3 minutes. Yields of gaseous components (Y{sub gas}) were as follows; Y{sub gas} (H{sub 2}) was 48.1%, Y{sub gas} (He) was 50.9% and Y{sub gas} (Ar) was 46.6% at 3 minutes. Typical patterns of time change in molar fraction of gaseous components by GC were shown on each plasma source gas. (author)

  16. Fast convergence ambiguity resolution on-the-fly for dual frequency GPS receivers and the flight evaluation; Nishuha GPS jushinki ni taisuru kosokuka OTF ( On-the-Fly ) arugorizumu to hiko jikken ni yoru hyoka

    Tsujii, T.; Murata, M.; Harigae, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    Recently, GPS has been used widely in airlines and space vehicles along with the land and sea as a simple, precise and cheap navigation method and positioning system. Normally, they use observed data of GPS called pseudorange. On the other hand, highly precise positioning by phase interference method using carrier phase data has been used for observing crustal deformation in the field of geodetic survey. This phase interference method can also be applied to the precise positioning (kinematic GPS) of movable body. Ambiguity (integer bias) in the carrier phase has to be solved in order to realize the kinematic GPS. Recently, analysis algorithm called Ambiguity Resolution On-The-Fly (OTF) has been studied rapidly and high speed solution of ambiguity while moving is going to be possible. In this report, firstly, this algorithm is described and secondly, evaluation results using real flight test data are reported. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Softening and hardening by. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensitic transformation during deformation in high Mn steels. Ko Mn tetsu gokin ni okeru. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensite hentai ni yoru nanka to koka

    Tomota, Y.; Ryufuku, S.; Piao, M. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    In high Mn steel, martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon occurs under the ordinary pressure. Its application comprises utilization of its configuration memory properties and high work hardening characteristics. The present report studied, by using Fe-Mn type alloy, added with Si or Co, the influence of martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon on the deformation behavior. Tensile test, 2mm/min in speed, being made on molten/cast alloy ingot, thermally treated as specified, epsilon was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The above test/analysis pointed out many notes in result and knowledge, as follows among others: The addition with Si or Co, lowering the Neel temperature, quantitatively increases the epsilon martensite, produced by the processing. The produced quantity of epsilon martensite in case of addition with Si is small, as compared with that in case of two-element Fe-Mn type alloy without addition and in case of addition with Co. All the tested alloys give the softening phenomenon by the martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon. The pre-existing epsilon plate is a strong barrier for the further plastic flow, which accordingly accelerates the work hardening. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Study of promotion of CO2 fixation by the environmental improvement in the coral reef area; Kansho chitai ni okeru kankyo kaizen ni yoru CO2 kotei sokushin no kenkyu

    Maruoka, T.; Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, R.; Yamada, K.; Komiyama, H.; Kraines, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A study was conducted on how to fix CO2 in the ocean using coral reefs. Coral reefs have extremely high primary productivity ( production quantity of organic matters by photosynthesis) and are expected to be resources to fix CO2 when the quantity of photosynthesis exceeds the quantity of CO2 emitted in association with formation of calcium carbonate skeleton. If organic substances produced in coral reefs are well carried into the open sea, those are settled down on deep beds, which enables the storage into the ocean. At the coral reef floating in the ocean, it is not very deep inside and the seawater stays there, but it has a steep depth outside. By the numerical calculation, an examination was made on how the waterflow changes when making the flow path of seawater between the inland sea and open sea. From the actual calculation of an atoll, it was found that seawater comes in and out from the open sea to the inland sea near the opening of the atoll in accordance with the high tide and ebb tide, but the water stays at the deep bottom of the atoll. When installing a channel with a 10m depth at the portion where the water flows softly, the seawater was actively exchanged. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Impingement of a radial jet with an annular jet. 3rd Report. Curved properties of main jet with pressure field; Hoshajo funryu to kanjo funryu no shototsu ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Atsuryokuba ni yoru shufunryu no wankyoku tokusei

    Tanaka, T.; Kozato, Y.; Tanaka, E. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kariya, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Annular jets (control flows) flowing out from a columnar nozzle and a concentrically circular annular nozzle were impinged perpendicularly to a main jet flowing radially from the columnar nozzle. Then, an investigation was given on pressure in a recirculation flow region, bending of the main jet, and reattachment characteristics of the main jet onto a side wall face when the deflection of the main jet and its reattachment phenomenon onto the side wall face are controlled. The experiment was performed under the conditions of a nozzle width of 6 mm, an inter-nozzle distance of 4, a control flow rate (a ratio of a flow-out rate of the control flow to that of the main jet) from 0 to 0.6, with the step height varied. Investigations were made on change of static pressure distribution in jets in the downstream direction, change of static pressure on the side wall face in the downstream direction, and the relationship between the reattachment position on the side wall and the average static pressure in the recirculation flow region. The relationship of the reattachment position of the main jet on the side wall with the average side wall static pressure and the average static pressure in the recirculation flow region is expressed by one curve. The reattachment position gets closer to the nozzle outlet as the pressure decreases in the recirculation flow region. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Pretreatment of fermentation feed for lactic acid production. Liquefaction of potato starch in lactic acid solution; Nyusan hakko genryo no maeshori ni kansuru kenkyu. Nyusan ni yoru bareisho denpunshitsu no ekika

    Morita, M.; Yokota, Y. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)


    The liquefaction of potato starchy catalyzed by lactic acid produced in a fermentation process, was carried out as a means for pretreating lactic acid fermentation feed. Liquefaction yield and molecular weight distribution of liquefied starch fractions were largely dependent on pH values of solution. The feed was effectively liquefied in lactic acid solution, of which pH value was less than 3.5, under sterilization conditions of 388 K and 30 min. Starch in potato or its waste was also hydrolyzed into smaller molecular weight fractions, compared to soluble starch commercially available. The potato starch liquefaction proposed is considered to be a useful method for pretreatment of lactic acid fermentation feed. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Survey of oven during dry distillation by quenching coke oven. Part 3. ; Consideration concerning density distribution in coke mass. Cokes ro kyurei ni yoru kanryu tochu ronai chosa. Dai sanpo. ; Cokes kainai no mitsudo bunpu ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Nishimura, M.; Asada, S.; Kamimura, N. (The Kansai Coke and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))


    Recently, in order to probe the coal carbonization mechanism, many companies are carrying out surveys of the inside of an oven by quenching the same which is in dry distillation by employing an actual oven or a test one, and the following are reported; the dry distillating progress are varied at respective positions inside the oven, the portion where dry distillation is greatly delayed is caused by virtue of the action of steam generated from the non-distillated coal layer existing near the coal core rather than the plastic layer, and so forth. The writer and others have already reported that, from the results of the quenching tests carried on actual ovens, the existence of variation of dry distillation, the state of uncarbonized part of coal, the existence of temperature distribution inside coal mass showing that steam was gushing toward the wall of the oven, making it clear that steam generated from the coal layer has great effect on the progress of dry distillation. This paper gives a consideration on the relationship between the pressure exerted on the resetting surface of the plastic substance and the flow of steam inside the oven based on the densness distribution in coal mass. 7refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Absorption and release of lanthanoid lons during the germination and growing period of radish in culture solution; Suiko saibaiho ni yoru kaiwaredaikon no hatsuga {center_dot} seichoji ni okeru rantanoido ion no kyushu, hoshutsu oyobi kakubui eno chikuseki

    Fujino, O.; Katsube, H. [Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. for Science and Tech.


    The radish (Kaiware daikon) was grown in the culture solution containing lanthanoid ions at 20 degree C. The absorption and release behavior of hydrogen, potassium and lanthanoid ions were examined during the germination and growing period of the radish. During the germination period (ca. 30 h) from the seed in the culture solution of pH 5 at 20 degree C, the concentration of potassium in increased, and hydrogen and lanthanoid ions decreased. On the other hand, in the growing period (ca. 1 week), almost all potassium ion which liberated from the seed to the culture solution in the germination period was absorbed to the radish, and hydrogen and lanthanoid ions were released to the solution. The correlation coefficients of correlation between the concentration of potassium and lanthanoid ions were -0.96- -0.99, -0.77- -1.0 in the germination and growing period, respectively, and a good negative correlation was observed between them. Furthermore, it was examined about the influence of the concentration of lanthanoid ions and the accumulation. As for the lower concentration than 1 ppm, it did not have an influence at all against the germination of radish and the growth. And these ions showed that it was often accumulated in comparison with the stem and the leaf of by a root. On the other hand, at concentration higher than 3 ppm of lanthanoid ions in the culture solution the radish germinated poorly and did not completely mature. When the concentration of lanthanoid ions were more than 10 ppm, a seed germinated a little, but did not grow at all. From the above results, the positive effect of the lanthanoid ions on the growth of radish could not be admitted. (author)

  4. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis on effect of steel fiber addition on corrosion of steel rod in mortar; Morutaruchu no tekkin no fushoku ni oyobosu suchiru fuaiba tenka no eikyo no denki kagaku inpidansu supekutorosukopi ni yoru kaiseki

    Sakashita, S.; Nakayama, T.; Hamasaki, Y.; Sugii, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Sugimoto, K. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Department of Metallurgy


    The effect of steel fiber (SF) addition to concrete on the corrosion behavior of steel reinforcement was studied by immersion corrosion tests in a 3 mass % NaCl solution for 363 day. The tests were conducted on steel rod/mortar specimens with different SF content (0-2 vol %), and corrosion potentials and electrochemical impedance of the specimens were measured during the tests. Corrosion potentials of the specimens were not so changed by the SF content. Electrochemical impedance measured at corrosion potentials was analyzed to get charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) using an equivalent electrical circuit with the R{sub ct}, Warburg impedance and a constant-phase element. The corrosion rate of steel rod in mortar estimated from the reciprocal of the R{sub ct} decreased with increasing of SF content in mortar, and correlated well with the rust area of steel rod measured after immersion corrosion tests. This shows that the electrochemical impedance measurement is the useful diagnosis method of corrosion of steel in concrete. The corrosion inhibition of steel rod in mortar by the SF addition was thought to be attributed to the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the corrosion of SF in mortar. (author)

  6. Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash; Sekitanbai wo riyoshita FGC shinso kongo shori koho ni yoru kairyodo no kogakuteki seishitsu to kongo no tenbo ni tsuite

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Azuma, K.; Watanabe, M. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Japan currently produces about six million tons of coal ash annually, whose effective bulk utilization to earth engineering materials is an important issue of technological development. A slurry may be made by mixing the following three kinds of materials: fly ash discharged from power plants exclusively burning dust coal (F), gypsum generated as a by-product in a stack gas desulfurizing process (G), and commercially available cement (C). The slurry would be called an FGC slurry taking the first letters of the materials. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests, in-situ execution tests and centrifuge model testing on engineering characteristics of soils improved by the FGC slurry when the slurry is applied to implementing the deep mixing method. As a result, a large number of findings were obtained including the following matters: the FGC deep mixing method makes it possible to improve ground beds having small deformation coefficient with the same accuracy as in the cement-based deep mixing (CDM) method at strengths lower than 5 kg/cm {sup 2} which is difficult with the CDM method, not to speak of strengths equivalent to that is possible with the normal CDM method; and development of a ground bed with improved strength is possible without being governed by quality and kinds of the fly ash. 1 ref., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 8. Study on periodic steady state of the annual cycle energy system at a practical operation; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 8

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    A study was made of the periodic steady state of the annual cycle solar energy system with seasonal heat storage at a practical operation. Cold heat in winter and warm heat in summer are stored in the seasonal storage tank, and these are each used in shift until when demand for cold/warm heat appears. Moreover, gap in quantity of cold/warm heat going in/out of the heat storage tank during a year is filled by natural energy such as solar energy, so that the system can be operated in annual cycles. Studies were conducted of the periodic unsteady term and the problem on lowering of performance during the term such as the periodic unsteady term of water temperature inside the seasonal heat storage tank and temperature of the soil around the storage tank, and the level of lowering of performance during the term, necessity of additional operation/control at the start of operation and aged deterioration of the system. Within the assumption, even if starting operation in any time of the year, the system could show the performance almost expected from the first operation year with no additional system operation and control required only at the start of operation. It is thought that the heat source selection control of heat pump largely contributes to this. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Improvement of sound qualities using simulated car interior noise. Part 2. ; Estimation by semantic differentials. Jinko AM on wo mochiita joyosha shanaion no onshitsu kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. ; SD ho ni yoru onshitsu hyoka

    Hashimoto, T.; Hatano, S. (Seikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Takao, H. (Maruyasu Industries Ltd., Aichi (Japan))


    In the present report, a method to quantitatively evaluate the roughness was proposed by using artificially prepared sound and multi-dimensionally investigating the influence of roughness, as felt, generated from amplitude-modulated sound components, on the sound quality. While evaluation method was also studied of loudness of sound, having many vectorial components in the low region, like that, used in the present experiment. The existence of amplitude-modulated sound components in the complex sound is connected to subjective feeling of uncomfort. Even without change in physical sound energy, the roughness can be lowered if amplitude-modulated sounds in two band zones are made antiphasic in phase to be synthesized. In order to measure, with a good correspondence to the loudness, complicated sound, like that, inside the car, in sound pressure level, simulation head is effectively utilized. As a physical quantity, good in correspondence to the roughness, as felt, of timewise fluctuant sound, the total of components, read in value, is so regarded in 5 to 50Hz upon a 1/3 octave analysis of effective sound pressure in timewise fluctuant component. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Computation accuracy of flow conditions around a very large floating structure using a multi-layer model. Comparison with experimental results; Taso model ni yoru choogata futai mawari no ryukyo keisan seido ni tsuite. Jikken tono hikaku

    Kyotsuka, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Omori, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Kobayashi, M. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    As one of the environmental problems in sea areas surrounding a very large floating structure (VLFS), change in flow condition is important, and it is one of the factors dominating the prediction of succeeding diffusion and ecosystems. Although a multi-layer model is in wide use for computation of flow condition and diffusion in one inner bay, its applicability should be reexamined because of no consideration of VLFSs. In this study, flow velocity profiles around a barge were then measured through the towing test of a barge in shallow water, and compared with computation results using a multi-layer model. The multi-layer model computed the flow velocity profiles by dividing the flow region to be computed into normal one and that under VLFS, and determined pressures under VLFS by 2-D Poisson`s equation. Slip condition was used as boundary condition at the bottom considering the number of layers under VLFS. Further numerical computation was conducted by 2-D MAC method, in particular, to compare flow around the wake of VLFS with experimental one. Both computation results well agreed with experimental one. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Estimation of shallow ground structure using short-period microtremors array observation. Results in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no array kansoku ni yoru senbu chika kozo no suitei. Moriokashiiki ni okeru kekka

    Yamamoto, H.; Obuchi, T.; Saito, T.; Iwamoto, K. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The velocity structure in the shallow ground structure was evaluated by observing microtremors of 1-10Hz in the Morioka City area. Plural wave sections free of vehicle noises or the like were selected out of the collected microtremor records, and the Fourier spectrum and coherence were calculated. Records sufficiently supporting the correlation between seismographs were chosen for the analysis. The phase velocity was calculated for each observation spot from plural array records by use of the F-K spectrum. The underground velocity structure was estimated by the inversion process using the matrix method. In this method, an early model was built on the basis of the observed phase velocity and the optimum underground velocity structure was determined by alternately performing two inversion processes: one for the case wherein the S-wave velocity is the sole parameter and the other for the case wherein the layer thickness is the sole parameter. As the result, a shallow underground velocity structure, which has good agreement with the available boring data in the Morioka City area, was successfully estimated, verifying the validity of this method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Outline of investigation on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry. 1999.1-1999.3; 1998 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO2 hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu chosa hokokusho



    Investigations were conducted into the above in some leading OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member states. Green chemistry is a new concept in which clean technology, environment-friendly chemistry, and the like are combined, and is a chemical solution for reducing or stopping the use or generation of materials, products, by-products, solvents, reagents, etc., which are dangerous to health and environments, throughout the whole life cycle of chemicals covering the processes of their designing, manufacturing, dumping, and recycling. In this fiscal year, the actual state of the generation of biomass, regarded as representative of reproducible materials, and its feasibility as chemical resources were investigated. In an effort at finding out chemical reactions safer to health and causing less environmental impact, investigations were also conducted into the recent trends of catalysts, novel reactions for organic syntheses, use of supercritical fluids, photocatalysts, biomimetic processes, etc. The development of substitutes for plastic additives was also studied. Since acceptance by the citizenry is quite important for green chemistry to take effect, educating and enlightening activities in the U.S., Britain, France, and Germany were inquired into. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Part 2. Research study on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry; 1999 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO{sub 2} hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu. 2



    In connection with green chemistry, a concept of bringing paradigm shift to chemical technologies as something that makes reduction in environmental load compatible with economic activities; surveys were made this year on the developments of fine chemicals from renewable resources such as cellulose among the cases of developing chemical substances/products to be called 'green chemicals' reducing environmental load; developments of surfactants produced by certain microorganism, plastic additives with reduced pollutant loads, particularly fire retardants and environmentally benign reactant solvents; concept of green chemistry in the development of chlorofluorocarbon-alternatives; and up-to-date technological level concerning a design method of chemical materials and an estimation method for chemical safety using quantum chemistry calculation. In regard to the chemical materials and products intrinsically containing a certain level of risk, R and D should be reinforced and accelerated in the future on the alternative materials/products reducing their toxicity. In this case, along with the importance of discussing compatibility of technological possibility with economical adaptability, sociological study seems to be necessary in incorporating environmental load reduction into economic evaluation. (NEDO)

  13. Calculation of oil production performance of the large giant oil fields in the world: based upon oil fields depletion model; Yuden gentai model ni yoru sekai no ogata kyodai yuden no seisan kyodo ni kansuru ichishisan

    Nomoto, S. [Japan Oil Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Data for large giant oil fields with minable reserves of one billion barrels or more were accumulated to structure a new oil field depletion model and estimate production in each oil field. As a result of analyzing events recognized in large giant oil fields, necessity was made clear to correct the conventional oil depletion model. The newly proposed model changes definitions on the depletion period of time, depletion rate, build-up production (during a time period in which production rate increases) and production in a plateau (a time period in which production becomes constant). Two hundred and twenty-five large giant oil fields were classified into those in a depletion period, an initial development phase, and a plateau period. The following findings were obtained as a result of trial calculations using the new model: under an assumption of demand growth rate of 1.5%, oil field groups in the initial development phase will reach the plateau production in the year 2002, and oil fields in the depletion period will continue production decline, hence the production amount after that year will slow down. Because the oil field groups in the plateau period will shift into decline in 2014, the overall production will decrease. The year 2014 is about ten years later than the estimation given recently by Campbell. Undiscovered resources are outside these discussions. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Researches regarding a constructing problem of a PV system. Part 1. Conscious investigation by means of a questionnaire survey; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru kenchikuteki shomondai no kenkyu. 1. Anketo chosa ni yoru ishiki chosa

    Nakajima, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Kuroki, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The installation and introduction of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVS) in buildings are growingly expected in the construction field from now, coupled with the marketing of a solar cell module as a product for a construction material in the form of an external wall or a roof material for example. For this purpose, it is necessary at first to summarize problems that may arise at the time of or after the installation of PVS as a product. This paper examines an opinion poll, degree of recognition, current problems, etc., of PVS as a result of a questionnaire survey given to engineers and architects engaged in the actual construction business. The degree of recognition and interest was very high. Consultation or request for PVS installation was much more than predicted in numbers. Roughly 50% of the respondents reacted positively for the future installation request of PVS and, combined with the respondents who answered to look into the installation tentatively, not less than 90% were of a forward-looking opinion. The 85% of the respondents was not aware of the monitor business system for residential PVS. Further, the survey clearly brought out the importance of cost problems. 1 ref., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Model experiment on change of seismic properties of a fracture caused by injecting/draining water; Chusui/haisui ni yoru kison kiretsu no dansei denpa tokusei no henka ni kansuru model jikken

    Watanabe, T.; Koizumi, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Effect of water injection/draining on elastic waves penetrating through cracks is examined by measuring elastic waves before, during, and after the injection/draining of water into/from cracks in presence in granite. Two blocks of rock, with their crack-containing surfaces in contact with each other, are placed in a vessel, and water injection/draining is done through a hole on a vessel bottom side so that water will penetrate into the cracks. When the blocks are dry, there is almost no contact between the cracks, and so no crack penetrating waves are observed. Crack penetrating waves are produced when water is injected, and the position of the receiver sensing the penetrating waves changes as the water level rises. When the water level is lowered from the high water level, the waveform changes again as the level changes. The change in waveform is not so remarkable, however, as that observed during water injection thanks to the water residual in the cracks. It is now inferred that crack investigation is more effective when it is carried out with water being injected into dry cracks. The difference produced between the dry state and wet state when water is injected into dry cracks is used to detect the presence of cracks in this experiment, and this may be applied also to the investigation of cracks in the shallow part of the ground. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  17. OpenNI cookbook

    Falahati, Soroush


    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  18. Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanoparticles and Ni(C) Nanocapsules


    Structure and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles and Ni(C) nanocapsules were studied. The carbon atoms hardly affect the lattice of Ni to form Ni-C solid solution or nickel carbides. The large thermal irreversibility in zerofield-cooled and zero-field magnetization curves indicates magnetic blocking with a wide energy barrier. Saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of Ni(C) nanocapsules decrease with increasing temperature.

  19. Surface Tension of Molten Ni and Ni-Co Alloys

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG; Kiyoshi NOGI


    Surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys was measured at the temperature range of 1773~1873 K using an improved sessile drop method with an alumina substrate in an Ar+3%H2 atmosphere. The error of the data obtained was analyzed. The surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys decreases with increasing temperature. The influence of Co on the surface tension of Ni-Co alloys is little in the studied Co concentration range.

  20. Room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni, (Ni, Li), (Ni, N)-doped ZnO thin films

    AU; ChakTong


    Ni-doped ZnO thin films (Ni concentration up to 10 mol%) were generated on Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel technique. The films showed wurtzite structure and no other phase was found. The chemical state of Ni was found to be bivalent by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated that the films were ferromagnetic, and magnetic moment decreased with rise of Ni concentration. The magnetization of Ni (10 mol%)-doped ZnO film annealed in nitrogen was lower than that annealed in argon, suggesting that the density of defects had an effect on ferromagnetism.

  1. ZnNi data

    2014-11-01 Teaming website: Other data .. •• • Zinc - nickel alloy coatings r~.., ataTECH Corrosion...cathodic corrosion protection with y- zinc - nickel alloy! () ToTAL ----------------- · ---------------- . A ~ESTCP ~§g.~J?.P Keith Legg 847-680...2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. Fatigue Test Results (Alkaline Zinc - Nickel , Phase IV) • Nickel Alloy 718 Bolts – 3/8” diameter Cd or Zn-Ni

  2. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  3. Preparation of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu by dealloying of rolled Ni-Mn and Ni-Cu-Mn alloys

    Hakamada, Masataka, E-mail: masataka-hakamada@aist.go.j [Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimosihidami, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Mabuchi, Mamoru [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    Nanoporous Ni, Ni-Cu and Cu with ligament sizes of 10-20 nm were fabricated by dealloying rolled Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn and Cu-Mn alloys, respectively. Unlike conventional Raney nickel composed of brittle Ni-Al intermetallic compounds, the initial alloys had good workability. Ni and Cu atoms formed a homogeneous solid solution in the nanoporous architecture. The ligament sizes of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu were smaller than that of nanoporous Cu, reflecting the difference between the surface diffusivities of Ni and Cu.

  4. Analytical study on aseismic base isolation in new offshore location. For practical location for thermal power plants by soft-landing artificial ground construction method; Atarashii kaijo ricchi ni okeru menshinsei ni kansuru kaisekiteki kento. Nanchaku jinko jiban koho ni yoru karyoku hatsuden setsubi ricchi jitsuyoka ni mukete

    Kawamura, T.; Sakakibara, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, M. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    Assuming offshore location of thermal power plants by soft-landing artificial ground construction method, its effect on uneven settlement of facility unit group and its seismic behavior were studied. In soft-landing artificial ground, the total weight and buoyancy of a caisson body with interior space are balanced by controlling water level in a tank to reduce landing pressure. Artificial ground resists lateral seismic external force by friction with submarine bedrock. Settlement analysis and seismic behavior analysis were conducted by 2-D FEM. As a result, bottom RC honeycomb structure was sufficient to resist uneven settlement during construction even under fixed junction condition between units. In soft-landing artificial ground, the maximum acceleration was reduced to nearly 70% by aseismic base isolation as compared with conventional methods. In addition, its sliding manner in earthquake was different from that of rigid bodies, and the maximum stress acceleration transmitted to the bottom of artificial ground changed even under the same waveform. 4 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Niños investigadores

    Manfred Liebel


    Full Text Available EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en manos de los niños. Por medio de varios ejemplos de países del Sur, se muestra cómo poner en práctica esta forma de investigación encabezada por niños. Tomando en cuenta la desigualdad en las relaciones entre niñas, niños y personas adultas, el trabajo hace referencia a problemas de ética y práctica investigativa que surgen en el proceso de investigación y también en el tema del uso de los resultados. Finalmente, se explican los beneficios que niñas y niños pueden obtener de sus propias investigaciones.

  6. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  7. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Aoi, N; Takeuchi, S; Suzuki, H; Bazin, D; Bowen, M D; Campbell, C M; Cook, J M; Dinca, D -C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Iwasaki, H; Kubo, T; Kurita, K; Motobayashi, T; Mueller, W F; Nakamura, T; Sakurai, H; Takashina, M; Terry, J R; Yoneda, K; Zwahlen, H


    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen targetat a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation gamma-rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of delta = 1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z = 28 or N = 50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  8. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Aoi, N.; Kanno, S.; Takeuchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Kubo, T.; Kurita, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Mueller, W. F.; Nakamura, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takashina, M.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.


    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target at a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation γ rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of δ=1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z=28 or N=50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  9. Estimation of real ship propelling performance by the surface velocity lattice method using model ship flow field data; Mokeisen ryujo data wo mochiita hyomen uzu koshiho ni yoru jissen suishin seino no suitei

    Kai, H.; Ikehata, M.; Sakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This is basically a technique wherein the wing element method is replaced by a surface vortex lattice method. A horseshoe vortex of unknown intensity and source surface of known intensity are distributed on the wing surface and, under conditions that the fluid will not cross the boundary, the intensity of horseshoe vortex circulation is calculated for the solution of the fluid field. For the simulation of a real ship in navigation, the required propeller revolution thrust is determined using the real ship resistance value and real ship thrust reduction factor estimated from a model ship resistance test by extrapolation. The calculation of propeller performance is conducted in the quasi-steady condition using the force of fluid working on one wing for each wing angle (with the wing rotated at the increment of 6 degrees), and the thrust and torque are determined using the averages of values obtained in one cycle. It is found that the torque value is overestimated in a considerable degree in the wing element theory. In the surface vortex lattice method, both thrust and torque values agree with experimental values mostly, and this method is found to be accurate enough as a navigation element calculation tool when many panels are considered. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. FY1995 study on high speed manipulation of photons and electrons by nanostructures for photonic devices of next generation; 1995 nendo handotai nano kozo ni yoru chokosoku hikari denshi seigyo to jisedai hikari device no kenkyu



    In this project, we manipulate interaction between photons and electrons in semiconductor nanostructures to study fundamental understanding of electron-photon interaction in ultra-small space and Ultrafast time domain. In addition, on the basis of these results, we explore the optoelectronics nanostructure devices of the next generation. In this research project, we developed new techniques for fabricating quantum dot structures. First, quantum dots of 10nm were grown in two-dimensional V-grooved structures which were formed on SiO{sub 2} patterned substrates by MOCVD. In the same V-grooves, vertical quantum wires were also formed. As the second new technique, we developed self-assembling growth technique for the quantum dots utilizing Spinodal phase separation. In order to investigate the quantum dots using nano-scale characterization technique, we developed low-temperature scanning near-filed optical microscope. Luminescence from as single quantum dot and a single quantum wire were obtained. In addition, luminescence from a single quantum dot through tunneling current excitation by STM was also successfully obtained. Furthermore, micro-photoluminescence measurement achieved time and spatially resolved photoluminescence from a single quantum dot. This micro-photoluminescence also revealed electron dynamics in mesoscopic structures and point contact structures through carrier drag effect. Finally we have succeeded in fabricating vertical microcavity quantum dot lasers by MOCVD and obtained picosecond pulses form the devices. (NEDO)

  11. Measurement of excited oxygen (O2:[sup 1][Delta]g) concentration by spontaneous emission. Hakko kyodo ni yoru reiki sanso ([sup 1][Delta]g) nodo no sokutei

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    The concentration of excited oxygen ([sup 1][Delta]g), which was generated by microwave discharge in a pure oxygen flow, was measured from the intensity of spontaneous emission. The conversion factor to density was determined by spectroscopic analysis of the rotational structure and calibration of the emission intensity using a black-body furnace as light source. Consequently, a good agreement was found between the observed profiles and those calculated from spectroscopic data, and it was illustrated that the absolute concentration can be obtained by coupling band analysis and the calibration method. In addition, even when the concentration was low, it was shown that the excited oxygen concentration can be measured by considering the reflection at the cell wall. The excited oxygen concentration at the microwave discharge cavity was estimated to be around 1% under the pressure ranging from 0.5 torr to 2 torr. Furthermore, the comparison of the profiles calculated at different temperature provided that the band profile can be a good indicator of gas temperature when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Characteristics of the fluorescent substances in the Yodo River system by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy; Sanjigen reiki/keiko kodoho ni yoru yodogawa suikeichu no keiko busshitsu no tokucho

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kudo, M.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Organic substances in the river water in Yodo River system were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. Fluorescent substances were taken as an index of organic substances. The amount of fluorescent substances varied widely depending on the environment of river basin. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances are composed of organic substances which is not directly originated from biological activity. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances were produced by leaching of river bottom sediment. The fluorescent substances in Yodo River system consists of fulvic acid-like substances and protein. The analysis of fluorescent substances in river water by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy can be useful means for estimation of variation and origin of fluorescent substances. For better understanding of features of fluorescent substances in the surface water into which various kinds of substances enter, it is necessary to determine the exact sampling points based on the consideration of different sources and to make a database of peak positions for identification of fluorescent substances from fluorescence intensity peak. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Non-contact estimation of the bond quality in soldered thin laminate by laser generated lamb waves; Laser reiki ramuha ni yoru handazuke sekisohaku no setsugo seijo no hisesshoku hyoka

    Kasama, H.; Futatsugi, T.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    The bond quality of a solder-bonded copper laminated plate was modeled into rigid contact (rc) and slip contact (sc) to calculate the velocity dispersion of lamb waves. The velocity dispersion of laser generated lamb waves was measured, and the bond quality or the thickness of a solder layer was evaluated by non-contact. In the model whose bond surface is rc, the velocity dispersion of lamb waves can be calculated under conditions where the stress and displacement in an interface are continuous. In the model whose bond surface is sc, it can be calculated under conditions where an interface slips freely. Weak bond indicates the velocity dispersion between rc and sc. In this model, the velocity dispersion can also be calculated by a change in the thickness of a solder layer and used for quantitative evaluation of a bond interface. A three-layer solder bond manufactured for trial could be evaluated from the velocity dispersion of laser lamb waves. At the room temperature, the change in bond quality near the solder melting point of bond laminate that was judged as rc was investigated. When the solidus temperature is exceeded, the amplitude of lamb waves and the velocity dispersion changed largely. The amplitude of lamb waves increases as the liquid phase ratio increases. The bond quality near the solder melting point can be evaluated using lamb waves. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer.; Effects of acoustic excitation on combustion properties; Soshiki kozo wo tomonau sendan kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki.; Onkyo reiki ni yoru nensho tokusei no henka

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    This paper reports on experiments for acoustic excitation of plane shear structured flame. Flows of air separated into the higher velocity side and the lower velocity side by a partition on the center of a flow path merge at the measuring point to form a mixed layer with coherent structure. Fuel is supplied to this mixed layer with the flows so adjusted that the generated flame will attach to the partition on the lower velocity side. Acoustic excitation (at a sound pressure level of 100 dB to 120 dB) is performed in a speaker fitted on a wall on the higher velocity side. The paper mentions the results of the experiments as follows: the acoustic excitation produces such changes to diffusion flame in the plane shear layer as shorter flame and blue flame combustion and clarification of flame structures; as seen from spectral characteristics of temperature change in the flames, a flame acoustically excited strongly presents remarkable improvements in periodicity of the structure; as seen from sound pressure distribution in the flow direction at the measuring point, the flame zone of the flame acoustically excited strongly is positioned at the middle of the node and loop of a standing wave. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Effect of surface irradiation during the photo-CVD deposition of a-Si:H thin films. Hikari CVD ho ni yoru amorphous silicon sakuseiji no kiban hikari reiki koka

    Tasaka, K.; Doering, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Fujishima, A. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper shows the impact of the irradiation from an additional light source during the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by photo-CVD deposition. Using a mercury sensitized photo-CVD process from Disilan (Si {sub 2} H {sub 6}) and hydrogen, silicon was deposited. A 40W low pressure mercury lamp was applied as the light source. A portion of the substrate was in addition irradiated using an Xg-He lamp through a thermal filter. Irradiation of the substrate using only Xg-He lamp produced no deposition, since this light has a wavelength which is too long to produce the SiH {sub 3}-radicals needed for Si deposition. The additional Xg-He light source was discovered to cause an increased thickness of deposited a-Si:H film and a transmission of the band structure. The reasons of these are considered that the influence of irradiation is not limited to film thickness, but that irradiation also impacts the composition of the a-Si:H film so as to cause a reduction in the hydrogen content. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Low temperature formation of ferroelectric PbTiO3 films by laser ablation with 2nd laser irradiation; Reiki hikari laser heiyo laser ablation ho ni yoru kyoyudentai PbTiO3 usumaku no teion keisei

    Tabata, H.; Kawai, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)


    The unique advantage of the pulsed laser deposition is its ability to produce highly oriented stoichiometric films at a low substrate temperature. Ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films have been formed using 2nd laser assisted laser ablaion technique at low temperature, i.e., 350degC, on Sr7iO3 single-crystal substrates and Pt/MgO electrodes. The second laser irradiation at the substrate surface is quite effective for crystallization of the films at low substrate temperature below 400degC. The suitable energy density (fluence) of the irradiation laser is in the range of 30-100 mJ/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction patterns of PbTiO3 thin films show c-axis orientation, with a rocking angle of 1.0 - 0.5deg. These films exhibit ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The dielectric constant and remanent polalyzation of the PbTiO3 films are in the range of 120-150 and 60-80 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively. 31 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Excitation of tsunami by a pure strike-slip earthquake. ; Izu Oshima kinkai earthquake tsunami on Feb. 20, 1990. Yokozure danso jishin ni yoru tsunami no reiki. ; 1990 nen 2 gatsu 20 nichi Izu Oshima kinkai jishin tsunami

    Abe, K. (Nippon Dental University, Tokyo (Japan). Niigata Junior College); Okada, M. (Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))


    A numerical experiment was performed to reproduce the tsunami from the Izu-Oshima Kinkai Earthquake which occurred on February 20, 1990, using a tsunami excited by a pure strike-slip fault. An existence of a vertical fault with a length of 15 km and a width of 12 km was hypothesized in the south-north direction on the ocean bottom around the focal region. Then, a tsunami was assumed to have been excited when the fault was given a side-slip movement to create discrepancies of 1 m in the fault. Water level change for one hour after onset of the tsunami was calculated in one-second interval in each unit square with a side length of 1 km over an ocean area of 200 km from east to west and 150 km from north to south centering on the wave source. The results obtained from the calculation were harmonious with tsunami waveforms observed at five stations in the subject region and their spectral analytic results. Reproduced were the two predominant frequencies commonly observed at more than two stations, and difference in predominant cycles that appear according to azimuths of the observation points to the epicenter. These facts endorse the reasonability of the above hypothesis. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Assessment of environment in the rural-urban fringe using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and a personal computer. Jinko eisei deta no pasokon ni yoru toshi kinko noson no kankyo haaku

    Watanabe, K. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Graduate School); Kunitake, M. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)


    The purpose of this study was to examine the progress of development in the vicinity of Kibana district which was formerly surrounded by forests on the mountain and agricultural fields, but is currently a village in the rural-urban fringe transfigured by a large-scale educational city project after the removal of Miyazaki University. It was conducted by making a comparison with the relation between the development and the rise in land surface temperature. Changes in the environment were investigated using remote sensing technologies through preparation of a land classification map and a land surface temperature map by a utilization of a personal computer together with the obtained Landsat Thematic Mapper Data for the years of 1989 and 1990. As a result, it was found out that though the result of temperature comparison between 1989 and 1990 was 1.4[degree]C and 2.8[degree]C higher in 1990 at the lowest temperature and the average daytime temperature respectively, more difference was observed at land surface temperature in the land surface temperature map; and also, although evolution of mountainous areas to populated areas, overpopulation in residential quarters and expansion of populated areas, etc. were observed in the land classification map, agricultural and grass field areas augmented their image element number due to the unusual warm winter in 1990 and the inevitable rapid growth of grasses and flowers. 4 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Experimental conditions for the fabrication of multilayered metal base composite made by single-shot explosive welding technique; Bakuhatsu assetsuho ni yoru kinzokuki sekiso fukugo zairyo no seizo joken

    Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M.; Chiba, A.; Nishida, M. [Kumamoto Univ, Kumamoto (Japan)


    The explosion method presented in this report is a means for bonding multilayered metal plates at a stroke by single-shot explosion. Multilayered composites are fabricated by combining such light metals as aluminium and titanium with various kinds of steel. In particular, experimental conditions necessary for the fabrication of multilayered composites consisting of several layers are clarified. The explosive welding conditions for multilayered composites are obtained by analytical analysis using difference calculus to clarify its relation to the bonded conditions at the boundary. In the case of copper base composite, it is important to make uniform the collision speed of metal plate and the amount of energy dissipated by collision at every collision point as far as possible. In the fabrication of stainless steel/aluminium multilayered composite, it is difficult to fabricate composites using multilayered plates with the same thickness, and adjustment of the distance between metal plates is required to make {Delta}KE (the amount of energy dissipated by collision) within the range of good explosive conditions so as to achieve satisfactory bonding. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Planar contraction flow of diluted polymer solution. ; Experiment and numerical simulation considering inertia force. Kishaku kobunshi suiyoeki ni yoru kyu shukusho nagare. ; Kansei ko wo koryoshita suchi kaiseki to kashika jikken

    Kawabata, N.; Tachibana, M.; Yoshida, K. (Fukui Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Fujita, K. (Fukui National College of Technology, Fukui (Japan)); Kimura, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Graduate School)


    Studies on viscoelastic fluid flows have been carried out while focusing on cases of high viscosity fluid such as polymer solutions so as to meet industrial demand. In a viscoelastic fluid flow, inertia force, viscous force, and elastic force act on the flow field. As the velocity of the flow increases, the effects of the viscous force outgrow the others. The authors showed that stable calculations are possible even in a region where the inertia and elastic forces become important by applying Lax method to solving the constitutive equation. However, the Lax method has a drawback in that numerical viscosity is high. In this study, the CIP method is applied to solving the constitutive equation, and a comparison with respect to the two-dimensional planar contraction flow was made between the results from numerical calculation by means of this method and the results of visualizing experimentations using polymer solutions of relatively low concentration. As a result, it was confirmed by the visualizing experimentations that a flow pattern which is inherent in the viscoelastic fluid and which does not appear in the case of high viscosity fluid. Furthermore this characteristic pattern was also obtained by numerical calculations by this method. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine by use of a simulated moving-bed adsorber; Giji idoso ni yoru ethylene glycol to serine no Na en no bunri

    Seto, T.; Hirata, K.; Odagiri, M.; Imanari, M. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine is important in the processing of serine by the Strecker method using glycol aldehyde produced from ethylene glycol. The separations were successfully carried out using a simulated moving-bed four-zone type adsorber which was composed of a sodium salt of strongly acidic cation exchange resin. The moving-bed adsorber used was slightly different from a conventional one in the manner of setting up Raffinate 2. Separation of this type was simulated by calculations using an analytical solution of steady state rate equation concerning the adsorption and desorption of the ingredients and the moving bed. The condition needed for separation in the four-zone type with Raffinate 2 was discriminated, being generally coincident with the conventional condition of {beta} value. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Experiment for estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave from three component microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Moriokashiiki deno bido no sanseibun array kansoku ni yoru love ha no iso sokudo oyobi power hi suitei no kokoromi

    Yamamoto, H.; Yakuwa, A.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Three component microtremor array observations were carried out in two locations in the city of Morioka for an attempt of estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave by applying the expanded three component spatial self-correlation method. The microtremors were observed by using a seismograph with a natural period of one second. The arrays were so arranged as to form an equilateral triangle consisted of seven points. The maximum radii were 100 m, 50 m, 25 m and 12.5 m for vertical movements, and 100 m and 30 m for horizontal movements at the Iwate University, and 80 m, 40 m, 20 m and 10 m for vertical movements and 90 m for horizontal movements at the Morioka Technical Highschool. The analysis has used three sections, each with relatively steady state of about 40 seconds as selected from records of observations for about 30 minutes. The result of the discussions revealed that it is possible to derive phase velocity of not only Rayleigh waves but also Love waves by applying the expanded spatial self-correlation method to the observation record. Thus, estimation of underground structures with higher accuracy has become possible by using simultaneously the Rayleigh waves and Love waves. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Estimation of underground velocity structure using short-period microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no arei kansoku ni yoru Moriokashiiki no chika sokudo kozo no suitei

    Yamamoto, H.; Saito, T.; Iwamoto, K. [Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Obuchi, T. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering (Japan)


    Shallow underground velocity structure is important information on prediction of seismic characteristics of short-period component closely related to earthquake damages. Array observations of short-period microtremor were carried out at several sites in Morioka city area and the shallow underground velocity structures were estimated using frequency-wavenumber analysis and the inversion technique. At nine sites with different underground structure, the dispersion phenomena of phase velocities of Rayleigh wave with good continuity were observed and the shallow underground velocity structure were estimated from the phase velocities using two types of the inversion techniques, one for the case that unknown is S-wave velocity, and the other for the case that unknown is layer thickness. The results were consistent with those from the bore hole data. Short-period microtremor array observation has advantages of easy observation and no environmental problems and was shown to be effective for prospecting shallow underground structure beneath urban areas difficult with other geophysical prospecting techniques. 17 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology. Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. ; Shizen energy ni yoru CO2 global recycle system no kanosei-chosa


    The paper studies a global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region. 112 refs., 70 figs. 36 tabs.

  6. Exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity structure using a portable TEM system: TEM-FAST prosystem; Kan`igata TEM ho sochi TEM-FAST prosystem ni yoru senbu hiteiko chosa

    Miura, Y.; Kumekawa, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on effectiveness of the TEM-FAST ProSystem which is a portable TEM system developed recently for use in exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity. The system consists of a loop type antenna, the TEM-FAST as the main equipment, and a host computer, the host computer controlling the entire system. The system acquires transient response data in secondary induced magnetic fields lasting 4 {mu} sec to 1 m sec. The number of data is 5490 stacks in one measurement, and the data acquisition time is about three minutes. Measurements were carried out by using the TEM-FAST in the vicinity of a well, whose results were compared with those of electric logging, and discussions were given on them. Although the electric logging results had no data available for depths shallower than 35 m, the measurement results from the TEM-FAST were found highly harmonious with those of the electric logging. In addition, there were transmission and telephone lines in locations about 10 m away from the well during the measurement, but extremely high data quality was discovered. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Alkylation reaction by the 2-chloropropane of benzene on the hyper saline element processes alumina catalyst; Koenso shori arumina shokubaijo deno benzen no 2-kuroropuropan ni yoru arukiruka hanno

    Imanishi, Kazuhiro; Saeki, Takayuki; Sawada, Tetsuro; Shobu, Akinori


    The semibatch reactor was used at atmospheric pressure, 273K in respect of isopropyl reaction by 2-chloropropane (2CP) of benzene on aluminia catalyst (AmLSA) chlorinated in the high temperature. The AmLSA catalyst showed the activity, which was higher than the AlCl{sub 3} catalyst. Main products were isopropyl benzene (IPB) and para - diisopropyl benzene (dj-IPB) - 1,3,5-triisopropyl benzene (tri-IPB) and, and the generation of 4 substitutes was as a trace. Product composition at 2CP 100% conversion ratio is IPB 76%, di-IPB I9%, tri-IPB 5% Di-IPB in the isopropyl reaction of IPB be 82%, tri-IPB It was 18%. The catalyst was perfectly toxified, even if it is deaerated at the temperature of pyridine adsorption post 573K or less, and it began to recover in the de-aeration of 673K, and it recovered after the de-aeration at 873K to active 43% before the toxification. It was concluded, when the reaction perfectly stops, when the catalyst is removed from system of reaction, and when the elution of the active species has not been generated. In comparison with the result of result of the superscription and alkylation reaction by 1 - chloropropane (ICP) and isopropyl reaction by the aluminum chloride catalyst, the reaction on the AmLSA catalyst was explained with that it progressed by the mechanism of the Friedel-Crafts type. (translated by NEDO)

  8. FY 1998 annual report on the improvement of toughness of silicide-based intermetallic compounds by controlling their composite structures; 1998 nendo fukugo soshikika ni yoru shirisaidokei kinzokukan kagobutsu no kyojinsei kaizen chosa hokokusho



    Intermetallic compounds, although attracting much attention as most promising materials serviceable at superhigh temperature, are very fragile at normal temperature, which is one of their major disadvantages. Structures of these compounds prepared by the melting method are controlled to improve their toughness by, e.g., changing phase ratio of the initial crystal for the Mo-Si-Nb system to prevent cracking during the melting and casting stages, addition of a third element (e.g., Zr, Ti or Hf) or a mixed component of Nb and Zr to control the structure of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} considered to be a cause for the cracking, and controlling melting and solidification rates for the FZ melting method. The three-phase microstructures with added Hf or Zr show improved toughness, but need additional procedures for controlling solidification and cooling conditions. For the powder method, the MA conditions are investigated with a two-element system, and the effects of Al or Zr as the third element added to the base composition on the composite microstructures and constituent phases are also investigated. Unlike the melting method, the powder method causes no cracking problems during the stock preparation stage and hence is expected to be applicable to production of larger stocks. However, the products by this method are found to be insufficient both in toughness and high-temperature strength. It is necessary to develop methods for cutting down and controlling oxides in the grain boundaries, in order to prevent deterioration of their strength at high temperature. (NEDO)

  9. Improvement of life and NO{sub x} emission of radiant tube heating system by elastic-plastic creep analysis; Dansosei kuripu kaiseki ni yoru hosha dennetsukan kanetsu shisutemu no jumyo to NO{sub x} haishutsuryo no kaizen

    Nakagawa, Tsuguhiko; Nuta, Kunihiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Okayama, (Japan). Mizushima Warks


    The radiant tube heating system has been widely applied to the furnaces which require isolation of the heating atmosphere from the combustion atmosphere. However, the conventional system has a short life and it is difficult to reduce NO{sub x} emission when it is used at a high furnace temperature under high combustion load, because the fuel is burned in a small space. In order to solve this problem, we have studied the cause of radiant tube life depends on the uniformity of the temperature distribution along the radiant tube. We have developed a new burner using a two-stage combustion method with exhaust gas self-recirculation. As a result, the file of the new system has been increased by a factor of two or more, and NO{sub x} emission has been reduced by 20 % from previous levels. This paper presents an outline of the elastic-plastic creep analysis and the new burner, and describes the effect of its use on system life. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation on flow and density field in summer in Kagoshima bay by using a multi-layer model; Taso model ni yoru Kagoshimawan no kaki no ryudo to mitsudoba no suchi simulation

    Iwakiri, Y. [Water Works Bureau of Kagoshima City, Kagoshima (Japan); Kyozuka, Y. [Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan)


    Numerical simulation was performed on sea water circulation and density field in Kagoshima Bay by using a multi-layer model to verify a model by comparing the simulation result with observation values. The numerical computation model had the Coriolis parameters constant and used the Cartesian coordinates. Based on the fact that the scale in the perpendicular direction is very small as compared with that in the horizontal direction, a hydrostatic pressure approximation was used for the pressure, and an approximation that keeps density constant was used for all the other items than buoyancy. Processes for scales smaller than the lattice size were expressed by vortex viscosity terms and vortex diffusion terms. As a result of calculations, good agreement with observation values was derived in counterclockwise flow in the end of the bay and flow from the bay center to the entrance of the bay. The vertical distribution of density depicts well how density forming layers are created. In the calculation values of water temperature and salt content, good agreement with the observations was shown in the water temperature even in a quantitative aspect, but not as good agreement in the salt content as in the water temperature. In calculations that consider precipitation and evaporation, only the salt content showed values close to the observation values. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Development of membrane bioreactor system. 1. ; Selective permeation of protein solutions by electric microfiltrations. Mokei bioreactor system no kaihatsu. 1. ; Denki seimitsu roka ni yoru tanpakushitsu no sentaku toka

    Matsumoto, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Kuwahara, H. (Shizuoka Industrial Research Institute, Shizuoka (Japan))


    Investigation was carried out to apply electric microfiltration to the separation of fungus under fermentation from protein. A charged-type ultrafine filtration membrane was experimentally prepared to be combined with an electric field for the purpose of examining the permeation behaviour of membrane. First, a mixed suspension of bakers' yeast and bovine serum albumin was used as model ferment liquid so as to examine filtering conditions. In consequence, it was found that pH adjustment can control permeability; albumin content is increased as the electric field is strengthened; the current of less than 0.3A is practical in consideration of denaturation of protein and so forth. A ferment liquid yielding bacteriolytic enzyme was used as actual ferment liquid so as to confirm the above information. This method was judged to be effective for concentration and penetration of enzyme in bioreactors from the data on the relation between the blocking rate of enzyme and the change-over of polarity. It is considered possible from the investigation in which sulfonated polysulfon ultrafine filtering membrane as charge type membrane is combined with electric field to separate nucleic acids of similar molecular weight by their electric charge. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Analysis of the relationship between the coal properties and their liquefaction characteristics by using the coal data base; Tanshu data base ni yoru tanshitsu to ekika tokusei no kaiseki

    Kanbayashi, Y.; Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The relationship between coal properties and liquefaction or gasification characteristics was analyzed by using the analysis and test results and liquefaction characteristics in the coal data base. On liquefaction reaction, the close relation between an oil yield and coal constituent composition or a coal rank is well-known. Various multivariable regression analyses were conducted by using 6 factors as variables such as calorific value, volatile component, O/C and H/C atomic ratios, exinite+vitrinite content and vitrinite reflectance, and liquefaction characteristics as variate. On liquefaction characteristics, the oil yield of dehydrated and deashed coals, asphaltene yield, hydrogen consumption, produced water and gas quantities, and oil+asphaltene yield were predicted. The theoretical gasification efficiency of each specimen was calculated to evaluate the liquefaction reaction obtained. As a result, the oil yield increased with H/C atomic ratio, while the theoretical gasification efficiency increased with O/C atomic ratio. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Solubilization of meso-carbon microbeads by potassium- or dibutylzinc-promoted butylation and structural analysis of the butylated products; Mesocarbon microbeads no butyl ka ni yoru kayoka to erareta butyl kabutsu no kozo kaiseki

    Murata, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kidena, K.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility and structure of the butylated products of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) were studied experimentally. In experiment, MCMB-A and MCMB-B obtained from two kinds of coal-tar pitch were used as specimens. MCMBs were butylated by BZ method using dibutylzinc-butyl iodide and KT method using K-butyl iodide-THF, and the butylated products were successfully obtained. The butylated products were investigated through THF solubility test, {sup 13}C-NMR measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement. As the experimental result, a BZ method produced the butylated products at a yield of nearly 170%, while a KT method produced them at a yield of nearly 130%. The THF solubility was estimated to be 89-97%. As the study result of molecular weight distributions by GPC measurement of solvent solubles, the molecular weight of raw material MCMB was estimated to be 590-770 in terms of polystyrene. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Development of the EM tomography system. Part 2. Sensitivity studies of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. 2. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    A model analysis was used to investigate sensitivity of a two-dimensional structure on a resistivity anomalous body by using an electromagnetic tomography system. The resistivity model handled a three-dimensional structure. The model was prepared as a pseudo two-dimensional model in which a low resistivity anomalous body with 1 ohm-m was incorporated that has a basic length of 1000 m in the Y-direction in a homogenous medium having 100 ohm-m. As a result of the analysis, the following matters were elucidated: if a low resistivity anomalous body is present in a shallow subsurface, its impact starts appearing from lower frequencies than when the anomalous body exists only at a greater depth; if a high resistivity anomalous body exists, the detection sensitivity is lower than for the low resistivity anomalous body, but the analysis would be possible by using the phase because the phase has made a greater change; the source TxZ shows a change from lower frequencies than for the source TxX, and the amount of change is greater, hence the detection sensitivity on an anomalous body may be said higher with the source TxZ; however, for the anomalous body in shallow subsurface, the source TxX is more effective since it is not subjected to a too great impact at a greater depth. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Co-C binding cleavage by the hydrolysis reaction of the Vitamins B{sub 12} coenzyme; Bitamin B{sub 12} hokoso no kasui bunkai hanno ni yoru Co-C setsugo kairetsu

    Yonemura, T. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)


    Vitamin B{sub 12} isolated as antineoplastic anemia agent in 1948 were organometallic complex found in the nature at first, and it was noticed as a metal compound with the unique cobalt-carbon sigma (Co-C{sigma}) combination. Halpern et al. had estimated the dissociation energy to be 26-31kcal/mol when the Co-C combination of the segregated adenosylcobalamin clove in the homolysis, and Finke et al. reported that the cleavage speed is hastened over 10 {sup 10} times under the enzymatic reaction condition inside such a protein. Based on this important factor, the contribution of the electro-donicity of the shaft configuration base was indicated, and other factors to cause the Co-C binding cleavage were recently examined by Halpern and Finke et al. According to the research by Halpern, homolysis reaction and heterolysis reaction were competitively generated, and pH value, temperature, type of the alkyl ligand had a great influence. Especially, it has been clarified that the difference due to the substituent is remarkable. (NEDO)

  17. Discrimination of aromas from several kinds of alcohol using synthetic-resin-film-coated quartz resonator smell sensor; Gosei jushimaku wo tofushita suisho shindoshishiki nioi sensor ni yoru sake no shurui hanbetsu

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Morita, T. Dogami, N.; Nanto, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Doguchi, Y. [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa Prefecture, Ishikawa (Japan)


    Transient response curves for aromas from several kinds of alcohol such as Fruit Liquor (8%), Wine (14%), Japanese Sake (15%) and Whisky (43%) are observed using quartz-crystal-resonator gas sensor coated with synthetic-resin-film(acrylic resin, alkyd resin or urethane resin). The pattern recognition analysis using principal component analysis or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the transient response curves. The recognition probability of neural network for four kinds of alcohol is 100% for 20 trials. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Total eco-monitoring system 'EcoEASIEST' using a wireless network; Flexible musen network ni yoru 'sogo eko kanshi system' 'EcoEASIEST'

    Ando, N.; Fukuda, E.; Yamamo, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Fuji Electric's total eco-monitoring system mainly consists of analysis, computerization, and transmission. The design concept is 'consideration to the field,' 'a serviceable database,' and 'a flexible network.' This is an optimum system to minimize environmental degradation and reduce energy consumption stated in the ISO14001 and the amendment to the Energy Saving Act. (author)

  19. Investigation of phenomena of Southern Hyogo Earthquake, and observation of thunderbolts in winter using the integrated thunderbolt observation system; Hyogoken nanbu jishin no gensho no kaimei, sogo kaminari kansoku system ni yoru toki kaminari kansoku

    Kurihara, C.; Shindo, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The focal region of this earthquake was in the upper part of crusher zone of granite, and the maximum horizontal acceleration was about 300 gal which was increased at the surface into two times. Energy input would be concentrated between the first and second waves, to act on the structures resulting in the immediate destruction. The non-linear analysis method based on the effective stress was applied. As a result, the damping of horizontal acceleration and enhancing of vertical acceleration accompanied with liquefaction, and the amount of ground subsidence at the foundation of main tower of Akashi Bridge on the sand/gravel ground could be well simulated. The position of the fault and deformation structure in the surface layer could be detected down to the depth of more than 10 m by means of high density electrical exploration and underground radar exploration. (2) To observe thunderbolt field at various points and collect these data effectively, a remote control thunderbolt observation system was constructed. Thunderbolts in winter at Fukui were observed by integrating this system with the conventional optical observation, observation of thunder current, and observation of thunder cloud using Doppler radar. About a half of thunderstrokes in winter were due to the straight polarity discharge. It was also confirmed that generation of upward thunderbolts relates closely to the electrical activities in the thunder cloud. 6 figs.

  20. Development of a working face condition detector utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. Denjiha ni yoru kiriha no jokyo tanchi sochi no kaihatsu to genba eno tekiyo

    Ito, Tatsuo; Murakawa, Tadao (Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This report outlines the development of a facing condition detector which detects the circumstances of faces in shield tunnelling utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. An underground radar which emits electromagnetic wave from the earth surface to the underground, receives the electric wave reflected from the surface of the target in the underground, and detects the existence or non-existence of and the position of the target is already put to practical use. Principle of this detector is the same as that of the underground radar. Difference is that it utilizes the dielectric constant of the reflected wave. The reflected wave comes back from the boundary of media of different dielectric constants such as the boundary of water and earth and the boundary of gravel and earch. Difference in time of emission and reception indicates the distance, and the strength of the reflected wave indicates the value of the dielectric constant. The distance and the dielectric constant help to judge the circumstances of the face. As a result of using this detector at sites, it was found out that this detector can be used satisfactorily at the present level as a digging administration equipment to detect abnormalities at the early stage although the indicated distance is quite ambiguous and experience is required to judge displays. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Development of buried cable location survey system by underground rader for power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka no tame no chika radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa system no kaihatsu

    Suzuki, K.; Kitano, K.


    To execute construction work for power distribution cables under pavements reasonably, it is important to develop a technology capable of non-destructive detection of the location of existing buried cables from the ground surface. This study is to clarify the principle, measurement method, effectiveness, and limitation of the underground radar system which is at present considered as the most effective survey method for buried cables. In this system, accuracy in measuring the depth of underground cable location by a separated type antenna has been improved, software to improve resolution by a migration process has been developed, and a compact survey system which can analyze the data on the site has been realized. As aresult of the survey at city areas, all pipes buried less than 1m in depth with the resistivity value of more than 100 {Omega} m were detected as well as those less than 2m in depth with more than some 100 {Omega} m. However, non-metal pipes buried deeper than 1m in the ground of less than 100 {Omega} m were not detected. Consequently, improvement of the system is necessary in future. 7 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Development of environmental assessment by tree ring (1). Characteristics of tree ring width in pine tree. Jumoku nenrin ni yoru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho no kaihatsu (1). Matsu no nenrin haba no jittai to kiso tokusei

    Shinada, Yasushi; Nashimoto, Makoto; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu.


    In order to investigate the causal relation of change in vegetation status with the power station after starting the operation, pine trees in the surrounding area were studied in tree ring characteristics. The sampling was made at six stands ranged from the Tohhoku district to the Chugoku district. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 0.1 to 16.2mm and 0.05 to 9.05mm, respectively, in tree ring width. They were, in frequency distribution, both a logarithmic normal distribution with 1.05 to 1.50mm in mode. Their frequency distribution being a logarithmic normal distribution, along with advance in years thereafter it transfers to a normal distribution, then to a logarithmic normal distribution, then to an L-shaped distribution. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 6.5+-3.5mm and 6.5+-2.5mm, respectively, in maximum tree ring width, of which the appearance ratio was high in trees, 4 to 12 years old. While the minimum tree ring width appears, when the tree is very young in age and in specific calendar years during its second half of life. As for the time series of tree ring width, it, small when one year old, continues to enlarge along with advance in years until about ten years old, attains the maximum and, after then, diminishes along with advance in years. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Manufacturing of semi-solid ferrous alloys. 3. ; Manufacturing of semi-solid metals by SCR (shear-cooling roll) process. Tetsukei gokin no hangyoko shorizai no seizo. 3. ; Sendan reikyaku roll ho ni yoru hangyoko shori kinzoku no seizo

    Sugiyama, S.; Kiuchi, M.; Yamamoto, J. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)


    This paper reports on devising a shear-cooling roll (SCR) process that differs from the rheocasting process, and on trial manufacturing of semi-solid metals using ferrous alloys. Test specimens were made from three kinds of graphite cast iron (FC30, one corresponding to FC20, and FCD40), stainless steel (SUS304), and carbon steel (S45C). The experimental result revealed the following matters: semi-solid metals can be manufactured in a wide range of states such as foil, high and low solid-phase slurries; preheating temperatures of the roll and fixed cooling shoe affect largely the appearance and internal structure of SCR-processed materials; and the internal structure of an SCR-processed material forms a uniform isometric system and progresses recrystallization if it is heated and retained above the solid phase line. These results indicate nearly the same phenomena as those presented by low melting point alloys including solder and aluminum alloys. The processing procedure consists of injection of molten test specimen of a predetermined weight (about 10 kg) into the roll and fixed cooling shoe in the SCR machine preheated to the same temperature as that of the melt, and air-cooling the discharged metal in a container having heat insulated inner face. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Heat and fluid flow properties of circular impinging jet with a low nozzle to plate spacing. Improvement by nothched nozzle; Nozzle heibankan kyori ga chiisai baai no enkei shototsu funryu no ryudo dennetsu tokusei. Kirikaki nozzle ni yoru kaizen kojo

    Shakouchih, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumoto, A.; Watanabe, A.


    It is well known that as decreasing the nozzle to plate spacing considerably the heat transfer coefficient of circular impinging jet, which impinges to the plate normally, increases remarkably. At that time, the flow resistance of nozzle-plate system also increases rapidly. In this study, in order to reduce the flow resistance and to enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the circular impinging jet with a considerably low nozzle to plate spacing, a special nozzle with notches is proposed, and considerable improvement of the flow and heat transfer properties are shown. The mechanism of enhancement of the heat transfer properties is also discussed. (author)

  5. Critical heat flux in bottom heated two-phase thermosyphon. Improvement in critical heat flux due to concentric tube; Katan shuchu kanetsugata niso netsu syphon no genkai netsu ryusoku. Nijukan ni yoru genkai netsu ryusoku no kaizen

    Monde, M.; Mitsutake, Y. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    An experiment has been carried out to elucidate the critical heat flux (CHF) of an open two-phase thermosyphon with a bottom heated chamber in which heat is absorbed by evaporation of liquid. Another objective is to enhance the CHF using a concentric-tube by which counter-current flow of vapor and liquid in the throat of the chamber can be controlled well. The CHF data are measured for the saturated liquid of R 113 at a different pressure and different configuration of concentric tubes. The CHF data without the inner tube are in good agreement with the existing correlation and analytical result. The CHF increases by as much as several times of the CHF without the inner tube with an increase in the inner tube diameter up to a certain diameter of the inner tube and then decreases continuously as the inner tube diameter approaches the outer tube diameter. The optimum diameter of inner tube exists at which the CHF is maximum. (author)

  6. Improvement of the characteristics of a diagonal-flow fan in low flow range with casing-bleed-holes; Keshingu kiko ni yoru sharyu sofuki no teiryu ryoiki tokusei no kaizen

    Ando, Yoichi; Sasaki, Kazuto; Yamaguchi, Sumio; Yamashita, Shoji; Shimada, Taichiro


    Generally, a high specific speed diagonal flow fan with a small pressure rise coefficient has a slight positive gradient part of the pressure rise - flow rate characteristics. In addition, the pressure fall is small, between the flow rate at which the impeller stall in the throttle closer and the stalling flow rate. In the case, Kaneko et al. suggest a way of improvement on performance characteristics by an inlet annular wing which removes a low-momentum fluid from a rotor tip region. However, in case of a fan that has a sharp drop of pressure rise in the stall characteristics, it is not clear that the stall characteristics can be improved by this way. In this study, in order to improve the unstable characteristics of a high pressure rise coefficient diagonal flow fan, Tip clearance flow has been investigated on five rotor-casings with various holes to bleed low-momentum fluid in the range of flow rate from design point to stall point. (author)

  7. Improvement of low temperature oxidation resistance in MoSi{sub 2}-oxides composites; Sankabutsu no fukugoka ni yoru MoSi{sub 2} zairyo no teion sanka tokusei no kaizen

    Jiang, W.; Uchiyama, T. [Riken Corp., Saitama (Japan)


    MoSi{sub 2}-oxides composites using fine aluminosilicate powder (< 0.2{mu}m) have demonstrated excellent low temperature oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance. These properties strongly depend on microstructural morphology and are obtained in composites that network-structures of both phases of MoSi{sub 2} and oxides are developed, i.e., in composites with oxides of 20 {approx} 40 vol. %. When one phase is independently dispersed in the other phase, on the other hand, problems of low temperature oxidation and thermal shock occur. The low temperature oxidation problem occurs in the composites with oxides less than 15 vol. % and the thermal shock problem occurs in the composites with oxides more than 50 vol. %. These results will contribute to material design approaches for high temperature structural applications of MoSi{sub 2}. (author)

  8. Effects of Mie tip-vane on pressure distribution of rotor blade and power augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine; Yokutan shoyoku Mie ben ni yoru suiheijiku fusha yokumenjo no atsuryoku bunpu no kaizen to seino kojo tono kankei

    Shimizu, Y.; Maeda, T.; Kamada, Y. [Mie Univ., Mie (Japan); Seto, H. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    By recent developments of exclusive rotor blade, the efficiency of wind turbine is improved substantially. By measuring pressure on rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines rotating in wind tunnels, this report clarified relation between improvement of pressure distribution on main rotor blades by Mie vane and upgrade of wind turbine performance. The results under mentioned have been got by measuring pressure distribution on rotor blades, visualization by tuft, and measuring resistance of Mie vane. (1) The difference of pressure between suction surface and pressure surface on the end of rotor blade increase, and output power of wind turbine improves. (2) Vortex of blade end is inhibited by Mie vane. (3) The reason of reduction on wind turbine performance with Mie vane in aria of high rotating speed ratio is the increase of Mie vane flow resistance.(NEDO)

  9. Three-dimensional computer simulation at vehicle collision using dynamic model. Application to various collision types; Rikigaku model ni yoru jidosha shototsuji no sanjigen kyodo simulation. Shushu no shototsu keitai eno tekiyo

    Abe, M.; Morisawa, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, K. [Molex-Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The past study of safety at vehicle collision pays attention to phenomena within the short time from starting collision, and the behavior of rollover is studied separating from that at collision. Most simulations of traffic accident are two-dimensional simulations. Therefore, it is indispensable for vehicle design to the analyze three-dimensional and continuous behavior from crash till stopping. Accordingly, in this study, the three-dimensional behavior of two vehicles at collision was simulated by computer using dynamic models. Then, by comparison of the calculated results with real vehicles` collision test data, it was confirmed that dynamic model of this study was reliable. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Joint stiffness identification of body structure using neural network. Jointed part composed of 2 beams; Neural network ni yoru shatai kozo no ketsugo gosei dotei. Buzai 2 hon kara naru ketsugobu no baai

    Okabe, A.; Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The method to obtain a joint stiffness value from displacements of jointed part using hierarchical neural networks in case of a jointed part composed of two beams were proposed. First, the sample data of displacements of jointed part vs. joint stiffness are prepared as learned data. Second, the relations between displacements of jointed part and joint stiffness are constructed from these learned data using a hierarchical neural networks. It was found that the value of joint stiffness can be obtained from displacement of jointed part by the trained neural network. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Attempt of lean burn of a 4 cycle gasoline engine by the aid of low pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection; Tonai kuki nenryo funsha ni yoru lean burn no kokoromi

    Hatakeyama, S.; Kondo, M.; Sekiya, Y.; Murayama, T. [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College, Hokkaido (Japan)


    Comparable performance and exhaust emission with conventional carburetor was obtained by a low Pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection system. And lean burn of idling and light load operation till A/F=70 was realized by installing a spark Plug and a reed type injection nozzle in a divided combustion chambaer of a 4 cycle gasoline engine. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Study of stratified charge wankel rotary engine. (Part 1). ; Summary of the combustion by pilot-burner flame ignition. Sojo kyuki nensho wankel gata kaiten pisuton kikan no kenkyu. (1). ; Pilot kaen chakka ni yoru nensho no gaiyo

    Muroki, T. (Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Morita, K. (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))


    In the U.S.A., the stratified charge wankel rotary engine (hereinafter referred to as DISC-RE) has been developed. This engine uses various kinds of fuel, has a low compression ratio, is equipped with a turbo supercharger, adopts the pilot flame forced ignition system and shows excellent performance. In order to elucidate the basic characteristics of this new internal combustion engine, an experiment was conducted using a single cylinder two cycle diesel engine as a rapid pressure device, to which a modelled combustion chamber was attached. This article is its first report. The main results of the experiment are as follows: It is considered that the combustion process in the modelled combustion chamber used in this study can be made almost similar to the combustion process in the experimental DISC-RE and is sufficient for understanding the basic characteristics of the combustiion. The form of the basic combustion of main fuel is that violent pre-mixed combustion occurs after ignition, then very slow combustion persists for a long time. In order to activate diffuse combustion, it is necessary to facilitate diffusion of the flame of pre-mixed combustion and mixing of fuel and air, and to raise wall temperature of the combustion chamber, etc. 3 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Design of low order controller using the loop shaping design procedure. Stabilizing control of a two-wheeled vehicle; Loop seikei sekkei shuho ni yoru teijigen seigyoki no sekkei

    Murata, T.; Kawatani, R. [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka (Japan)


    This paper proposes one design method of low order controllers using a loop shaping design procedure (LSDP). The order of a controller using the central solution of LSDP becomes the sum of the order of a design model and 2 times the order of a weight transfer function, while that using this method becomes the sum of 1 and the order of a weight transfer function. Since this method uses no approximation in order reduction, the proper shaping performance of LSDP is retained. This method was applied to the stabilizing control problem of a two-wheeled vehicle as typical unstable mechanical system to verify its effectiveness. Measured tilt angles to a floor and truck positions of a two-wheeled vehicle are inputted into a computer, and calculated control inputs are sent to the servo module of a speed control system through a D/A convertor. The DC motor-driven truck of a two- wheeled vehicle thus moves in a direction to stabilize a two- wheeled vehicle. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation and experimental results of this design. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Robust stabilization control of power system based on the direct control of generator power by series variable impedance unit; Chokuretsu kahen inpidansu wo mochiita hatsudenki denryoku no chokusetsu seigyo ni yoru robasuto keito anteika seigyo

    Hojo, M.; Mitani, Y.; Tuji, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)


    Advanced control system design method (whose application is believed to be difficult in practical use) with the advancement of technologies of power system stabilization controllers has received much attention. In particular, demand of stabilizing control system with high robustness is pointed out. Construction of linearization control system is proposed based on direct operating volume of electric output power`s generator using the series variable impedance unit in this paper. The results are summarized as follows. Based on direct control aim of a generator power out of system of controllers with reference to the swing characteristics of power generator under specification, a linearized control is manufactured. Proposed control based on simple construction using variable impedance unit which is connected continuously with transmission line is realized. Linear system which keeps eigen values pointed out by designers who predicts based on the use of proposed controller is obtained. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Stabilization of a large-capacity and long-distance transmission system by an adjustable speed flywheel generator; Kahensoku FWG ni yoru daiyoryo chokyori soden keito anteika no kento

    Takahashi, O; Sato, K.; Goto, K.; Sirosaki, T. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc, Miyagi (Japan); Sanekata, J.; Amano, M.; Endo, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    An adjustable speed flywheel generator (FWG) is composed of a dynamotor and a flywheel which can accumulate energy as rotational energy. Its adjustable device operates owing to exciting the rotors by three-phase current. When the rotational speed does not coincide with the synchronous one, difference between the two, namely the slipped frequency, excites the rotors. According to this principle, the flywheel can run synchronizing with the transmission system. Selection of the location for FWGs being important from the standpoint of large-capacity and long-distance transmission, a PQ-sensitivity method has been proposed as a new technique, which can estimate the effect of both FWG`s active and reactive power with ease. Besides, regarding an input signal for stabilizing control, new method has been developed which apply the frequency of the bus instead of the power flow. Owing to this method, conventional stepwise changes of the power flow at every opening three-phase single-circuit have disappeared. As for the capacity of the FWG, the fact that the capacity of the exciter depends on the slip investigated, a designing method has been proposed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Shape estimation of the buried body from the ground surface potential distributions generated by current injection; Tsuryu ni yoru chihyomen den`i bunpu wo riyoshita maizobutsu keijo no suitei

    Takahashi, Y.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Akabane, H.; Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Ground surface potential distribution generated by current injection was studied to estimate the shape of buried bodies. Since the uniform ground system including a homogeneous buried body is perfectly determined with the surface shape of a buried body and resistivities in/around a buried body, inversion is easy if the surface shape is described with some parameters. N electrodes are arranged in 2-D grid manner on the ground, and two electrodes among them are used for current injection, while the others for measurement of potentials. M times of measurements are repeated while changing combination of electrodes for current injection. The potential distribution measured by the mth electrode pair is represented by N-2 dimensional vectors. The square error between this distribution and calculated one is the function of k parameters on the surface shape and resistivities on a buried body. Both shape and resistivities can be estimated by solving an optimum value problem using the square error as evaluation function. Analysis is easy for a spherical body with 6 unknown parameters, however, it is difficult for more complex bodies than elliptical one or more than two bodies. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Study of the development of high resolution sub-surface fluid monitoring system using Accurately Controlled Routine Operated Seismic Sources (ACROSS); Seimitsu seigyo shingen ni yoru chika ryutai koseido monitoring no kenkyu

    Kumazawa, M.; Ogawa, K.; Fujii, N.; Yamaoka, K.; Kumagai, H.; Takei, Y. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ishihara, K.; Nakaya, m. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    Fourier seismology capable of determining quantities related to elastic wave velocity dispersibility and non-elastic damping is under development, and studies are under way for the development of a sub-surface probing technology utilizing this seismology. It is deemed that the above-said quantities are related to the occurrence of earthquakes, behavior of sub-surface water, and migration of magma. In this method, precisely controlled sinusoidal waves are radiated and the received spectral data is subjected to cepstrum analysis, advantageous over other methods in that it achieves a high S/N ratio in a non-destructive way, facilitates deep structure analysis, and capable of monitoring changes with the elapse of time in such a structure. A newly-developed high-mobility transportable quake generator is described, which covers a wider frequency range and aims at the short-distance exploration of sub-surface conditions. Important components of the quake generator include an eccentric mass bearing capable of dealing with high-speed rotation enabling high frequency oscillation, variable mechanism for the primary moment of inertia, exciter and ground surface coupler allowing operations on a soft ground, and torque cancelling mechanism for the excitation of SH waves only. 3 figs.

  18. Aerobic evolution of hydrogen by Enterobacter aerogenes for hydrogen production accompanied with sewage treatment; Suiso seizo wo tomonau haisui syori sisutemu no tameno Enterobacter aerogenes ni yoru kokiteki suiso hassei

    Tanisho, S.; Sasaki, Y. [Yokohama National Univaersity, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Enterobacter aerogenes react via the path of NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to evolve hydrogen. Aerobic evolution of hydrogen by E. aerogenes under the conditions of unsuitable nutrient and pH for growth is investigated. Hydrogenase maintains activity for longer than 40 minutes even in oxygen containing atmosphere. It is shown that bacteria held under anaerobic condition for a few hours consume oxygen immediately when placed in aerobic condition. As a result, it becomes clear that TCA cycle and electron-transfer chain are maintained even under anaerobic condition. Inactivation of hydrogen production under oxygen containing atmosphere is caused by re-oxidation of NADH utilizing mainly electron-transfer chain having better efficiency. It is considered that yield can be improved by interrupting electron transfer in NADH/oxidase composite because hydrogen evolution is possible even under aerobic condition, but the verification is postponed for future study. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Wide stop-band filters consisted of optical directional coupler type multi resonators; Hikari hokosei ketsugoki wo mochiita fukugo kyoshinki ni yoru kososhiiki wo yusuru koha fuiruta no kento

    Furuta, Hirosuke; Nishikawa, Kenji; Miyamoto, Tokuo


    It is important that pass-band and stop-band of the optical filter used for optical wavelength division multiplexing systems can be set up according to systems requirements. In this paper, we presented expanding of stop-band using multi-resonator consisted of optical directional coupler. In this resonator, addition to interferences by resonation, the path length difference between two different path from input-port to output-port cause intensity changes. To use these interferences, we considerated expanding of stop-band and suppressing of resonate peak in stop-band. 30GHz passband and 60GHz cut-off frequency at 20dB point are calculated. If expanding the stop-band up to 10THz, the loss in the stop-band coms down to 24dB. (author)

  20. Application of the Fujita reinforced precast concrete (FRPC) method to a large scale shopping complex, Shoppers Plaza Yokosuka. Kakoshiki precast koho ni yoru daikibo tenpo no shoryokuka seko (Shoppers Plaza Yokosuka)

    Kawabe, T.; Inatomi, T.; Yoshino, T.; Kobayakawa, S. (Fujita Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes the Fujita reinforced precast concrete (FRPC) construction method and the manufacture and quality control of precast (Pca) members used in building the Shoppers Plaza Yokosuka, a large-scale shopping complex. The FRPC construction method uses a frame Pca structure, wherein all such members as base beams, columns and beams are constructed as individual members and integrated by means of post-placed concrete. The method enabled a large contraction of the construction period, manpower saving, reduction in vibration, noise and number of construction vehicles. The construction was planned such that the building is divided in two planes, and the members are manufactured at both site and outside factories in nearly the same numbers. The site factory had its manufacturing line arranged exclusively for specific members to improve the workability, thus its total production cost ended at 87% of that at the outside factories. This result was contributed largely by the reduction in the fixed cost and transportation cost. Endeavors were made on shortening the construction period and saving the manpowers through the use of Pca in the peripheral vehicle roads, interior partitions and evacuation balconies. The quality control was focussed on cracking and the control of integrity in the Pca members and the post-placed concrete. 3 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Study on synergistic effects of urban mixed-uses developments. Research into the complex uses of offices, shopping centers and hotels; Toshi kaihatsu no yoto fukugo ni yoru sojo koka no kenkyu. Office shogyo shisetsu hotel no fukugo riyo chosa

    Mori, N.; Ito, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Complex facilities consisting of offices, shopping centers and hotels were investigated to discuss synergistic effects of compounding the different uses. The investigations included an investigation on passing behaviors and traffic amount among facilities of different uses around and inside the complex facilities, a questionnaire survey on visitors for their composite utilization, impression and evaluation of the facilities and another questionnaire survey on office workers for their composite utilization of the facilities inside and outside the complex facilities. The result of analyses using simple calculations and multi-dimensional measure methods revealed the following points: improvement on images of the whole facility as a result of strong customer collecting power of the commercial facilities, support effects on hotels and malls, roles and utilization patterns of commercial facilities, hotels and various facilities existing in peripheral areas that function to support office works, and roles of open squares and malls that coordinate and integrate the facilities of different uses and promote passing activities. It was also observed that resident time is extended as a result of composite utilization, and that the shift in peak time of the number of people utilizing the commercial-based and office-based facilities results in more efficient utilization of parking lots and restaurants. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Deactivation of REY zeolite during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from the pyrolysis of waste plastics; REY zeolite shokubai ni yoru hai plastic netsu bunkaiyu no sesshoku bunkai hanno no kassei rekka

    Masuda, T.; Mukai, S.; Akiyama, T.; Fujikata, Y.; Hashimoto, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    A model has been developed to represent the deactivation of REY zeolite caused by coke deposition during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste plastics. Coke deposition not only leads to coverage of the acid sites, which contribute to the reaction, but also leads to a decrease in the intracrystalline diffusivity of the zeolite due to the reduction in effective pore opening, resulting in deactivation of the catalyst. In this work, firstly the amount of strong acid sites and the diffusivity of catalysts with different amounts of coke loading were measured, and empirical equations, which represent the relationships between the amount of coke loading and these two values, were obtained. Finally, a model was developed to calculate the transient change of the catalyst activity and the concentration distributions of the components within the reactor by employing the obtained empirical equations. The calculated results agreed well with experimental results. Using this model, it was found that the deactivation rate of the catalyst was reduced under diffusion control conditions, and large catalyst particles could maintain their activity longer than small catalyst particles. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Reduction of industrial waste by the employment of simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using magnesium; Maguneshiumu wo mochiita datsuryu/kokuen kyujoka doji shoriho no saiyo ni yoru sangyo haikibutsu no teigen

    Toriyama, T.; Yamamuro, S.; Yoshida, A.; Ono, S. [Kurimoto Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    The Sakai Factory of KURIMOTO LTD. employed a continuous porous plug desulfurization method in 1992. In this desulfurization method, the molten iron from a cupola is desulfurized with a desulfurizing agent in which calcium carbide and lime are mixed. This paper reports the details of the development of a simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using Mg, which aims at disusing the operation in a high-temperature environment and reducing the quantity of slag which is an industrial waste. The main results obtained are as follows. The quantity of desulfurized slag in a porous plug ladle could be reduced to zero. A total quantity of slag produced was reduced by about 70%, which was better than the target reduction. Owing to the employment of this simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using Mg, the operations of mixing the desulfurizing agent and removing desulfurized slag in a high-temperature environment were omitted. The S-value after the simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization became lower than 0.010%. It could be ascertained that the graphite spheroidization rate and mechanical properties of the product did not differ from those of the product obtained by a conventional desulfurization and fully satisfied the standard values of the product. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. TEM observation of the Al and Cu interfaces bonded at room temperature by means of the surface activation mehtod. Hyomen kasseikaho ni yoru Al oyobi Cu joon setsugo kaimen no TEM kansatsu

    Suga, T.; Miyazawa, K.; Takagi, H. (The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan))


    Al and Cu were bonded to various ceramics and Si by a surface activation method with irradiation of an Ar fast atom beam before bonding at room temperature, and their interfaces were observed by a TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Al was bonded successfully to various oxides and nitrides with bond strengths of 50-100MPa in the vacuum range of 9 {times} 10 {sup {minus} 5}- 2 {times} 10 {sup {minus} 6} Pa, while no macroscopic bonding could be obtained between Cu and ceramics. Amorphous intermediate layers of 10-20nm in thickness were observed in the Al-Al and Al-Si interfaces by the TEM which were possibly formed with the reaction between some residual gases and Al surfaces by irradiation of an Ar fast atom beam. On the other hand, since no intermediate layers but interfacial dislocations were observed in the Cu-Cu interfaces, it was supposed that the direct bonding between Cu lattices was formed. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effects of inhalation of and exposure to gaseous substances to genital organs, and sexual difference. (6). Gas jo busshitsu kyunyu bakuro ni yoru seishokuki eno eikyo oyobi seisa. (6)

    Inoue, N.; Mori, K.; Fujishiro, K.; Hori, H. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). Institute of Industrial Ecological Science)


    Results of studies and knowledges therefrom are reported on intermediate materials used in the chemical industry and ethylene oxide used as a sterilizer for medical devices as to how their toxicity affects the different sexes and feminine genital organs. Male and female rats were subjected to inhalation of and exposure to ethylene oxide at a concentration of 250 ppm 6 hours a day, 5 days a week for 17 weeks (some of them for 10 weeks), and chronic toxicity of ethylene oxide was investigated on sexual difference and female genital organs. The female rats showed their estrous cycle extended, and an increase in ratio of the estrous periods accounting for in the entire cycles was idenfified. While no sexual difference was identified in the degree of disorders in peripheral nervous system, strong macrocytic normochromia anemia was observed in female rats. Activity of glutathione reductase in ovaries has decreased, and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity was observed. It was made clear from these facts that ethylene oxide affected also female genital organs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Estimation of underground structures in the Osaka-Kobe area by array-network observations of microtremors; Bido no array kansoku ni yoru Osaka-Hyogo chiiki no chika kozo no suitei

    Okada, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Ling, S. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sasabe, K. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)


    Microtremor observations have been carried out with an objective to estimate underground structures including the foundation depth in the Osaka-Kobe area which has been greatly damaged by the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995. Different organizations have made seismic surveys and boring investigations in this area, by which elucidation has been made on the underground structures. The present observations are intended to identify S-wave velocity distribution in a wide area from the ground surface to the foundation, which is difficult to be verified by using conventional surveys and investigations. Methods to detect surface waves which are contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (the SPAC method). The SPAC method can estimate phase velocities of longer waves for the size of an array than with the F-K method, and is more advantageous in estimating ground structures at greater depths. S-wave velocity structure was estimated down to the foundation rocks existing in depths of about 0.5 to 2.0 km. For estimating the phase velocities in Raleigh waves, the SPAC method and the expanded spatial autocorrelation method were used. The underground structures thus derived showed a good agreement with the results of explorations using other methods. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Report on technological survey in fiscal 1998. Demonstration test for smoothing grid interconnection (Collection of information by surveys in overseas countries); 1998 nendo keito renkei enkatsuka jissho shiken chosa hokokusho. Kaigai chosa ni yoru joho shushu



    Surveys were performed on the institutional aspects of establishment and operation of grid interconnection guidelines in the countries advanced in introduction of discrete power supply systems, namely, England, Ireland, Italy and the United States, as well as on the simulation technologies to realize them technically. In England, the power transmission systems (controller: NGO) and the power distribution systems (controller: PES) are separated, to which grid interconnection operating regulations are provided respectively. Single operation of generators connected to the power distribution system is not permitted substantially. In Ireland, the power transmission and distribution functions are separated, but are in the transition stage. Interconnection, if requested, cannot be rejected except for a case that the interconnection is impossible. Italy has the condition similar to that in Ireland, where no small generators are not permitted of independent operation. America has not unified the operating regulations for grid interconnection, and has apprehension in the independent operation, but no countermeasures have been given. In the simulation technologies, surveys were made on PSS/E, EUROSTAG, and SICRE. The PSS/E is the standard software in America for the current and stability analysis. (NEDO)

  8. Study on the application of digital signal processor (DSP) to adaptive control. 2. Active noise control to noise from a duct; DSP ni yoru tekio seigyo. 2. Duct kaikotan no soon eno active noise control

    Kino, N.; Kitagawa, T.; Aoki, K. [Shizuoka Industrial Research Institute of Shizuoka prefecture, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Recent developments in signal processing technology, computer and LSI technology, especially DSP technology have made it possible to process sampled and quantized sound signals in real time. So sound field processing technology and sound field control technology have been made rapid progress. Active noise control technology is one of the sound field control technologies. And it can be applied to low frequency noise reduction problems that we couldn`t cope with in usual way. So we developed an experimental device of active noise control. We report how we developed this device and refer to the experimental results about a random frequency noise in this report. 5 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Determination of sup 238 U in marine organisms by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Yudo ketsugo plasma shitsuryo bunsekiho ni yoru kaiyo seibutsuchu no sup 238 U no teiryo

    Ishii, T.; Nakahara, M; Matsuda, M.; Ishikawa, M. (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan))


    Since the {sup 238} U concentration in seawater is about 3ng/ml at the element level and the activity concentration is 40 {mu} Bq/ml which are considerably higher that those of other {alpha} radioactive materials, it is necessary to study the concentration levels of many marine organisms. After confirming that the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a new high sensitive analysis for multi-elements is effective to analyze heavy elements such as rare earth elements or uranium, etc., this method was applied to determine {sup 238} U in 55 species of marine organism. The {sup 238} U concentration in soft tissues of marine animal ranged from 0.076 to 5000ng/g wet weight and large difference of concentration was observed depending on the kind of animal and the tissue. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of {sup 238} U. The concentration factor of branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris which showed the highest value was calculated to be about 10 {sup 3} by comparing it with the concentration of {sup 238} U in Japanese coastal waterseas. The concentration of {sup 238} U in 20 species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700ng/g dry weight. 11 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Production of activated carbon with high specific surface area from bean-curd refuse by chemical activation; Okara wo genryo toshita yakuhin fukatsuho ni yoru kohihyomenseki kasseitan no seizo

    Muroyama, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sato, A.; Takemoto, S. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A large amount of bean-curd refuse is exhausted as-product of tofu in Japan. On the other hand, activated carbon is used widely from old times in chemicals, medicines and food industry. Recently, since environmental contamination has come to head, the demand of activated carbon is more increased. The authors tried to produce activated carbons with high specific surface area from bean-curd refuse by chemical activation using several alkali metal compounds. The effects of carbonization temperature, holding time and impregnation ratio of reagent to dried bean-curd refuse on pore structure of activated carbons produced were investigated. Among the chemicals tested K2CO3 is found to be the most effective as the impregnation reagent. In a range of carbonization temperature above 700{degree}C, the specific surface area of the activated carbon produced increases rapidly, takes a maximum at a carbonization temperature of about 800{degree}C and decreases with further increase in temperature above 800{degree}C. The specific surface area attains a maximum at a holding time of about 60 min. The specific surface area increases with increasing impregnation ratio up to an impregnation ratio of 1.00. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Recent advances in studies on photosynthetic microorganisms and photobioreactors. ; Production of useful carotenoids using minute algae. Hikari gosei biseibutsu no kino kaihatsu to foto baioriakuta. ; Bisai sorui ni yoru yuyo karotenoido no seisan

    Kobayashi, M.; Tsuji, Y. (Higashimaru Shoyu Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)); Kakizono, T.; Nagai, S. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Astaxanthin (3,3[prime]-dihydroxy-[beta],[beta]-carotene-4,4[prime]-dione) is a red carotenoid dye present in aquatic organisms such as crustacea and fish, and has a close relationship with the manifestation of colors of the bodies and meat of these organisms. Astaxanthin is currently used as a color-enhancing agent for cultivated fish such as red sea bream, rainbow trout, and salmon. Recently, astaxanthin has been found to be a much stronger antioxidant than [beta]-carotene or [alpha]-tocophenol, and its application to foods and pharmaceuticals is expected. In this article, studies by the authors on Haematococcus pluvialis, one of the most promising microorganisms as a source of producing astaxanthin, are described as an example of production of useful carotenoids using minute algae, and are compared with Dunaliella, as a [beta]-carotene producing microorganism, which is already produced commercially. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Improvement of static strength and fatigue crack propagation resistance in ductile cast iron by austempering from (. alpha. +. gamma. ) phase region. Bubun austenpering shori ni yoru kyujo kokuen chutetsu no seiteki kyodo to hiro kiretsu shinten teiko no kaizen

    Sugiyama, Y.; Asami, K.; Matsuoka, S. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))


    The spheroidal graphite cast iron is better characterized in resistivity against the abrasion and heat, and economical efficiency than the normal carbon steel. Notice being taken of treatment temperature (800 to 840 centigrade) in the ({alpha}+{gamma}) phase region for the partial austempering treatment condition, able to improve the spheroidal graphite cast iron simultaneously in both statical tensile characteristics and fatigue crack propagation resistance, the present report compared dual phase as-cast material, single phase ferrite and single phase bainite. As a result, the morphological ratio of bainite becomes about 20% to the base morphology at 800 centigrade in treatment temperature. Then with progressively heightening to 815, 830 and 840 centigrade in it, the above ratio so heightens to about 40, 80 and 90%, respectively. The fatigue crack propagation resistance in the low DeltaK (low stress intensity factor) region is heightened by the partial austempering treatment to higher than that of dual phase as-cast material, single phase ferrite and single phase bainite, and most done at 800 centigrade in temperature where the bainite becomes about 20% in morphological ratio. 830 centigrade where the bainite becomes about 80% is judged to be the most appropriate treatment temperature for both the statical tensile characteristics and fatigue crack propagation resistance. 3 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Stress estimation around the survey wells in Hanshin-Awaji area by means of AE/DR and DSCA experiments; AE/DR ho to DSCA ho ni yoru Hanshin Awaji chiiki chosa kui shuhen no chikaku oryoku sokutei

    Ito, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Nishizawa, O. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sano, O. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokoyama, T.; Kudo, R. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Xue, Z. [Kiso-Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A total of 5 wells were excavated in the Hanshin-Awaji area (Ikeda, Takarazuka, Tarumi, Hirabayashi and Ikunami) to collect the core samples, which were analyzed by the AE/DR and DSCA methods to determine crustal stresses. For the AE/DR analysis, the core sample was cut in the vertical direction, and in the horizontal direction at intervals of 45{degree}. The sample of unknown orientation was provided with a datum line common for both methods, to compare the results by these methods. A load was applied to the sample, provided with an AE sensor and strain gauge on the sides, in the longitudinal direction. For the DSCA analysis, the core sample was cut into a cube having a side length of 33mm, with a pair of planes directed in parallel to the datum line. A total of 18 strain gauges, 10mm in gauge length, were attached to the cube. The AE/DR analysis gave the maximum and minimum principal stresses in the horizontal plane and stresses in the vertical direction, whereas the DSCA the maximum, intermediate and minimum principal stresses. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  14. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu



    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  15. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Problems and technologies of reduction control of dioxins. Part 3. Reduction of dioxins emission using direct melting incineration furnace for municipal and industrial solid wastes; Haikibutsu chokusetsu yoyuro ni yoru daiokishin rui haishutsu yokusei

    Iwasaki, M.; Uchida, M. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Dioxins are deadly toxic substances which are generated accidentally from various kinds of generation sources. City waste incinerators are deemed to be the greatest generation sources of dioxins, and it becomes a serious social problem now. In such a situation, gasification and melting technology of wastes are paid attention as the waste incinerating and treating technology suitable for the reduction of dioxins emission. In this paper, reduction of dioxin emission using a high oxygen concentration type direct melting furnace is introduced as one of the above-mentioned technologies. High oxygen concentration type direct melting furnace is a vertical shaft furnace wherein high concentration oxygen gas separated and refined from the atmosphere by an oxygen producing apparatus such as a pressure swing absorption tower is introduced from the bottom of the furnace. Wastes supplied into the furnace is dried to move the moisture therein in a drying area, and then decomposed into thermal decomposed gas, carbon-rich char, and ash in a thermal decomposition area. The removal rate of dioxins contained in exhaust gas is about 95%. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Imaging technique for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity by electromagnetic tomography. 2. Scale modeling and applications; EM tomography ni yoru taijiritsu to hiteiko no imaging gijutsu. 2. Mokei jikken oyobi tekiyorei

    Sakashita, S.; Fukuoka, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper outlines an EM tomographic analyzer developed by the authors, and the results of its applications to experiments for grasping resistivity structures of complex geographic structures and also to detection of underground pipes in urban areas. The actual analysis procedure starts with scanning, to determine which frequency is optimum for obtaining information regarding magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. This step is followed by the logging measurement at the predetermined frequency, where the signal-receiving points are moved at adequate intervals for repeated logging measurements, to obtain spatially dense data for the measured section. The tests were conducted at Shirakawa Heights, Fukushima Pref., where two bores, 50m apart with each other were excavated at a depth of 120m. The analysis results are in agreement with the logging results. The experiments were also conducted to accurately locate approxiamtely 20m deep underground sewage pipes. Validity of the new technique is confirmed by comparing the analysis results with the boring results. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Electromagnetic stability of Nb{sub 3}Al superconductors fabricated by rapid quench and transform process (2); Kyunetsu Kyurei{center_dot}hentai ho ni yoru Nb{sub 3}Al senzai no denjiki teki anteisei (2)

    Aihara, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Wadayama, Y. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Nakagawa, K.; Tagawa, K.; Moriai, H. [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, T.; Kiyoshi, T.; Wada, H. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)


    Nb{sub 3}Al multifilamentary wire was fabricated and the occurring situation of flux jump of it was investigated. Nb/NbAl elementary wire with diameter 1.25 mm fabricated by rapid heating and quenching method was coated by copper, and after fabricated to rectangular wire, it was heat-treated at 800 degrees of centigrade for ten hours. An elementary wire consists of 84 filaments. Flux jump was observed using SQUID. In field scan toward one direction, flux jump was not observed, but flux jump was observed in reversal magnetic field. However, magnetization did not decrease to zero. It was considered that Mb{sub 3}Al filament maintained superconductive state in spite of occurring transition of Nb region to normal conductive state by flux jump. (NEDO)

  19. Accelerations of {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} transformation and sintering of iron silicide by addition of Pd; Pd tenka ni yoru keikatetsu no {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} hentai to shoketsu no sokushin

    Kato, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takeda, T. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    FeSi2 ({beta} phase) semiconducting iron silicide, which is expected to be widely used as a thermoelectric material in high temperature environment, is formed below 1259K by the peritectoid reaction of FeSi ({epsilon}) and Fe2Si5 ({alpha}) two metallic phases. Because the transformation of {epsilon} + {alpha} {yields} {beta} caused by this peritectoid reaction occurs considerably slowly, the iron silicide material which is produced by sintering of the powder at temperatures above 1259K has to be isothermally heat-treated for at least 180ks at about 1120K after the sintering so that the transformation occurs completely. We have found that the transformation was drastically accelerated by the addition of a small amount of Pd in the same way as Cu; the isothermal heat-treatment time necessary for the completion of the transformation was reduced to about 1/60. The sintering time needed for the almost full densification of the powder by pressure DCL sintering (DCL; direct current loading) was also reduced. A hypothesis for the mechanisms was proposed. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Formation of austenite and martensite in the surface layer of pure iron due to ion-nitriding hardening. Ion chikka ni yoru juntetsu hyomen kokasonai no austenite oyobi martensite no keisei

    Yasumaru, N. (Fukui National College of Technology, Fukui (Japan))


    To investigate the ion-nitriding behavior including the phase transformation on the surface of iron, the mechanism of formation and growth of the nitrided case was studied by ion-nitriding pure iron with well-known properties. Pure iron for industrial use was nitrided in the mixed gas (80vol% N {sub 2}+20vol% H {sub 2}) inder a pressure of 665 Pa at temperatures of 803K, 923K, and 1013K with treatment time 2.1-14.7ks and then quenched in water. Consequently, a surface hardened layer and a diffusion layer with specific characteristics were formed in each occasion with different temperature and quenching method. Under the eutectoid transformation temperature of 863K, the nitrided case consisting of a compound layer and a diffusion layer is formed. In nitriding above the eutectoid transformation temperature, the following formation can be considered: a {gamma} phase, which has a denser nitrogen concentration than that estimated from the intersection of the nitriding temperature and the A {sub 3}-line, is formed above the upper part of the diffusion layer and grows as the nitriding time passes; during the quenching process, this {gamma} phase is transformed either to single {gamma} phase structure or to martensite structure, corresponding to different M {sub s} temperature accompanied with different nitrogen concentration. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of fracture mechanism in sintered Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}; XPS ni yoru chiso keiso shoketsutai no hadan mekanizumu kaiseki

    Ozawa, M.; Furukawa, Y.; Ogawa, M.; Isozaki, K. [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The concentration of sintering aids, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, appearing on the fracture surface of sintered SI{sub 3}N{sub 4} on which either dynamic or cyclic stress is applied, was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The concentration ratio, (Y + Al)/Si, can be used as a correlational index that is useful to study the fracture behavior. According to our results, there is a direct correlation between larger (Y + Al)/Si concentration ratios on the fracture surface and the tendency of sintered SI{sub 3}N{sub 4} to suffer fracture by cyclic fatigue, namely, intercrystalline cracking is dominant when fracture by cyclic fatigue occurs. (author)

  2. Study on diesel combustion with high-pressure fuel injection. Improvement of combustion and exhaust emissions using small-hole-diameter nozzles; Koatsu funsha diesel kikan no nensho kaiseki. Shofunkokei nozzle ni yoru nensho haiki kaizen koka

    Nakakita, K.; Kondo, T. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    This paper discusses the relationship between exhaust and combustion characteristics of small-hole-diameter nozzles in diesel engines and the reduction of the hole diameter. The combustion chambers used are of deep tray type and shallow tray type. The paper describes the result when using the deep tray chamber as follows: reduced hole diameter prolongs the injection period and reduces the average injection rate; amount of exhaust NOx depends only on injection pressures, but not on the hole diameters; this is because the combustion rate increasing effect as a result of the accelerated gas mixture forming and combustion due to the hole diameter reduction is offset by the combustion rate suppressing effect due to reduced average injection rate; the hole diameter reduction presents smoke reducing effect; with a large-diameter nozzle, the smoke increases in association with reduction in the injection pressure, but with the small-diameter nozzle, low smoke emission is maintained regardless of the injection pressures, and the NOx emission can be suppressed even with an injection pressure of 55 MPa. With the shallow tray type combustion chamber, the smoke increases as the injection pressure is decreased irrespective of the nozzle hole diameter sizes, indicating a correlation between the smoke amount and the injection period. A nozzle with small diameter hole of the deep tray type is more advantageous in reducing NOx and particulate emission. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Function development through microstructure control. Control of crystal axis orientation of zinc oxide and its optical properties; Soshiki seigyo ni yoru kino hatsugen. Sanka aen no haikosei seigyo to kogakuteki kino

    Fujitsu, S. [Shonan Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Described herein are light beam deflectors of thin piezoelectric films, and synthesis, photoconductance and nonlinear optical measurement of light-distributing, transparent zinc oxide, viewed from application of zinc oxide to optical purposes. Supersonic waves, when passing through a transparent medium, leaves compressional waves of strain, causing cyclic changes in refractive index. This phenomenon can be used for diffraction of light. A light beam deflector is one of the examples of using this phenomenon applied to a thin piezoelectric film of zinc oxide. The authors have developed a process to synthesize transparent, polycrystalline zinc oxide of high C-axis orientation. A seed of sintered zinc oxide is placed at the center of an electrical oven, and a substrate in the temperature-gradient zone. The seed evaporates, when heated to around 1200degC, to leave the zinc oxide crystal grains on the substrate, which grow preferentially in the C-axis direction at around 300{mu}m/h. Zinc oxide is known as a compound of anisotropy in properties by crystal orientation, and shows piezoelectric and photoconducting properties. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Water-repellent property of ZrO sub 2 modified with fluoro-alkyl groups on steel sheets. Zoru-geru ho ni yoru Fluoro-alkyl ki hensei ZrO sub 2 coating kouban no hassuisei

    Izumi, K.; Murakami, M.; Tanaka, H.; Uchida, Y. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    With the purpose of obtaining the coating of ZrO {sub 2} modified with fluoro-alkyl groups, steel sheets were coated with the sol-gel solution of zirconium tetra-octylate (ZTO) and fluoro-alkyl silane (FAS), and the property of the film formed was investigated. As a result, remarkable water-repellent property was obtained by coating a steel sheet with the mixed coating solution of ZTO and FAS after aging the solution for 24 hours. When the FAS of the same mole ratio as that of ZTO was added to ZTO, the FAS whose intramolecular F has larger number of functional groups indicated superior water-repellent effect. The change in the contact angle of water drop brought about by the aging time of the coating solution corresponded well with the change in the FAS of the coating solution. Moreover, when the firing temperature was less than 400 {degree} C, the contact angle of water drop indicated generally a constant value (about 105 {degree}), and when the firing temperature exceeded 400 {degree} C, the contact angle of water drop decreased sharply. 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Analog integrated circuit for micro-gyro interface realized by multi-chip service in Japan; Multi chip service ni yoru micro gyro interface shuseki kairo no sekkei to shisaku

    Maenaka, K.; Fujita, T.; Okamoto, K.; Maeda, M. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)


    This paper deals with an analog integrated circuit for micro-machined gyroscopes with capacitive output. The Integrated circuit was fabricated as a part of the first project from the `Micromachining Multi-Chip Service Cooperative Re-search Committee` organized by The Institute of Electrical Engineers Japan. This multi-chip service project offers a master slice chip with an equivalent of 9 blocks of operational amplifier circuits. Our integrated circuit includes a modulator, demodulator and synchronous rectifier for detecting small changes in the capacitance of a silicon gyroscope. In the paper, the experimental results of fabricated samples will be described. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Drag and lift induced by the flow of viscoelastic fluids past a minute cylinder near a wall; Hekimen kinbo no bisho enchu wo sugiru nendansei ryutai no nagare ni yoru koryoku to yoryoku

    Watanabe, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Narumi, T. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tamano, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In detergent engineering and polymer processing, it is important to study the force exerted on an obstacle placed near a wall. In the present study, we numerically analyze the flow of viscoelastic fluids past a minute cylinder which is set at or near an inside wall of a two-dimensional channel. The upper convected Maxwell model and the finite-element method are used as the constitutive equation and the numerical method, respectively. Drag and lift of the cylinder are calculated for low Reynolds numbers (Re) and various Weissenberg numbers (Wi) of positive and negative values. Drag coefficient (C{sub D}) slightly changes with Wi. Lift coefficient (C{sub L}) monotonously decreases with increasing Wi irrespective of the sign of Wi. C{sub L} is greatly changed with Wi and is more sensitive to the elasticity of the fluid than C{sub D}. C{sub D} and C{sub L} decrease as the cylinder is separated from the wall. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Numerical simulation of viscoelastic flow due to rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with large axial clearance; Kaiten enban ni yoru nendansei ryutai no yokinai nagare no suchi simulation (jikuhoko clearance ga hiroi baai)

    Ito, M. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Moroi, T. [Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Toda, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Numerical simulations by a finite-difference method have been made for a viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with large axial clearance. The Giesekus model with a single relaxation time was applied as a constitutive equation. We could simulate some typical secondary flow patterns for viscoelastic fluids which were different from Newtonian fluids; e.g., a secondary flow of which circulation direction at very low Reynolds number is reversed compared with that for a Newtonian fluid and a double-cell flow structure which Escudier et. all observed at relatively high Reynolds number. We show that the double-cell flow structure relates to nonlinear terms of the constitutive equation. The secondary flow patterns are characterized by the elasticity number (=Weissenberg number/Reynolds number) from low to high Reynolds numbers. 16 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing. Numerical simulation and experiment; Kaiten enban ni yoru nendansei ryutai no yokinai nagare. Suchi simulation to jikken

    Moroi, T. [Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Ito, M.; Fujita, K. [Nagoya Institue of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    Numerical simulations by a finite-difference method have been made for a viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with relatively large axial clearance. The Giesekus model, modified Giesekus modal and Phan Thien-Tanner model were applied as the constitutive equations. Using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), the effects of rheological properties on the distribution of the velocity component V{sub {theta}} and the secondary flow were clarified. By comparing the experimental results with the numerical simulations the validity of the respective viscoelastic fluid models were examined. The secondary flow patters observed by flow visualizations were characterized by the elasticity number (= Weissenberg number/Reynolds number). It was confirmed experimentally that near the rotating axis there was a place where the tangential velocity component was negative for the cases of 0.3 wt% and 1 wt% polyacrylamide aqueous solutions. (author)

  9. Degradation characteristics of toxic microcystis viridis by mastigophora, monas guttula using aquatic large scale microcosm; Ogata tansui microcosm wo mochiita benmochurui monas guttula ni yoru yudoku microcystis viridis no bunkai tokusei

    Iwami, N.; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugiura, N. [Ibaraki Prefectural Waterworks, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Mastigophora, monas guttula, is able to propagate even by using large aquatic microcosm. This mastigophora efficiently predated and degraded microcystis viridis producing toxic substance, microcystin, almost in the whole quantity in the wide water temperature range from 20{degree}C to 30{degree}C at which microcystis propagates and disappears in natural lakes. As a result of evaluating perdition and degradation effects of momas guttula by chlorophyll-a and COD, any of chlorophyll-a indicated a removal rate of more than 90% almost in a week, and microcystis-origin particle COD more than 80%. It was also found that three kinds of microcystin YR, LR, and RR which microcystis viridis produces are almost completely degraded. From these results, it was thought that perdation and degradation of microfauna like m. guttula can greatly contribute to degrading and disappearing toxic microcystis even in natural lakes. 21 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development of stratified-charge engine by impingement of fuel jet. ; Test results with gasoline fuel. Chokufunshiki shototsu kakusan sojo kyuki kikan no kaihatsu. ; Gasoline nenryo ni yoru jikken kekka

    Kato, S.; Onishi, S. (Japan Clean Engine Lab. Co. Ltd., Ishikawa (Japan))


    Development was made of direct fuel injection stratified-charge method (OSKA nethod), to make the mixture formation in the direct fuel injection engine by having fuel jet positively impinge on the impingement part, installed in the combustion chamber. In the present report, the following conclusion was obtained through experiment on gasoline fuel by a single cylinder engine with a spark ignition method, combined with the OSKA method: High compressive ratio was made adoptable by applying an OSKA method, using a single hole nozzle with low opening pressure. Due to feed air swirl, made unnecessary for the mixture formation, adoption of early injection under the high load, etc., the highest brake mean effective pressure attained to 1.04MPa, which is almost equivalent to that of carburetor type automobile gasoline engine, while the highest brake thermal efficiency did to 37.7%, which is so to that of direct fuel injection diesel engine, equal in volume. Also under the low load, obtained was a high thermal efficiency, nearing that of diesel engine. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Mixture formation of direct gasoline injection engine. In cylinder gas sampling using fast response ionization detector; Tonai funsha gasoline engine no kongoki keisei. Kosoku FID ni yoru tonai gas sampling

    Yamashita, H.; Marubara, M.; Ota, N.; Kudo, H.; Yamamoto, H. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    Local mixture concentration near the spark plug of a direct gasoline injection engine was observed by a fast flame ionization detector. To ensure combustion stability and good fuel economy in DISC operation, the swirl ratio and the piston configuration were optimized. Swirl is needed to retain well-vaporized and stable mixture near the spark plug especially in light load. And adequate volume in piston cavity is required for trapping curved fuel spray in it. With these specifications, the fuel economy improvement of 13 to 30 % was realized. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of internal flow characteristics in the injection nozzle tip of direct-injection diesel engines; Sanjigen suchi kaiseki ni yoru DI diesel kikan no nenryo funsha nozzle nai ryudo tokusei no kaimei

    Ogawa, H.; Matsui, Y.; Kimura, S. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan)


    To reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of direct-injection diesel engines, it is essential to optimize the fuel injection equipment closely related to combustion and emission characteristics. In this study, three-dimensional computation has been applied to investigate the effects of the injection nozzle specifications (e.g., sac volume, round shape at the inlet of the nozzle hole) and needle tip deviation on internal flow characteristics. The computational results revealed that the effects of the nozzle specifications and needle tip deviation with a smaller needle lift on internal flow characteristics and a general approach to optimize the injection nozzle specifications were obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Earth retaining system by means of cylindrical slurry wall of high strength and high flowability concrete; Kokyodo / koryudo concrete wo mochiita enkei haku gata renzoku chichu heki ni yoru yamadome

    Nakano, M.; Tsutsumi, Y. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Moriya, M. [Taisei Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A LPG underground tank (60,000 cu.m, 48m in dia.) was constructed at Tsurumi ward of Yokohama city by Tokyo Gas Ltd. In advance of evacuation work, RC elements which have the highest strength in Japan were applied as connected wall for earth self-retaining. One stage of the wall (1.0m in thickness) was composed of 28 elements. In order to prevent the lifting force by the underground water against the tank bottom (design level (DL) is -32.8m), amount of permeable water from outside must be as small as possible. Owing to driving the wall into the soft bedrock by 10m, the lower end of the wall came to be DL-66m. For the purpose of estimation of permeabilities of the clay layer and the soft bedrock, simulation applying the non-stationary effective stress analysis was carried out at the time of inside draining and of excavation at intervals of 8m. Results of simulation showed that the permeabilities of the connected wall and the soft bedrock belonged to the smallest class. It is considered that the satisfactory achievement has been obtained because actual amount of gushing water has been almost constant at 6 cu.m/day. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Concrete dam construction using computerized aggregate plant (CAP). ; Automatic production control using image processing. Jidoka kotsuzai plant (CAP) ni yoru concrete dam seko. ; Gazo shori wo chushinnishita seisanryo no jido seigyo

    Aso, K.; Wakiyama, I.; Kita, Y. (Hazama Gumi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    For an aggregate plant that crushes and sorts out rocks using crushers and screens, a computerized aggregate plant (CAP) was structured utilizing the latest micro computers and communications technology. While local automations have been carried out in other plants using relays and sequencers, this CAP development has been targeted at further economic optimization and manpower saving with the main aims placed on machine control using operation control and feedback control based on the quantity control method. The system consists of the crushing control system to adjust automatically the vibration feeders by detecting empty-full levels in the hoppers and load current in the crushers; the image processing system to analyze still images photographed by a CCD camera and measure amount of aggregates transported and grain shapes the automatic damper system to adjust amounts of materials unloaded from and charged into the crushers using a computer; and the system to link batcher plants with the aggregate plant. The system was given verification tests at several dam sites. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Characterization of kerogens from Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Ishikari sogun kyutanso kerojien no netsubunkai GC/MS ni yoru kyarakutarizeshon

    Tsuzuki, N.; Takano, O. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to construct a model on expulsion of hydrocarbons from kerogen, it is necessary to have knowledge on composition of generated hydrocarbons. Characterization of the hydrocarbons from kerogens of Eocene Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations was carried out by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS). Kerogen type classification by microscopic method was also carried out. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contents by Py-GCMS correlates to herbaceous kerogen contents by the microscopic method. Both of phenols content and aromatics content correlate to woody kerogen content. Therefore, coals and coaly shales deposited in transgression periods, which were recognized by depositional phase analysis, are richer in aliphatic-hydrocarbons content than those in regression period. This may be a reflection of environmental changes in paleoclimate and paleobotany. (author)

  16. Imaging of active faults with the step continuous wave radar system. In case of Senzan faults in Awaji-island; Step shiki renzokuha chichu radar tansaho ni yoru katsudanso no imaging.

    Koga, K.; Hara, H.; Kasai, H.; Ito, M. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Validity of continuous wave radar exploration was verified when the said technique and some other probing methods were investigated at the Senzan Faults in Awaji Island. The signal transmitted by a continuous wave exploration system is a collection of sinusoidal waves different in frequency, and the frequencies are so controlled that they form steps relative to the sweep time. Exploration into great depths is carried out by prolonging the transmission signal sweep time, where high resolution is maintained by use of widened transmission frequency bandwidths. On-site measurements were made using a triplicated multichannel method, and electromagnetic wave propagation velocities required for depth conversion of the reflected cross section were determined in compliance with the wide angle method. On the basis of the analytical cross section using the profiles obtained by continuous radar reflection exploration conducted from the ground surface, interpretation was made of the geological structure. The presence and position and the geological development of the Senzan Faults were identified by the study of discontinuities in reflective structures such as the strata. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Measurements of ultrasonic waves by means of laser Doppler velocimeter and an experimental study of elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous media; Laser doppler sokudokei ni yoru choonpa keisoku to ganseki wo mochiita fukinshitsu baishitsu no hado denpa model jikken

    Nishizawa, O.; Sato, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Lei, X. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)


    In the study of seismic wave propagation, a model experimenting technique has been developed using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) as the sensor. This technique, not dependent on conventional piezoelectric devices, only irradiates the specimen with laser to measure the velocity amplitude on the target surface, eliminating the need for close contact between the specimen and sensor. In the experiment, elastic penetration waves with their noise levels approximately 0.05mm/s were observed upon application of vibration of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 5}Hz. The specimen was stainless steel or rock, and waveforms caught by the LDV and piezoelectric device were compared. As the result, it was found that the LDV is a powerful tool for effectively explaining elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. The piezoelectric device fails to reproduce accurately the waves to follow the initial one while the LDV detect the velocity amplitude on the specimen surface in a wide frequency range encouraging the discussion over the quantification of observed waveforms. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Study on EHD blower for solar distillation system. Experimental results by use of air at room temperature and humidity; Taiyonetsu joryu system yo EHD soki sochi no kenkyu. Joon joshitsu kuki ni yoru jikken kekka

    Tochitani, Y.; Matsuoka, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)


    Study was made on wet air circulating equipment between evaporating and condensing sections for a solar distillation system. Experiment was made on a blower directly converting electric energy to air energy using 1-12 needles as discharge electrode, and a metal pipe edge as collecting electrode. This blowing method is probably available enough for a solar distillation system. As fixed voltage is applied by several needles, a mean air velocity and flow rate in a pipe increase with the number of needles in a small gap length range between electrodes, and a flow rate reaches a peak regardless of further number of needles. As the same flow rate is obtained at the same gap length, applied voltage for 4 needles is lower (nearly 2/3 under a certain condition) than that for one needle. Under a condition of fixed power consumption, the flow rate reaches a peak at a specific gap length. A total pressure efficiency also reaches a peak (nearly 0.2%) at the same gap length between electrodes as the above gap length. 11 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Measurement of temperature and thermal properties of fluid by detecting 1{omega} and 3{omega} components. 1st Report. Experimental study; 1{omega} 3{omega} keisoku ni yoru ryutai no ondo netsu busseichi keisoku. 1. Jikkenteki kenkyu

    Nakabeppu, O.; Yamamoto, N.; Kinoshita, A.; Hijikata, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    A method of measuring temperature and thermal properties of nonconductive fluids was experimentally studied, where 1{omega} and 3{omega} components of the voltage drop across a thin metal wire probe heated with an AC current of frequency {omega} were measured. The temperature distribution of a weak natural convection plume from a horizontal wire in water was visualized by this method and it was shown that background noise and self-heating of the probe limit the measurement resolution. Thermal conductivity measurements were performed for air, water, ethanol, etc. using a 10 {mu}m-diameter platinum wire, with applied AC frequency ranging from 0.1Hz-10kHz. Since mermaid conductivity is derived from the measured 3{omega} component by comparing with a thermal conduction model, the effect of natural convection from the probe itself was important and a restriction on applicability of the method was obtained in terms of the Rayleigh and Courier numbers. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of super-functional environment-resistant materials by controlling trace metal ion implantation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Gokubiryo kinzoku ion chunyu seigyo ni yoru chokino taikankyo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu



    The aim was to develop reliable materials high in resistance to hostile environments, greatly improved in their resistance to oxidation, abrasion, and corrosion at high temperatures. To achieve the goal, trace quantities of high melting point metals were implanted into the compound formed on the substrate surface or deep into the substrate material. This year's research and development is outlined below. Important technologies in the ion process involved materials which at high temperatures were very resistant to oxidation, abrasion, and corrosion. The high-temperature oxidation resistant material was studied for use with the automobile supercharger rotor. The study on the high-temperature abrasion resistant material involved Ti-N thin coatings: the optimization of coating conditions, slidability at room temperature, and slidability in a high-temperature atmosphere. As for the high-temperature corrosion resistant material, studies were made to use it for refuse-fueled power generation. The TiAl material was also studied: the effect of ion implantation on the improvement of its high-temperature oxidation resisting capability, analysis into oxidized alloy surface properties, ion implantation into complicatedly shaped items and the optimum material for them, and the surface treatment by ion beams for improving resistance to high-temperature corrosion. (NEDO)

  1. Development of new technologies for high quality thin film and its application to energy engineering; Hikari seigyo to sokudo senbetsu ni yoru chokinshitsu usumaku no seisaku to energy bun`ya eno tekiyo

    Hijikata, K.; Inoue, T.; Nagasaki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sato, I. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakabeppu, O. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes laser irradiation and velocity selective deposition experiments for fabricating high quality thin films. For the formation of Ag thin film by vacuum deposition method, YAG laser was irradiated to atoms or clusters parallel or perpendicular to the NaCl single crystal substrate, to deposit them on the substrate. For another experiment, Ag atoms selected in the given velocity were deposited on the (001) NaCl substrate by passing the molecular beam through the velocity selector. When laser was not irradiated, the thin film showed a random structure. Epitaxial growth was accelerated by the laser irradiation. When the selective velocity was set in 353 m/s at the constant intensity of molecular beam, the diffraction pattern of the thin film showed net pattern. When the selective velocity was set in 529 m/s, a structure in which ring pattern was overlapped on the net pattern was obtained. 2 figs.

  2. Simulation of PV/FC power hybrid system. Change of system capacity with load form factor; Taiyoko hatsuden nenryo denchi hybrid system no simulation. Fuka keijoritsu ni yoru system yoryo no henka

    Sekiguchi, N.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Study is conducted of a photovoltaic/fuel-cell hybrid system whose power storage is a hydrogen storage that uses a hydrogen absorbing alloy. In a simulation in this research, the solar cell conversion efficiency is changed from 15.0% to 21.0% and the fuel cell power conversion efficiency from 40.0% to 50.0%, and the resultant changes in the capacity and operation rate are investigated for each of the devices in the system. The findings follow. A 1.0% change in the solar cell conversion efficiency results in a 4.8kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 1.6-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. With a 1.0% change in the fuel cell power conversion efficiency, there is a 14.7kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 5.3-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. The fuel cell capacity is not dependent on the solar cell conversion efficiency or fuel cell power conversion efficiency but on the maximum load in each of the load form factors. The rate of occurrence of an operation rate of less than 30% is 54.7% both in DC/DC converter and hydrogen generator, 24.6% in fuel cells, and 16.7% in the DC/DC inverter. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Dynamic programming for reduction of fuel consumption in a photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system; Doteki keikakuho ni yoru taiyoko/furyoku/diesel hatsuden system no nenryo shohiryo no sakugen

    Ishikawa, K.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Dynamic programming is employed in the study of the operation of the diesel engine in a photovoltaic/wind-force/diesel-engine power generating system, which aims at reduction in the system fuel consumption and at determining an optimum system constitution. The parameters set in this system are the photovoltaic/wind-force supply rate, photovoltaic/wind-force power generation ratio, and battery capacity. An island in Ise Bay, with an annual load power of approximately 1.59-million kWh and mean daily load power of approximately 4336kWh is assumed as the location for the system. Observation data of Ommaezaki Weather Station are utilized for the calculation of the amount of photovoltaic/wind-force power generation. It is found as the result that the fuel consumption of the diesel engine in this system decreases to 82-84% when the natural energy supply rate is 20%. It is also found that the fuel consumption of the system records the minimum at a photovoltaic/wind-force ratio of 60/40, irrespective of the battery capacity or natural energy supply rate, and this ratio is the optimum ratio. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Preparation of conducting polymer/insulating polymer composite films using molecular self-assembly process and its function; Bunshi self assembly ho ni yoru dodensei kobunshi/zetsuensei kobunshi fukugomaku no sakusei to sono kino

    Onoda, M.; Fujita, D.; Isaki, K.; Nakayama, H. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)


    By exposing low-density polyethylene to an atmosphere of fuming sulfuric acid, sulfonated low-density polyethylenes (SPE) were prepared and the degree of surface sulfonation for treated film was determined as the weight-increase per unit area. Polypyrrole (PPy) films on the surface of SPE were grew using molecular self-assembly process and the properties of PPy/SPE composite films have been investigated. Then, the functional applications of PPy/SPE composite films have also been proposed and especially the movement properties of actuators using PPy/SPE composite film were mentioned. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  5. With the aim of the construction of the cycloid type society by the resource recovery of a waste; Haikibutsu no shigenka ni yoru junkangata shakai no kochiku wo mezashite

    Kamoshida, Junji [Shibaura Institute of Techonology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The global environmental problem becomes serious. It is an important key point to construct cycloid type society, which utilizes welcome and waste to the utmost as resources in respect of the use of fossil fuel. The problem in which we should wrestle is abounding in order to realize the cycloid type society. The establishment of the concrete technique of material recycling and thermal recycling of a waste. Necessity of the environmental loading evaluation and importance of the environmental education such as the life cycle assessment, etc. (NEDO)

  6. Improvement of a manageability of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal plant using a wastewater treatment process simulator; Gesui shori purosesu shimyureta no riyo ni yoru seibutsuteki chisso/rin jokyo puranto no kanrisei no kojo

    Kurata, G. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tsumura, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Graduate School; Yamamoto, Y. [Osaka Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Osaka (Japan)


    In this paper, a method for executing a stable management of wastewater treatment process is examined by using a wastewater treatment process simulator with the facilities adopting intermittently aerated 2-tank activated sludge process as the object. The following results are obtained from said examination. Based on a fact that the treatment efficiency is influenced greatly by the comparatively miner parts of the process in biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, a wastewater treatment process simulator, by which the intrinsic process flow, restricting conditions and behaviors of controlling system of each facility can be dealt with, is developed by using object-directional model. As the results of this development, not only the effects approximate to those of actual process can be obtained, but also the trial error and alternation of process flow can be realized in a short time. The serious influence of disappearance of dissolvable organic substance in flow-adjusting tank upon the deterioration of biological phosphorus removal is clarified by the results of the simulation based on the investigation of flowing-in water quality. 12 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Asymmetric carbon-carbon bond forming reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes. Efficient synthesis of optically active secondary alcohols; Kiraru na chitan shokubai ni yoru fuseitanso-tanso ketsugo keisei. Kogaku kassei dainikyu arukoru no gosei

    Hayashi, M. [Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Science


    For asymmetric metal complex catalysts with high catalytic activity and ability for recognizing asymmetry, it is most important to choose center metals and design asymmetric organic ligands. When the authors began to study on the title reactions, combination of titanium alkoxides as center metals and chiral Schiff bases as organic ligands was unknown, although two moieties had been used independently for asymmetric reactions with excellent results. Asymmetric silylcyanation of aldehydes and enantio-selective addition of diketone to aldehydes are introduced, that have been achieved by authors using titanium complexes of the above combination. In the silylcyanation, reactivity is remarkably improved, compared with a single catalyst of titanium isopropoxide. Cyanohydrin of R from was obtained preferentially with salicyladehyde, particularly having 3-tert butyl group, in an asymmetric yield of 85 % ee. In the latter addition reaction, 5-hydroxy-3-ketoesters were obtained from benzaldehyde in an asymmetric yield as high as 91 % ee. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report. Development of metal forming technology by new energy-saving process (2nd fiscal year); 1998 nendo sho energy gata shin process ni yoru kinzoku seikei gijutsu no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo)



    Based on computer-aided science possible to estimate phase transformation temperatures affecting fine crystal grain control strongly, this research develops the energy- saving production technology for near-net-shape manufacturing of heat-resistant hard materials such as HSS, TiAl and W, by using the new sintering and bonding technology by texture control, complex carbide dispersion technology and pulse discharge sintering based on phase diagram calculation. In fiscal 1998, study was made on optimum alloy composition and heat treatment condition to obtain high-hardness steel with the performance over that of existing HSS by carbide dispersion carburizing process using conventional gas-carburizing facility, based on the data of phase diagram calculation. As a result, the composition and heat treatment condition necessary to obtain a target hardness of Hv1000 were determined. As the research result in both fiscal 1997 and 1998, 10Mo-5V alloy for HSS including a large amount of Mo and V, and 3.5Mo- 1.5V-3Cr alloy for HSS including less than 6% Mo and V are promising as basic composition for the future R and D. (NEDO)

  9. Preparation of activate carbon with high specific surface area from beer lees by chemical activation with KOH; Suisankakariumu wo mochiita yakuhin fukatsuho ni yoru birukasu karano kohihyoumenseki kasseitan no seizo

    Hayashi, J.; Kubo, A.; Furukawa, A.; Muroyama, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Activated carbons with high specific surface area were prepared from beer lees by chemical activation with KOH. We examined the influence of the preparation conditions, such as temperature and impregnation ratio, on the pore structure of the prepared activated carbon. The specific surface area increased with an increase in carbonization temperature up to 800 degree C and decreased at 900 degree C because of excess activation. It reached a maximum value at the impregnation ratio of 2.0. The activated carbon, which was prepared at the carbonization temperature of 800 degree C and at the impregnation ratio of 2.0, had very high specific surface area of 2,440 m{sup 2}/g. It was found that KOH worked effectively as the activating reagent in two temperature ranges, below 500 degree C and above 600 degree C. The amount of benzene and acetone adsorbed on the prepared activated carbon were much larger than that on the commercial activated carbons. (author)

  10. Groundwater pollution by arsenic and its effect on health. Present state of groundwater pollution by arsenic and its environmental quality standard; Hiso ni yoru chikasui osen to kenko eikyo

    Nakajima, N.


    Resorted the official data of groundwater inspections in Japan for fiscal 1995 in accordance with the new environmental quality standard (revised in 1997), the largest number of samples that exceeded the standard values among 23 inspection items of substances was of arsenic (As: standard 0.01mg/l). In this case, 49 samples out of total 2720 samples exceeded the standard values due to As (excess ratio 1.8%). The next substances having high excess ratio were four organic chlorine compounds which are widely used as detergent (excess ratio 0.6-0.1%), and next to these was lead (0.1%). About the other substances, excess was not found. The birthplaces of the above 48 samples were as follows: Fukuoka prefecture (12 samples), Chiba (19), Saitama (7), Gunma (4), Miyagi (4), Niigata (3), Hokkaido (2), Yamagata (1, the followings were also the same), Tokyo, Aichi, Osaka, Hyogo, Tottori. Recently, arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh has been reported, and the cause of it is estimated as excessive pumping up of irrigation water. In Japan, future strengthening of surveillance is expected. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Advanced industrial technologies by the Tohoku National Industrial Research Institute. ADI function grading by the temperature gradient type austenpering treatment; Tohoku kogyo gijutsu kenkyusho sentan kogyo gijutsu. Ondo kobaigata austenper shori ni yoru ADI keisha kinoka



    The advanced industrial technologies were introduced which are under research in the Tohoku National Industrial Research Institute. As for the research to grade the ADI function by the temperature gradient type austempering treatment, an ADI was produced which was graded in both hardness and toughness by austenpering-treating a graphite cast iron sphere. As for the research on the lamination by plating, a composite which was high in lamination strength and low in residual stress was produced by plating the base sheet with a thin film, giving a compressive force and heating it in vacuum in order to produce the composite with ceramics-metal or interceramics lamination. As for the research on the removing method of iron ions from the plating solution, a chelate resin was produced which contained multidentate ligands similar to the nitrirotriacetic acid selectively adsorbing the iron ions. As for the research to evaluate the corrosion of steel in the geothermal water, geothermal hot water in Miyagi Prefecture was experimentally evaluated in damaged quantity of carbon steel and stainless steel. Then, the damaged quantity even of carbon steel was shown to be within the usable limits as a construction structural material. 5 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Synthesis of New Branched Polysaccharide by Ring-Opening Polymerization of Anhydro-deoxyglucose Derivative and the Subsequent Glycosylation of the Polysaccharide Derivative; Musui deokishigukoru yudotai no kaikan jugo oyobi porima eno tofuka ni yoru shinki bunshi taso no gosei

    Hatanaka, Ken`ichi.; Ota, Sanae.; Kasuya, M.C.Z.; Kanno, Ken`ichi. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Biomolecular Engineering


    1,6-Anhydro-2-deoxy-glucose derivatives having two kinds of protective groups were polymerized and copolymerized in order to synthesize branched polysaccharides. Deoxy-glucose monomers showed high polymerizability. The obtained polymer was selectively deprotected and then glucosylated to give 2-deoxy-(1{yields}6)-{alpha}-D-glucopyranan with glucose branch at C-3. In the present report, it is firstly described that the comb-shaped branched polysaccharide (100% branching) was synthesized by the glycosylation of the polysaccharide derivative. (author)

  13. Estimation of network structure for signal propagations by the analysis of multichannel action potentials in cultured neural networks; Ta channel katsudo den`i kaiseki ni yoru baiyo shinkei kairomonai kofun denpa keiro no suitei

    Konno, N.; Fukami, T.; Shiina, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Jinbo, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have fabricated a 64 embedded microelectrode-array substrate using semiconductor technology to investigate the biological signal processing in brain by using cultured neural networks of fetal rat neocortex in vitro. We analyzed temporal and spatial neural networks patterns cultured on electrode-array substrate and attempted to examine the network structure constituted by neurons and the propagating patterns of electrical activity induced by the electric stimulus. In the experiments, each microelectrode size was 30 {mu}m squared and 150{mu} m spaced. For stimulation, one of the electrodes was selected and current pulses were applied through an isolated circuit. After the network was cultured in about 50 days, responses of neurons to electric stimulus were monitored extracellularly through 64-channel electrode array. Data recorded at each electrode consist of several spike trains generated by different cells. Therefore, these trains were separated by using wavelet transform and template matching for each electrode. We referred the temporal patterns of generated spikes for each electrode to as `spike sequences`. Next, we compared With the spike sequences among multichannel data and visualized the Cultured neural networks structure by identifying the directions of propagations and cell connections. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Residual stress evaluation of coating films using welding residual stress and deformation analysis system. Yosetsu zanryu oryoku/henkei kaiseki system ni yoru coating himaku no zanryu oryoku hyoka

    Ito, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Takahashi, M.; Okada, T.; Saito, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Toyoda, M. (Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    With the objective that anybody having the basic knowledge on a simple welding technique can do easily welding residual stress and deformation analysis in an interactive mode, the welding residual stress and deformation analysis system (WRED) using a lap-top personal computer is being developed. In this report, an analytical study as well as an experimental study have been made on applicability of this system from the viewpoint of evaluating the residual stress chararcteristics of coating members in the WRED. In particular, the residual stress characteristics of ceramic coating films and those of graded coating members are described in detail. Part of the obtained results is as follows; as a result of the analysis by the WRED system of ceramic coating members processed each by the CVD method, the PVD method and the plasma flame coating method, only the CVD method and the plasma flame coating method have agreed well with the result of the residual stress measurement by the X-ray method. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Structural response analysis of very large floating structures in waves using one-dimensional finite element model; Ichijigen yugen yoso model ni yoru choogata futai no harochu kozo oto kaiseki

    Fujikubo, M.; Yao, T.; Oida, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Formulation was made on a one-dimensional beam finite element which is effective in analyzing structural response of very large floating structures by modeling them on beams on an elastic foundation. This element allows strict solution of vibration response in the beams on the elastic foundation to be calculated efficiently for a case where mass and rigidity change in the longitudinal direction. This analysis method was used to analyze structural response of a large pontoon-type floating structure to investigate mass in the end part for the structural response and the effect of decay while passing the structure. With a pontoon-type floating structure, reduction in bends and bending stress in the end part of the floating structure is important in designing the structure. Reducing the mass in the end part is effective as a means to avoid resonance in these responses and reduce the responses. Increase in rigidity of a floating structure shifts the peak in quasi-static response to lower frequency side, and reduces response in resonance, hence it is advantageous for improving the response. Since incident waves decay while passing through the floating structure, response in the lower wave side decreases. The peak frequency in the quasi-static response also decreases at the end part of the structure in the upper wave side due to decay in wave force. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Selective production of ricinoleic acid by hydrolysis of castor oil using lipase immobilized in N-polyisopropylacrylamide gel; Ripaze koteika N-poriisopuropiruakuriruamidogeru wo mochiita himashiyu no kasuibunaki ni yoru rishinorusan no sentakuteki seisei

    Goto, M.; Hatanaka, C.; Haraguchi, T. [Kitakyushu National College of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Lipase from Candida cylindracea or Rhizopus was immobilized in gel beads prepared by copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide, N-N'-methylenebisacrylamide, and acrylamide. The hydrolysis reaction of castor oil was carried out at 37 degree C by using immobilized lipase or free lipase. The optimal condition of immobilization of lipase and the productivity of ricinoleic acid is investigated. It is found that thermal inactivation of enzyme was suppressed and the formation of by-products such as estolide decreases by immobilization into the gel compared with free lipase. (author)

  17. Design optimization of ideal non-imaging concentrators for solar collectors by use of yearly insolation model with frequency distribution; Dosu bunpu wo koryoshita nenkan nissha model ni yoru shunetsuyo riso hikessho shukoki no saitekika

    Suzuki, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Optimization was carried out for the 2D-CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) known as an ideal 2-dimensional non-imaging concentrator for its application to stationary solar heat concentrators. A non-imaging optical system is a system that has an angle for incident light called an acceptance angle, and is treated as an effective tool in the field of solar energy application. Analysis was conducted from the viewpoint of energy and exergy on the presumption of constant temperature operation. For the analysis of constant temperature heat concentration, it needs to be presumed that heat concentrators are in operation only in the presence of insolation that is more than a specified level (critical insolation). When the acceptance angle is fixed for optimization, energy efficiency does not have a peak with respect to the critical probability insolation intensity (in a probability model considering frequency distribution). On the other hand, for the optimization of exergy efficiency, the half-acceptance angle should be within a 35-40{degree} range (agreeing with the optimum angle cost-wise), and the critical probability insolation should be set at 250-300W/m{sup 2} (1/4 of the maximum insolation intensity). The obtained results are low in model dependency and are sufficiently reliable. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Line focus by the ellipsoidal and hyperbolic mirrors, and the fabrication of the new type`s heated air engine. 1; Daenmenkyo to sokyokumenkyo ni yoru line focus to shingata netsu kuki engine no shisaku. 1

    Shishido, K.; Kazimierski, Z.; Shoji, T. [Tohoku Gakuin University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sugiura, M. [Tohoku Gakuin Tsutsujigaoka High School, Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Tokyo Special Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Line focusing by ellipsoidal and hyperbolic mirrors was devised for solar heat collection, and the new prototype heated air engine is under fabrication based on such focusing. Ellipse is a locus of the point at which the distance from the 2nd focus is equal to that from the circle with the 1st focus as a center and the major axis as a radius. Hyperbola can be also figured under similar geometric conditions. The link mechanism possible to machine quadratic surfaces based on the above principle has been developed. High-precision quadratic surface mirrors can be fabricated by the link mechanism for convergent solar heat power generation, achieving line focusing of light. The new prototype heated air engine is also proposed which is composed of the heating part by line focusing, cylinder, piston and cooling column. This engine is featured by simple function, light weight, compact body, high efficiency and safety, and is under fabrication. Although conventional converging mirrors use all the mirror surface, the new line focusing uses only the upper part of the mirror, and the lower part is turned over for protection of the mirror from strong wind. 9 figs.

  19. Effect of heat-insulating wall on input energy of a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system for a residence; Jutaku no kodannetsuka ni yoru taiyoko netsu/taiki netsu system no donyu energy sakugen koka

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)


    A proposal was made to introduce a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system which positively utilizes natural energy in order to curtail consumption of fossil energy, corroborating that the system has greatly reduced energy input in the primary energy level in a house. This paper examines the effect of curtailment of energy input in the case of reducing the load of air conditioning through the high heat insulation of a house. The energy input was evaluated by calculating additional equipment energy needed newly for the high heat insulation. The system performance and the energy load varied greatly depending on weather conditions. The subject system consisted of solar cells, inverter, heat concentrator, heat storage tank, heat pump and gas hot-water supply device. The thickening of the insulation sharply reduced heating load in the house, thereby decreasing fuel energy substantially. An insulation material of 100mm thick was capable of reducing energy input by 16-23% compared with that of 50mm thick. 5 refs., 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  20. Solid electrolyte membranes and the system to produce hydrogen from thermally decomposed water by solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru mizu no chokusetsu netsubunkai kara no suiso seizoyo

    Nigara, K.; Watanabe, K.; Kawamura, K.; Kawada, T.; Mizusaki, J.; Ishigame, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Scientific Measurements


    For conversion of solar heat to transportable energy, hydrogen production by direct thermal decomposition of water using concentrated high-temperature solar heat was studied. Water vapor is injected into the tubular target with high melting point and high oxygen permeability at high temperature while heating the target by concentrated solar heat over 2000K. Oxygen in decomposed gas is discharged through an oxygen permeable membrane to extract hydrogen. Solid electrolyte is used as one of the target materials. Oxygen gas in the high-oxygen partial pressure site changes into oxygen ion by accepting two electrons at the target surface, and returns to neutral oxygen gas in the low-oxygen partial pressure site by discharging two electrons at the surface after permeation through oxygen vacancy. In the case of n-type solid electrolyte, to obtain constant permeation of a large amount of oxygen, flow of a large amount of electrons is indispensable in the opposite direction to oxygen ion. Among [(ZrO2)(1-x)(CeO2)x](0.9)(CaO)(0.1), materials of 0.4-0.5 in x seems to be useful as the target material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Application of a temperature selective storage tank solar system. Part 4. Fundamental experiment under a solar simulator; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 4. Solar simulator ni yoru kiso jikken

    Kanayama, K.; Endo, N.; Baba, H.; Okamoto, A. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)


    The storage tank is classified into a mixed type and stratified type. The stratified type is judged to be more advantageous from a viewpoint of the effective energy utilization. An experiment was made using a solar simulator to put the system, consisting of a vacuum double-glass tube collector and temperature selective storage tank, to practical use. The ejection position of the storage tank at the top is superior to that at the bottom, in the 60{degree}C layer of three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C). The ejection position hardly varies with the shape (straight or elbow) of an ejection port. When the temperature stratified layer is formed in two layers (40 {times} 2, 20{degree}C) to three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C), heat can be stably stored as the flow rate is higher. The stratified storage tank is inferior to the mixed storage tank in heat collection efficiency, but the specific exergy increases. By increasing the number of heat storage layers, the result of this experiment can also be applied to the linear temperature gradient layer obtained in the practical use. As a result of the above experiment, the basic data for an automated system design during practical application was obtained. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Entrapment of water soluble material into biodegradable microcapsule prepared by solvent evaporation; (W/O/W) fukugo emulsion no ekichu kansoho ni yoru seibunkaisei microcapsule eno suiyosei shin busshitsu no naiho tokusei

    Kiyoyama, S. [Miyakonojo National University, Miyazaki (Japan); Shiomori, K.; Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan); Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan)


    Preparation of biodegradable microcapsule using a poly lactic acid as wall material was performed by (W/O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation method. Fractional entrapment of the core material and the average diameter of the microcapsule are independent of the composition of the inner aqueous phase, such as salt concentration, pH and viscosity. On the other hand, by changing the salt concentration of the outer aqueous phase and the hold up of dispersion phase in the (W/O) emulsion, it is possible to increase the fractional entrapment of the core material with the increase in (W/O/W) emulsion stability and amount of wall material. The entmpment effect is controlled by preparation conditions. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Studies on biodegradation and rotational use of pesticides. 2. Preparation of control release microcapsules using a mechanochemical procedure; Noyaku no biseibutsu bunkai to shiyo rotation no kenkyu. 2. Mechanochemical ho ni yoru johosei microcapsule no sakusei

    Matsumoto, Y.; Totsuka, Y. [Shizuoka Industrial Research Institute of Shizuoka prefecture, Shizuoka (Japan)


    For the purpose of giving a release control of effective constituents, microcapsulations of pesticide and fish culture feed were respectively prepared by mechanochemical procedure. This technique is one of the surface modification of powder using a high speed impact method, large particles are coated by small ones of PMMA, Wax and so on. The results were as follows; (1) The characteristics of microcapsules were influenced by operate conditions such as size of particles, their blend rates, rotation rates of rotor and reaction time in the apparatus. (2) Capsulations of Simazine powder were prepared by coating 00 PMMA and Wax. The obtained capsules showed a effective release of Simazine. (3) Capsulation of fish culture feed powder was good effect to prevent the equate of water-soluble Vitamin, but a little mechanical break of the powder was observed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Preparation of biodegradable microcapsules with (W/O/W) emulsion in solvent evaporation; (W/O/W) fukugo emulsion wo mochiita ekichu kansoho ni yoru seibunkaisei microcapsule no chosei

    Kiyoyama, S.; Shiomori, K.; Baba, Y.; Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshizawa, H.; Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes the preparation of biodegradable microcapsules which can control the shape and size of capsules and also can control the discharge of contents. The biodegradable polymers are frequently used as medical materials, and have attracted attention as base materials for drug prescription. At first, (W/O) emulsion was prepared by dispersing an inner aqueous ascorbic acid Mg salt solution into the organic solution consisting of biodegradable poly(3HV-co-3HB) membrane material and 1,2-dichloroethane. Then, (W/O/W) emulsion was prepared by dispersing the (W/O) emulsion into the outer aqueous phase consisting of interfacial active agent and dispersion stabilizer. The biodegradable microcapsules were prepared by the solvent evaporation process including heating, evaporation of solvent by air blasting, and vacuum drying. The stability of solvent evaporation depended on the concentration of membrane material and solvent removal rate. The surface characteristics of microcapsules were not affected by the volume fraction of the inner aqueous phase during the primary emulsion, but by the solvent removal rate and dispersion stabilizer. The surface characteristics could be controlled by the solvent evaporation with considering these factors. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effective entrapment of protein into polylactide microcapsule by solvent evaporation of W/O/W emulsion; W/O/W emarushon no ekichu kansoho ni yoru pori nyusan maikurokapuseru eno tanpakushitsu no naiho seigyo

    Shiomori, K.; Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Kiyoyama, S. [Miyakonojo National College of Technology, Miyazaki (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Yoshizawa, H. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Materials; Uemura, Y.; Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    Entrapment of bovine serum albumin into microcapsule using polylactic acid as a wall material was carried out by solvent evaporation of a W/O/W emulsion prepared by a two-step emulsification method. Effects of the conditions in the first step emulsification, which gave a W/O emulsion, and the concentrations of additives in the inner and outer aqueous phases on the entrapment efficiency and the morphology of the microcapsule are discussed. The entrapment efficiency of albumin decreases with increasing in the hold up of dispersion phase in the first step W/O emulsion preparation, and the concentration of additives in the inner aqueous phase. On the other hand, by ultrasonic treatment for W/O emulsion and an increase in the concentration of additives in the outer aqueous phase, entrapment efficiency of the protein increases. Permeation of water from the outer in to the inner aqueous phase by osmotic pressure difference, which causes the coalescence of the inner aqueous phase droplets and a decrease in the capsule wall thickness, decreases the entrapment efficiency. By considering these factors, almost all the amount of albumin dissolved in the inner aqueous phase can be entrapped in the capsule, and it is possible to control the entrapment of water soluble core materials in the preparation of microcapsules by the solvent evaporation method. (author)

  6. Flow structure in a can-type model gas turbine combustor. 1st report. ; Flow field in a primary zone. Kangata gas turbine nensho ki nai no nagare kozo. dai ippo. ; Mizu model jikken ni yoru nagare moyo

    Ikeda, Y.; Hosokawa, S. (Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan). Graduate School); Nakajima, T. (Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Recirculating vortex is composed of a strong swirl flow from the swirler and a jet flow from the liner wall, and plays the roles of fuel-air mixing, combustion, and flame stabilization. Optimum recirculating vortex for the load range is desired to be formed to decrease NO {sub x} production. The flow structure of the recirculating vortex in the primary zone and the flow near the combustor inlet measured using developed 2 types of small fiber LDV {prime} s are reported. The recirculating vortex formed in the primary zone becomes less with the increase in the momentum ratio, and moves to upstream and liner wall side. In addition, the velocity in the direction of swirl is accelerated. The liner jet is bent to the swirling direction when it comes out of the exit, and has a large velocity in the swirling direction. A toroidal vortex with a strong velocity in the swirling direction is formed near the center of the combustor. This blockades the flow from the swirler. The recirculating vortex has its effect as far as up to the upstream of the combustor inlet. 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Heat transfer behavior in non-uniform electric field. 1st Report. Observation of boiling phenomena by Schlieren method; Fukin`itsu denbanai no netsudentatsu kyodo. 1. Schlieren ho ni yoru futto gensho no kansatsu

    Nei, H.; Kagawa, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports the result of observation using the Schlieren method on how temperature boundary layer changes when an electric field is applied in boiling heat transfer. The experiment used a fine nichrome wire in water as a heat generator. The electric field was built by placing a nickel rod as an electrode placed obliquely above and parallel with the heat generator, and applying electric potential to the electrode. The temperature boundary layer produced near the heat transfer face is disturbed by the electric field. The stronger the electric field, the more vigorous the disturbance. The turbulence in this boundary layer is relatively regular, and observed as stripes of temperatures. The stronger the electric field, the more the number of the stripes in the temperature boundary layer, and the higher the stripe density in the axial direction of the heat generator where the temperature difference appears. Boiling bubbles, occurring when the electric field is applied, are kicked out of the temperature boundary layer that varies due to the electric field force, and the bubbles grow thereat. The turbulence is caused by the low-temperature high-density liquid impinging the heat transfer face perpendicularly as a result of the electric field force, and changing its place vigorously with low-density liquid in the boundary layer. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Fractionation of fulvic acid extracted from lake sediments using XAD resins and the metal complexing ability. Kosho taisekibutsuchu kara chushutsusareta furubosan no XAD jushi kyuchaku ni yoru bunkaku to sakka noryoku

    Usui, K.; Kishino, T. (Ube Colege, Yamaguchi (Japan). laboratory of Environmental Science); Higashi, T.; Shindo, H.; Marumoto, T. (Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)


    Fulvic acid was extracted from lake sediments, and given an adsorption treatment with Amberlite XAD-2 and XAD-8 resins. The copper complexing ability of the treated liquid was discussed using a two binding site model. As a result of deriving the condition stability constants of the treated liquid, it was learned that the fulvic acid can be divided largely into two kinds with different complexing ability by about 100 times, having log K1 = 6.33 to 7.12 and log K2 = 4.35 to 4.66. The majority was composed of fulvic acid having weak complexing ability. The resin treatment separated the fulvic acid nearly completely into an adsorption fraction and a non-adsorption fraction. The fulvic acid in the adsorption fraction showed very little complexing ability. On the other hand, the fulvic acid in the non-adsorption fraction, which is nearly colorless, exhibited a complexing ability of 33 to 45 [mu] mol/g as copper complexing capacity. Further, the amount of the non-adsorption fraction appeared to account for 52% to 69% of the total fulvic acid as judged from the TOC value. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Glueability and fire resistance of wood-mineral composites using the water glass-boron compound system; Mizu garasu-hoso kagobutsukei ni yoru mukishitsu fukugotai no secchakusei to nannensei

    Furuno, T.; Tadokoro, R.; Uehara, T. [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture


    Wood-mineral composites have been fabricated by impregnating a water glass (sodium silicate)- boron compound into wood and its glueability and fire resistance have been examined. In other words, using buna veneers, inorganic composite wood veneers have been prepared by a double diffusion treatment and a single treatment of boron compound only. Then using a phenol-resorcinol resin adhesive, two-ply plywoods have been prepared, its adhesion strength has been obtained by a tensile-shearing test, and a combustion test has been conducted with a microburner. As a result, the glue-joint strength of the wood-mineral composites has been reduced by either the single or double treatments above in comparison with the untreated wood, and regarding the double treated veneer, its value has been 44% to 65% of that of the untreated wood. As a result of the contact angle measurement, the wood-mineral composites have become more wettable, as cos {theta} has increased, the adhesion strength has shown a trend of declining, and the wettability has had no relationship with the improvement of the glue-joint strength. Also as a result of the combustion test, a wood-mineral composite plywood using a boron compound has shown an inhibiting effect over heat and flaming. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Metallurgy of multifilamentary superconductors. Fabrication of new materials by designing structure and controlling diffusion reaction; Kyokusai tashin chodendosen no metaraji. Kozo sekkei/kakusan hanno seigyo ni yoru shinzairyo no sosei

    Takeuchi, T. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Multifilamentary structure aimed to keep the stability of superconducting condition has made possible the control of diffusion reaction, phase stability, introduction of pinning center (heterogeneity point) and so forth because of the design possibility of metallurgical parameters like boundary arrangement/density and so forth. These controls are of course important for the other materials except superconducting materials. In this report, firstly, the originally role of the multifilamentary structure is outlined from electromagnetic point of view. Secondly, bronze method which is the production method of Nb3Sn compounds wire and is an appropriate method for the fabrication of multifilamentary structure is introduced. This method is a collection of elemental tecnologies for the metallurgy of multifilamentary materials like material design, plastic fabrication, diffusion heat treatment, composition control and so forth. New material can be fabricated by controlling diffusion reaction when this multifilamentary structure is applied positively. Further, high performance of superconductivity is possible by the optimization of the distribution of the heterogeneous point, pinning point of magnetic flux line. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Calculation of illuminance distribution and its coefficient of variation in infinitely long interior with luminous surface ceiling by Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation ni yoru tenjomen kogen wo motsu mugencho shitsunal no shodo bunpu to hendo keisu

    Nagata, M. (The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan))


    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was applied to the estimation of illuminance distribution in infinitely long interiors which had visual obstructions and luminous surface ceilings, and its coefficient of variation (percentage of standard deviation to average value) was studied. The illuminance distributions obtained by MCS were compared with those calculated by theoretical equations hased on teh contour integration method, and the conservation law of photon bundles was also investigated. As a result, it was concluded that MCS results of direct illuminance distributions agree with those obtained by contour integration method in infinitely long concave interiors which have luminous surface ceilings of various shapes and four visual obstructions. The coefficient of variation varies noteworthily when visual obstructions are located in asymmetrical positions. The uniformity in illuminance distributions is improved by transparent visual obstructions. The conservation law of photon bundles holds well in the concave interiors with transparent visual obstructions. Therefore, it seems that MCS technique for illuminance calculation is a very powerful tool in infinite long concave interior spaces. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Static voltage fluctuation compensator for electric railway using self-commutated converters; Jireishiki denryoku henkan sochi ni yoru kidensoku denryoku yuzu hoshiki koryu denki tetsudoyo den`atsu hendo hosho sochi no kaihatsu

    Uzuka, T.; Hase, S.; Mochida, Y. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, M.; Miyashita, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)


    In this paper, authors describe a basic figure of static voltage compensator for electric railway, named RPC (Railway Static Power Conditioner), its compensating philosophy and successful result of its test using a small model of RPC. An AC electric railway is placed under a load single phase, rapidly changing. To avoid voltage fluctuations under single phase loads, electric power is received from a larger source. And at a feeding subsection, 3-phase electric power is transferred to paired directional single-phase feeding electric power. Authors already proposed a static voltage compensator for AC electric railway, called `RPC`. The RPC links a pair of feeding circuits using 2 self-commutated inverters. At the substation, the RPC accommodates an active power of the directional pair of feeding circuits to balance 3-phase power and compensate a reactive power to regulate a 3-phase voltage fluctuation. At a sectioning post, it can compensate for voltage drop using a reactive power. Also it can act as an active filter to compensate higher-harmonics. Authors have made a small model (220V, 20kVA) of RPC. And we report on the results of tests using this small model under various conditions. The results indicate that RPC can accommodate single phase loads such as transformers and thyristors, can handle an exciting rush current of transformer, can compensate higher-harmonics and so on. 11 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Power control of induction generator by V/F control for wind energy conversion system; Kahensoku furyoku hatsuden system yo yudo hatsudenki no V/F seigyo ni yoru shutsuryoku seigyo

    Horiuchi, N.; Kawahito, T. [Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)


    Converter-excitation of cage induction generator has emerged as a suitable candidate for low cost variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System, because the converter can also transfer output energy from the generator to electrical load. If a suitable control method is applied to the variable voltage and variable frequency excitation of the generator, highly efficient energy conversion will be achieved. The present paper deals with static characteristics of the induction generator, where its output power is controlled using Voltage/Frequency ratio control scheme. The output power is also controlled in accordance with maximum power characteristics of fixed blade pitch wind turbines. High efficiency is achieved by the control over wide shaft speed variation. The paper also develops an analytical method to know these characteristics. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Detection of shear-wave traveltime delay by using wavelet transform and characterization of an artificial subsurface fracture; Wavelet henkan ni yoru toka S ha denpa jikan henka no koseido kenshutsu to jinko chika kiretsu no seijo hyoka

    Tanaka, K.; Moriya, H.; Asanuma, H.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    As characterization of artificial cracks formed underground by using the water pressure fracturing method, experiments have been carried out to detect relationship of pressurization and S-wave propagation time with the polarizing direction dependence. Openings are created when pressure in the vicinity of the artificial cracks increases greater than reopening pressure of micro cracks. Elastic wave velocity decreases in this region because of water in the opened micro cracks. Anisotropy is created in the S-wave propagation velocity due to influence from anisotropic reopening region when the artificial cracks are pressurized, and is separated into two components which polarize orthogonally with each other (micro splitting). Field experiments conducted at the Higashi-hachimantai field were analyzed by using wavelet transform. It was possible to detect the S-wave arrival time at high accuracy, and the arrival of an orthogonally polarized wave was observed in 0.03 to 0.11 ms after the arrival of the S-wave. Possibility was indicated on separation of the two components in the orthogonally polarized wave of the S-wave if the micro splitting is used. If this mechanism is elucidated, it may be possible to extract information on cracking systems (direction of micro crack orientation and crack density). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Fault-related-folding structures and reflection seismic sections. Study by seismic modeling and balanced cross section; Danso ga kaizaisuru shukyoku kozo no keitai to jishin tansa danmen. 2. Seismic modeling oyobi balanced cross section ni yoru study

    Tamagawa, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    It occasionally happens that there exists a part where reflection near the thrust is not clearly observed in a thrust zone seismic survey cross section. For the effective interpretation of such an occurrence, the use of geological structures as well as the reflected pattern is effective. When the velocity structures for a fold structure having a listric fault caused anticline (unidirectionally inclined with a backlimb, without a forelimb) and for a fault propagation fold are involved, a wrong interpretation may be made since they look alike in reflection wave pattern despite their difference in geological structure. In the concept of balanced cross section, a check is performed, when the stratum after deformation is recovered to the time of deposition, as to whether the geologic stratum area is conserved without excess or shortage. An excess or shortage occurs if there is an error in the model, and this shows that the fault surface or fold structure is not correctly reflected. Positive application of geological knowledge is required in the processing and interpreting of data from a seismic survey. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Physical model experiment for wave field measurements by means of laser Doppler vibrometer. Measurement of three components; Laser Doppler shindokei ni yoru butsuri model jikken. Hado sanseibun no kenshutsu

    Nishizawa, O.; Sato, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Lei, X. [DIA Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In this experiment, a beam incident from an oblique direction is reflected by a spherical lens toward the direction of incidence. When the surface of a matter is vibrated by elastic waves, the spherical lens comes into a translation motion that accompanies the vibration. It follows accordingly that the vibration on the surface of the matter may be detected by sensing the spherical lens travelling speed. Three components of the vibration may be determined if beams are focused at one spot from three directions. Detection of the S-wave component by LDV (laser Doppler vibrometer) discloses the complicated wave field in a heterogeneous material, and this physical model experiment may be utilized in various fields of study. For instance, information about problems that may surface in the field work may be collected beforehand in a physical model experiment for developing an S-wave-aided probing method. For the study of seismic wave propagation in a complicated three-dimensional ground structure, a numerical model is not enough, and a physical model experiment will be an effective method to fulfill the purpose. In the monitoring of cracks in a rock, again, not only elastic wave velocity but also waveform information collected from a physical model experiment should be fully utilized. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Studies on transmission property changes of optical fibers inside an OPGW heated by conducting or discharge currents; OPGW tsuden/hoden kanetsu ni yoru hikari denso tokusei hendo no kento (sodensen kanshi hoho no chosa kenkyu)

    Yamashita, I.; Seikai, S.; Takenaka, T. [Kansai Elecatric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    Temperature of OPGW's is known to increase due to thunderbolt. Therefore, the measurement of transmission characteristic changes of optical fibers inside the OPGW is seems to be useful method to supervise the electric power sending systems. Candidates for the detectable characteristics are optical loss, Brilloum frequency shift and Raman scattering power because distribution of these changes can be measured by OTDR techniques. In this experiments, those properties are investigated using a high voltage supply system at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. A test OPGW containing 24 fibers including 22 single-mode and 2 multi-mode fibers is installed with a span length of 20m. In the current conducting test, the OPGW is heated up to 250 degree C through three times conduction of 6kA with each duration time of 600 or 700ms. In the discharge current test, electric charge of 50C(coulomb), 100C and 200C with 20ms duration are applied. The results of the experiments are summarized as follows. The optical loss change is negligible small except for the fiber brake case and the Brilloum frequency shift is not always suitable because the sensitivity is small. The temperature measurement by the Raman scattering observation using the multi-mode fibers is found to have enough sensitivity and accuracy. However, residual problem is to increase the sensitivity of it for single mode fibers. (author)

  18. Study of coherent optical fiber communication in electromagnetic field. 2. Optical polarization transient by impulse current in OPGW; Coherent hikaritsushin eno denjikai no eikyo to taisaku. 2. Impulse denryu ni yoru OPGW denpako no henpa hendo

    Kurono, M.; Isawa, K.; Kuribara, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    A coherent optical fiber communication method has possibility of large capacity transmission for future, but it needs a control of polarization state of optical signal. So it is important to clear the optical polarization characteristics of OPGW because the polarization state may change rapidly by alternative current or lightning. This report describes the experimental results of transient states of optical polarization and coherent transmission characteristics by large impulsive current in OPGW (200m length). The impulse current is maximum 16kA at peak and 1{times}10 us rise and tail time. Polarization states are measured by a real time stokes analyzer with 10 MHz band width. As a result, the maximum shift of polarization state on Poincare sphere is about 70 degree and the rise time is about 12us, which is much longer than current use time 1us. We found the reason that the polarization rise time is caused by the inductance of spiral current along twisted conductors of OPGW, which makes magnetic field along the fiber in OPGW so as to occur Faraday effect. The coherent optical FSK transmission characteristics in transient state of optical polarization by impulse current is also described. In the case of single detection, bit errors are caused when the polarization states of optical signal on Poincare sphere move about 150 degree from the polarization state of local optical source. And in the case of polarization diversity detection, bit error is not caused by any change of polarization. 7 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Development of lightning resistant overhead ground wire and characteristics against lightning current triggered by rocket; Tai rai kaku chisen no kaihatsu to rokketo yurai no jitsuraigeki denryu ni yoru tai rai seino no kensho

    Shimizu, M.; Yokoya, M.; Kawashima, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Omi, H. [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Asano, Y. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Goda, Y. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    It has been important to maintain high reliability for supplying electric power in recent high-intelligent society. Overhead ground wires (GW) are installed at upper positions of overhead transmission lines in order to prevent lightning attack on conductors. As the sacrifice, GW sometimes gets certain damages including strand-breakage by a severe lightning attack. Recently, optical fiber composite ground wire(OPGW), which has arisen for development of strong GW against lightning attack, in particular for transmission lines passing through areas where `winter lightning` with enormous electric charge occurs, or areas where frequent lightning occurs. We investigated materials and strand structures to get high lightning-resistant properties and verified by rocket-triggered lightning experiments and DC arc tests. As the results, we have developed excellent lightning-resistant OPGW that has fundamental properties equivalent to conventional GW. 12 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Numerical analysis of stress and displacement in subsurface layer of work roll for hot rolling by interconnecting stress and thermal loads; Oryoku netsufuka rensei ni yoru netsuen work roll hyosobu no oryoku hen`i no suchi kaiseki

    Yamamoto, H.; Uchida, S.; Inoue, T.; Araya, S.; Nakajima, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    An analysis model was developed to calculate the stress, strain, and residual stress occurring in the work roll (WR) surface layer for hot rolling by the stress and thermal loads. The numerical analysis model for surface layer stress and the numerical analysis model for WR surface layer temperature were interconnected for calculation under thermal elastic-plastic and isotropic hardening conditions using the same numerical analysis method as in Merwin. If the elastic-plastic strain in the surface layer approximates to one obtained on the assumption of an elastic body, this model can be used satisfactorily. If the heating and cooling in the WR surface layer is in the steady state, the numerical analysis model for surface layer temperature can be applied. Under calculation conditions of this time`s hot rolling, the stress in the WR surface layer is larger on the intermediate roll (IMR) side than on the rolled material side toward the compression (negative) side. The residual stress on the WR surface increases as the friction factor between WR and IMR increases. The residual stress in the slightly inner position of the surface decreases, and the residual displacement on the surface increases. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Finite element analysis of the stress[approximately]deformation behavior considering the execution procedures during shield work. Yugen yosoho ni yoru shield koji no seko katei wo koryoshita jiban kyodo kaiseki

    Akagi, H.; Komiya, K. (Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering)


    A technique to analyze the ground behavior in shield tunnel work by use of the finite element method in consideration of the construction process is suggested. It is shown that the analysis of excavation of a shield machine with use of the force of jack propulsion is possible by modelling the excavating situation of the shield machine by arranging excavating elements in the assumed region where the ground is disturbed by excavation in front of the cutting face of the shield machine and re-dividing the excavating element and ground element for each calculation step. Succeedingly it is described that a shield work made in alluvial cohesive clay in the suburbs of Tokyo was applied with three-dimensional elasto-plastic finite element analysis which models the situation that the shield machine is driven by jack propulsion force while taking the ground in front of the shield machine into the machine, and, as a result of this, a result of calculation close to the observed results in the construction was obtained concerning the situation of displacement of ground and varying conditions of the posture of the shield machine and the hydraulic pressure of gap. 14 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Three-dimensional photovisco-elasto-plastic analysis for axi-symmetrical problems by scattered-light method; Sanran koho ni yoru sanjigen jikutaisho mondai no hikari nendan sosei kaisekiho

    Hirano, T.; Hayashi, Y. [Kurume Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Imai, Y. [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The photo-plastic analysis method is an experimental method which uses transparent polymer material models that show stress and strain behavior similar to the materials to be analyzed, and utilizes their compound refraction effect to analyze stress and strain in the model materials deformed to the plastic region. In using the method, a consideration is required on the effect of strain velocity in order to enhance the analytic accuracy. The consideration was introduced to analyzing stress and strain in three-dimensional axi-symmetrical problems. Three main strain differences in symmetrical cross sections in the case of tension can be calculated from continuous observation on fringe of polarized incident scattered lights from two different directions. Shear strain in a symmetrical cross section in the case of torsion can be derived from the fringe of polarized incident scattered light from the radius direction. A proposal was made on a method capable of estimating shear stress, shear strain, deviatoric stress and strain corresponding to a visco-elasto-plastic model subjected to tension. The method makes the analysis by using measurements on the fringe gradient and the fringe gradient increasing velocity. This analytic method can be applied to the case of torsion. An analysis was performed on the minimum stress distribution in a cross section and the strain distribution by using a cylindrical test piece with a semi-circular notch. As a result, the analytic result was found to agree with that from the finite element analysis, proving its effectiveness. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Fonovic, Matej


    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  4. Measurement of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    Wang, Xiaoming [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xu, Yongning [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Shen, Hongtao [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Lan, Xiaoxi [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Cai, Li [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)


    The long lived isotopes {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni measurements are determined as {sup 59}Ni/Ni = 1 × 10{sup −13} and {sup 63}Ni/Ni = 2 × 10{sup −12}, respectively.

  5. Magnetic property and interface structure of Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta


    Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta multilayers, utilizing Ta as buffer layer, were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering. The exchange coupling field between NiO and NiFe reached a maximum value of 9.6×103 A/m at a NiO film thickness of 50 nm. The composition and chemical states at interface region of Ta/NiO/Ta were studied by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomp- osition technique. The results show that there is an "inter- mixing layer" at the Ta/NiO (and NiO/Ta) interface due to a thermodynamically favorable reaction 2Ta + 5NiO = 5Ni + Ta2O5. This interface reaction has a great effect on exchange coupling. The thickness of Ni+NiO estimated by XPS depth- profiles is about 8-10 nm.

  6. Interface chemical states of NiO/NiFe films and their effects on magnetic properties

    于广华; 柴春林; 朱逢吾; 赖武彦


    Ta/NiOx/Ni81Fe19/Ta multilayers were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering.The exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiOx/Ni81Fe19 as a function of the ratio of Ar to O2 during the deposition process were studied.The composition and chemical states at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe were also investigated using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomposition technique.The results show that the ratio of Ar to O2 has great effect on the nickel chemical states in NiOx film.When the ratio of Ar to O2 is equal to 7 and the argon sputtering pressure is 0.57 Pa,the x value is approximately 1 and the valence of nickel is +2.At this point,NiOx is antiferromagnetic NiO and the corresponding Hex is the largest.As the ratio of Ar/O2 deviates from 7,the exchange coupling field (Hex) will decrease due to the presence of magnetic impurities such as Ni+3 or metallic Ni at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe,while the coercivity (Hc) will increase due to the metallic Ni.XPS studies also show that there are two thermodynamically favorable reactions at the NiO/NiFe interface: NiO+Fe=Ni+FeO and 3NiO+2Fe=3Ni+Fe2O3.These interface reaction products are magnetic impurities at the interface region of NiO/NiFe.It is believed that these magnetic impurities would have effect on the exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiO/NiFe.


    Baker, I; Schulson, E.; Michael, J.; Padgett, R.


    Measurements of the Ni/Al ratio at grain boundary regions in Ni3Al have been performed, using x-ray microanalysis of thin foils in a scanning transmission electron microscope, as a function of both alloy stoichiometry and the addition of boron. It is shown that whilst grain boundaries of Al-rich and stoichiometric Ni3Al have a composition similar to the matrix composition, boundaries in Ni-rich Ni3Al can be highly Ni-enriched. The addition of B to Ni3Al produces Ni enrichment in grain boundar...

  8. Thermodynamic reassessment of Gd–Ni system

    Rahou, Z., E-mail:; Mahdouk, K.


    By means of CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) approach, the phase diagram and thermodynamic data of the Gd–Ni system were critically assessed. The Gd–Ni system contains four solution phases (liquid, face-centered cubic FCC-A1, body-centered cubic BCC-A2 and hexagonal close-packed HCP-A3) modeled with the Redlich-Kister polynomials and seven intermetallic compounds Gd{sub 3}Ni, GdNi, GdNi{sub 2}, GdNi{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}, GdNi{sub 5} and Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, which are all treated as stoichiometric compounds. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters describing various phases in this binary system was obtained. The phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities calculated from assessed parameters agree well with experimental data.

  9. Electron Density Distributions for Millerite, Vaesite , Heazlewoodite and Ni metal: A Case for the Importance of NiNi Bond Paths for Electron Transport

    Ross, N. L.; Gibbs, G. V.; Downs, R. T.; Prewitt, C. T.; Rosso, K. M.; Cox, D. F.


    Bond paths and the bond critical point properties have been calculated for the bonded interactions comprising the Ni sulfide minerals millerite, vaesite and heazlewoodite and Ni metal. The experimental NiS bond lengths decrease linearly as the magnitudes of the properties each increases in value. Bond paths exist between the Ni atoms in heazlewoodite and millerite for NiNi separations that match the shortest separation in Ni metal, an indicator that the Ni atoms are bonded. Bond paths also exist between the Ni atoms in bulk Ni metal. In addition, the bcp properties of the bonded interactions in Ni metal are virtually the same as those in heazlewoodite and millerite. In contrast, NiNi bond paths are absent in vaesite where the NiNi separations are 60% greater than those in Ni metal. The bcp properties for the NiNi bonded interactions scatter along protractions of the NiS bond length-bcp property trends, suggesting that the two bonded interactions have similar characteristics. NiNi bond paths radiate throughout Ni metal and the metallic heazlewoodite structures as continuous networks whereas the NiNi paths in millerite are restricted to isolated Ni3 rings. Electron transport in Ni metal and heazlewoodite is pictured as occurring along the bond paths, which behave as networks of atomic size wires that radiate in a contiguous circuit throughout the two structures. Unlike heazlewoodite, the electron transport in millerite is pictured as involving a cooperative hopping of the d orbital electrons from the Ni3 rings comprising Ni3S9 clusters to Ni3 rings in adjacent clusters via the p orbitals on the interconnecting S atoms. Vaesite, an insulator at low temperatures and a doped semiconductor at higher temperatures, lacks NiNi bond paths.

  10. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    P Saravanan; T A Jose; P John Thomas; G U Kulkarni


    Magnetic sub-micron sized particles (with diameters in the range 100–600 nm) of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys, protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared in gram quantities using the polyol process. Experiments carried out with different metal precursors and starting compositions have yielded reliable routes to produce particles of the desired diameters in the 100–600 nm range. The particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. The particles are found to be stable under ambient conditions indefinitely. The coercivity values of the Co and Ni particles are ∼ 50% higher compared to the corresponding bulk values. The alloy particles follow a trend similar to the bulk alloys.

  11. Ni putes ni soumises. Media and women with other gender?



    Full Text Available Since 2000, new women's movements emerge like Ni putes ni soumises (NPNS who give a new approach to activism: not the one on feminists in the classi- cal sense of the term with the connotations it carries, but women carrying claims in the media and through the media on the living conditions of the residents of the suburbs. So, many media will take part in the mediatization of NPNS and its dis-courses, and will serve in some way as a place of “factory” for the public opinion.

  12. Effects of plate thickness on reverse martensitic transformation of prestrained NiTi/NiTi alloy

    YAN Zhu; CUI Lishan; ZHENG Yanjun


    In this Paper, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)was used to study the effects of predeformation and plate thickness on the reverse martensitic transformation of explosively welded NiTi/NiTi alloy.Results showed that there was a constraint between Ni50.4Ti(NiTi-1)and Ni49.8Ti (NiTi-2),which led to that the thickness of NiTi-1 or NiTi-2 strongly affected the reverse martensitic transformation behavior because residual stress variations in thickness wound enable bias force to be built inside the composite.The DSC measurements showed that after deformation,the reverse martensitic transformation temperature of the composite was increased with the increasing thickness of NiTi-2.Also.the XRD results revealed that the microstructure of NiTi/NiTi alloy changed from B2 phase to B19'phase along the thickness direction.

  13. Preparation and property of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nano-composite coatings

    Wang, Shu-Jen; Wang, Yuxin; Shu, Xin; Tay, Seeleng; Gao, Wei; Shakoor, R. A.; Kahraman, Ramazan


    The duplex Nickel-Boron-Titania/Nickel (Ni-B-TiO2/Ni) coatings were deposited on mild steel by using two baths with Ni as the inner layer. TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the Ni-B coatings as the outer layer by using solid particle mixing method. The microstructure, morphology and corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nanocomposite coatings were systemically investigated. The results show that the duplex interface was uniform and the adhesion between two layers was very good. The microhardness of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was much higher than the Ni coating due to the outer layer of Ni-B-TiO2 coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was also significantly improved comparing with single Ni-B coating. The Ni-B-10 g/L TiO2/Ni coating was found to have the best corrosion resistance among these duplex coatings. This type of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating, with high hardness and good corrosion resistance properties, should be able to find broad applications under adverse environmental conditions.

  14. The Ni-YSZ interface

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  15. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. How extending motor vehicle's replacement cycle affects Japanese economy Impact assessment using macroeconometric and input-output simulations. Jidosha kaikae cycle no chokika ga kokunai keizai ni ataeru eikyo ni tsuite. Makuro keizai sangyo renkan model ni yoru hyoka

    Wakabayashi, M.


    The motor vehicle industry, which has inspired domestic production activities since the 1960's, is coming up against inevitable changes. One of the typical phenomena is that the domestic motor vehicle market is getting ripe. Since almost 80 percent of households in our country already have at least one motor vehicle and the population is going to reduce, it isn't expected that the newly car demand will increase rapidly as it did before the end of 1980's. It is strongly predicted that purchase of cars motivated mainly for replacement is going to take a leading part of domestic sales. In this paper, we calculate the impacts of extending motor vehicle's replacement cycles, as one aspect of maturation of the domestic motor vehicle market, on Japanese economy. Reduction of new car demands affects production not only in the motor vehicle industry, but also in the various industries. It is because motor vehicles are manufactured goods those need many step of production by the time of selling. Using CRIEPI's macroeconometric and input-output models, we clarified that retrenchment of car replacement would decrease 2.6 trillion yen of total industry output in 1990 constant price value added terms. The loss of output in the motor vehicle industry would be 381 billion yen, and in the retail and wholesale sector it would amount td 666 billion yen. Also, electric power industry would lose 47 billion yen's takings. Considering low economic growth since 1990, this impact could have a great influence on our prospective growing process. (author)

  17. How extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycle affects Japanese economy ? Impact assessment using macroeconometric and input-output simulations; Jidosha kaikae cycle no chokika ga kokunai keizai ni ataeru eikyo ni tsuite. Makuro keizai sangyo renkan model ni yoru hyoka

    Wakabayashi, M.


    The motor vehicle industry, which has inspired domestic production activities since the 1960`s, is coming up against inevitable changes. One of the typical phenomena is that the domestic motor vehicle market is getting ripe. Since almost 80 percent of households in our country already have at least one motor vehicle and the population is going to reduce, it isn`t expected that the newly car demand will increase rapidly as it did before the end of 1980`s. It is strongly predicted that purchase of cars motivated mainly for replacement is going to take a leading part of domestic sales. In this paper, we calculate the impacts of extending motor vehicle`s replacement cycles, as one aspect of maturation of the domestic motor vehicle market, on Japanese economy. Reduction of new car demands affects production not only in the motor vehicle industry, but also in the various industries. It is because motor vehicles are manufactured goods those need many step of production by the time of selling. Using CRIEPI`s macroeconometric and input-output models, we clarified that retrenchment of car replacement would decrease 2.6 trillion yen of total industry output in 1990 constant price value added terms. The loss of output in the motor vehicle industry would be 381 billion yen, and in the retail and wholesale sector it would amount td 666 billion yen. Also, electric power industry would lose 47 billion yen`s takings. Considering low economic growth since 1990, this impact could have a great influence on our prospective growing process. (author)

  18. Study on behavior of car and driver in the very small commuter car made of FRP during collision using scale model. Under the consideration of thorax deformation of driver using airbag; FRP sei mokei ni yoru FRP sei chokeiryo jissha shototsuji no kuruma to join no anzensei ni kansuru kenkyu. Kyobu henkei tokusei wo yusuru join ni taisuru air gab no koka

    Sakai, H.; Morisawa, M.; Yoshino, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishizuki, H. [Satake Co., Tokyo (Japan)


    In this study, after having performed simulation which took up scale models substituting for full scale model of commuter car made of FRP, we carried out collision tests to barrier. Here, we made enquiries about the occupant safety by changing the collision speed and the deformation characteristics of the seat belt, during head-on barrier collision using one-fifth scale models. We sought for the occupant`s safe combinations among the deformation characteristics of airbag and the thorax deformation. In this case, the degree of the occupants injury were estimated using HIC values, 3msecG and maximum deformation of the thorax. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  19. FY 1999 report on the results of the introductory study on the global environmental industry technology. Investigational study on the environmental creation technology by the application of ecosystem information functions; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Seitaikei joho kino oyo ni yoru kankyo sozo gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    To know the state of environmental pollution before it clearly exists, an investigational study was made on the technology to measure environmental stress at high sensitivity, in wide range and at high speed using functions to respond chemical substances, etc. which living organisms have. The FY 1999 results were outlined. As to the application of ecosystem information functions, survey was conduced paying attention to the environmental stress response of each of the bacteria, algae, plants and animals, responses viewed from the manifestation of immunity antibodies which occurs inside living organisms and changes at genetic level, and responses of algae and plants in case of specifying environmental pollutants. In relation to the application of the biological amplification mechanism, survey was carried out on environmental stress signals sent from plants, selection of environmental stress index plants, detection of environmental pollutants using bacteria, high sensitivity detection using animal (nematode), etc. Concerning the standardization of the environmental measuring technology by the application of ecosystem information functions, survey was conducted on artificial molecular recognition sensor, antibody device sensor, biochips, system construction, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Enhancement of condensation heat transfer using an electric field. 2nd Report. Model analysis on heat transfer enhancement using a bare wire electrode; Denba ni yoru gyoshuku netsu dentatsu no sokushin ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Rasen denkyoku ni okeru dennetsu sokushin no model kaiseki

    Chu, R. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nishio, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Tanasawa, I. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A model experiment was conducted to investigate the dynamic behavior of a liquid sheet under an electric field applied parallel to the flow direction. It was confirmed that the liquid sheet was changed into columns when the applied voltage exceeded a certain critical value. Then a model analysis based on a linear stability theory was carried out to predict the critical applied voltage and it was shown that the analytical results were in good agreement with the measured values. Further, based on the above-mentioned model describing the dynamic behavior of the liquid sheet, an analytical model predicting the EHD effect on condensation heat transfer for a finned tube was presented. It was shown that the predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental data on the flooding angle and condensation heat transfer coefficient for a finned tube under electric fields. (author)