WorldWideScience

Sample records for riparian willow restoration

  1. Sex and the single Salix: considerations for riparian restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; David R. Dreesen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    Most restoration projects strive to create a sustain able plant community but exclusive use of vegetatively propagated material may be preventing this goal. The dioecious willows and cottonwoods of the Salicaceae are widely used in riparian restoration projects. Hardwood cuttings have traditionally been used to propagate these species in nurseries, and live stakes,...

  2. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  3. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.

    2010-01-01

    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  4. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  5. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  6. Ecophysiology of riparian cottonwood and willow before, during, and after two years of soil water removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K R; Bush, S E; Ehleringer, J R

    2010-03-01

    Riparian cottonwood/willow forest assemblages are highly valued in the southwestern United States for their wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and watershed protection. Yet these forests are under considerable threat from climate change impacts on water resources and land-use activities to support human enterprise. Stream diversions, groundwater pumping, and extended drought have resulted in the decline of cottonwood/willow forests along many riparian corridors in the Southwest and, in many cases, the replacement of these forests with less desirable invasive shrubs and trees. Nevertheless, ecophysiological responses of cottonwood and willow, along with associated ecohydrological feedbacks of soil water depletion, are not well understood. Ecophysiological processes of mature Fremont cottonwood and coyote willow stands were examined over four consecutive growing seasons (2004-2007) near Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The tree stands occurred near the inlet of a reservoir that was drained in the spring of 2005 and remained empty until mid-summer of 2006, effectively removing the primary water source for most of two growing seasons. Stem sap flux density (Js) in cottonwood was highly correlated with volumetric soil moisture (theta) in the upper 60 cm and decreased sevenfold as soil moisture dropped from 12% to 7% after the reservoir was drained. Conversely, Js in willow was marginally correlated with 0 and decreased by only 25% during the same period. Opposite patterns emerged during the following growing season: willow had a lower whole-plant conductance (kt) in June and higher leaf carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) than cottonwood in August, whereas k(t) and delta13C were otherwise similar between species. Water relations in both species recovered quickly from soil water depletion, with the exception that sapwood area to stem area (As:Ast) was significantly lower in both species after the 2007 growing season compared to 2004. Results suggest that cottonwood has a greater

  7. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  8. An Ecohydrological Approach to Riparian Restoration Planning in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverich, G. T.; Orr, B.; Diggory, Z.; Dudley, T.; Hatten, J.; Hultine, K. R.; Johnson, M. P.; Orr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian systems across the American southwest region are under threat from a growing and intertwined cast of natural and anthropogenic stressors, including flooding, drought, invasion by non-native plants, wildfire, urban encroachment, and land- and water-use practices. In relatively remote and unregulated systems like the upper Gila River in Arizona, riparian habitat value has persisted reasonably well despite much of it being densely infested with non-native tamarisk (salt cedar). A new concern in the watershed, however, is the eventual arrival of the tamarisk leaf beetle that is expected to soon colonize the tamarisk-infested riparian corridor as the beetle continues to spread across the southwest region. While there are numerous potential benefits to tamarisk suppression (e.g., groundwater conservation, riparian habitat recovery, fire-risk reduction), short-term negative consequences are also possible, such as altered channel hydraulics and canopy defoliation during bird nesting season (e.g., the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher). In preparation for anticipated impacts following beetle colonization, we developed a holistic restoration framework to promote recovery of native riparian habitat and subsequent local increases in avian population. Pivotal to this process was an ecohydrological assessment that identified sustainable restoration sites based on consideration of natural and anthropogenic factors that, together, influence restoration opportunities—flood-scour dynamics, vegetation community structure and resilience, surface- and groundwater availability, soil texture and salinity, wildfire potential, and land-use activities. Data collected included high-resolution remote-sensing products, GIS-based delineation of geomorphic activity, and vegetation field mapping. These data along with other information generated, including pre-biocontrol vegetation monitoring and flycatcher-habitat modeling, were synthesized to produce a comprehensive

  9. Butterfly (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) assemblages associated with natural, exotic, and restored riparian habitats along the lower Colorado River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.M.; Andersen, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Butterfly assemblages were used to compare revegetated and natural riparian areas along the lower Colorado River. Species richness and correspondence analyses of assemblages showed that revegetated sites had fewer biological elements than more natural sites along the Bill Williams River. Data suggest that revegetated sites do not provide resources needed by some members of the butterfly assemblage, especially those species historically associated with the cottonwood/willow ecosystem. Revegetated sites generally lacked nectar resources, larval host plants, and closed canopies. The riparian system along the regulated river segment that contains these small revegetated sites also appears to have diminished habitat heterogeneity and uncoupled riparian corridors.Revegetated sites were static environments without the successional stages caused by flooding disturbance found in more natural systems. We hypothesize that revegetation coupled with a more natural hydrology is important for restoration of butterfly assemblages along the lower Colorado River. 

  10. A COMPARISON OF APPROACHES TO PRIORITIZING SITES FOR RIPARIAN RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the results of Olson and Harris (1997) and Russell et al.(1997)in their work to prioritize sites for riparian restoration in the San Luis Rey River watershed. Olson and Harris defined reaches of the mainstem and evaluated the relative potential for restoration...

  11. Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Gornish

    Full Text Available Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress and active (typically involving planting or seeding restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none to compare the utility of different approaches on restoration success across sites. We found that landform type, percent shade, and summer flow helped explain differences in the understory functional community across all sites. In passively restored sites, grass and forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age, but in actively restored sites forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age. Native cover and richness were lower with passive restoration compared to active restoration. Invasive species cover and richness were not significantly different across sites. Although some of our results suggest that active restoration would best enhance native species in degraded riparian areas, this work also highlights some of the context-dependency that has been found to mediate restoration outcomes. For example, since the effects of passive restoration can be quite rapid, this approach might be more useful than active restoration in situations where rapid dominance of pioneer species is required to arrest major soil loss through erosion. As a result, we caution against labeling one restoration technique as better than another. Managers should identify ideal restoration outcomes in the context of historic and current site characteristics (as well as a range of acceptable alternative states and choose restoration approaches that best facilitate the achievement of revegetation goals.

  12. Tamarix as habitat for birds: Implications for riparian restoration in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Sferra, S.J.; Paxton, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exotic vegetation has become a major habitat component in many ecosystems around the world, sometimes dramatically changing the vegetation community structure and composition. In the southwestern United States, riparian ecosystems are undergoing major changes in part due to the establishment and spread of the exotic Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk). There are concerns about the suitability of Tamarix as habitat for birds. Although Tamarix habitats tend to support fewer species and individuals than native habitats, Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas data and Birds of North America accounts show that 49 species use Tamarix as breeding habitat. Importantly, the relative use of Tamarix and its quality as habitat vary substantially by geographic location and bird species. Few studies have examined how breeding in Tamarix actually affects bird survivorship and productivity; recent research on Southwestern Willow Flycatchers has found no negative effects from breeding in Tamarix habitats. Therefore, the ecological benefits and costs of Tamarix control are difficult to predict and are likely to be species specific and site specific. Given the likelihood that high-quality native riparian vegetation will not develop at all Tamarix control sites, restoration projects that remove Tamarix but do not assure replacement by high-quality native habitat have the potential to reduce the net riparian habitat value for some local or regional bird populations. Therefore, an assessment of potential negative impacts is important in deciding if exotic control should be conducted. In addition, measurable project objectives, appropriate control and restoration techniques, and robust monitoring are all critical to effective restoration planning and execution. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  13. Wildlife Response to Riparian Restoration on the Sacramento River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H Golet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the success of riparian restoration projects seldom focus on wildlife. More generally, vegetation characteristics are studied, with the assumption that animal populations will recover once adequate habitats are established. On the Sacramento River, millions of dollars have been spent on habitat restoration, yet few studies of wildlife response have been published. Here we present the major findings of a suite of studies that assessed responses of four taxonomic groups (insects, birds, bats, and rodents. Study designs fell primarily into two broad categories: comparisons of restoration sites of different ages, and comparisons of restoration sites with agricultural and remnant riparian sites. Older restoration sites showed increased abundances of many species of landbirds and bats relative to younger sites, and the same trend was observed for the Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, a federally threatened species. Species richness of landbirds and ground-dwelling beetles appeared to increase as restoration sites matured. Young restoration sites provided benefits to species that utilize early successional riparian habitats, and after about 10 years, the sites appeared to provide many of the complex structural habitat elements that are characteristic of remnant forest patches. Eleven-year old sites were occupied by both cavity-nesting birds and special-status crevice-roosting bats. Restored sites also supported a wide diversity of bee species, and had richness similar to remnant sites. Remnant sites had species compositions of beetles and rodents more similar to older sites than to younger sites. Because study durations were short for all but landbirds, results should be viewed as preliminary. Nonetheless, in aggregate, they provide convincing evidence that restoration along the Sacramento River has been successful in restoring riparian habitats for a broad suite of faunal species. Not only did

  14. Morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth after stream restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Anders, Niels; Hoitink, Antonius J.F.; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Uijttewaal, Wim S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of the morphological evolution of renaturalized streams is important for the success of restoration projects. Riparian vegetation is a key component of the riverine landscape and is therefore essential for the natural rehabilitation of rivers. This complicates the design of

  15. Effects of riparian vegetation development in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, A.; Crosato, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Groot, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth in a lowland restored stream. Hydrological series, high-resolution bathymetric data and aerial photographs are combined in the study. The vegetation root system was found to assert a strong control on soil stabilization,

  16. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GEOMORPHOLOGY, HYDROLOGY, AND VEGETATION IN RIPARIAN MEADOWS: RESTORATION IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation patterns and dynamics within riparian corridors are controlled largely by geomorphic position, substrate characteristics and hydrologic regimes. Understanding management and restoration options for riparian meadow complexes exhibiting stream incision requires knowledge...

  17. Preliminary indicators for restoration assessment in riparian reforestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration success in forest ecosystems can be adequately assessed by correct selection of indicators that represent the achievement of established goals. The discriminant analysis technique on indicators selection consists of separation and classification of new observations on pre-defined groups, reducing the number of variables that are discriminant functions linearly dependent of the original variables. This study aims to define an index composed by structural attributes (number of species and individuals planted, height, basal area, number of regenerant species and individuals and chemical and pedological soil attributes to classify riparian reforested environments regarding to restoration taking as reference reforestation around the the Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Eleven variables were used for previous classification of plots in partially restored or unrestored groups and also used for discriminant analysis. Variables selected by the discriminant function generated were: number of species and basal area of planted individuals, number of regenerant species and individuals litter accumulation and soil cation exchange capacity. Compatibility of 98% from previous plot classifications and after index formation, show the representativeness of the selected variables on evaluation of restoration of riparian reforestations.

  18. 77 FR 26569 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... would occur at the Riparian Sanctuary. No active restoration of native plants would occur. Maintenance... statement and environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration...

  19. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  20. Tribal experiences and lessons learned in riparian ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald K. Miller; James E. Enote; Cameron L. Martinez

    1996-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems have been part of the culture of land use of native peoples in the Southwest United States for thousands of years. The experiences of tribal riparian initiatives to incorporate modern elements of environment and development with cultural needs are relatively few. This paper describes tribal case examples and approaches in riparian management which...

  1. Evaluating the ecological economic success of riparian restoration projects in Arizona (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary B. Snider

    2000-01-01

    The past 4 years the Arizona Water Protection Fund provided more than $25 million to individuals and organizations for stream and riparian restoration projects in Arizona. Information which increases the awareness of the value of Arizona's riparian systems is crucial to the incorporation of ecosystem services into decision-making frameworks, which are largely...

  2. SELECTIVE FORAGING ON WOODY SPECIES BY THE BEAVER CASTOR FIBER, AND ITS IMPACT ON A RIPARIAN WILLOW FOREST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOLET, BA; HOEKSTRA, A; OTTENHEIM, MM

    1994-01-01

    Beavers were re-introduced in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, a wood dominated by willows Salix spp. Conservationists expected that herbivory by beavers would enhance succession to a mixed broad-leaved forest. Willows formed the staple food of the beavers, but they removed only 1.4% of the standing

  3. Effects of river restoration on riparian ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae) in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Januschke, Kathrin; Verdonschot, R.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies addressing the effects of river and floodplain restoration on riparian ground beetles mainly focus on single river sections or regions. We conducted a large-scale study of twenty paired restored and degraded river sections throughout Europe. It was tested (i) if restoration had an overall

  4. RESTORED RIPARIAN BUFFERS AS TOOLS FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN THE MAIA PROCESSES, ENDPOINTS, AND MEASURES OF SUCCESS FOR WATER, SOIL, FLORA AND FAUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts, moreover the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  5. Bat activity following restoration prescribed burning in the central Appalachian Upland and riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lauren V.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Muthersbaugh, Michael; Powers, Karen E.

    2018-01-01

    After decades of fire suppression in eastern North America, land managers now are prioritizing prescribed fire as a management tool to restore or maintain fire-adapted vegetation communities. However, in long—fire-suppressed landscapes, such as the central and southern Appalachians, it is unknown how bats will respond to prescribed fire in both riparian and upland forest habitats. To address these concerns, we conducted zero-crossing acoustic surveys of bat activity in burned, unburned, riparian, and non-riparian areas in the central Appalachians, Virginia, USA. Burn and riparian variables had model support (ΔAICc fire differently between upland and riparian forest habitats, but overall, large landscape-level prescribed fire has a slightly positive to neutral impact on all bats species identified at our study site post—fire application.

  6. 78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... removal and management of invasive plant species would occur at the Riparian Sanctuary. No active... impact statement and environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit...

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from a Danish riparian wetland before and after restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audet, Joachim; Elsgaard, Lars; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of riparian wetlands often aims at increasing the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by re-establishing the hydrological connectivity between the stream and the surrounding floodplain. However, the geochemically reduced soil conditions in the newly restored area may favor the emission...

  8. Review of Invasive Riparian Trees that Impact USACE Ecosystem Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    often release seeds in periods of stress , including periods when exposed to herbicides or mechanical disturbances. Such characteristics make this...Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SI-36 August 2016 Review of Invasive Riparian Trees that Impact USACE...various spatial control methods for woody invasive plant removal in densely vegetated riparian habitats. The USACE ecosystem restoration mission has

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of nitrate sinks and sources in riparian soils of a restored reach of an Alpine river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Jörg; Huber, Benjamin; Shrestha, Juna; Samaritani, Emanuela; Niklaus, Pascal A.

    2010-05-01

    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water quality, the biogeochemical functions of restored river reaches have to be quantified. Of particular interest is the ability of riparian functional processing zones (FPZ) to remove nitrate from infiltrating river water or agricultural runoff. Processes involved are removal of nitrate by denitrification and immobilisation of nitrogen in plant or microbial biomass. On the other hand, mineralisation followed by nitrification can lead to an increase in leachable nitrate. The latter process is fueled by the frequent input of fresh dissolved or particle bound organic matter, characteristic for temporarily flooded riparian zones. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of nitrate concentrations in the soil solution of a restored reach of the Alpine river Thur in northeastern Switzerland. The study was part of the interdisciplinary project cluster RECORD, which was initiated to advance the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The studied river reach comprised the following three FPZ representing a lateral successional gradient with decreasing hydrological connectivity (i.e. decreasing flooding frequency and duration). (i) The grass zone developed naturally on a gravel bar after restoration of the channelized river section (mainly colonized by canary reed grass Phalaris arundinacae). The soil is composed of up to 80 cm thick fresh sediments trapped and stabilized by the grass roots. (ii) The bush zone is composed of young willow trees (Salix viminalis) planted during restoration to stabilize older overbank deposits. (iii) The mixed forest is a mature riparian hardwood forest developed on older overbank sediments with ash and maple as dominant trees. The study period was between summer 2008 and winter 2009/2010 including three flood events in August 2008, June 2009 and July 2009. The second flood inundated the

  10. Revisiting restored river reaches - Assessing change of aquatic and riparian communities after five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Armin W; Haase, Peter; Januschke, Kathrin; Sundermann, Andrea; Hering, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Hydromorphological restructuring of river sections, i.e. river restoration measures, often has little effects on aquatic biota, even in case of strong habitat alterations. It is often supposed that the biotic response is simply delayed as species require additional time to recolonize the newly generated habitats and to establish populations. To identify and specify the supposed lag time between restoration and biotic response, we investigated 19 restored river reaches twice in a five-year interval. The sites were restored one to ten years prior to the first sampling. We sampled three aquatic (fish, benthic invertebrates, macrophytes) and two riparian organism groups (ground beetles and riparian vegetation) and analyzed changes in assemblage composition and biotic metrics. With the exception of ground beetle assemblages, we observed no significant changes in richness and abundance metrics or metrics used for biological assessment. However, indicator taxa for near-natural habitat conditions in the riparian zone (indicators for regular inundation in plants and river bank specialists in beetles) improved significantly in the five-year interval. Contrary to general expectations in river restoration planning, we neither observed a distinct succession of aquatic communities nor a general trend towards "good ecological status" over time. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models revealed that neither the time since restoration nor the morphological status had a significant effect on the biological metrics and the assessment results. Thus, the stability of aquatic assemblages is strong, slowing down restoration effects in the aquatic zone, while riparian assemblages improve more rapidly. When defining restoration targets, the different timelines for ecological recovery after restoration should be taken into account. Furthermore, restoration measures should not solely focus on local habitat conditions but also target stressors acting on larger spatial scales and take

  11. Transpirational water loss in invaded and restored semiarid riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianne W. Moore; M. Keith Owens

    2011-01-01

    The invasive tree, Tamarix sp., was introduced to the United States in the 1800s to stabilize stream banks. The riparian ecosystem adjacent to the middle Rio Grande River in central NewMexico consists of mature cottonwood (Populus fremontii ) gallery forests with a dense Tamarix understory. We hypothesized that Populus would compensate for reduced competition by...

  12. Great Basin Research and Management Project: Restoring and maintaining riparian ecosystem integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2000-01-01

    The Great Basin Research and Management Project was initiated in 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station’s Ecology, Paleoecology, and Restoration of Great Basin Watersheds Project to address the problems of stream incision and riparian ecosystem degradation in central Nevada. It is a highly interdisciplinary project that is being conducted in...

  13. Arroyo Management Plan (Alameda County): A Plan for Implementing Access and Restoring Riparian Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent E. Watson; Jim Horner; Louise Mozingo

    1989-01-01

    Innovative techniques for restoring riparian habitats are of little value without a community endorsed plan for their implementation. A flood control district commissioned the Arroyo Management Plan in order to determine how it might provide public access and improve habitat along its current and future channels in a fast-growing area of Northern California. The Plan,...

  14. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... and Wildlife (CDFW), announce that the record of decision (ROD) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary...: www.fws.gov/refuge/sacramento river/ and http://www.riverpartners.org/where-we-work/sanctuary...

  15. Effects of river restoration on riparian biodiversity in secondary channels of the Pite River, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfield, James M; Engström, Johanna; Michel, James T; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Between 1850 and 1970, rivers throughout Sweden were channelized to facilitate timber floating. Floatway structures were installed to streamline banks and disconnect flow to secondary channels, resulting in simplified channel morphologies and more homogenous flow regimes. In recent years, local authorities have begun to restore channelized rivers. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration on riparian plant communities at previously disconnected secondary channels of the Pite River. We detected no increase in riparian diversity at restored sites relative to unrestored (i.e., disconnected) sites, but we did observe significant differences in species composition of both vascular plant and bryophyte communities. Disconnected sites featured greater zonation, with mesic-hydric floodplain species represented in plots closest to the stream and mesic-xeric upland species represented in plots farthest from the stream. In contrast, restored sites were most strongly represented by upland species at all distances relative to the stream. These patterns likely result from the increased water levels in reconnected channels where, prior to restoration, upland plants had expanded toward the stream. Nonetheless, the restored fluvial regime has not brought about the development of characteristic flood-adapted plant communities, probably due to the short time interval (ca. 5 years) since restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated relatively quick responses to similar restoration in single-channel tributaries, but secondary channels may respond differently due to the more buffered hydrologic regimes typically seen in anabranching systems. These findings illustrate how restoration outcomes can vary according to hydrologic, climatic and ecological factors, reinforcing the need for site-specific restoration strategies.

  16. Water tables constrain height recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Danielle M; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Excessive levels of herbivory may disturb ecosystems in ways that persist even when herbivory is moderated. These persistent changes may complicate efforts to restore ecosystems affected by herbivores. Willow (Salix spp.) communities within the northern range in Yellowstone National Park have been eliminated or degraded in many riparian areas by excessive elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing. Elk browsing of riparian willows appears to have diminished following the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupis L.), but it remains uncertain whether reduced herbivory will restore willow communities. The direct effects of elk browsing on willows have been accompanied by indirect effects from the loss of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) activity, including incision of stream channels, erosion of fine sediments, and lower water tables near streams historically dammed by beaver. In areas where these changes have occurred, lowered water tables may suppress willow height even in the absence of elk browsing. We conducted a factorial field experiment to understand willow responses to browsing and to height of water tables. After four years of protection from elk browsing, willows with ambient water tables averaged only 106 cm in height, with negligible height gain in two of three study species during the last year of the experiment. Willows that were protected from browsing and had artificially elevated water tables averaged 147 cm in height and gained 19 cm in the last year of the experiment. In browsed plots, elevated water tables doubled height gain during a period of slightly reduced browsing pressure. We conclude that water availability mediates the rate of willow height gain and may determine whether willows grow tall enough to escape the browse zone of elk and gain resistance to future elk browsing. Consequently, in areas where long-term beaver absence has resulted in incised stream channels and low water tables, a reduction in elk browsing alone may not be sufficient for recovery

  17. Riparian restoration in the context of Tamarix control in the western United States: Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Merritt, David M.; Briggs, Mark K.; Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Lair, Kenneth D.; Scott, Michael L.; Sher, Anna; Sher, Anna; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the restoration of riparian systems in the context of Tamarix control—that is, Tamarix-dominated sites are converted to a replacement vegetation type that achieves specific management goals and helps return parts of the system to a desired and more natural state or dynamic. It reviews research related to restoring native riparian vegetation following tamarix control or removal. The chapter begins with an overview of objective setting and the planning of tamarix control and proceeds by emphasizing the importance of considering site-specific factors and of context in selecting and prioritizing sites for restoration. In particular, it considers valley and bottomland geomorphology, along with river flow regime and associated fluvial disturbance, surface water and groundwater availability, and soil salinity and texture. The chapter concludes with a discussion of costs and benefits associated with active, passive, and combined ecological restoration approaches, as well as the key issues to consider in carrying out restoration projects at a range of scales.

  18. Early Response of Soil Properties and Function to Riparian Rainforest Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gageler, Rose; Bonner, Mark; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Amos, Mark; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne; Shoo, Luke P.

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2–20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates), only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives. PMID:25117589

  19. Early response of soil properties and function to riparian rainforest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Gageler

    Full Text Available Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2-20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates, only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives.

  20. Case studies of riparian and watershed restoration in the southwestern United States—Principles, challenges, and successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.

    2017-07-18

    Globally, rivers and streams are highly altered by impoundments, diversions, and stream channelization associated with agricultural and water delivery needs. Climate change imposes additional challenges by further reducing discharge, introducing variability in seasonal precipitation patterns, and increasing temperatures. Collectively, these changes in a river or stream’s annual hydrology affects surface and groundwater dynamics, fluvial processes, and the linked aquatic and riparian responses, particularly in arid regions. Recognizing the inherent ecosystem services that riparian and aquatic habitats provide, society increasingly supports restoring the functionality of riparian and aquatic ecosystems.Given the wide range in types and scales of riparian impacts, approaches to riparian restoration can range from tactical, short-term, and site-specific efforts to strategic projects and long-term collaborations best pursued at the watershed scale. In the spirit of sharing information, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center convened a workshop June 23-25, 2015, in Flagstaff, Ariz. for practitioners in restoration science to share general principles, successful restoration practices, and discuss the challenges that face those practicing riparian restoration in the southwestern United States. Presenters from the Colorado River and the Rio Grande basins, offered their perspectives and experiences in restoration at the local, reach and watershed scale. Outcomes of the workshop include this Proceedings volume, which is composed of extended abstracts of most of the presentations given at the workshop, and recommendations or information needs identified by participants. The organization of the Proceedings follows a general progression from local scale restoration to river and watershed scale approaches, and finishes with restoration assessments and monitoring.

  1. Hierarchical multi-taxa models inform riparian vs. hydrologic restoration of urban streams in a permeable landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Daniel C; Middleton, Jen A; Beesley, Leah; Close, Paul; Quinton, Belinda; Storer, Tim; Davies, Peter M

    2018-03-01

    The degradation of streams caused by urbanization tends to follow predictable patterns; however, there is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity in stream response to urbanization due to the local geoclimatic context. Furthermore, there is building evidence that streams in mildly sloped, permeable landscapes respond uncharacteristically to urban stress calling for a more nuanced approach to restoration. We evaluated the relative influence of local-scale riparian characteristics and catchment-scale imperviousness on the macroinvertebrate assemblages of streams in the flat, permeable urban landscape of Perth, Western Australia. Using a hierarchical multi-taxa model, we predicted the outcomes of stylized stream restoration strategies to increase the riparian integrity at the local scale or decrease the influences of imperviousness at the catchment scale. In the urban streams of Perth, we show that local-scale riparian restoration can influence the structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages to a greater degree than managing the influences of catchment-scale imperviousness. We also observed an interaction between the effect of riparian integrity and imperviousness such that the effect of increased riparian integrity was enhanced at lower levels of catchment imperviousness. This study represents one of few conducted in flat, permeable landscapes and the first aimed at informing urban stream restoration in Perth, adding to the growing appreciation for heterogeneity of the Urban Stream Syndrome and its importance for urban stream restoration. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Hydrological mediated denitrification in groundwater below a seasonal flooded restored riparian zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn; Engesgaard, Peter; Johnsen, Anders R.

    2017-01-01

    nitrate removal in groundwater primarily by two mechanisms. First, by creating a stagnant flow zone beneath the flooded area thereby increasing the residence time and leaving more time for nitrate removal. Secondly, nitrate removal is increased by enhancing upward flow into the highly reactive organic......A restored riparian zone was characterized to understand the effects of flooding on subsurface hydrological flow paths and nitrate removal in groundwater. Field and laboratory investigations were combined with numerical modeling of dynamic flow and reactive nitrate transport. Flooding enhances...

  3. Restoration ecology and invasive riparian plants: An introduction to the special section on Tamarix spp. in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Briggs, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    River systems around the world are subject to various perturbations, including the colonization and spread of non-native species in riparian zones. Riparian resource managers are commonly engaged in efforts to control problematic non-native species and restore native habitats. In western North America, small Eurasian trees or shrubs in the genus Tamarixoccupy hundreds of thousands of hectares of riparian lands, and are the targets of substantial and costly control efforts and associated restoration activities. Still, significant information gaps exist regarding approaches used in control and restoration efforts and their effects on riparian ecosystems. In this special section of papers, eight articles address various aspects of control and restoration associated with Tamarix spp. These include articles focused on planning restoration and revegetation; a synthetic analysis of past restoration efforts; and several specific research endeavors examining plant responses, water use, and various wildlife responses (including birds, butterflies, and lizards). These articles represent important additions to the Tamarix spp. literature and contain many lessons and insights that should be transferable to other analogous situations in river systems globally.

  4. Long-term Water Table Monitoring of Rio Grande Riparian Ecosystems for Restoration Potential Amid Hydroclimatic Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, James R.; Cleverly, James R.; Dahm, Clifford N.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological processes drive the ecological functioning and sustainability of cottonwood-dominated riparian ecosystems in the arid southwestern USA. Snowmelt runoff elevates groundwater levels and inundates floodplains, which promotes cottonwood germination. Once established, these phreatophytes rely on accessible water tables (WTs). In New Mexico's Middle Rio Grande corridor diminished flooding and deepening WTs threaten native riparian communities. We monitored surface flows and riparian WTs for up to 14 years, which revealed that WTs and surface flows, including peak snowmelt discharge, respond to basin climate conditions and resource management. WT hydrographs influence the composition of riparian communities and can be used to assess if potential restoration sites meet native vegetation tolerances for WT depths, rates of recession, and variability throughout their life stages. WTs were highly variable in some sites, which can preclude native vegetation less adapted to deep drawdowns during extended droughts. Rates of WT recession varied between sites and should be assessed in regard to recruitment potential. Locations with relatively shallow WTs and limited variability are likely to be more viable for successful restoration. Suitable sites have diminished greatly as the once meandering Rio Grande has been constrained and depleted. Increasing demands on water and the presence of invasive vegetation better adapted to the altered hydrologic regime further impact native riparian communities. Long-term monitoring over a range of sites and hydroclimatic extremes reveals attributes that can be evaluated for restoration potential.

  5. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    This project focuses on the lower Klickitat River and its tributaries that provide or affect salmonid habitat. The overall goal is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of watersheds supporting anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) which are listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU. Restoration activities are aimed at restoring stream processes by removing or mitigating watershed perturbances and improving habitat conditions and water quality. In addition to steelhead, habitat improvements benefit Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon, resident rainbow trout, and enhance habitat for many terrestrial and amphibian wildlife species. Protection activities compliment restoration efforts within the subbasin by securing refugia and preventing degradation. Since 90% of the project area is in private ownership, maximum effectiveness will be accomplished via cooperation with state, federal, tribal, and private entities. The project addresses goals and objectives presented in the Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the 1994 NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. Feedback from the 2000 Provincial Review process indicated a need for better information management to aid development of geographic priorities. Thus, an emphasis has been placed on database development and a review of existing information prior to pursuing more extensive implementation. Planning and design was initiated on several restoration projects. These priorities will be refined in future reports as the additional data is collected and analyzed. Tasks listed are for the April 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 contract cycle, for which work was delayed during the summer of 2001 because the contract was not finalized until mid-August 2001. Accomplishments are provided for the September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 reporting period. During this reporting period

  6. Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities

  7. Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities.

  8. Novel plant communities limit the effects of a managed flood to restore riparian forests along a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D.J.; Andersen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Dam releases used to create downstream flows that mimic historic floods in timing, peak magnitude and recession rate are touted as key tools for restoring riparian vegetation on large regulated rivers. We analysed a flood on the 5th-order Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam, Colorado, in a broad alluvial valley where Fremont cottonwood riparian forests have senesced and little recruitment has occurred since dam completion in 1962. The stable post dam flow regime triggered the development of novel riparian communities with dense herbaceous plant cover. We monitored cottonwood recruitment on landforms inundated by a managed flood equal in magnitude and timing to the average pre-dam flood. To understand the potential for using managed floods as a riparian restoration tool, we implemented a controlled and replicated experiment to test the effects of artificially modified ground layer vegetation on cottonwood seedling establishment. Treatments to remove herbaceous vegetation and create bare ground included herbicide application (H), ploughing (P), and herbicide plus ploughing (H+P). Treatment improved seedling establishment. Initial seedling densities on treated areas were as much as 1200% higher than on neighbouring control (C) areas, but varied over three orders of magnitude among the five locations where manipulations were replicated. Only two replicates showed the expected seedling density rank of (H+P)>P>H>C. Few seedlings established in control plots and none survived 1 year. Seedling density was strongly affected by seed rain density. Herbivory affected growth and survivorship of recruits, and few survived nine growing seasons. Our results suggest that the novel plant communities are ecologically and geomorphically resistant to change. Managed flooding alone, using flows equal to the pre-dam mean annual peak flood, is an ineffective riparian restoration tool where such ecosystem states are present and floods cannot create new habitat for seedling establishment

  9. Vegetation development following stream/river restoration: more natural fluvial dynamics and morphology, return of aquatic and riparian plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    After centuries of human interventions in stream/river dynamics and morphology aimed at optimizing landscapes for agricultural and industrial purposes, new insights have inspired water managers to try and combine stream and river ecosystem functions with the conservation of biodiversity. Around the world, aquatic and riparian species have declined strongly due to pollution, destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, so that biodiversity conservation initiatives primarily focus on habitat restoration. In the past decades many stream and river restoration projects have been carried out and often hydrological dynamics and morphology have been restored to a more natural state. However, the successful restoration of aquatic and riparian habitats very often failed to result in restoration of their biodiversity. This lack of success from a biodiversity conservation perspective is usually attributed to 'dispersal limitation', meaning that the habitat may be restored, but species fail to reach the site and re-colonize it. Especially re-colonization by aquatic and riparian plant species is important, as such species function as ecosystem engineers: their presence alters fluvial dynamics and morphology, generates additional habitat heterogeneity and provides habitat and food for animal species. Following minor disturbances, re-colonization is often possible through locally remaining populations, by seeds in the seed bank or by surviving plant fragments. However, following major disturbances, colonization and establishment from other source populations are necessary. This usually occurs through dispersal of seeds (and in more aquatic species also by dispersal of vegetative fragments) into the restored wetland area. As dispersal occurs predominantly over short distances and source populations of aquatic and riparian species may be lacking in the surroundings, dispersal may be a limiting factor in the development of aquatic and riparian vegetation at a restored site. But

  10. SHRUBBY TREE COMPONENT OF RIPARIAN CORRIDORS IN RESTORATION AND NATURAL REMAINING AREAS OF MATRIX FORESTRY, RIO NEGRINHO, SC STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliziane Carla Scariot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814578The aim of this study was to analyze the shrubby tree component in riparian corridors in restoration process and natural remainders in a matrix forestry. We identified the richness, diversity, dispersal and pollination syndromes of the individuals and estimate the floristic similarity. The study was conducted at the producing farm of Pinus spp. wood Santa Alice, located in Rio Negrinho city, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. We adopted the center-quarter method for survey the shrubby tree component in four sample groups: CA (advanced stage of riparian corridors vegetation, CR (riparian corridors in restoration, MA (advanced stage of natural remaining, MI (intermediate stage of natural remaining. We found the highest richness and diversity index in MA and CR. Regarding the number of individuals, the dispersal and pollination syndromes predominant in all sample groups were zoochory and zoophilia. CR and CA had the highest percentage of floristic similarity while MA and MI did not form clusters. The sample group CR has composition, richness and diversity more similar to CA. This indicates that the restoration of riparian zones has conditions to rescue the components and the interactions of an ecological community.

  11. The evaluation of the establishment and growth of indigenous trees to restore deforested riparian areas in the Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa / Theo Scholtz

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtz, Theo

    2007-01-01

    The deforestation of riparian areas is a major concern in southern Africa. These areas are characterized as fragile ecosystems which contribute largely to the regional and global biodiversity of the world. It is therefore important to restore these degraded areas along the natural rivers of South Africa to ensure the sustainability and biodiversity of riparian corridors. Riparian areas inside the National Parks of South Africa, and especially in Mapungubwe National Park, have a high esthetica...

  12. Stream hydrology limits recovery of riparian ecosystems after wolf reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin N; Hobbs, N Thompson; Cooper, David J

    2013-04-07

    Efforts to restore ecosystems often focus on reintroducing apex predators to re-establish coevolved relationships among predators, herbivores and plants. The preponderance of evidence for indirect effects of predators on terrestrial plant communities comes from ecosystems where predators have been removed. Far less is known about the consequences of their restoration. The effects of removal and restoration are unlikely to be symmetrical because removing predators can create feedbacks that reinforce the effects of predator loss. Observational studies have suggested that the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park initiated dramatic restoration of riparian ecosystems by releasing willows from excessive browsing by elk. Here, we present results from a decade-long experiment in Yellowstone showing that moderating browsing alone was not sufficient to restore riparian zones along small streams. Instead, restoration of willow communities depended on removing browsing and restoring hydrological conditions that prevailed before the removal of wolves. The 70-year absence of predators from the ecosystem changed the disturbance regime in a way that was not reversed by predator reintroduction. We conclude that predator restoration may not quickly repair effects of predator removal in ecosystems.

  13. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  14. Remote sensing analysis of riparian vegetation response to desert marsh restoration in the Mexican Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel; Pulliam, H. Ronald; Minckley, Robert L.; Gass, Leila; Tolle, Cindy; Coe, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Desert marshes, or cienegas, are extremely biodiverse habitats imperiled by anthropogenic demands for water and changing climates. Given their widespread loss and increased recognition, remarkably little is known about restoration techniques. In this study, we examine the effects of gabions (wire baskets filled with rocks used as dams) on vegetation in the Cienega San Bernardino, in the Arizona, Sonora portion of the US-Mexico border, using a remote-sensing analysis coupled with field data. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), used here as a proxy for plant biomass, is compared at gabion and control sites over a 27-year period during the driest months (May/June). Over this period, green-up occurred at most sites where there were gabions and at a few of the control sites where gabions had not been constructed. When we statistically controlled for differences among sites in source area, stream order, elevation, and interannual winter rainfall, as well as comparisons of before and after the initiation of gabion construction, vegetation increased around gabions yet did not change (or decreased) where there were no gabions. We found that NDVI does not vary with precipitation inputs prior to construction of gabions but demonstrates a strong response to precipitation after the gabions are built. Field data describing plant cover, species richness, and species composition document increases from 2000 to 2012 and corroborate reestablished biomass at gabions. Our findings validate that gabions can be used to restore riparian vegetation and potentially ameliorate drought conditions in a desert cienega.

  15. Sediment dynamics in the restored reach of the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida: A vast subtropical riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, E.R.; Hupp, C.R.; Gellis, A.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the Kissimmee River Basin consisted of a broad nearly annually inundated riparian wetland similar in character to tropical Southern Hemisphere large rivers. The river was channelized in the 1960s and 1970s, draining the wetland. The river is currently being restored with over 10 000 hectares of wetlands being reconnected to 70 river km of naturalized channel. We monitored riparian wetland sediment dynamics between 2007 and 2010 at 87 sites in the restored reach and 14 sites in an unrestored reference reach. Discharge and sediment transport were measured at the downstream end of the restored reach. There were three flooding events during the study, two as annual flood events and a third as a greater than a 5-year flood event. Restoration has returned periodic flood flow to the riparian wetland and provides a mean sedimentation rate of 11.3 mm per year over the study period in the restored reach compared with 1.7 mm per year in an unrestored channelized reach. Sedimentation from the two annual floods was within the normal range for alluvial Coastal Plain rivers. Sediment deposits consisted of over 20% organics, similar to eastern blackwater rivers. The Kissimmee River is unique in North America for its hybrid alluvial/blackwater nature. Fluvial suspended-sediment measurements for the three flood events indicate that a majority of the sediment (70%) was sand, which is important for natural levee construction. Of the total suspended sediment load for the three flood events, 3%–16% was organic and important in floodplain deposition. Sediment yield is similar to low-gradient rivers draining to the Chesapeake Bay and alluvial rivers of the southeastern USA. Continued monitoring should determine whether observed sediment transport and floodplain deposition rates are normal for this river and determine the relationship between historic vegetation community restoration, hydroperiod restoration, and sedimentation.

  16. Willow Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, boswellia extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint ... Sensitivity to aspirin: People with ASTHMA, STOMACH ULCERS, DIABETES, GOUT, HEMOPHILIA, HYPOPROTHROMBINEMIA, or KIDNEY or LIVER DISEASE ...

  17. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Koontz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008–2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m−2·year−1, the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m−2·year−1·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m−2·year−1. The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  18. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Melissa; Lundberg, Christopher; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Pezeshki, Reza

    2016-02-04

    This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008-2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m(-2)·year(-1)), the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m(-2)·year(-1)·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m(-2)·year(-1). The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  19. INDICATED SPECIES TO RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FORESTS IN SUBWATERSHED OF PEIXE-BOI RIVER, PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor do Vale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815736This study aims to indicate native species to be used in the restoration of degraded riparian forests in the subwatershed of Peixe-Boi river. All trees and shrubs with diameter at breast height (DBH > 5 cm were inventoried in ten areas of secondary forest and six areas of igapó forest. The results were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the silviculture of the species was assessed by literature review. In Igapó areas 66 species were found; the areas had low richness and low diversity index of Shannon, when compared with data from the secondary forests. The floristic composition was heterogeneous, and the floristic similarity is higher between areas that are closer geographically. In the secondary forests were found 175 species; the areas showed high abundance of individuals, high species richness, diversity and evenness. Secondary forests were separated according to geographic proximity and age, which is directly linked to the successional stage. The PCA analysis established the ecological importance of 29 tree species; however only ten species had enough silvicultural information. Due to a greater ecological importance and viable silvicultural techniques available in the literature, Carapa guianensis, Pachira aquatica, Spondias mombin, Tapirira guianensis and Virola guianensis are the most suitable species to restore the degraded areas, in association with Inga edulis, Jacaranda copaia, Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya, Simarouba amara and Vismia guianensis of the secondary forests, that can be planted in the borders and in the nearby areas of igapó forests.

  20. Riparian restoration in the Southwest: Species selection, propagation, planting methods, and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Dreesen; John Harrington; Tom Subirge; Pete Stewart; Greg Fenchel

    2002-01-01

    Riparian plant communities, though small in overall area, are among the most valuable natural areas in the Southwest. The causes of degradation of southwestern riparian zones range from excessive cattle and elk grazing in montane watersheds to invasive woody exotic species and lack of natural flooding in the cottonwood forests, "bosque," of low elevation...

  1. Explaining linkages (and lack of) between riparian vegetation biodiversity and geomorphic complexity in restored streams of northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi, Lina; Maher Hasselquist, Eliza; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-05-01

    Ecological theory suggests that species richness and habitat heterogeneity are positively correlated; therefore stream restoration often relies on increasing geomorphic complexity to promote biodiversity. However, past studies have failed to demonstrate a link between post-restoration biodiversity and geomorphic complexity. These studies have usually relied on only one metric for quantifying complexity, rather than a holistic metric for complexity that represents several aspects of the channel morphology, and have based their observations in catchments with widespread land-use impacts. We use a geomorphic complexity gradient based on five geomorphic aspects (longitudinal, cross-sectional, planform, sediment texture, and instream wood) to determine whether streams with higher levels of complexity also have greater riparian vegetation biodiversity. We also compare biodiversity values with the potential complexity of reaches based on the large-scale controls of valley and channel gradient and the presence of large glacial legacy sediment (boulders). We focus on tributary channels in boreal forests of northern Sweden, where stream modification associated with log-floating from the 1850s to the 1960s created highly simplified channels. Driven by concerns for fish, restoration began in the 1970s by returning large cobbles and boulders into the main channel from the channel edge, and evolved into 'demonstration restoration,' placing very large boulders and trees into the channel, reopening side channels, and constructing fish spawning areas. We evaluate 22 reaches along tributaries of the Vindel River in northern Sweden with four restoration statuses: channelized, restored, demonstration restored, and unimpacted. Detailed morphologic, sediment, and instream wood data allow calculation of 29 metrics of geomorphic complexity, from which a complexity gradient was identified using multivariate statistics. The percent cover of riparian vegetation was identified in 0.5 x 0.5 m

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS--Tapteal Bend Riparian Corridor Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the restoration of approximately 500 feet of streambank along the Yakima River at river mile 8, upstream of the Van Giesen Bridge on SR 224, in and between Richland and West Richland, Washington. This project will also result in the acquisition of Fox Island, a 12-acre island directly across the river from the restoration area. There is no development planned for the island. The proposed project includes: The installation of a bio-engineered streambank that incorporates barbs to capture silt and deflect flow, roughened rock or log toes, a riparian buffer, soil reinforcement, and bank grading. Long-term photo-point and plot sampling will also be implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and success of the restoration project. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Darrel Sunday, a contractor with Sunday and Associates, Inc. (April 4, 2004), and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are the pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, bull trout, Ute ladies'-tresses, and mid-Columbia Steelhead. The pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, and Ute ladies'Tresses are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity, and it was determined that the proposed restoration project would have no effect on these species. It is difficult to determine if bull trout occur within the Tapteal project area and Dave Carl of the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife was contacted and concurred with this assumption. It was determined that the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect bull trout, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has concurred with that determination (July 28, 2004). For the mid-Columbia Steelhead, an anadromous fish species, BPA has determined that if conducted in accordance with

  3. Denitrification Potential, Root Biomass, and Organic Matter in Degraded and Restored Urban Riparian Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrologic changes associated with urbanization often lead to lower water tables and drier, more aerobic soils in riparian zones. These changes reduce the potential for denitrification, an anaerobic microbial process that converts nitrate, a common water pollutant, into nitrogen...

  4. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  5. Post-wildfire natural restoration of riparian vegetation under stable hydro-geomorphic conditions: Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires are common to the Mediterranean region due to its defined dry season and long historical anthropogenic activities. Most of post-wildfire studies focus on mountains areas and thus refer to the hill-slope and its physical characteristics, e.g. morphology, length, angles, and aspect; its soil characteristics, e.g. type, infiltration rate, repellency; and its vegetative covers, e.g. planted trees vs. natural forest or native vs. exotic vegetation. In contrary there is very limited literature focusing on ecological and hydro-geomorphic aspects of post-wildfire of riparian vegetation / zone probably because of its negligible burned area relative to the spread of the fire, sometimes, over the whole watershed area. The limited literature on the topic is surprising given the fact that riparian vegetation zone has been acknowledged as a unique and important habitat supporting rich biodiversity. Herein we report on a wildfire event occurred on October 14th 2009 in a river section of Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel. The wildfire although was limited in its area (only 3 hectare) extended over the channel alone from bank to bank and thus provide a unique case study of completely burn down of riparian vegetation, mainly dense stands of Common Red (Australis Phragmites. Therefore a detailed study of this event provides an opportunity to tackle one of the basics questions which is determining the rate of natural restoration process that act at the immediate time after the wildfire event occurred. This type of information is most valuable to professional and stakeholders for better management of post-fire riparian zones. The results of the study suggest that under stable conditions, i.e. no major flood events occurred; disturbance time was short and ranged over 200 days due to, almost, immediate recovery of the riparian vegetation. However the re-growth of the riparian vegetation was not even but rather deferential and more complex then reported in the literature

  6. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Citizen Scientists Provide Critical Data to Refine Aboveground Carbon Estimates in Restored Riparian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating citizen scientists into ecological informatics research can be difficult due to limited opportunities for meaningful engagement given vast data streams. This is particularly true for analysis of remotely sensed data, which are increasingly being used to quantify ecosystem services over space and time, and to understand how land uses deliver differing values to humans and thus inform choices about future human actions. Carbon storage and sequestration are such ecosystem services, and recent environmental policy advances in California (i.e., AB 32) have resulted in a nascent carbon market that is helping fuel the restoration of riparian forests in agricultural landscapes. Methods to inventory and monitor aboveground carbon for market accounting are increasingly relying on hyperspatial remotely sensed data, particularly the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technologies, to estimate biomass. Because airborne discrete return LiDAR can inexpensively capture vegetation structural differences at high spatial resolution ( 1000 ha), its use is rapidly increasing, resulting in vast stores of point cloud and derived surface raster data. While established algorithms can quantify forest canopy structure efficiently, the highly complex nature of native riparian forests can result in highly uncertain estimates of biomass due to differences in composition (e.g., species richness, age class) and structure (e.g., stem density). This study presents the comparative results of standing carbon estimates refined with field data collected by citizen scientists at three different sites, each capturing a range of agricultural, remnant forest, and restored forest cover types. These citizen science data resolve uncertainty in composition and structure, and improve allometric scaling models of biomass and thus estimates of aboveground carbon. Results indicate that agricultural land and horticulturally restored riparian forests store similar amounts of aboveground carbon

  7. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  8. Control of Tamarix in the western United States: Implications for water salvage, wildlife use, and riparian restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, P.B.; Cleverly, J.R.; Dudley, T.L.; Taylor, J.P.; van Riper, Charles; Weeks, E.P.; Stuart, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    Non-native shrub species in the genus Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk) have colonized hundreds of thousands of hectares of floodplains, reservoir margins, and other wetlands in western North America. Many resource managers seek to reduce saltcedar abundance and control its spread to increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration, to restore native riparian (streamside) vegetation, and to improve wildlife habitat. However, increased water yield might not always occur and has been substantially lower than expected in water salvage experiments, the potential for successful revegetation is variable, and not all wildlife taxa clearly prefer native plant habitats over saltcedar. As a result, there is considerable debate surrounding saltcedar control efforts. We review the literature on saltcedar control, water use, wildlife use, and riparian restoration to provide resource managers, researchers, and policy-makers with a balanced summary of the state of the science. To best ensure that the desired outcomes of removal programs are met, scientists and resource managers should use existing information and methodologies to carefully select and prioritize sites for removal, apply the most appropriate and cost-effective control methods, and then rigorously monitor control efficacy, revegetation success, water yield changes, and wildlife use.

  9. MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision, due to natural and anth...

  10. Water Quality Changes in a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Riparian Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D.; Clausen, J.; Kuzovkina, J.

    2016-12-01

    Converting riparian buffers in agricultural areas from annual row crops to short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) grown for biofuel can provide both water quality benefits and a financial incentive for buffer adoption among agricultural producers. A randomized complete block design was used to determine water quality changes resulting from converting plots previously cultivated in corn to SRWC willow (Salix. spp) adjacent to a stream in Storrs, CT. Both overland flow and ground water samples were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate + nitrite (NO2+NO3-N), and total phosphorus (TP). Overland flow was also analyzed for suspended solids concentration (SSC). Lower (p = 0.05) concentrations of TN (56%) and TP (61%) were observed in post-coppice surface runoff from willow plots than from corn plots. Shallow ground water concentrations at the edge of willow plots were lower in TN (56%) and NO3+NO2-N (64%), but 35% higher in TP, than at the edge of corn plots. SSC was also lower (72%) in overland flow associated with willow compared to corn. The treatment had no effect on discharge or mass export. These results suggest conversion from corn to a SRWC in a riparian area can provide water quality benefits similar to those observed in restored and established buffers.

  11. Riparian and Upland Restoration at the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site - 12360

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Jody K. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Remedial investigation and cleanup at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site was completed in 2005. Uplands, riparian, and wetland habitat were disturbed during cleanup and closure activities and required extensive revegetation. Unavoidable disturbances to habitat of the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (a federally listed species) and wetlands required consultation with regulatory agencies and mitigation. Mitigation wetlands were constructed in two drainages, and a third developed naturally where a soil borrow area intercepted the groundwater table. During the 50-plus years of site operations, 12 ponds were constructed in three drainages to manage and retain runoff and sewage treatment plant discharges prior to release off site. A batch-release protocol has been used for the past several decades at the terminal ponds, which has affected the riparian communities downstream. To return the hydrologic regime to a more natural flow-through system similar to the pre-industrial-use conditions, seven interior dams (of 12) have been breached, and the remaining five dams are scheduled for breaching between 2011 and 2020. At the breached dams, the former open water areas have transformed to emergent wetlands, and the stream reaches have returned to a flow-through system. Riparian and wetland vegetation has established very well. The valves of the terminal ponds were opened in fall 2011 to begin flow-through operations and provide water to the downstream plant communities while allowing reestablishment of vegetation in the former pond bottoms prior to breaching. A number of challenges and issues were addressed during the revegetation effort. These included reaching an agreement on revegetation goals, addressing poor substrate quality and soil compaction problems, using soil amendments and topsoil, selecting seeds, determining the timing and location of revegetation projects relative to continuing closure activities, weed control, erosion control, revegetation project field

  12. Bird monitoring as an aid to riparian restoration: Findings from the Trinity River in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Klamath Bird Observatory and USFS Pacific Southwest Research Station

    2013-01-01

    The Trinity River Restoration Program began in 2000 with the goal of restoring the Trinity River's salmon and steelhead fisheries, which were severely degraded during the last half-century as a result of dams, water diversions under the Central Valley Project, and land-use practices such as gold mining. The restoration program, as outlined in the U.S. Department...

  13. Riparian forest restoration: Conflicting goals, trade-offs, and measures of success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; David M. Merritt; J. Bradley Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Restoration projects can have varying goals, depending on the specific focus, rationale, and aims for restoration. When restoration projects use project-specific goals to define activities and gauge success without considering broader ecological context, determination of project implications and success can be confounding. We used case studies from the Middle Rio...

  14. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  15. Assessing critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer planning and riparian restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2009-11-01

    A science-based geographic information system (GIS) approach is presented to target critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer placement. Critical source areas are the intersection of hydrologically sensitive areas and pollutant source areas in watersheds. Hydrologically sensitive areas are areas that actively generate runoff in the watershed and are derived using a modified topographic index approach based on variable source area hydrology. Pollutant source areas are the areas in watersheds that are actively and intensively used for such activities as agricultural production. The method is applied to the Neshanic River watershed in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The capacity of the topographic index in predicting the spatial pattern of runoff generation and the runoff contribution to stream flow in the watershed is evaluated. A simple cost-effectiveness assessment is conducted to compare the conservation buffer placement scenario based on this GIS method to conventional riparian buffer scenarios for placing conservation buffers in agricultural lands in the watershed. The results show that the topographic index reasonably predicts the runoff generation in the watershed. The GIS-based conservation buffer scenario appears to be more cost-effective than the conventional riparian buffer scenarios.

  16. Soil and water characteristics in restored canebrake and forest riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielle M. Andrews; Christopher D. Barton; Randy Kolka; Charles C. Rhoades; Adam J. Dattilo

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of streams has been widespread in the United States. In Kentucky, for instance, almost all of its large streams have been impounded or channelized. A restoration project was initiated in a channelized section of Wilson Creek (Nelson Co., Kentucky) to return its predisturbance meandering configuration. A goal of the project was to restore the native...

  17. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of riparian soil morphology in a restored floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, B.; Guenat, C.; Bullinger-Weber, G.; Mitchell, E. A. D.

    2013-10-01

    Floodplains have been intensively altered in industrialized countries, but are now increasingly being restored. It is therefore important to assess the effect of these restoration projects on the aquatic and terrestrial components of ecosystems. However, despite being functionally crucial components of terrestrial ecosystems, soils are generally overlooked in floodplain restoration assessments. We studied the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of soil morphology in a restored (riverbed widening) river reach along the River Thur (Switzerland) using three criteria (soil diversity, dynamism and typicality) and their associated indicators. We hypothesized that these criteria would correctly discriminate the post-restoration changes in soil morphology, and that these changes correspond to patterns of vascular plant diversity. Soil diversity and dynamism increased 5 yr after the restoration, but some typical soils of braided rivers were still missing. Soil typicality and dynamism were correlated to vegetation changes. These results suggest a limited success of the project, in agreement with evaluations carried out at the same site using other, more resource-demanding, methods (e.g., soil fauna, fish diversity, ecosystem functioning). Soil morphology provides structural and functional information on floodplain ecosystems. The spatio-temporal heterogeneity of soil morphology represents a cost-efficient ecological indicator that could easily be integrated into rapid assessment protocols of floodplain and river restoration projects. The follow-up assessment after several major floods (≥ HQ20) should take place to allow for testing the longer-term validity of our conclusion for the River Thur site. More generally, it would be useful to apply the soil morphology indicator approach in different settings to test its broader applicability.

  18. Morphodynamic regime change induced by riparian vegetation in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to establish and understand morphological changes in response to stream restoration measures, a detailed monitoring plan was implemented in a lowland stream called Lunterse Beek, located in the Netherlands. Over a period of 1.5 yr, the monitoring 5 included serial morphological surveys,

  19. Giant cane propagation techniques for use in restoration of riparian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Sexton; James J. Zaczek; John W. Groninger; Stephen D. Fillmore; Karl W. J. Williard

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine factors important for rhizome cutting propagation of giant cane for use in canebreak restoration. Experiment I showed that greater numbers of culms were produced for rhizomes with more internodes especially when surface planted rather than buried. Experiment II determined that 76 percent of the 435 rhizomes tested produced at least...

  20. INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL GROUP COMPOSITION, PLANTATION SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT IN THE RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST ON RESERVOIR SHORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of spacing, arrangement and ecological group composition of planted seedlings on the restoration process of artificial reservoir shores in southeastern Brazil. The assessments were performed 12 years after the settlement of the experiment in which five mixed stand models were tested. First, a general evaluation of the stand was performed when we surveyed the overstory and understory, seed bank and soil for chemical analysis.Then, the restoration indicators survival of planted trees, basal area and density of the tree community, litter accumulated on the soil and canopy closure index were utilized to compare the plantation models and to assess the influence the experimental factors on these parameters. In the general analysis, we found that the studied stand presents low diversity, poor regeneration, and seed bank dominated mostly by one planted exotic tree species and weeds, which may jeopardize the self- maintenance of the stand in the future. The factor that most influenced the models was the ecological group composition with the best performance found for models in which both pioneer and non-pioneer groups were used. Probably, the plantation arrangement and spacing did not have greater influence due to both plant mortality and natural regeneration that has developed to this age. Hence, it is not recommended the use of only pioneer species in the implantation of riparian forest and the proportion of 50% pioneers and 50% non-pioneers using as much species as possible is indicated for areas that might present constraints for the natural regeneration.

  1. Impact of perceived importance of ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on willingness to pay for riparian meadow restoration in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Aertsens, Joris; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo

    2014-08-01

    The strategic importance of ecosystem service valuation as an operational basis for policy decisions on natural restoration has been increasingly recognized in order to align the provision of ecosystem services with the expectation of human society. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to quantify various ecosystem services. However, two areas of concern arise: (1) whether people value specific functional ecosystem services and overlook some intrinsic aspects of natural restoration, and (2) whether people understand the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules given in the contingent scenarios. Using a peri-urban riparian meadow restoration project in Flanders, Belgium as a case, we explored the impacts of residents' perceived importance of various ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on their willingness-to-pay for the proposed restoration project employing the CVM. The results indicated that people tended to value all the benefits of riparian ecosystem restoration concurrently, although they accorded different importances to each individual category of ecosystem services. A longer payment scheme can help the respondents to think more about the flow of ecosystem services into future generations. A weak temporal embedding effect can be detected, which might be attributed to respondents' concern about current financial constraints, rather than financial bindings associated with their income and perceived future financial constraints. This demonstrates the multidimensionality of respondents' financial concerns in CV. This study sheds light on refining future CV studies, especially with regard to public expectation of ecosystem services and the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules.

  2. Artificial perches as a nucleation technique for restoration of a riparian environment: characterization of the seed rain and of natural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Luiza Tomazi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian habitats are important to the maintenance of ecological processes and environmental services. However, a significant portion of the riparian vegetation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest has been removed in response to increasing human pressure. Therefore, the application of restoration techniques in these habitats becomes essential. In this context, a nucleation model with 18 artificial perches was evaluated for the restoration of a degraded riparian area in Gaspar, Santa Catarina, Brazil, by the characterization of the seed rain and natural regeneration. In two years we collected 21,864 seeds of 51 morphospecies, and recorded 42 colonizing species. Zoochoric seeds belonging to 15 plant families comprised 17% of the seed rain and 19.05% of the spontaneously regenerating plant species. Asteraceae and Poaceae were the most represented families. The artificial perches performed the nucleating function through the increase of zoochoric seed rain. However, possibly due to different barriers that were not evaluated in this study, part of these seeds was not recruited. We recommend the application of this technique for the attraction of dispersers in degraded areas similar to the study site.

  3. Artificial perches as a nucleation technique for restoration of a riparian environment: characterization of the seed rain and of natural regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Luiza Tomazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian habitats are important to the maintenance of ecological processes and environmental services. However, a significant portion of the riparian vegetation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest has been removed in response to increasing human pressure. Therefore, the application of restoration techniques in these habitats becomes essential. In this context, a nucleation model with 18 artificial perches was evaluated for the restoration of a degraded riparian area in Gaspar, Santa Catarina, Brazil, by the characterization of the seed rain and natural regeneration. In two years we collected 21,864 seeds of 51 morphospecies, and recorded 42 colonizing species. Zoochoric seeds belonging to 15 plant families comprised 17% of the seed rain and 19.05% of the spontaneously regenerating plant species. Asteraceae and Poaceae were the most represented families. The artificial perches performed the nucleating function through the increase of zoochoric seed rain. However, possibly due to different barriers that were not evaluated in this study, part of these seeds was not recruited. We recommend the application of this technique for the attraction of dispersers in degraded areas similar to the study site.

  4. Stream and floodplain restoration in a riparian ecosystem disturbed by placer mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Kenneth F.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques for the hydrologic restoration of placer-mined streams and floodplains were developed in Denali National Park and Preserve Alaska, USA. The hydrologic study focused on a design of stream and floodplain geometry using hydraulic capacity and shear stress equations. Slope and sinuosity values were based on regional relationships. Design requirements include a channel capacity for a 1.5-year (bankfull) discharge and a floodplain capacity for a 1.5- to 100-year discharge. Concern for potential damage to the project from annual flooding before natural revegetation occurs led to development of alder (Alnus crispa) brush bars to dissipate floodwater energy and encourage sediment deposition. The brush bars, constructed of alder bundles tied together and anchored laterally adjacent to the channel, were installed on the floodplain in several configurations to test their effectiveness. A moderate flood near the end of the two-year construction phase of the project provided data on channel design, stability, floodplain erosion, and brush bar effectiveness. The brush bars provided substantial protection, but unconsolidated bank material and a lack of bed armour for a new channel segment led to some bank erosion, slope changes and an increase in sinuosity in several reaches of the study area.

  5. AN INTEGRATED, SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE GREAT BASIN OF CENTRAL NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian corridor and meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision is a major ...

  6. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Danielle; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Engel, Vera Lex; Façanha, Cristiane Lima; Oliveira, Elivaldo Moreira de; Moura, Emanoel Gomes de

    2014-01-27

    Riparian forests provide ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being. The Pepital River is the main water supply for Alcântara (Brazil) and its forests are disappearing. This is affecting water volume and distribution in the region. Promoting forest restoration is imperative. In deprived regions, restoration success depends on the integration of ecology, livelihoods and traditional knowledge (TEK). In this study, an interdisciplinary research framework is proposed to design riparian forest restoration strategies based on ecological data, TEK and social needs. This study takes place in a region presenting a complex history of human relocation and land tenure. Local populations from seven villages were surveyed to document livelihood (including 'free-listing' of agricultural crops and homegarden tree species). Additionally, their perceptions toward environmental changes were explored through semi-structured interviews (n = 79). Ethnobotanical information on forest species and their uses were assessed by local-specialists (n = 19). Remnants of conserved forests were surveyed to access ecological information on tree species (three plots of 1,000 m2). Results included descriptive statistics, frequency and Smith’s index of salience of the free-list results. The local population depends primarily on slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture to meet their needs. Interviewees showed a strong empirical knowledge about the environmental problems of the river, and of their causes, consequences and potential solutions. Twenty-four tree species (dbh > 10 cm) were found at the reference sites. Tree density averaged 510 individuals per hectare (stdv = 91.6); and 12 species were considered the most abundant (density > 10ind/ha). There was a strong consensus among plant-specialists about the most important trees. The species lists from reference sites and plant-specialists presented an important convergence. Slash-and-burn agriculture is the main source of livelihood

  7. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  8. The long-term legacy of geomorphic and riparian vegetation feedbacks on the dammed Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kui, Li; Stella, John C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; House, P. Kyle; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    On alluvial rivers, fluvial landforms and riparian vegetation communities codevelop as a result of feedbacks between plants and abiotic processes. The influence of vegetation on river channel and floodplain geomorphology can be particularly strong on dammed rivers with altered hydrology and reduced flood disturbance. We used a 56-year series of aerial photos on the dammed Bill Williams River (Arizona, USA) to investigate how (a) different woody riparian vegetation types influence river channel planform and (b) how different fluvial landforms drive the composition of riparian plant communities over time. We mapped vegetation types and geomorphic surfaces and quantified how relations between fluvial and biotic processes covaried over time using linear mixed models. In the decades after the dam was built, woody plant cover within the river's bottomland nearly doubled, narrowing the active channel by 60% and transforming its planform from wide and braided to a single thread and more sinuous channel. Compared with native cottonwood–willow vegetation, nonnative tamarisk locally induced a twofold greater reduction in channel braiding. Vegetation expanded at different rates depending on the type of landform, with tamarisk cover on former high-flow channels increasing 17% faster than cottonwood–willow. Former low-flow channels with frequent inundation supported a greater increase in cottonwood–willow relative to tamarisk. These findings give insight into how feedbacks between abiotic and biotic processes in river channels accelerate and fortify changes triggered by dam construction, creating river systems increasingly distinct from predam ecological communities and landforms, and progressively more resistant to restoration of predam forms and processes.

  9. HYDROGEOMORPHIC SETTING, CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESPONSE TO STREAM INCISION OF MONTANA RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN--IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wet meadow complexes in the mountains of the central Great Basin are scarce, ecologically important systems that are threatened by stream incision. An interdisciplinary group has investigated 1) the origin, characteristics, and controls on the evolution of these riparian...

  10. Flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Makings

    2005-01-01

    The flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) consists of 618 taxa from 92 families, including a new species of Eriogonum and four new State records. The vegetation communities include Chihuahuan Desertscrub, cottonwood-willow riparian corridors, mesquite terraces, sacaton grasslands, rocky outcrops, and cienegas. Species...

  11. Windows of opportunity for germination of riparian species after restoring water level fluctuations: a field experiment with controlled seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J.M.; Janssen, R.H.; Rip, W.J.; Bender, I.; Bakker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration activities aiming at increasing vegetation diversity often try to stimulate both dispersal and germination. In wetlands, dispersal and germination are coupled as water and water level fluctuations (WLF) simultaneously influence seed transport and germination conditions (soil moisture).

  12. Research/Evaluate Restoration of NE Oregon Streams: Effects of Livestock Exclosures (Corridor Fencing) on Riparian Vegetation, Stream Geomorphic Features and Fish Populations; Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, J. Boone

    2002-09-17

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 indicated ''The council shall properly develop and adopt a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat on the Columbia River and its tributaries.'' As a result, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has spent millions of dollars on various instream projects throughout the Columbia Basin with the goal of increasing system-wide production of anadromous fisheries through a combination of habitat restoration and enhancement measures. For two decades, numerous BPA-funded projects have been initiated in the upper Columbia River Basin for the express intent of improving the aquatic habitats of anadromous salmonids. Largely missing from most of these projects has been any rigorous evaluation of project success or failure. Some field reviews of some habitat projects have been undertaken (e.g., Beschta et al. 1991, Kauffman et al. 1993) and provide an overview of major problems and opportunities associated with selected projects. However, there continues to be a lack of quantifiable information, collected in a systematic manner that could be used as the basis for scientifically assessing the effects of individual projects on riparian/aquatic habitats, functions, or processes. Recent publications (e.g., NRC 1992, ISG 1996, NRC 1996, Beschta 1997, and Kauffman et al. 1997) have identified and summarized important concepts associated with the restoration and improvement of aquatic ecosystems. While such conceptual approaches provide an important structure for those undertaking restoration efforts, there remains a paucity of basic information throughout the upper Columbia Basin on the hydrologic, geomorphic, and biologic responses that occur from various enhancement approaches. Basic data on the spatial and temporal responses of restoration approaches would provide: (1) a better understanding of project effects upon

  13. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. PMID:27699201

  14. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  15. Evaluation report. Willow; Evalueringsrapport. Pil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang Bilgaard, H. [AgroTech A/S, Skejby, Aarhus (Denmark); Eide, T.; Gertz, F. [Videncentret for Landbrug, Skejby, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    This evaluation report brings together the main findings of willows activities in the BioM project in the period 2010-2012. The report contains sections relating to growing and cultivation conditions, energy production, environmental effects, landscape aspects, harvesting techniques, economics, and organization, marketing, and business effects, and a description of willow cultivation on a large scale in the project area in western Jutland, Denmark. The report concludes with an overall assessment of willow cultivation for the production of sustainable bioenergy. (LN)

  16. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  17. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  18. How do riparian woody seedlings survive seasonal drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, John C; Battles, John J

    2010-11-01

    In semi-arid regions, a major population limitation for riparian trees is seedling desiccation during the dry season that follows annual spring floods. We investigated the stress response of first-year pioneer riparian seedlings to experimental water table declines (0, 1 and 3 cm day(-1)), focusing on the three dominant cottonwood and willows (family Salicaceae) in California's San Joaquin Basin. We analyzed growth and belowground allocation response to water stress, and used logistic regression to determine if these traits had an influence on individual survival. The models indicate that high root growth (>3 mm day(-1)) and low shoot:root ratios (water-use efficiency for surviving water stress. Both S. gooddingii and sandbar willow (S. exigua) reduced leaf size from controls, whereas Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) sustained a 29% reduction in specific leaf area (from 13.4 to 9.6 m(2) kg(-1)). The functional responses exhibited by Goodding's willow, the more drought-tolerant species, may play a role in its greater relative abundance in dry regions such as the San Joaquin Basin. This study highlights the potential for a shift in riparian forest composition. Under a future drier climate regime or under reduced regulated river flows, our results suggest that willow establishment will be favored over cottonwood.

  19. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  20. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  1. Impact of native ungulates and beaver on riparian communities in the intermountain west

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact native ungulates, primarily elk and moose, and beaver can have on riparian communities in the Western United States. In Yellowstone National Park and in other areas where ungulates are not managed, repeated browsing has reduced tall willow, aspen, and cottonwood communities by approximately 95 percent since the late 1800's. Native ungulates can also severely reduce or eliminate palatable grasses and forbs from herbaceous riparian communities. By eliminating woody...

  2. Riparian vegetation interacting with river morphology : modelling long-term ecosystem responses to invasive species, climate change, dams and river restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, M.

    2017-01-01

    River systems are amongst the most dynamic and productive ecosystems in the world and provide habitats for numerous fluvial species. River flow and river shape determine the conditions that affect plant growth and survival. In turn, riparian plants can actively influence river flow and sedimentation

  3. Mechanical and Hydrologic Effects of Riparian Vegetation on Critical Conditions for Streambank Stability: Upper Truckee River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Pollen, N. L.; Langendoen, E. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Upper Truckee River is the single largest contributor of sediment to Lake Tahoe with a large proportion of the suspended-sediment load coming from eroding streambanks. Recent advances in quantifying streambank processes highlight the combined effects of hydraulic erosion at the bank toe with geotechnical stability of the upper part of the bank and resulted in the development of a deterministic model of bank-toe erosion and streambank stability (Simon et al., 1999). The use of riparian vegetation in schemes of bank stabilization and stream restoration have become popular but are often implemented on a trial and error basis because of a lack of quantifiable information on the mechanical and hydrologic effects of vegetation on bank stability. This study, conducted along an unstable reach of the Upper Truckee River, combines field data with numerical modeling to quantify (1) hydraulic and geotechnical driving and resisting forces that control bank failures, (2) the mechanical and hydrologic effects of vegetation on shear strength, and (3) the critical conditions for bank stability with and without indigenous riparian species. Tests were conducted using three top-bank treatments: bare (control), Lemmon's willow, and young Lodgepole pine. The susceptibility of the bank toe to erosion by hydraulic forces was quantified by conducting submerged jet tests of in situ material to determine the erodibility coefficient (k) and the critical shear stress of the material. Drained, shear-strength parameters (cohesion and friction angle) of the banks were determined from borehole shear tests at various depths. Pore-water pressure and matric suction were monitored at three depths (30, 100, and 150 cm) with digital tensiometers to calculate changes in apparent cohesion for the period (September 2003 - May 2004) and to differentiate between the hydrologic effects of the two species. Root reinforcement of the two species was quantified by determining the relation between root

  4. Willow on Yellowstone's northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hawthorne L; Merrill, Evelyn H; Varley, Nathan; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995-1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We sampled two species of willow (Salix boothii and S. geyeriana) on the northern winter range to determine whether (1) there was quantitative evidence of increased willow growth following wolf reintroduction, (2) browsing by elk affected willow growth, and (3) any increase in growth observed was greater than that expected by climatic and hydrological factors alone, thereby indicating a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Using stem sectioning techniques to quantify historical growth patterns we found an approximately twofold increase in stem growth-ring area following wolf reintroduction for both species of willow. This increase could not be explained by climate and hydrological factors alone; the presence of wolves on the landscape was a significant predictor of stem growth above and beyond these abiotic factors. Growth-ring area was positively correlated with the previous year's ring area and negatively correlated with the percentage of twigs browsed from the stem during the winter preceding growth, indicating that elk browse impeded stem growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade on Yellowstone's northern winter range following wolf reintroduction. We suggest that the community-altering effects of wolf restoration are an endorsement of ecological-process management in Yellowstone National Park.

  5. Riparian shrub metal concentrations and growth in amended fluvial mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluvial mine tailing deposition has caused extensive riparian damage throughout the western United States. Willows are often used for fluvial mine tailing revegetation, but some species accumulate excessive metal concentrations which could be detrimental to browsers. In a greenhouse experiment, gr...

  6. Flood-controlled excess-air formation favors aerobic respiration and limits denitrification activity in riparian groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePeter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The saturated riparian zones of rivers act as spatially and temporally variable biogeochemical reactors. This complicates the assessment of biogeochemical transport and transformation processes. During a flood event, excess-air formation, i.e. the inclusion and dissolution of air bubbles into groundwater, can introduce high amounts of dissolved O2 and thereby affect biogeochemical processes in groundwater. With the help of a field-installed membrane-inlet mass-spectrometer we resolved the effects of flood induced excess-air formationon organic carbon and nitrogen transformations in groundwater of different riparian zones of a restored section of the River Thur, Switzerland. The results show that the flood event triggered high aerobic respiration activity in the groundwater below a zone densely populated with willow plants. The flood introduced high concentrations of O2 (230 µmol L–1 to the groundwater through the formation of excess air and transported up to ~400 µmol L 1 organic carbon from the soil/root layer into groundwater during the movement of the water table. A rapid respiration process, quantified via the measurements of O2, CO2 and noble-gas concentrations, led to fast depletion of the introduced O2 and organic carbon and to high CO2 concentration (590 µmol L–1 in the groundwater shortly after the flood. The synchronous analysis of different nitrogen species allowed studying the importance of denitrification activity. The results indicate that in the willow zone excess-air formation inhibited denitrification through high O2 concentration input. Instead, the observed decrease in nitrate concentration (~50 µmol N L 1 may be related to fostered nitrate uptake by plants. In the other riparian zones closer to the river, no significant excess-air formation and corresponding respiration activity was observed. Overall, analyzing the dissolved gases in the groundwater significantly contributed to deciphering biogeochemical processes in

  7. Function, Design, and Establishment of Riparian Forest Buffers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia Caldwell

    1999-01-01

    Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests protect and improve water quality, provide habitat for plants and animals, support aquatic communities, and provide many benefits to humans. Virginia, along with other states in the Chesapeake Bay region, has recognized the importance of riparian forests by implementing a plan to restore forested buffers along streams, rivers, and lakes. This project reviews selected literature on riparian forest bu...

  8. Fertilization of SRC willow. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  9. The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, T.A.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Nowak, C.A.; White, E.H.; Smart, L.B.; Tharakan, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities-including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development-were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops. Despite technological viability and associated environmental and local economic benefits, the high price of willow biomass relative to coal has been a barrier to wide-scale deployment of this system. The cost of willow biomass is currently $3.00GJ -1 ($57.30odt -1 ) compared to $1.40-1.90GJ -1 for coal. Yield improvements from traditional breeding efforts and increases in harvesting efficiency that are currently being realized promise to reduce the price differential. Recent policy changes at the federal level, including the provision to harvest bioenergy crops from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land and a closed-loop biomass tax credit, and state-level initiatives such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) will help to further reduce the difference and foster markets for willow biomass. Years of work on willow biomass crop research and demonstration projects have increased our understanding of the biology, ecophysiology and management of willow biomass crops. Using an adaptive management model, this information has led to the deployment of willow for other applications such as phytoremediation, living snow fences, and riparian buffers across the northeastern US. (author)

  10. Genetic variation in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph; Miller, Mark P.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; Keim, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in isolated remnants of dense riparian habitat in the southwestern United States. We estimated genetic variation at 20 breeding sites of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (290 individuals) using 38 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our results suggest that considerable genetic diversity exists within the subspecies and within local breeding sites. Statistical analyses of genetic variation revealed only slight, although significant, differentiation among breeding sites (Mantel's r = 0.0705, P UPGMA cluster analysis of the AFLP markers indicates that extensive gene flow has occurred among breeding sites. No one site stood out as being genetically unique or isolated. Therefore, the small level of genetic structure that we detected may not be biologically significant. Ongoing field studies are consistent with this conclusion. Of the banded birds that were resighted or recaptured in Arizona during the 1996 to 1998 breeding seasons, one-third moved between breeding sites and two-thirds were philopatric. Low differentiation may be the result of historically high rangewide diversity followed by recent geographic isolation of breeding sites, although observational data indicate that gene flow is a current phenomenon. Our data suggest that breeding groups of E. t. extimus act as a metapopulation.

  11. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Marli Candalaft Alcantara Parra; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ralisch, Ricardo; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ripol, Cristovon Videira; Instituto Paranaense de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural do Paraná/EMATER

    2009-01-01

    Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environment...

  12. Developing management strategies for riparian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Hibbs; S. Chan

    2001-01-01

    This talk outlines four principles that are critical to successful management of a riparian area. First, given problems both with defining historic conditions and with returning to them, attaining management goals based on restoration of ecological processes and functions will be far more successful. Second, the management goals for any stream reach must be placed in a...

  13. Drying characteristics of willow chips and stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Seres, I.; Meerdink, G.; Coumans, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In supply chains of willow (Salix viminalis) biomass to energy plants, drying is advisable in order to enable safe long-term storage, increase boiler efficiency and reduce gaseous emissions. To gain insight into the drying process, drying characteristics of willow chips and stems were investigated

  14. Denitrification capacity and greenhouse gas emissions of soils in channelized and restored reaches along an Alpine river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Juna; Niklaus, Pascal; Samaritani, Emanuela; Frossard, Emmanuel; Tockner, Klement; Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water and air quality, the biogeochemical functions of channelized and restored river reaches have to be quantified. The objective of this study was to compare denitrification potential and greenhouse gas emissions of functional processing zones (FPZ) in a channelized and a recently restored reach of the alpine river Thur in north-eastern Switzerland. The study was part of the project cluster RECORD of the ETH domain, Switzerland, which was initiated to increase the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The denitrification potential represents an important aspect of the soil filter function related to water quality. Besides, it also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases. Extensively used pasture growing on a sandy loam is the characteristic FPZ of the channelized section. The restored section encompasses five FPZ: (i) bare gravel bars sparsely colonized by plants, (ii) gravel bars densely colonized by grass (mainly canary reed grass with up to 80 cm sandy deposits), (iii) mixed forest dominated by ash and maple, (iv) riparian forest dominated by willow (Salix alba), (v) older overbank sediments stabilized during restoration with young willows separating the forests from the river-gravel bar system (willow bush). The FPZ were sampled in January, April, August and October 2009. In addition, in June and July 2009 two flood events were monitored in the restored section with more frequent samplings. At each date, topsoil samples were collected in each FPZ (four replicates per samples) and analyzed for denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA). In addition, gas samples were taken in-situ using the closed chamber technique to measure soil respiration as well as N2O and CH4 fluxes. In all FPZ, the denitrification potential was mainly governed by soil moisture. It was highest in the willow forest exhibiting low spatial variability. The DEA in pasture, grass zone

  15. Variable Width Riparian Model Enhances Landscape and Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.; Spencer, L.

    2017-12-01

    Riparian areas are ecotones that represent about 1% of USFS administered landscape and contribute to numerous valuable ecosystem functions such as wildlife habitat, stream water quality and flows, bank stability and protection against erosion, and values related to diversity, aesthetics and recreation. Riparian zones capture the transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with specific vegetation and soil characteristics which provide critical values/functions and are very responsive to changes in land management activities and uses. Two staff areas at the US Forest Service have coordinated on a two phase project to support the National Forests in their planning revision efforts and to address rangeland riparian business needs at the Forest Plan and Allotment Management Plan levels. The first part of the project will include a national fine scale (USGS HUC-12 digits watersheds) inventory of riparian areas on National Forest Service lands in western United States with riparian land cover, utilizing GIS capabilities and open source geospatial data. The second part of the project will include the application of riparian land cover change and assessment based on selected indicators to assess and monitor riparian areas on annual/5-year cycle basis.This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional nature of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process. The results suggest that incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning can improve riparian protection and restoration. The application of Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) approach can provide the agency Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) with observed riparian area condition on an annual basis and on multiple scales. The use of this model to map moderate to low gradient systems of sufficient width in conjunction with an understanding of the influence of distinctive landscape

  16. Assessing the extent and diversity of riparian ecosystems in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M.L.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Valdes-Casillas, C.; Erker, J.A.; Reynolds, E.W.; Shafroth, P.B.; Gomez-Limon, E.; Jones, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation of forested riparian ecosystems is of international concern. Relatively little is known of the structure, composition, diversity, and extent of riparian ecosystems in Mexico. We used high- and low-resolution satellite imagery from 2000 to 2006, and ground-based sampling in 2006, to assess the spatial pattern, extent, and woody plant composition of riparian forests across a range of spatial scales for the state of Sonora, Mexico. For all 3rd and higher order streams, river bottomlands with riparian forests occupied a total area of 2,301 km2. Where forested bottomlands remained, on average, 34% of the area had been converted to agriculture while 39% remained forested. We estimated that the total area of riparian forest along the principal streams was 897 km2. Including fencerow trees, the total forested riparian area was 944 km2, or 0.5% of the total land area of Sonora. Ground-based sampling of woody riparian vegetation consisted of 92, 50 m radius circular plots. About 79 woody plant species were noted. The most important tree species, based on cover and frequency, were willow species Salix spp. (primarily S. goodingii and S. bonplandiana), mesquite species Prosopis spp. (primarily P. velutina), and Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. Woody riparian taxa at the reach scale showed a trend of increasing diversity from north to south within Sonora. Species richness was greatest in the willow-bald cypress Taxodium distichum var. mexicanum-Mexican cottonwood P. mexicana subsp. dimorphia ecosystem. The non-native tamarisk Tamarix spp. was rare, occurring at just three study reaches. Relatively natural stream flow patterns and fluvial disturbance regimes likely limit its establishment and spread. ?? 2008 Springer Science + Business Media BV.

  17. COMPACTION STUDIES OF TORREFIED WILLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rejdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of torrefied willow (Salix viminalis L. compaction. Densification tests were performed using a hydraulic press with a maximum pressure of 216 MPa. The effect of basic parameters of the briquetting process (pressure and temperature on mechanical parameters of manufactured briquettes were determined. On the basis of the research, it was found that the increase in pressure and temperature of the densification process increases the density and strength of pressed briquettes. The positive effect of temperature is particularly noticeable at lower pressing pressures (36 MPa – 72 MPa. In the case of a temperature of 300 °C, the increase in a pressure from 144 MPa to 216 MPa resulted in the decrease in the density and strength of the briquette. It was also found that the briquettes manufactured at this temperature are characterized by lower density and strength than the briquettes obtained at a temperature of 200 °C.

  18. Willow Browse Survey 2016 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Browse pressure by ungulate species, primarily elk, is known to have a negative impact on the health of willow stands. On Baca and Alamosa NWR’s, it has been noticed...

  19. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility.

  20. Willow Browse Survey 2015 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Browse pressure by ungulate species, primarily elk, is known to have a negative impact on the health of willow stands. On Baca and Alamosa NWR’s, it has been noticed...

  1. The Irrigation Effect: How River Regulation Can Promote Some Riparian Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karen M.; Goater, Lori A.; Braatne, Jeffrey H.; Rood, Stewart B.

    2018-04-01

    River regulation impacts riparian ecosystems by altering the hydrogeomorphic conditions that support streamside vegetation. Obligate riparian plants are often negatively impacted since they are ecological specialists with particular instream flow requirements. Conversely, facultative riparian plants are generalists and may be less vulnerable to river regulation, and could benefit from augmented flows that reduce drought stress during hot and dry periods. To consider this `irrigation effect' we studied the facultative shrub, netleaf hackberry ( Celtis reticulata), the predominant riparian plant along the Hells Canyon corridor of the Snake River, Idaho, USA, where dams produce hydropeaking, diurnal flow variation. Inventories of 235 cross-sectional transects revealed that hackberry was uncommon upstream from the reservoirs, sparse along the reservoir with seasonal draw-down and common along two reservoirs with stabilized water levels. Along the Snake River downstream, hackberry occurred in fairly continuous, dense bands along the high water line. In contrast, hackberry was sparsely scattered along the free-flowing Salmon River, where sandbar willow ( Salix exigua), an obligate riparian shrub, was abundant. Below the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, the abundance and distribution of hackberry were intermediate between the two upstream reaches. Thus, river regulation apparently benefited hackberry along the Snake River through Hells Canyon, probably due to diurnal pulsing that wets the riparian margin. We predict similar benefits for some other facultative riparian plants along other regulated rivers with hydropeaking during warm and dry intervals. To analyze the ecological impacts of hydropeaking we recommend assessing daily maxima, as well as daily mean river flows.

  2. Evaluating the quality of riparian forest vegetation: the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Magdaleno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper presents a novel index, the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index, for assessing the ecological condition of riparian forests. The status of riparian ecosystems has global importance due to the ecological and social benefits and services they provide. The initiation of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE requires the assessment of the hydromorphological quality of natural channels. The Directive describes riparian forests as one of the fundamental components that determine the structure of riverine areas. The RFV index was developed to meet the aim of the Directive and to complement the existing methodologies for the evaluation of riparian forests.Area of study: The RFV index was applied to a wide range of streams and rivers (170 water bodies inSpain.Materials and methods: The calculation of the RFV index is based on the assessment of both the spatial continuity of the forest (in its three core dimensions: longitudinal, transversal and vertical and the regeneration capacity of the forest, in a sampling area related to the river hydromorphological pattern. This index enables an evaluation of the quality and degree of alteration of riparian forests. In addition, it helps to determine the scenarios that are necessary to improve the status of riparian forests and to develop processes for restoring their structure and composition.Main results: The results were compared with some previous tools for the assessment of riparian vegetation. The RFV index got the highest average scores in the basins of northernSpain, which suffer lower human influence. The forests in central and southern rivers got worse scores. The bigger differences with other tools were found in complex and partially altered streams and rivers.Research highlights: The study showed the index’s applicability under diverse hydromorphological and ecological conditions and the main advantages of its application. The utilization of the index allows a

  3. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  4. White willow sexual regeneration capacity under estuarine conditions in times of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Denstorf, Julian; Jensen, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Tidal wetlands provide both habitats for coastal populations and wildlife, and ecosystem services for human welfare. Building with nature regarding cost-effective coastal protection is of increasing interest. Much research has been carried out on plant reproduction capacities in mangroves and salt marshes, but less is known on this issue in tidal freshwater wetlands. Willows are being successfully used for bank stabilization in riverine habitats, however, today white willow softwood forests in tidal wetlands are highly fragmented, and restoration is required e.g. by the European Habitats Directive. Recently, tolerance to increasing salinity and tidal flooding was found for vegetative propagules of floodplain willows. However, the establishment of autochthonous sexual recruits is necessary to conserve the genetic diversity of local populations, and thus may be preferable in restoration. The germination and early seedling establishment of Salix alba (white willow) was experimentally studied under simulated estuarine conditions. The species tolerance to increasing salinity (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2) was tested in a climate chamber, and its tolerance to flooding at different tidal treatments (control, spring tide, daily tide 15 min and 2 h flooding) in the greenhouse. Germination was neither affected by increasing salinity nor by tidal flooding. Salix seedlings established up to salinity 1.5, but cotyledon performance and radicle growth was largely reduced at salinity 2. Under tidal flooding, seedling growth was similar in all treatments. However, in the treatments with daily tides seedling anchorage in the substrate took more than two weeks, and fewer seedlings reached a suitable length to approach the high water line. We assess S. alba sexual regeneration under estuarine conditions as generally possible. Further studies are needed on the effects of sedimentation-erosion processes on willow establishment in the field, especially on feedbacks between Salix survival and

  5. Processos hidrológicos em diferentes modelos de plantio de restauração de mata ciliar em região de cerrado. Hydrological processes in different riparian forest restoration models in cerrado domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baldo de GÊNOVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A restauração de florestas ciliares temsido recomendada como a melhor estratégiavisando à proteção dos recursos hídricos e àrecuperação da biodiversidade. No entanto, quasenada se conhece sobre o papel hidrológico dasflorestas plantadas e seus efeitos protetores.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisarcomparativamente alguns modelos de plantio demata ciliar em região de cerrado, para verificar sediferem quanto ao seu papel na interceptação daágua das chuvas e em sua influência na umidadedo solo, com reflexos sobre a função protetora dafloresta. Foram coletados, durante cinco meses,dados pluviométicos no interior de quatro modelosde plantio aos dezessete anos (um plantio mistocom espécies de cerrado e três plantios puros,com Pinus elliottii, Tapirira guianensis eAnadenanthera falcata e em área aberta paracomparação. Para análises de umidade, foramcoletadas amostras compostas da camada superficialdo solo (0 a 20 cm em cada uma das parcelas.Houve variação na porcentagem da água daschuvas interceptada pelas copas entre os diferentesmodelos, com o maior valor no plantio puro deTapirira guianensis (30,8%, espécie latifoliadaperenifólia e com a maior densidade de árvores.No outro extremo, o plantio de Anadenantherafalcata, uma espécie caducifólia de folhas muitopequenas, reteve apenas 12,5% da água daschuvas. A umidade do solo, como era esperado,foi inversamente proporcional à interceptação.Não se observou correlação entre a biomassaflorestal e a interceptação ou umidade do solo.Riparian forest restoration has beenreported as the most efficient strategy to protectwater resources and to recover biodiversity.However, few is known about the hydrologicalfunctioning of the planted forests and theirprotective effect. Some different riparian forestrestoration models were analized 17 years afterplanting, to verify the hypothesis that differentforest structure and composition are correlated todifferent hydrological

  6. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  7. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  8. Stream channel designs for riparian and wet meadow rangelands in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Jemison; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Inappropriate land uses have degraded wetland and riparian ecosystems throughout the Southwestern United States. In 1996, the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico implemented a channel relocation project, as part of a road improvement project, to determine the feasibility of restoring wet meadow and riparian ecosystems degraded by inappropriately located roads and...

  9. The Role of Riparian Vegetation in Protecting and Improving Chemical Water Quality in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Dosskey; Philippe Vidon; Noel P. Gurwick; Craig J. Allan; Tim P. Duval; Richard Lowrance

    2010-01-01

    We review the research literature and summarize the major processes by which riparian vegetation influences chemical water quality in streams, as well as how these processes vary among vegetation types, and discuss how these processes respond to removal and restoration of riparian vegetation and thereby determine the timing and level of response in stream water quality...

  10. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  11. How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-André Henden

    Full Text Available The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket areal extent, configuration and habitat structure affected bird abundance, occupancy rates and species richness so as to provide an empirical basis for predicting the outcome of environmental change for riparian tundra bird communities. Based on a 4-year count data series, obtained through a large-scale study design in low arctic tundra in northern Norway, statistical hierarchical community models were deployed to assess relations between habitat configuration and bird species occupancy and community richness. We found that species abundance, occupancy and richness were greatly affected by willow areal extent and configuration, habitat features likely to be affected by intense ungulate browsing as well as climate warming. In sum, total species richness was maximized in large and tall willow patches of small to intermediate degree of fragmentation. These community effects were mainly driven by responses in the occupancy rates of species depending on tall willows for foraging and breeding, while species favouring other vegetation states were not affected. In light of the predicted climate driven willow shrub encroachment in riparian tundra habitats, our study predicts that many bird species would increase in abundance, and that the bird community as a whole could become enriched. Conversely, in tundra regions where overabundance of large herbivores leads to decreased areal extent, reduced height and increased fragmentation

  12. Willow vegetation filters: Principles, results and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.

    1996-01-01

    During recent years, it has become obvious that it is both environmentally and economically appropriate to use vegetation filters of different short rotation willows (Salix spp.) to purify water and soil. Swedish experiences of vegetation filter efficiencies have been demonstrated in several laboratory, field lysimeter, and full-scale experiments. However, there are still many questions to be answered, for example, how the uptake and allocation mechanisms of heavy metals and recalcitrant organic constituents function, or which maximum doses are possible in a particular situation without any risk of leachate losses. As far as plant nutrition is concerned, the past two decades of integrated research in Sweden have demonstrated that the willows have capacity for efficient uptake both of macro and micro nutrients, which is reflected in their high productivity. The purpose of this paper is to present some results on how vegetation filter stands of willow, irrigated with municipal wastewater, can function as purification plants, while at the same time producing fuelwood. This twofold utilization benefits both the environment and the economy. Treatment plants for wastewater purification using various types of vegetation filters have been tried in Sweden. The experiences consider both the nutrient and heavy metal uptake, and the whole process chain from establishment, cultivation and harvesting of the wastewater irrigated willow stands, to the utilization of the wood in heating plants. 33 refs, 5 tabs

  13. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  14. Erratum to: Fertilization of SRC Willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  15. Incorporating climate change and exotic species into forecasts of riparian forest distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana H Ikeda

    Full Text Available We examined the impact climate change (CC will have on the availability of climatically suitable habitat for three native and one exotic riparian species. Due to its increasing prevalence in arid regions throughout the western US, we predicted that an exotic species, Tamarix, would have the greatest increase in suitable habitat relative to native counterparts under CC. We used an ecological niche model to predict range shifts of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, Salix exigua and Tamarix, from present day to 2080s, under five general circulation models and one climate change scenario (A1B. Four major findings emerged. 1 Contrary to our original hypothesis, P. fremontii is projected to have the greatest increase in suitable habitat under CC, followed closely by Tamarix. 2 Of the native species, S. gooddingii and S. exigua showed the greatest loss in predicted suitable habitat due to CC. 3 Nearly 80 percent of future P. fremontii and Salix habitat is predicted to be affected by either CC or Tamarix by the 2080s. 4 By the 2080s, 20 percent of S. gooddingii habitat is projected to be affected by both Tamarix and CC concurrently, followed by S. exigua (19 percent and P. fremontii (13 percent. In summary, while climate change alone will negatively impact both native willow species, Tamarix is likely to affect a larger portion of all three native species' distributions. We discuss these and other results in the context of prioritizing restoration and conservation efforts to optimize future productivity and biodiversity. As we are accounting for only direct effects of CC and Tamarix on native habitat, we present a possible hierarchy of effects- from the direct to the indirect- and discuss the potential for the indirect to outweigh the direct effects. Our results highlight the need to account for simultaneous challenges in the face of CC.

  16. Seasonal estimates of riparian evapotranspiration using remote and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D.C.; Scott, R.; Qi, J.; Goff, B.; Unkrich, C.L.; Moran, M.S.; Williams, D.; Schaeffer, S.; Snyder, K.; MacNish, R.; Maddock, T.; Pool, D.; Chehbouni, A.; Cooper, D.I.; Eichinger, W.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Kerr, Y.; Marsett, R.; Ni, W.

    2000-01-01

    In many semi-arid basins during extended periods when surface snowmelt or storm runoff is absent, groundwater constitutes the primary water source for human habitation, agriculture and riparian ecosystems. Utilizing regional groundwater models in the management of these water resources requires accurate estimates of basin boundary conditions. A critical groundwater boundary condition that is closely coupled to atmospheric processes and is typically known with little certainty is seasonal riparian evapotranspiration ET). This quantity can often be a significant factor in the basin water balance in semi-arid regions yet is very difficult to estimate over a large area. Better understanding and quantification of seasonal, large-area riparian ET is a primary objective of the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program. To address this objective, a series of interdisciplinary experimental Campaigns were conducted in 1997 in the San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona. The riparian system in this basin is primarily made up of three vegetation communities: mesquite (Prosopis velutina), sacaton grasses (Sporobolus wrightii), and a cottonwood (Populus fremontii)/willow (Salix goodingii) forest gallery. Micrometeorological measurement techniques were used to estimate ET from the mesquite and grasses. These techniques could not be utilized to estimate fluxes from the cottonwood/willow (C/W) forest gallery due to the height (20-30 m) and non-uniform linear nature of the forest gallery. Short-term (2-4 days) sap flux measurements were made to estimate canopy transpiration over several periods of the riparian growing season. Simultaneous remote sensing measurements were used to spatially extrapolate tree and stand measurements. Scaled C/W stand level sap flux estimates were utilized to calibrate a Penman-Monteith model to enable temporal extrapolation between Synoptic measurement periods. With this model and set of measurements, seasonal riparian vegetation water use

  17. Influence of microtopography on soil chemistry and understory riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene M. Unger; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2008-01-01

    The success of riparian forest restoration efforts depends in part on an understanding of the relationship between soil characteristics and vegetation patterns and how these change with site conditions. To examine these relationships for floodplains in northern Missouri, we chose three unchannelized streams as study areas. A sampling grid was established at two plots...

  18. Wood biomass: The potential of willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1991-10-01

    Experiments were established in central New York State in spring, 1987, to evaluate the potential of Salix for wood biomass production using ultrashort-rotation intensive-culture techniques. Five selected willow clones and one hybrid poplar clone planted at 1 x 1 foot spacing were tested for biomass production with annual coppicing. This report presents results of this research as of December 31, 1990. (VC)

  19. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... gave higher willow biomass production in willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Type of model weed had no effect on willow performance. Weed biomass and maximum shoot height were higher in weeds planted without willows compared to the willow-weed mixtures. A high nitrogen level gave more weed...... biomass when planted without willows and in the willow-weed mixture with weeds sown after 15 days. We conclude that for the given high density of willow, competition from weeds emerging soon after willow planting had strong effect on early production. Furthermore, if there is a risk of weed infestation...

  20. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control is a major focus of recovery-oriented management of two endangered riparian bird species,the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). During the past 20 years, annual trapping of cowbirds at Least Bell's Vireo and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites has eliminated or reduced parasitism in comparison with pretrapping rates and, thereby, significantly increased seasonal productivity of nesting pairs. Enhanced productivity, in turn, has resulted in an 8-fold increase in numbers of Least Bell's Vireos; Southwestern Willow Flycatcher abundance, however, has changed little, and at some sites has declined despite cowbird control. Although generally successful by these short-term measures of host population response, cowbird control poses potential negative consequences for long-term recovery of endangered species. As currently employed, cowbird control lacks predetermined biological criteria to trigger an end to the control, making these species' dependence on human intervention open-ended. Prolonged reliance on cowbird control to manage endangered species can shift attention from identifying and managing other factors that limit populations--in particular, habitat availability. On the basis of our analysis of these long-term programs, we suggest that cowbird control be reserved for short-term crisis management and be replaced, when appropriate, by practices emphasizing restoration and maintenance of natural processes on which species depend. /// El manejo orientado hacia la recuperación de dos especies de aves ribereñas Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus se ha focalizado principalmente en el control de los Molothrus spp parásitos. Durante los pasados 20 años, la captura anual de los Molothrus en las áreas de nidificación de Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus ha eliminado o reducido el parasitismo en comparación con las tasas

  1. Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, R.S.; Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of PAH to willow trees (Salix alba, S. viminalis, S. viminalisx;schwerinii) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in PAH-saturated hydroponic solution (naphthalene NAP, phenanthrene PHEN and benzo(a)pyrene BaP). Toxicity was related to aqueous solubility and was highest for NAP...

  2. A profile and analysis of willow growers in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, H.; Roos, A.; Ling, E.; Hektor, B.

    1999-01-01

    Willow plantations on Swedish farmland increased considerably between 1991 and 1996. The main driving forces behind this development were (1) the 1991 introduction of an agriculture deregulation policy in Sweden which created lower grain prices and simultaneously introduced compensation for set-aside land and subsidies for willow plantations on surplus arable land, (2) higher taxes on fossil fuels, and (3) the existence of a biofuel market in Sweden based on forest fuels. This paper presents a statistical study of 1,158 willow growers in southern and central-eastern Sweden. The resulting profile of growers will help policy makers and agents in the bioenergy business design information campaigns and marketing strategies. Willow growers are described according to geographical distribution, willow parcel sizes, farm sizes, and farm types. They are compared with the population of farmers who are not growing willow. Willow growers are more often between 50-65 years of age, and they have larger farms than non-willow growers. They are less often focused on animal and milk production and more often on cereal and food crop production than are other farmers. (author)

  3. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC, the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R, stems (WS-R, leaves (WL-R, and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D, stems (WS-D, and leaves (WL-D were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants.

  4. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  5. Puente Willow Creek en Monterrey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the 10 awards given every year by the Prestressed Concrete Institute for the most outstanding prestressed concrete projects, two have been awarded in California this year, one of them to the Willow Creek bridge, near Monterrey. The prestressed, double T girders of this bridge were made at a workshop, a great distance from the bridge site. These are 24 m long, 1.35 m high, and are stabilized by transversal diaphragms, 20 cm in thickness. The table deck is of reinforced concrete, being 8.85 m wide and 20 cm thick. The structure is straightforward, slender, and adapts itself pleasantly to the background. It has seven spans and crosses over a secondary road, in addition to bridging the Willow stream. The supporting piles are hollow, of rectangular cross section, and over them a cross beam carries the five girders and the deck itself. The end abutments consist of vertical reinforced concrete walls, and supporting, soil filled, structures. The above information was supplied by the California Road Department.De los diez premios que anualmente concede el Prestressed Concrete Institute para las obras de hormigón pretensado más notables, dos han correspondido a California y uno de ellos al puente de Willow Creek, situado en la región de Monterrey. Las vigas de hormigón pretensado, con sección en forma de doble T, se prefabricaron en un taller situado a gran distancia del puente. Tienen 24 m de longitud y 1,35 m de canto, estando arriostradas con diafragmas transversales de 20 cm de espesor. La losa del tablero, de hormigón armado, tiene 8,85 m de anchura y 20 cm de espesor. La estructura es sencilla, esbelta y armoniza perfectamente con el paisaje que la circunda. Tiene siete tramos y salva un paso inferior secundario y el arroyo Willow. Los soportes, se apoyan sobre pilotes, algunos de gran altura; son huecos, de sección rectangular y terminan en una cruceta que sirve de sostén a las cinco vigas que soportan la losa del tablero. Los estribos

  6. Using a remote sensing/GIS model to predict southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the

  7. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  8. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  9. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  10. Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.

  11. Coevolution of floodplain and riparian forest dynamics on large, meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Riddle, J. D.; Battles, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    On large meandering rivers, riparian forests coevolve with the floodplains that support them. Floodplain characteristics such as local disturbance regime, deposition rates and sediment texture drive plant community dynamics, which in turn feed back to the abiotic processes. We investigated floodplain and riparian forest coevolution along the along the Sacramento River (California, USA), a large, mediterranean-climate river that has been extensively regulated for 70 years, but whose 160-km middle reach (Red Bluff to Colusa) retains some channel mobility and natural forest stands. Guided by maps of floodplain change over time and current vegetation cover, we conducted an extensive forest inventory and chronosequence analysis to quantify how abiotic conditions and forest structural characteristics such as tree density, basal area and biomass vary with floodplain age. We inventoried 285 fixed-area plots distributed across 19 large point bars within vegetation patches ranging in age from 4 to 107 years. Two successional trajectories were evident: (1) shifting species dominance over time within forested areas, from willow to cottonwood to walnut, boxelder and valley oak; and (2) patches of shrub willow (primarily Salix exigua) that maintained dominance throughout time. Sediment accretion was reduced in the persistent willow plots compared to the successional forest stands, suggesting an association between higher flood energy and arrested succession. Forested stands 40-60 years old were the most extensive across the chronosequence in terms of floodplain area, and supported the highest biomass, species diversity, and functional wildlife habitat. These stands were dominated by Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and reached their maxima in terms of tree size and biomass at age 50 years. The persistent willow stands reached their structural maxima earlier (32 years) and supported lower biomass. Basal area and abundance of large trees decreased in stands >90 years old

  12. Theory, methods and tools for determining environmental flows for riparian vegetation: Riparian vegetation-flow response guilds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D.M.; Scott, M.L.; Leroy, Poff N.; Auble, G.T.; Lytle, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian vegetation composition, structure and abundance are governed to a large degree by river flow regime and flow-mediated fluvial processes. Streamflow regime exerts selective pressures on riparian vegetation, resulting in adaptations (trait syndromes) to specific flow attributes. Widespread modification of flow regimes by humans has resulted in extensive alteration of riparian vegetation communities. Some of the negative effects of altered flow regimes on vegetation may be reversed by restoring components of the natural flow regime. 2. Models have been developed that quantitatively relate components of the flow regime to attributes of riparian vegetation at the individual, population and community levels. Predictive models range from simple statistical relationships, to more complex stochastic matrix population models and dynamic simulation models. Of the dozens of predictive models reviewed here, most treat one or a few species, have many simplifying assumptions such as stable channel form, and do not specify the time-scale of response. In many cases, these models are very effective in developing alternative streamflow management plans for specific river reaches or segments but are not directly transferable to other rivers or other regions. 3. A primary goal in riparian ecology is to develop general frameworks for prediction of vegetation response to changing environmental conditions. The development of riparian vegetation-flow response guilds offers a framework for transferring information from rivers where flow standards have been developed to maintain desirable vegetation attributes, to rivers with little or no existing information. 4. We propose to organise riparian plants into non-phylogenetic groupings of species with shared traits that are related to components of hydrologic regime: life history, reproductive strategy, morphology, adaptations to fluvial disturbance and adaptations to water availability. Plants from any river or region may be grouped

  13. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  14. A phytotoxicity test using transpiration of willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Zambrano, Kim Cecilia; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    is expressed as % decrease after 48 and 72 h or longer compared to the initial transpiration, divided by the transpiration of control plants. More toxicity parameters are growth and water use efficiency of the plants. The sensitivity of the test was evaluated with 3,5-dichlorophenol. EC50 values between 5......A short-term acute toxicity assay for willow trees growing in contaminated solution or in polluted soil was developed and tested. The test apparatus consists of an Erlenmeyer flask with a prerooted tree cutting growing in it. Growth and reduction of transpiration are used to determine toxicity....... Transpiration is closely related to photosynthesis and growth, but is easier and faster to measure and can be measured without disturbance of the test system. Plants are grown for 24 h in uncontaminated nutrient solution before the toxicant is added to determine the initial transpiration. The loss of weight...

  15. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  16. GIS applications in riparian management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie Christman; Douglas W. Shaw; Charles L. Spann; Penny Luehring

    1996-01-01

    GIS was used to prioritize watersheds for treatment needs across the USDA Forest Service Southwestern Region. Factors in this analysis included soil condition, riparian habitat, population centers and mining sites.

  17. Germination timing and rate of locally collected western wheatgrass and smooth brome grass: the role of collection site and light sensitivity along a riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecological integrity of riparian areas is reduced by biological plant invaders like smooth brome grass (Bromus inermis). Smooth brome actively invades recently disturbed riparian zones by its high seed production and fast seedling establishment. Restoring native perennial grasses to these regio...

  18. Selection of Willows (Salix sp. for Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kajba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Willows compared with other species are the most suitable for biomass production in short rotations because of their very abundant growth during the first years. Nowadays, in Croatia, a large number of selected and registered willow clones are available. The main objective of the research should be to find genotypes which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum quantity of biomass. Material and Methods: Clonal test of the arborescent willows include the autochthonous White Willow (Salix alba, interracial hybrids of the autochthonous White Willow and the English ‘cricket’ Willow (S. alba var. calva, interspecies hybrids (S. matsudana × S. alba, as well as multispecies hybrids of willows. Average production of dry biomass (DM∙ha-1∙a-1 per hectare was estimated in regard to the clone, survival, spacing and the number of shoots per stump. Results: The highest biomass production as well as the best adaptedness and phenotypic stability on testing site was shown by clones (‘V 374’, ‘V 461’, ‘V 578’ from 15.2 - 25.0 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1 originated from backcross hybrid S. matsudana × (S. matsudana × S. alba and by one S. alba clone (‘V 95’, 23.1 - 25.7 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1. These clones are now at the stage of registration and these results indicate significant potential for further breeding aimed at biomass production in short rotations. Conclusions: Willow clones showed high biomass production on marginal sites and dry biomass could be considerably increased with the application of intensive silvicultural and agro technical measures. No nutrition or pest control measures were applied (a practice otherwise widely used in intensive cultivation system, while weed vegetation was regulated only at the earliest age.

  19. Riparian planning in Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, R.; Prakoso, E.; Sadali, M. I.; Yusuf, M. G.

    2018-04-01

    Riparian is a potential for slums in urban areas. The city of Yogyakarta is passed by three rivers namely Code, Gajahwong, and Winongo, crossing the city. Riparian in the three rivers are potential for slum if the area is not well managed. This paper is based on the survey results of the structured interview with the people living in the riparian area in Yogyakarta City. They were 75 respondents from the three riparian. The result shows that several reasons why people prefer to remain living in the area are limited spaces and high land price in the city as well as inherited from their parents. The facts that there are still several problems related to the condition of settlement environment in the riparian, i.e., The condition of densely-populated areas, limited availability of land, and limited public spaces. Efforts that can be done to solve problems related to the riparian planning are anticipating disasters like flood and landslide, paying attention to densely-populated and unwell-planned areas, and handling garbage that has been abandoned into the river. The program expected by those living along both riversides is intended to give priorities on providing some aid for those whose houses are not in good condition, controlling buildings without a permit, and building a dike along the river. Efficiency can be made by making use of the space adequately between the one for settlement and the other one for open-green space for both aesthetic and economic purposes.

  20. Environmental influence of willow coppice systems on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, S.

    1997-01-01

    As for all cultivated crops, there are numerous environmental influences when growing willows. These influences are connected with additions to the soil, management measures and changes caused by the developing crop. As a perennial crop with good root penetration into the soil, high water use and efficient nutrient uptake over a long growing season, short rotation forests with willows have an influence on the environment that differs from the influence of annual farm crops. Also the landscape is affected differently by the dense willow stand with a height of seven meters before harvest. There is usually less use of herbicides in the perennial woody crop. Due to larger amounts of litter from the willow plantation and no tillage, there is with time an increase of the humus content in the soil. In relation to this, the soil fauna, using organic material for food, prosper in the short rotation forest. Considerably more cadmium is taken up by the willows than by conventional annual crops. This could be used to clean the soil of cadmium, but more knowledge is needed for the optimisation of this procedure. Willows are usually efficient in taking up nutrients, including nitrogen, but when used as vegetation filters it is important to assess the actual ability of a stand to take up N. This ability varies considerably with the development stage of the plantation and also with site conditions. (au) 30 refs

  1. Vegetative reproduction capacities of floodplain willows--cutting response to competition and biomass loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, A; Mosner, E; Leyer, I

    2012-03-01

    While several studies on regeneration in Salicaceae have focused on seedling recruitment, little is known about factors controlling their vegetative reproduction. In two greenhouse experiments, we studied the response of floodplain willows (Salix fragilis, S. viminalis, S. triandra) to competition with Poa trivialis, and to shoot and root removal when planted as vegetative cuttings. In the first experiment, growth performance variables were analysed in relation to full competition, shoot competition, root competition and control, taking into account two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoots were removed and the resprouting capacity of the bare cuttings was recorded. In the second experiment, the cutting performance of the three floodplain and an additional two fen willow species (S. cinerea, S. aurita) was compared when grown in three different soil compositions and with two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoot and root biomass was removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to resprout. Cutting performance and secondary resprouting were negatively affected by full and shoot competition while root competition had no or weak effects. The floodplain species performed better than the fen species in all soil types and water levels. Secondary resprouting capacity was also higher in the floodplain species, which showed an additional strong positive response to the previous waterlogging treatment. The results contribute to understanding of the vegetative regeneration ecology of floodplain willows, and suggest that the use of vegetative plantings in restoration plantings could be an effective strategy for recovering floodplain forests. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Regeneration of Salicaceae riparian forests in the Northern Hemisphere: A new framework and management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; Shafroth, Patrick B; Sher, Anna A; Henry, Annie L; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Corenblit, Dov

    2018-04-25

    Human activities on floodplains have severely disrupted the regeneration of foundation riparian shrub and tree species of the Salicaceae family (Populus and Salix spp.) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Restoration ecologists initially tackled this problem from a terrestrial perspective that emphasized planting. More recently, floodplain restoration activities have embraced an aquatic perspective, inspired by the expanding practice of managing river flows to improve river health (environmental flows). However, riparian Salicaceae species occupy floodplain and riparian areas, which lie at the interface of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems along watercourses. Thus, their regeneration depends on a complex interaction of hydrologic and geomorphic processes that have shaped key life-cycle requirements for seedling establishment. Ultimately, restoration needs to integrate these concepts to succeed. However, while regeneration of Salicaceae is now reasonably well-understood, the literature reporting restoration actions on Salicaceae regeneration is sparse, and a specific theoretical framework is still missing. Here, we have reviewed 105 peer-reviewed published experiences in restoration of Salicaceae forests, including 91 projects in 10 world regions, to construct a decision tree to inform restoration planning through explicit links between the well-studied biophysical requirements of Salicaceae regeneration and 17 specific restoration actions, the most popular being planting (in 55% of the projects), land contouring (30%), removal of competing vegetation (30%), site selection (26%), and irrigation (24%). We also identified research gaps related to Salicaceae forest restoration and discuss alternative, innovative and feasible approaches that incorporate the human component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal variation in the arthropod community of desert riparian habitats with varying amounts of saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.L.; Theimer, T.C.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    We used Malaise traps to examine the aerial arthropod community in riparian habitats dominated by native willow, exotic saltcedar, or a mixture of these two tree species in central Arizona, USA. Over the course of three sampling periods per year in 2003 and 2004, native habitats had significantly greater diversity (Shannon-Wiener) and supported different arthropod communities compared to exotic habitats, while mixed habitats were intermediate in terms of diversity and supported an arthropod community statistically indistinguishable from the exotic site. The composition of arthropod communities varied significantly between the two years, and there was an approximately two-fold difference in richness and diversity. Overall, we documented complex interactions indicating that differences among the arthropod communities of riparian habitats may be driven not only by the composition of native and exotic tree species making up these habitats, but also by year and season of arthropod sampling.

  4. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  5. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  6. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  7. Tamarix and Diorhabda leaf beetle interactions: implications for Tamarix water use and riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela; Glenn, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) have been widely released on western United States rivers to control introduced shrubs in the genus Tamarix, with the goals of saving water through removal of an assumed high water-use plant, and of improving habitat value by removing a competitor of native riparian trees. We review recent studies addressing three questions: (1) to what extent are Tamarix weakened or killed by recurrent cycles of defoliation; (2) can significant water salvage be expected from defoliation; and (3) what are the effects of defoliation on riparian ecology, particularly on avian habit? Defoliation has been patchy at many sites, and shrubs at some sites recover each year even after multiple years of defoliation. Tamarix evapotranspiration (ET) is much lower than originally assumed in estimates of potential water savings, and are the same or lower than possible replacement plants. There is concern that the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax trailli extimus) will be negatively affected by defoliation because the birds build nests early in the season when Tamarix is still green, but are still on their nests during the period of summer defoliation. Affected river systems will require continued monitoring and development of adaptive management practices to maintain or enhance riparian habitat values. Multiplatform remote sensing methods are playing an essential role in monitoring defoliation and rates of ET on affected river systems.

  8. Down by the riverside: urban riparian ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Daniel J. Bain; Lawrence E. Band; Kenneth T. Belt; Grace S. Brush; J. Morgan Grove; Richard V. Pouyat; Ian C. Yesilonis; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2003-01-01

    Riparian areas are hotspots of interactions between plants, soil, water, microbes, and people. While urban land use change has been shown to have dramatic effects on watershed hydrology, there has been surprisingly little analysis of its effects on riparian areas. Here we examine the ecology of urban riparian zones, focusing on work done in the Baltimore Ecosystem...

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture in a restored reach of an Alpine river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water quality, the biogeochemical functions of restored river reaches have to be quantified, and soil moisture is a key environmental variable controlling this functionality. Restored sections of rivers often are characterized by a dynamic mosaic of riparian zones with varying exposure to flooding. In this presentation, the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture in riparian soils of a restored reach of the Alpine river Thur in northeastern Switzerland is shown. The study was part of the interdisciplinary project cluster RECORD, which was initiated to advance the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The studied river reach comprised the following three functional processing zones (FPZ) representing a lateral successional gradient with decreasing hydrological connectivity (i.e. decreasing flooding frequency and duration). (i) The grass zone developed naturally on a gravel bar after restoration of the channelized river section (mainly colonized by canary reed grass Phalaris arundinacae). The soil is loamy sand to sandy loam composed of up to 80 cm thick fresh sediments trapped and stabilized by the grass roots. (ii) The bush zone is composed of young willow trees (Salix viminalis) planted during restoration to stabilize older overbank deposits with a loamy fine earth. (iii) The mixed forest is a mature riparian hardwood forest with ash and maple as dominant trees developed on older overbank sediments with a silty loamy fine earth. The study period was between spring 2009 and winter 2009/2010 including three flood events in June, July and December 2009. The first and third flood inundated the grass zone and lower part of the bush zone while the second flood was bigger and swept through all the FPZs. Water contents in several soil depths were measured continuously in 30 minute intervals using Decagon EC-5 and EC-TM sensors. There were six spatial

  10. Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thygesen, R.S.; Trapp, S. [Environment and Resources DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2002-07-01

    The toxicity of PAH to willow trees (Salix alba, S. viminalis, S. viminalis x schwerinii) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in PAH-saturated hydroponic solution (naphthalene NAP, phenanthrene PHEN and benzo(a)pyrene BaP). Toxicity was related to aqueous solubility and was highest for NAP. PHEN did not show significant effects, except in one case. Exposure of trees to BaP showed no effect in two cases, but increased transpiration and growth in two others. High dosages of NAP were fatal for the trees, the lowest dosage significantly stimulated growth. Soil samples were taken from several PAH contaminated sites, among them gas works sites and a former sludge basin. The PAH contents ranged from 1.76 mg/kg to 1451 mg/kg. None of the soils was lethally toxic to the trees, and difference between growth in control soils and growth in PAH contaminated soils was not apparent. Growth and water use efficiency were positively, but not significantly correlated to the PAH content of the soils. Outdoor growth of willows and poplars on the former sludge basin in Valby was monitored, with willows growing faster than poplars (Populus trichocarpa). Phytotoxic effects could be observed at some willows at the Valby sludge basin, but it is not sure whether these effects can be contributed to PAH. (orig.)

  11. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego County, southern California—2017 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2018-04-20

    We surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2017. Surveys were conducted from April 13 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 16 to July 28 (SWFL). We found 146 LBVI territories, at least 107 of which were occupied by pairs. Five additional transient LBVIs were detected. LBVIs used five different habitat types in the survey area: mixed willow, willow-cottonwood, willow-sycamore, riparian scrub, and upland scrub. Forty-four percent of the LBVIs occurred in habitat characterized as mixed willow and 89 percent of the LBVI territories occurred in areas with greater than 50 percent native plant cover. Of 16 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 8 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2017. Four other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2017. Three LBVIs with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River and one LBVI with a single gold federal band indicating that it was banded as a nestling on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton (MCBCP) could not be recaptured for identification. One banded LBVI emigrated from the middle San Luis Rey River to the lower San Luis Rey River in 2017.One resident SWFL territory and one transient Willow Flycatcher of unknown subspecies (WIFL) were observed in the survey area in 2017. The resident SWFL territory, which was comprised of mixed willow habitat (5–50 percent native plant cover), was occupied by a single male from May 22 to June 21, 2017. No evidence of pairing or nesting activity was observed. The SWFL male was banded with a full color-combination indicating that he was originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2014 and successfully bred in the survey area in 2016

  12. Riparian erosion vulnerability model based on environmental features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Acosta, Alejandra; Chu, Maria L; Guzman, Jorge A; Starks, Patrick J; Moriasi, Daniel N

    2017-12-01

    Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify areas along the riparian zone that are susceptible to erosion. The methodology was developed by integrating the physically-based watershed model MIKE-SHE, to simulate water movement, and a habitat suitability model, MaxEnt, to quantify the probability of presences of elevation changes (i.e., erosion) across the watershed. The presences of elevation changes were estimated based on two LiDAR-based elevation datasets taken in 2009 and 2012. The changes in elevation were grouped into four categories: low (0.5 - 0.7 m), medium (0.7 - 1.0 m), high (1.0 - 1.7 m) and very high (1.7 - 5.9 m), considering each category as a studied "species". The categories' locations were then used as "species location" map in MaxEnt. The environmental features used as constraints to the presence of erosion were land cover, soil, stream power index, overland flow, lateral inflow, and discharge. The modeling framework was evaluated in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed in southcentral Oklahoma. Results showed that the most vulnerable areas for erosion were located at the upper riparian zones of the Cobb and Lake sub-watersheds. The main waterways of these sub-watersheds were also found to be prone to streambank erosion. Approximatively 80% of the riparian zone (streambank

  13. Nesting ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian and palustrine wetlands of eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWethy, D.B.; Austin, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Little information exists on breeding Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian wetlands of the Intermountain West. We examined the nesting ecology of Sandhill Cranes associated with riparian and palustrine wetlands in the Henry's Fork Watershed in eastern Idaho in 2003. We located 36 active crane nests, 19 in riparian wetlands and 17 in palustrine wetlands. Nesting sites were dominated by rushes (Juncus spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), Broad-leaved Cattail (Typha latifolia) and willow (Salix spp.), and adjacent foraging areas were primarily composed of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), cinquefoil (Potentilla spp.),Rabbitbrush (Ericameria bloomeri) bunch grasses, upland forbs, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and cottonwood (Populus spp.). Mean water depth surrounding nests was 23 cm (SD = 22). A majority of nests (61%) were surrounded by vegetation between 3060 cm, 23% by vegetation 60 cm in height. We were able to determine the fate of 29 nests, of which 20 were successful (69%). Daily nest survival was 0.986 (95% LCI 0.963, UCI 0.995), equivalent to a Mayfield nest success of 0.654 (95% LCI 0.324, UCI 0.853). Model selection favored models with the covariates vegetation type, vegetation height, and water depth. Nest survival increased with increasing water depth surrounding nest sites. Mean water depth was higher around successful nests (30 cm, SD = 21) than unsuccessful nests (15 cm, SD 22). Further research is needed to evaluate the relative contribution of cranes nesting in palustrine and riparian wetlands distributed widely across the Intermountain West.

  14. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume II Yakima (Overview, Report, Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  15. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume III (Overview and Tools).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  16. Biomass production in willows. What did we know before the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perttu, K L [ed.

    1984-12-01

    The biological foundations of biomass with willows originate in the experiences from basket willow husbandry. This was an established discipline in Europe in the 18th century. Problems concerning site preparation, selection of clones, planting as cuttings, spacing, weed control, rotation time, harvesting and coppicing vigour with respect to the longevity of the stand, were practically solved at the research level and already in practice. The yield potential of basket willow and willows for hoop production as well as yield figures from field experiments were quite high also according to present-day biomass willow experiments. An explanation of this could be the much higher stand densities than has been customary in current willow experiments. Although many practical questions got their answers in basket willow husbandry, open questions still remain. The basket willow era gave only little experience on willow production in peatlands; actually peatsoils were almost avoided. Knowledge of nutrient require ments and fertilization was also rather elementary. These aspects must therefore be established for biomass production. Control of weeds in the establishment phase of the willow husbandry was solved by manual work. Since this is a labour intensive method which is no longer possible, a more modern weed control needs to be developed for current husbandry. As a whole it is a task for related research to attach proper optimization of cultural techniques to suitable willow clones in order to attain and maintain as high a production level as was the case in the old basket willow husbandry. With 25 refs.

  17. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Gerard N. J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  18. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  19. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerdt, ter Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Putten, van der Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  20. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heerdt, Gerard N.J.; Veen, G.F.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Abstract Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in

  1. Efficacy of plastic mesh tubes in reducing herbivory damage by the invasive nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an urban restoration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffels, Trevor R.; Systma, Mark D.; Carter, Jacoby; Taylor, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of stream corridors is becoming an increasingly important component of urban landscape planning, and the high cost of these projects necessitates the need to understand and address potential ecological obstacles to project success. The nutria(Myocastor coypus) is an invasive, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America that causes detrimental ecological impacts in riparian and wetland habitats throughout its introduced range, and techniques are needed to reduce nutria herbivory damage to urban stream restoration projects. We assessed the efficacy of standard Vexar® plastic mesh tubes in reducing nutria herbivory damage to newly established woody plants. The study was conducted in winter-spring 2009 at Delta Ponds, a 60-ha urban waterway in Eugene, Oregon. Woody plants protected by Vexar® tubes demonstrated 100% survival over the 3-month initial establishment period, while only 17% of unprotected plantings survived. Nutria demonstrated a preference for black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) over red osier dogwood (Cornussericea) and willow (Salix spp). Camera surveillance showed that nutria were more active in unprotected rather than protected treatments. Our results suggest that Vexar® plastic mesh tubing can be an effective short-term herbivory mitigation tool when habitat use by nutria is low. Additionally, planting functionally equivalent woody plant species that are less preferred by nutria, and other herbivores, may be another method for reducing herbivory and improving revegetation success. This study highlights the need to address potential wildlife damage conflicts in the planning process for stream restoration in urban landscapes.

  2. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring...... transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to cyanide in plant...... tissue was observed at 40 and 50 mg/L. The kinetics of metabolism of cyanide by roots, stems and leaves of willows was determined by the closed-bottle metabolism test. The Michaelis−Menten parameters vmax and KM (maximal metabolic velocity and half-saturation constant, respectively) were determined...

  3. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salmon are a valuable resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the long term implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat after 12 years of re-colonization, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the long term, landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  4. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  5. Population and Habitat Objectives for Avian Conservation in California's Central Valley Riparian Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Dybala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art5Riparian ecosystems provide important ecosystem services and recreational opportunities for people, and habitat for wildlife. In California’s Central Valley, government agencies and private organizations are working together to protect and restore riparian ecosystems, and the Central Valley Joint Venture provides leadership in the formulation of goals and objectives for avian conservation in riparian ecosystems. We defined a long-term conservation goal as the establishment of riparian ecosystems that provide sufficient habitat to support genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient bird populations. To achieve this goal, we selected a suite of 12 breeding riparian landbird focal species as indicators of the state of riparian ecosystems in each of four major Central Valley planning regions. Using recent bird survey data, we estimated that over half of the regional focal species populations are currently small (< 10,000 and may be vulnerable to extirpation, and two species have steeply declining population trends. For each focal species in each region, we defined long-term (100-year population objectives that are intended to be conservation endpoints that we expect to meet the goal of genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient populations. We then estimated the long-term species density and riparian restoration objectives required to achieve the long-term population objectives. To track progress toward the long-term objectives, we propose short-term (10- year objectives, including the addition of 12,919 ha (31,923 ac of riparian vegetation in the Central Valley (by planning region: 3,390 ha in Sacramento, 2,390 ha in Yolo–Delta, 3,386 ha in San Joaquin, and 3,753 ha in Tulare. We expect that reaching these population, density, and habitat objectives through threat abatement, habitat restoration, and habitat enhancement will result in improvements to riparian ecosystem function and

  6. Riparian ecotone: A functional definition and delineation for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. S Verry; C. A Dolloff; M. E. Manning

    2004-01-01

    We propose a geomorphic basis for defining riparian areas using the term: riparian ecotone, discuss how past definitions fall short, and illustrate how a linked sequence of definition, delineation, and riparian sampling are used to accurately assess riparian resources on the ground. Our riparian ecotone is based on the width of the valley (its floodprone area width)...

  7. Yield of tannin willows on ravine areas in the Central Forest Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, A I

    1981-01-01

    A note on the performance of 12 species of willow grown in a plantation on leached chernozem soils, to provide bark rich in tannins. The plantation was established by cuttings (25 cm long) at a spacing of 2.5 x 0.5 metres for the tree willows and 2.5 x 0.75 metres for the bush willows. Bark yields were determined at 7-8 years. The greatest yields were obtained from Salix smithiana, S. stipularis and S. acuminata: 12.0, 10.8 and 10.2 t/hectare respectively. Data on tannin yields are tabulated. Fellings for bark harvesting can be made every 5 years in plantations of bush willows and every 7 years in plantations of tree willows. The plantations can be used for 30 year with bush willows and for 50 years with tree willows.

  8. Radiocaesium uptake and cycling in willow short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gommers, A.

    2002-01-01

    The document is an abstract of a PhD thesis. The study investigates the uptake and cycling of radiocaesium in willow short rotation coppice. Different factors influencing the soil-to-wood transfer of radiocaesium were investigated, among others the type of minerals, supply of potassium and soil composition

  9. Wind in the Willows--Theatre Activity Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Part of the New York City Board of Education's Early Stages program, and intended for elementary and secondary school teachers who wish to include a unit on theater in their classes, this guide offers suggestions for lessons and activities to accompany viewing a performance of "Wind in the Willows" at the Nederlander Theater. Part one of…

  10. "The Wind in the Willows" and the Style of Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The style of Kenneth Grahame's "The Wind in the Willows" arises from an alternative vision and choice of values characteristic of romance. Romance seeks fulfillment beyond the consequences of everyday relationships and the constrictions of ordinary life. Causal relationships give way to lists of independent items, unmotivated outcomes, and…

  11. Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. 2012 Synthesis Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    LCFRB Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board LCRE lower Columbia River and estuary LCREP Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership LWD large woody debris...hydraulic reconnections, channel creation, large woody debris [ LWD ] placement) have restored a total of 3152 acres since 2001. If land acquisition...fencing, invasive plant removal, native replanting. Mirror Lake 208 Culvert replaced with a bridge, riparian restoration, LWD enhancement, culvert

  12. Test of aerobic TCE degradation by willows (Salix viminalis) and willows inoculated with TCE-cometabolizing strains of Burkholderia cepacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Broholm, Mette Martina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich Bay

    2017-01-01

    . cepacia (301C, PR1-31 and VM1330-pTOM), using chloride formation as an indicator of dehalogenation. Willows were grown in non-sterile, hydroponic conditions for 3 weeks in chloride-free nutrient solution spiked with TCE. TCE was added weekly due to rapid loss by volatilization. Chloride and TCE...

  13. Spatial-structural analysis of leafless woody riparian vegetation for hydraulic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Jalonen, Johanna; Järvelä, Juha; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2013-04-01

    Woody riparian vegetation is a vital element of riverine environments. On one hand woody riparian vegetation has to be taken into account from a civil engineering point of view due to boundary shear stress and vegetation drag. On the other hand it has to be considered from a river ecological point of view due to shadowing effects and as a source of organic material for aquatic habitats. In hydrodynamic and hydro-ecological studies the effects of woody riparian vegetation on flow patterns are usually investigated on a very detailed level. On the contrary vegetation elements and their spatial patterns are generally analysed and discussed on the basis of an integral approach measuring for example basal diameters, heights and projected plant areas. For a better understanding of the influence of woody riparian vegetation on turbulent flow and on river ecology, it is essential to record and analyse plant data sets on the same level of quality as for hydrodynamic or hydro-ecologic purposes. As a result of the same scale of the analysis it is possible to incorporate riparian vegetation as a sub-model in the hydraulic analysis. For plant structural components, such as branches on different topological levels it is crucial to record plant geometrical parameters describing the habitus of the plant on branch level. An exact 3D geometrical model of real plants allows for an extraction of various spatial-structural plant parameters. In addition, allometric relationships help to summarize and describe plant traits of riparian vegetation. This paper focuses on the spatial-structural composition of leafless riparia woddy vegetation. Structural and spatial analyses determine detailed geometric properties of the structural components of the plants. Geometrical and topological parameters were recorded with an electro-magnetic scanning device. In total, 23 plants (willows, alders and birches) were analysed in the study. Data were recorded on branch level, which allowed for the

  14. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  15. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  16. Riparian Habitat Management for Mammals on Corps of Engineers Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Chester

    2002-01-01

    .... This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian ecosystems to mammals, discusses regional variation in mammal communities characteristic of riparian zones, identifies potential impacts...

  17. Benefits of riparian forest for the aquatic ecosystem assessed at a large geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Looy K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claimed benefits of riparian forest cover for the aquatic ecosystem include purification, thermal control, organic matter input and habitat provision, which may improve physicochemical and biotic quality. However, these beneficial effects might be flawed by multiple stressor conditions of intensive agriculture and urbanization in upstream catchments. We examined the relationship between riparian forest cover and physicochemical quality and biotic integrity indices in extensive large scale datasets. Measurements of hydromorphological conditions and riparian forest cover across different buffer widths for 59 × 103 river stretches covering 230 × 103 km of the French river network were coupled with data for physicochemical and biotic variables taken from the national monitoring network. General linear and quantile regression techniques were used to determine responses of physicochemical variables and biological integrity indices for macroinvertebrates and fish to riparian forest cover in selections of intermediate stress for 2nd to 4th order streams. Significant responses to forest cover were found for the nutrient variables and biological indices. According to these responses a 60% riparian forest cover in the 10 m buffer corresponds to good status boundaries for physicochemical and biotic elements. For the 30 m buffer, the observed response suggests that riparian forest coverage of at least 45% corresponds with good ecological status in the aquatic ecosystem. The observed consistent responses indicate significant potential for improving the quality of the aquatic environment by restoring riparian forest. The effects are more substantial in single-stressor environments but remain significant in multi-stressor environments.

  18. Effects of drought on birds and riparian vegetation in the Colorado River Delta, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L.; Carrillo-Guererro, Yamilett K.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    The riparian corridor in the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico supports internationally important bird habitat. The vegetation is maintained by surface flows from the U.S. and Mexico and by a high, non-saline aquifer into which the dominant phreatophytic shrubs and trees are rooted. We studied the effects of a regional drought on riparian vegetation and avian abundance and diversity from 2002 to 2007, during which time surface flows were markedly reduced compared to the period from 1995 to 2002. Reduced surface flows led to a reduction in native tree cover but an increase in shrub cover, mostly due to an increase in Tamarix spp., an introduced halophytic shrub, and a reduction in Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii trees. However, overall vegetation cover was unchanged at about 70%. Overall bird density and diversity were also unchanged, but riparian-obligate species tended to decrease in abundance, and generalist species increased. Although reduction in surface flows reduced habitat value and negatively impacted riparian-obligate bird species, portions of the riparian zone exhibited resilience. Surface flows are required to reduce soil salt levels and germinate new cohorts of native trees, but the main source of water supporting this ecosystem is the aquifer, derived from underflows from irrigated fields in the U.S. and Mexico. The long-term prospects for delta riparian habitats are uncertain due to expected reduced flows of river water from climate change, and land use practices that will reduce underflows to the riparian aquifer and increase salinity levels. Active restoration programs would be needed if these habitats are to be preserved for the future.

  19. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  20. Riparian vegetation structure under desertification scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário Fernandes, M.; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Riparian areas are responsible for many ecological and ecosystems services, including the filtering function, that are considered crucial to the preservation of water quality and social benefits. The main goal of this study is to quantify and understand the riparian variability under desertification scenario(s) and identify the optimal riparian indicators for water scarcity and droughts (WS&D), henceforth improving river basin management. This study was performed in the Iberian Tâmega basin, using riparian woody patches, mapped by visual interpretation on Google Earth imagery, along 130 Sampling Units of 250 m long river stretches. Eight riparian structural indicators, related with lateral dimension, weighted area and shape complexity of riparian patches were calculated using Patch Analyst extension for ArcGis 10. A set of 29 hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were computed, by a water modelling system (MOHID), using monthly meteorological data between 2008 and 2014. Land-use classes were also calculated, in a 250m-buffer surrounding each sampling unit, using a classification based system on Corine Land Cover. Boosted Regression Trees identified Mean-width (MW) as the optimal riparian indicator for water scarcity and drought, followed by the Weighted Class Area (WCA) (classification accuracy =0.79 and 0.69 respectively). Average Flow and Strahler number were consistently selected, by all boosted models, as the most important explanatory variables. However, a combined effect of hidrogeomorphology and land-use can explain the high variability found in the riparian width mainly in Tâmega tributaries. Riparian patches are larger towards Tâmega river mouth although with lower shape complexity, probably related with more continuous and almost monospecific stands. Climatic, hydrological and land use scenarios, singly and combined, were used to quantify the riparian variability responding to these changes, and to assess the loss of riparian

  1. Spatial and temporal analysis of the land cover in riparian buffer zones (Areas for Permanent Preservation in Sorocaba City, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fundamental role that the riparian vegetation plays in relation to maintenance of the environmental health of a watershed and the necessity of restoring sectors of the buffer zone without natural vegetation, in this paper we investigated what land cover classes occur along the riparian buffer stripes considered Area for Permanent Preservation (APP in the Sorocaba municipality, SP in three periods: 1988, 1995 and 2003. Based on GIS technology and using the drainage network map, the APP stripes (riparian buffer zones map was generated, and this map was overlaid to the land cover map (1988, 1995 and 2003 to provide a land cover map specifically of the riparian buffer zones. The results show that 58.43% of the APPs have no land cover of native vegetation and therefore, need to be reforested, representing 5,400 hectares to be restored.

  2. Regeneration of Salicaceae riparian forests in the Northern Hemisphere: A new framework and management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eduardo; Martinez-Fernandez, Vanesa; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A.; Henry, Annie L.; Garofano-Gomez, Virginia; Corenblit, Dov

    2018-01-01

    Human activities on floodplains have severely disrupted the regeneration of foundation riparian shrub and tree species of the Salicaceae family (Populus and Salix spp.) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Restoration ecologists initially tackled this problem from a terrestrial perspective that emphasized planting. More recently, floodplain restoration activities have embraced an aquatic perspective, inspired by the expanding practice of managing river flows to improve river health (environmental flows). However, riparian Salicaceae species occupy floodplain and riparian areas, which lie at the interface of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems along watercourses. Thus, their regeneration depends on a complex interaction of hydrologic and geomorphic processes that have shaped key life-cycle requirements for seedling establishment. Ultimately, restoration needs to integrate these concepts to succeed. However, while regeneration of Salicaceae is now reasonably well-understood, the literature reporting restoration actions on Salicaceae regeneration is sparse, and a specific theoretical framework is still missing. Here, we have reviewed 105 peer-reviewed published experiences in restoration of Salicaceae forests, including 91 projects in 10 world regions, to construct a decision tree to inform restoration planning through explicit links between the well-studied biophysical requirements of Salicaceaeregeneration and 17 specific restoration actions, the most popular being planting (in 55% of the projects), land contouring (30%), removal of competing vegetation (30%), site selection (26%), and irrigation (24%). We also identified research gaps related to Salicaceae forest restoration and discuss alternative, innovative and feasible approaches that incorporate the human component.

  3. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for chemical elements important for biomass combustion quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    clone ‘Tordis’, and to reveal the relationship between sampling position, shoot diameters, and distribution of elements. Five Tordis willow shoots were cut into 10–50 cm sections from base to top. The ash content and concentration of twelve elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, and Zn......Willow (Salix spp.) is expected to contribute significantly to the woody bioenergy system in the future, so more information on how to sample the quality of the willow biomass is needed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial variation of elements within shoots of a willow......) in each section were determined. The results showed large spatial variation in the distribution of most elements along the length of the willow shoots. Concentrations of elements in 2-year old shoots of the willow clone Tordis were fairly stable within the range of 100–285 cm above ground and resembled...

  4. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  5. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  6. The Riparianness of a Desert Herpetofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Lowe

    1989-01-01

    Within the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert subdivisions of the North American Desert in the U.S., more than half of 143 total amphibian and reptilian species perform as riparian and/or wetland taxa. For the reptiles, but not the amphibians, there is a significant inverse relationship between riparianness (obligate through preferential and facultative to...

  7. With willows and poplars against the heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, M.

    2002-01-01

    Special kinds of trees take out cadmium, lead and zinc from the soil, helping its rehabilitation in contaminated regions. A new method for soil rehabilitation (phytoremediation) based on plants is described. Special willows and poplars have the capability to extract as a sponge heavy metals from the soils and store them in their leaves. For example, they can uptake 700 times the amount of cadmium than the normal plants do. (nevyjel)

  8. Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.C.; Keoleian, G.A.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting for 37% of the non-renewable fossil energy input into the system. Net energy ratio varies from 58 to below 40 as a function of fertilizer application rate, but application rate also has implications on the system nutrient balance. Substituting inorganic N fertilizer with sewage sludge biosolids increases the net energy ratio of the willow biomass crop production system by more than 40%. While CO 2 emitted in combusting dedicated biomass is balanced by CO 2 adsorbed in the growing biomass, production processes contribute to the system's net global warming potential. Taking into account direct and indirect fuel use, N 2 O emissions from applied fertilizer and leaf litter, and carbon sequestration in below ground biomass and soil carbon, the net greenhouse gas emissions total 0.68 g CO 2 eq. MJ biomassproduced -1 . Site specific parameters such as soil carbon sequestration could easily offset these emissions resulting in a net reduction of greenhouse gases. Assuming reasonable biomass transportation distance and energy conversion efficiencies, this study implies that generating electricity from willow biomass crops could produce 11 units of electricity per unit of fossil energy consumed. Results form the LCA support the assertion that willow biomass crops are sustainable from an energy balance perspective and contribute additional environmental benefits

  9. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  10. Willow trees from heavy metals phytoextraction as energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Habart, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Phytoextraction ability of some fast growing plant species leads to the idea of connecting biomass production with soil remediation of contaminated industrial zones and regions. This biomass will contain significant amount of heavy metals and its energetic utilization has to be considered carefully to minimize negative environmental impacts. This study was focused on potential disposal methods of willow trees contaminated by heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) with the emphasis on energetic utilization of biomass. Composting seems to be suitable pre-treatment method resulting in decrease of heavy metals leachability and biomass weight reduction. The possibility of willow trees application for energetic purposes was investigated and consequently incineration tests of willow trees samples in fluidized bed reactor were realized. Distribution of selected heavy metals in different ash fractions and treatment methods of produced ashes were studied as well. -- Highlights: ► Composting is an appropriate pre-treatment method for phytoextraction crops. ► Fluidized bed combustion is suitable disposal method of phytoextraction crops. ► Ashes from phytoextraction crops combustion cannot be used as fertilizers.

  11. Phytoextraction of risk elements by willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacálková, Lada; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of two clones of willow trees (Salix x smithiana Willd., Salix rubens) and two clones of poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii, Populus nigra Wolterson) were planted in contaminated soil (0.4-2.0 mg Cd.kg(-1), 78-313 mg Zn.kg(-1), 21.3-118 mg Cu.kg(-1)). Field experiment was carried out in Czech Republic. The study investigated their ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in harvestable plant parts. The poplars produced higher amount of biomass than willows. Both Salix clones accumulated higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu in their biomass (maximum 6.8 mg Cd.kg(-1), 909 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 17.7 mg Cu.kg(-1)) compared to Populus clones (maximum 2.06 mg Cd.kg(-1), 463 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 11.8 mg Cu.kg(-1)). There were no significant differences between clones of individual species. BCs for Cd and Zn were greater than 1 (the highest in willow leaves). BCs values of Cu were very low. These results indicate that Salix is more suitable plant for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn than Populus. The Cu phytoextraction potential of Salix and Populus trees was not confirmed in this experiment due to low soil availability of this element.

  12. Wolf presence and increased willow consumption by Yellowstone elk: implications for trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Christianson, David

    2009-09-01

    Recent increases in the height and growth ring width of willow (Salix spp.) and other woody plants in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) have been attributed to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade from wolves (Canis lupus) to elk (Cervus elaphus) to willows. This hypothesis predicts that individual elk consume less willow in response to the presence of wolves, but this prediction has not been directly tested with data from elk. We collected 727 fecal samples from elk in the Gallatin Canyon portion of the GYE over three winters and used microhistological methods to quantify the proportion of willow in each sample. We then tested the effect of wolf presence on willow consumption by elk, controlling for the effects of snow conditions, sex, and habitat type. During the period of study, 8-17 wolves occupied the study area, and wolves were locally present on 49% of 260 sampling days, stratified at two-week intervals across three drainages. Over the three years combined, willow consumption was related to snow conditions, wolf presence, and a wolf X sex interaction. As expected, willow consumption increased with deeper and less penetrable snow, and this effect was strong. Contrary to expectation, willow consumption increased in the presence of wolves. As with other aspects of antipredator behavior, wolves had different effects on willow consumption by males and females. Finally, we aggregated the data to estimate winter-long mean willow consumption within each drainage; at this broader scale, willow consumption again increased as predation risk increased. In summary, willow consumption was more strongly affected by snow conditions than by the presence of wolves. Interactions between elk and willow were affected by wolves, but not as predicted by the hypothesis that wolf presence favors willow release through a reduction in the selection of willow by individual elk. If a trophic cascade is operating, our results suggest that a decline in the size of the elk

  13. Kansas Protects and Restores Wetlands, Streams and Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG) in 2007 when the Kansas State Conservation Commission began identifying team members interested in developing a framework for a comprehensive Kansas Wetland and Aquatic Resources Conservation Plan.

  14. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  15. Test of aerobic TCE degradation by willows (Salix viminalis) and willows inoculated with TCE-cometabolizing strains of Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Broholm, Mette Martina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread soil and groundwater pollutant and clean-up is often problematic and expensive. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective solution at some sites. This study investigates TCE degradation by willows (S. viminalis) and willows inoculated with three strains of B. cepacia (301C, PR1-31 and VM1330-pTOM), using chloride formation as an indicator of dehalogenation. Willows were grown in non-sterile, hydroponic conditions for 3 weeks in chloride-free nutrient solution spiked with TCE. TCE was added weekly due to rapid loss by volatilization. Chloride and TCE in solution were measured every 2-3 days and chloride and metabolite concentrations in plants were measured at test termination. Based on transpiration, no tree toxicity of TCE exposure was observed. However, trees grown in chloride-free solution showed severely inhibited transpiration. No or very little chloride was formed during the test, and levels of chloride in TCE-exposed trees were not elevated. Chloride concentrations in chloride containing TCE-free nutrient solution doubled within 23 days, indicating active exclusion of chloride by root cell membranes. Only traces of TCE-metabolites were detected in plant tissue. We conclude that TCE is not, or to a limited extent (less than 3%), aerobically degraded by the willow trees. The three strains of B. cepacia did not enhance TCE mineralization. Future successful application of rhizo- and phytodegradation of TCE requires measures to be taken to improve the degradation rates.

  16. On the irrigation requirements of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides var. wislizenii) and willow (Salix gooddingii) grown in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    Native tree plots have been established in river irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the effective irrigation requirements of the target species. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three daily summer irrigation schedules of 6.20??mm??d-1; 8.26??mm??d-1 and 15.7??mm??d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, while willows suffered considerable die-back on this rate in years six and seven. These irrigation rates were applied April 15-September 15, but only 0.88??mm??d-1 was applied during the dormant period of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), recommended annual water applications plus precipitation (and including some deep drainage) were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Riparian rehabilitation planning in an urban-rural gradient: Integrating social needs and ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida-Johnson, Bárbara; Zuleta, Gustavo A

    2017-09-01

    In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives. The assessment made it possible to identify 17 priority sites for riparian rehabilitation that were associated with different conditions along the gradient. The double goal setting enabled a dual consideration of citizens, both as beneficiaries and potential impacts to rehabilitation, and the criteria selected incorporated the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This approach can potentially be adapted and implemented in any other anthropic-natural interface throughout the world.

  18. Watershed Restoration on Black Drake Ranch: Humility vs. hubris in applying incomplete scientific information to real world applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, G. B.; Mattenberger, S.

    2009-12-01

    water diversions; 5. Riparian planting of alders, willows, aspens and Ponderosa pines and 6. placement of instream large wood mass to provide cooling shade and refuge from predators; 7. Placement of spawning gravel; 8. Management of noxious weeds along stream banks; 9. Thinning of upland junipers to conserve surface water for runoff instream; and 10, Establishment of a formal program to monitor bank morphology and riparian plant populations (photomonitoring), water temperatures and fish census. After 4.5 years this LTSP has been ~80% implemented. Striking recovery of stream bank morphology and riparian plant species are seen, with ranching economics sustained. Changes in stream fish, invertebrate, and mammal populations will be evaluated as effects thereupon are anticipated. Perhaps most remarkable, this positive experience, and especially the open-minded flexibility of the project managers, has served to recruit traditionally resistant neighboring cattle ranchers to institute synergistic restoration programs along a contiguous 12m stretch of the NFSR. The key component of this project has been its substantial flexibility, based upon a realistic appreciation of the limits of current knowledge; ie: true Adaptive Management.

  19. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deavers, K.; Macek, T.; Karlson, U.

    2010-01-01

    . Methods The removal of 4-CBA by willow trees was investigated with intact, septic willow trees growing in hydroponic solution and with sterile cell suspensions at concentrations of 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L 4-CBA. Nutrient solutions with different levels of ammonium and nitrate were prepared to achieve different...

  20. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from willow-based electricity: a scenario analysis for Portugal and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebelo de Mira, R.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants using willow as fuel compared to those using fossil fuels. More specifically, we quantify emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils on which willow is grown, and compare these to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil

  2. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  3. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment : A field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, P; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F. M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-01-01

    Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation

  4. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch; Sandra Brantley; Richard Fagerlund; Michael D. Means; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    We compared abundance of migrating Willow Flycatchers and Wilson's Warblers to the abundance of arthropods in exotic and native vegetation at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We trapped arthropods using glue-boards in 1996 and 1997 in the same cottonwood, saltcedar, and willow habitats where we mist-netted birds during spring and fall migration. There...

  5. Riparian bird density decline in response to biocontrol of Tamarix from riparian ecosystems along the Dolores River in SW Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Biocontrol of invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the arid Southwest using the introduced tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda elongata) has been hypothesized to negatively affect some breeding bird species, but no studies to date have documented the effects of beetle-induced defoliation on riparian bird abundance. We assessed the effects of tamarisk defoliation by monitoring defoliation rates, changes in vegetation composition, and changes in density of six obligate riparian breeding bird species at two sites along the Dolores River in Colorado following the arrival of tamarisk beetles. We conducted bird point counts from 2010 to 2014 and modeled bird density as a function of native vegetation density and extent of defoliation using hierarchical distance sampling. Maximum annual defoliation decreased throughout the study period, peaking at 32–37% in 2009–2010 and dropping to 0.5–15% from 2011–2014. Stem density of both tamarisk and native plants declined throughout the study period until 2014. Density of all bird species declined throughout most of the study, with Song Sparrow disappearing from the study sites after 2011. Blue Grosbeak, Yellow-breasted Chat, and Yellow Warbler densities were negatively related to defoliation in the previous year, while Lazuli Bunting exhibited a positive relationship with defoliation. These findings corroborate earlier predictions of species expected to be sensitive to defoliation as a result of nest site selection. Tamarisk defoliation thus had short-term negative impacts on riparian bird species; active restoration may be needed to encourage the regrowth of native riparian vegetation, which in the longer-term may result in increased riparian bird density.

  6. Initial spacing of poplars and willows grown as arable coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.; Johns, C.

    1997-11-01

    Two clones of poplar and two clones of willow were grown at two sites, on a three year cutting cycle, at six different square spacings, between 0.8 metres and 1.5 metres. The two willow clones 'Bowles hybrid' and 'Dasyclados' were planted at both sites. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Beaupre' and Populus trichocarpa 'Columbia River'' were planted at Wishanger in Hampshire. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Boelare' and Populus trichocarpa 'Trichobel' were planted at Downham Market in Norfolk. The highest yield of 17.55 oven dry tonnes per hectare (odt/ha/annum) was obtained from 'Bowles hybrid', at the closest spacing, grown on a water meadow adjacent to the River Wey at Wishanger. The highest yield for all clones at both sites was achieved at the closest spacing (in this first rotation). There was a significant linear effect. One of the most interesting observations was that when comparing the gradient of the linear relationship, within species, the gradient was steeper for the higher yielding clone. This was particularly so for the willows. This would suggest that higher yielding clones are more tolerant of crowding, or, that upright Salix viminalis make better use of close space than the more spreading Salix dasyclados. The new Salix x Salix schwerinnii hybrids should therefore also be responsive to closer spacing. The same effect was observed for the poplars at Wishanger only, but the difference was not as dramatic. There was a suggestion from the highest yielding poplar plots that optimum yield may still be obtained at the currently recommended spacing of 1.0 metre x 1.0 metre. (author)

  7. Legal Mechanisms for Protecting Riparian Resource Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton L.; Lord, Eric

    1992-04-01

    Riparian resources include the borders of rivers, lakes, ponds, and potholes. These border areas are very important for a number of reasons, including stream channel maintenance, flood control, aesthetics, erosion control, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water quality maintenance. These diverse functions are not well protected by law or policy. We reviewed law and policies regarding endangered species habitat designation, land use planning, grazing management, water allocation, takings, and federal permits and licenses, along with the roles of federal, state, and local governments. We discuss the politics of implementing these policies, focusing on the difficulties in changing entrenched water and land use practices. Our review indicates a lack of direct attention to riparian ecosystem issues in almost all environmental and land use programs at every level of government. Protection of riparian resource values requires a means to integrate existing programs to focus on riparian zones.

  8. Seismic modelling of coal bed methane strata, Willow Creek, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.E.; Mayer, R.; Lawton, D.C.; Langenberg, W. [Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose is to determine the feasibility of applying high- resolution reflection seismic surveying to coalbed methane (CBM) exploration and development. Numerical reflection seismic methods are examined for measuring the mapping continuity and coherence of coal zones. Numerical modelling of a coal zone in Upper Cretaceous sediments near Willow Creek, Alberta indicates that seismic data that is predominantly of 100 Hz is required to map the coal zone and lateral facies variations within the deposit. For resolution of individual coal seams, a central frequency >150 Hz would be needed. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Woody plant willow in function of river water protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavić in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trepča industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 μg of lead, 20.09 μg of cadmium and 22.89 μg of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 μg/dm3 of lead, 29.21 μg/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 μg/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals

  10. Effects of riparian vegetation on topographic change during a large flood event, Rio Puerco, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, M. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of riparian vegetation can strongly influence the geomorphic evolution of dryland rivers during large floods. We present the results of an airborne lidar differencing study that quantifies the topographic change that occurred along a 12 km reach of the Lower Rio Puerco, New Mexico, during an extreme event in 2006. Extensive erosion of the channel banks took place immediately upstream of the study area, where tamarisk and sandbar willow had been removed. Within the densely vegetated study reach, we measure a net volumetric change of 578,050 ± ˜ 490,000 m3, with 88.3% of the total aggradation occurring along the floodplain and channel and 76.7% of the erosion focusing on the vertical valley walls. The sediment derived from the devegetated reach deposited within the first 3.6 km of the study area, with depth decaying exponentially with distance downstream. Elsewhere, floodplain sediments were primarily sourced from the erosion of valley walls. Superimposed on this pattern are the effects of vegetation and valley morphology on sediment transport. Sediment thickness is seen to be uniform among sandbar willows and highly variable within tamarisk groves. These reach-scale patterns of sedimentation observed in the lidar differencing likely reflect complex interactions of vegetation, flow, and sediment at the scale of patches to individual plants.

  11. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environment, and an endangeredspecies: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed from woodland (n = 426 individuals to urban environments (n = 939 individuals (F2,6 = 7.315; P = 0.025. Species composition and feeding guilds differed significantly in the bird community structures among these three riparian environments. In the grassland and urban environments there were more generalist insectivorous species, while in the woodland environments we find more leaf and trunk insectivorous species and frugivorous species, sensitive to human impacts. Bird species can be biological quality indicators and they contribute to ecosystems performing relevant functions. With the knowledge on bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to implement management practices for restoration of degraded riparian environments.

  12. Some environmental impacts of short rotation willow coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, F.M.; Hodson, R.W.; Randrson, P.F.; Lynn, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Short rotation willow coppice is a relatively new crop in upland Britain, and particularly in Environmentally Sensitive Areas the conservation and environmental effect of biomass crops needs to be evaluated. Investigations of sewage-sludge-treated plots in mid-Wales show that, because weed control was inadequate, recovery of the flora to its semi-natural precultivated state was rapid within and between experimental plots. Soil invertebrates responded to temporal stimuli before all else. Foliar-feeding invertebrates were greater in plots which had added fertilizer. Following cultivation voles were generally lost from the ploughed areas but field mice remained. Birds were studied in more extensive areas of short rotation coppice in central England and the assemblage of species was found to be similar to those found in conventional coppice but with a foreshortened successional sequence. The conservation value of short rotation willow coppice lies mainly in the abundant foliar invertebrates that provide a rich source of food for small passerine birds, particularly summer migrants. It also provides good cover for game birds - and their predators. (author)

  13. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  14. Uptake, accumulation and metabolic response of ferricyanide in weeping willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The remediation potential and metabolic responses of plants to ferricyanide were investigated using pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) grown hydroponically in growth chambers and treated with potassium ferricyanide. Positive responses were observed for the plants exposed to cyanide recovered in plant biomass was constant in all treatments, indicating that transport is a major limiting step for the uptake of ferricyanide by plants. The majority of the ferricyanide taken up from the growth media was possibly assimilated during transport through plants. The velocity of the removal processes can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the half-saturation constant (K(M)) and the maximum removal capacity (v(max)) were estimated to be 228.1 mg CN L(-1) and 36.43 mg CN kg(-1) d(-1), respectively, using non-linear regression methods. These results suggest that weeping willows can take up, transport and assimilate ferricyanide; and phytoremediation is an option for cleaning up the environmental sites contaminated with cyanide complexes.

  15. Early ecosystem responses to watershed restoration along a headwater stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Emilie M.F.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Morsing, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Along many streams, natural riparian vegetation has been replaced by agricultural fields or plantations resulting in ecosystem alterations due to changes of the interactions across the land-water ecotone. We studied the effect of restoration interventions by removing a dense spruce plantation in ...

  16. Bat Response To Carolina Bays and Wetland Restoration in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...

  17. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  18. Riparian Raptors on USACE Projects: Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    2000-01-01

    ...) reservoir operations. For management purposes, these raptors are considered riparian generalists because they inhabit the riparian zones surrounding streams and lakes of Corps projects but may seasonally use adjacent...

  19. Riparian Raptors on USACE Projects: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma A; Wolters, M. S

    2000-01-01

    ...) reservoir operations. For management purposes, these raptors are considered riparian generalists because they inhabit riparian zones surrounding streams and lakes on Corps project lands but may seasonally use adjacent...

  20. Effect of urbanization on bird community in riparian environments in Caí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p81 Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which respond differently to impacts. We compare richness, abundance and composition of birds in riparian environments with different urbanization gradients in Caí River, Rio Grande do Sul. We conducted observations in woodland, grassland and urban environments, between September/2007 and August/2008. We recorded 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environments, including an endangered species: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed between woodland and urban environments (426 individuals in woodland, 721 in grassland and 939 in urban. Species composition and feeding guilds contributed significantly to differentiation of bird community structures in these three riparian environments. In open environments (grassland and urban we recorded more generalist feeding guilds and bird species, while in riparian woodland environments, we find guilds and species more sensitive to human impacts. Bird species may be biological quality indicators and contribute to natural economy. With the knowledge of bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to establish management practices for riparian restoration of degraded environments in the region.

  1. Characterising willows for biomass and phytoremediation: growth, nitrogen and water use of 14 willow clones under different irrigation and fertilisation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weih, Martin; Nordh, N.-E.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen clones of willow (Salix spp.) were characterised in terms of growth, nitrogen and water-use efficiency under different irrigation and fertilisation treatments. Cuttings of willow clones, some commercially introduced and others new material, were pot-grown outdoors in Central Sweden under four experimental treatments in a full-factorial design. The experiment covered the period from bud-break until leaf abscission and the experimental conditions included two irrigation and two fertilisation regimes. The growth of the clones was evaluated in terms of relative growth rate and total biomass production of whole plants and shoots. Nitrogen (N) economy was studied by means of N productivity, N accumulation and N losses by leaf abscission. Water economy was analysed with respect to intrinsic water-use efficiency (foliar carbon isotope ratio; δ 13 C) and the capacity of leaves to retain water (relative water content). Significant differences between clones were found in nearly all parameters measured and the clones varied in the responses to the experimental treatments (clone x factor interaction effects). Thus, clone ranking often changed depending on the experimental treatment. The results are discussed with respect to clone selection for different willow applications such as biomass production and phytoremediation, and willow growth performance under different water and nutrient availabilities. The growth-physiological characterisation of young willows in the short term (several months) is regarded as a suitable approach for pre-selection of promising clones prior to extensive field evaluation

  2. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  3. Willow and poplar for bioenergy on former cropland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros

    and water demands of the trees. The water requirements of SRWCs are generally high, and high evapotranspiration rates in both SRC willow and SRF poplar decreased deep percolation, which along with low N concentrations led to low N leaching. Excessive N leaching was only observed when SRC was fertilized......Climate change is one of the 21st century’s greatest challenges and calls for immediate action through the implementation of mitigation strategies. A shift from fossil fuel to renewable energy is a key factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, with bioenergy being...... the predominant sector of renewables in the current European and global energy markets. Dedicated energy crops, such as short rotation woody crops (SRWC), are promising bioenergy feedstock in southern Scandinavia due to their high yields. Such cropping systems have high demands for land, water, and nutrients...

  4. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  5. River flow and riparian vegetation dynamics - implications for management of the Yampa River through Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael L; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    This report addresses the relation between flow of the Yampa River and occurrence of herbaceous and woody riparian vegetation in Dinosaur National Monument (DINO) with the goal of informing management decisions related to potential future water development. The Yampa River in DINO flows through diverse valley settings, from the relatively broad restricted meanders of Deerlodge Park to narrower canyons, including debris fan-affected reaches in the upper Yampa Canyon and entrenched meanders in Harding Hole and Laddie Park. Analysis of occurrence of all plant species measured in 1470 quadrats by multiple authors over the last 24 years shows that riparian vegetation along the Yampa River is strongly related to valley setting and geomorphic surfaces, defined here as active channel, active floodplain, inactive floodplain, and upland. Principal Coordinates Ordination arrayed quadrats and species along gradients of overall cover and moisture availability, from upland and inactive floodplain quadrats and associated xeric species like western wheat grass (Pascopyrum smithii), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) to active channel and active floodplain quadrats supporting more mesic species including sandbar willow (Salix exigua), wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), and cordgrass (Spartina spp.). Indicator species analysis identified plants strongly correlated with geomorphic surfaces. These species indicate state changes in geomorphic surfaces, such as the conversion of active channel to floodplain during channel narrowing. The dominant woody riparian species along the Yampa River are invasive tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima), and native Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii), box elder (Acer negundo L. var. interius), and sandbar willow (Salix exigua). These species differ in tolerance of drought, salinity, inundation, flood disturbance and shade, and in seed size, timing of seed dispersal and ability to form root sprouts. These

  6. Evaluating growth effects from an imidacloprid treatment in black willow and eastern cottonwood cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano de Sene Fernandes; Ray A. Souter; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.), two species native in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, have importance in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems for biomass production (Ruark 2006).

  7. Use of willows in evapotranspirative systems for onsite wastewater management – theory and experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    aspects of ET systems is their ability to evapotranspire all of the sewage discharged into the systems and the rain falling onto the systems. On an annual basis the ET should equal the amount of wastewater discharged into the system plus the amount of precipitation falling onto the system. Part...... with clones of willow (Salix viminalis L.). The surface area of the systems depends on the amount and quality of the sewage to be treated and the local annual rainfall. A single household in Denmark typically requires between 120 and 300 m2. The annual precipitation at the site of construction is an important...... dimensioning parameter. Settled sewage is dispersed underground into the bed under pressure. The stems of the willows are harvested on a regular basis to stimulate the growth of the willows and to remove some nutrients and heavy metals. In this paper, the theory behind the operation of willow based ET systems...

  8. Meta-transcriptomics indicates biotic cross-tolerance in willow trees cultivated on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Marleau, Julie; Guidi Nissim, Werther; Labrecque, Michel; Pitre, Frederic E; Joly, Simon

    2015-10-12

    High concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) pollution can be hazardous to human health and leave soils incapable of supporting agricultural crops. A cheap solution, which can help restore biodiversity and bring land back to productivity, is cultivation of high biomass yielding willow trees. However, the genetic mechanisms which allow these fast-growing trees to tolerate PHCs are as yet unclear. Salix purpurea 'Fish Creek' trees were pot-grown in soil from a former petroleum refinery, either lacking or enriched with C10-C50 PHCs. De novo assembled transcriptomes were compared between tree organs and impartially annotated without a priori constraint to any organism. Over 45% of differentially expressed genes originated from foreign organisms, the majority from the two-spotted spidermite, Tetranychus urticae. Over 99% of T. urticae transcripts were differentially expressed with greater abundance in non-contaminated trees. Plant transcripts involved in the polypropanoid pathway, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), had greater expression in contaminated trees whereas most resistance genes showed higher expression in non-contaminated trees. The impartial approach to annotation of the de novo transcriptomes, allowing for the possibility for multiple species identification, was essential for interpretation of the crop's response treatment. The meta-transcriptomic pattern of expression suggests a cross-tolerance mechanism whereby abiotic stress resistance systems provide improved biotic resistance. These findings highlight a valuable but complex biotic and abiotic stress response to real-world, multidimensional contamination which could, in part, help explain why crops such as willow can produce uniquely high biomass yields on challenging marginal land.

  9. Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating the spat......The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating...

  10. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, William S.; Armour, C.L.; Booth, G.D.; Bryant, M.; Bufford, J.L.; Cuplin, P.; Jensen, S.; Lienkaemper, G.W.; Minshall, G.W.; Monsen, S.T.; Nelson, R.L.; Sedell, J.R.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Riparian area planning and management is a major national issues today--something that should have been the case a century ago. A century of additive effects of land use has resulted in major impacts on many riparian stream habitats and their fisheries, wildlife, and domestic livestock use. Before scientists can evaluate the influences of various land and water uses on riparian environments, they must first understand these environments. This means being able to detect and measure with confidence the natural and artificial variation and instantaneous conditions of the riparian habitat. These conditions must then be related to the production capability of riparian habitat and any extraneous factors affecting this production potential.

  11. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  12. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  13. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  14. Best management practices for riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Phillips; Lloyd W. Swift; Charles R. Blinn

    2000-01-01

    Forest streams, lakes, and other water bodies create unique conditions along their margins that control and influence transfers of energy, nutrients, and sediments between aquatic and terrestrial systems. These riparian areas are among the most critical features of the landscape because they contain a rich diversity of plants and animals and help to maintain water...

  15. REMM: The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrance, R.; Altier, L.S.; Williams, R.G.; Inamdar, S.P.; Sheridan, J.M.; Bosch, D.D.; Hubbard, R.K.; Thomas, D.L.

    2000-03-01

    Riparian buffer zones are effective in mitigating nonpoint source pollution and have been recommended as a best management practice (BMP). The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) has been developed for researchers and natural resource agencies as a modeling tool that can help quantify the water quality benefits of riparian buffers under varying site conditions. Processes simulated in REMM include surface and subsurface hydrology; sediment transport and deposition; carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport, removal, and cycling; and vegetation growth. Management options, such as vegetation type, size of the buffer zone, and biomass harvesting also can be simulated. REMM can be used in conjunction with upland models, empirical data, or estimated loadings to examine scenarios of buffer zone design for a hillslope. Evaluation of REMM simulations with field observations shows generally good agreement between simulated and observed data for groundwater nitrate concentrations and water table depths in a mature riparian forest buffer. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes that influenced the water balance or soil moisture storage affected the streamflow output. Parameter changes that influence either hydrology or rates of nutrient cycling affected total N transport and plant N uptake.

  16. Phytostabilization of metals by indigenous riparian vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When measured against an ideal hypothetical buffer zone, the buffer zones under investigation varied between intact and severely compromised. Intact riparian zones showed elevated metal concentrations in the soil, yet significantly lower concentrations in the river water compared to areas with insufficient vegetative cover ...

  17. Riparian Vegetation Response to the March 2008 Short-Duration, High-Flow Experiment-Implications of Timing and Frequency of Flood Disturbance on Nonnative Plant Establishment Along the Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    years of sustained flooding. The results from the 2008 HFE suggest that riparian vegetation zones subject to intermittent disturbance and near the river under normal dam operations are more susceptible to nonnative species introductions following a disturbance. This study also finds that the timing of an HFE affects the types of species that can become established. For example, HFEs conducted in March are associated with reduced tamarisk seedling establishment compared to disturbances later in the season. Additionally, early season, short-duration flooding that results in vegetation burial may favor clonal species. Along the Colorado River many of these clonal species are native; these species include arrowweed (Pluchea sericea), coyote willow (Salix exigua), and rivercane (Phragmites australis).

  18. Assessment of hydrological regimes for vegetation on riparian wetlands in Han River Basin, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological regimes are regarded as one of the major determinants for wetland ecosystems, for they influence species composition, succession, productivity, and stability of vegetation communities. Since Korea launched the Four Major River Restoration Project in 2007, the water regimes of many of the riparian wetlands have changed, that is potentially affecting vegetation properties. For ecological conservation and management, it is important to connect hydrological characteristics and vegetation properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of hydrological regimes on vegetation community, and develop a methodology that can connect them. Inundated exceedance probability (IEP and its district concept are suggested to gain insights into hydrological regimes on the Binae wetland that is rehabilitated by the Restoration Project in 2012 and belong to the riparian zone. Results of this study indicate that the areas with P = 0.08 or lower IEPs should have the disturbance for vegetation communities, or could be changed to a hydrophilic vegetation in the study area, and it should be considered in the restoration and rehabilitation project to conserve legally protected or endangered vegetation.

  19. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  20. SRC-willow (Salix viminalis) as a resource for flower-visiting insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddersen, J. [National Environmental Research Institute, Ronde (Denmark). Dept. of Landscape Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The potential habitat value of commercial short rotation coppice (SRC)-willow plantations for flower-visiting insects was investigated. During 1998-2000, at a single typical intensive Danish farmland site, 11 Salix viminalis plantations were sampled by late April to quantify willow catkin abundance and flower sex. Mean plantation size was 1.1 ha and included one or more of clones: orm, rapp, ulv, jorr, christina and jorrun. Plot-year means of catkin abundance and of proportion of willows flowering were related to the coppicing cycle, i.e. the number of growth years since last harvest of plot ('year' 0-4). In 1998, the ground layer vegetation was sampled. Monitoring flower-visiting insects by means of line-transect counts failed due to the local scarcity of bees. At the plantation scale, flowering was discontinuous across the harvest cycle as it was totally absent in the year immediately following harvest. In successive years (1-4), individual willows flowered frequently and, occasionally, at high abundances, and catkin abundance increased with time. Within 3-4 year of harvest cycle, all plots flowered in most years with most plots exhibiting at least some flowering in any 1 year. Thus, willow catkin abundance was generally high in the total area due to: high frequency of flowering in plots, occasional high flowering abundance, plots not being harvested simultaneously and large total number of willows within plots and landscape. Similarly, flower sex ratio, and thus flower value, varied greatly between plots while variation was damped across plots. Alternative simultaneous flower resources in ground layer vegetation were few except for Dandelion. SRC willow may constitute an important resource for bees, even under the stress of the harvest cycle, and recommendations are given for improving this biodiversity aspect. (author)

  1. River food web response to large-scale riparian zone manipulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Timothy Wootton

    Full Text Available Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks.

  2. Quality Testing of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Heinsoo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and feasibility of Short Rotation Coppice depend on cutting early performance. The shoot and root biomass production of Salix cuttings in hydroponic conditions was studied. The amount of sprouted biomass after four weeks of growth depended on cutting the diameter, but the original position of the cutting along the rod or number of visible buds was not in correlation with biomass produced. Application of mineral fertilizer or soil originating from the willow plantation did not increase the total production. On the contrary, the addition of soil tended to decrease biomass production and we assumed this was a result of a shortage of light. Under the influence of fertilization, plants allocated greater biomass to roots. Comparison of different clones revealed that those with S. dasyclados genes tended to allocate less biomass to roots and the poorest-performing clone in our experiment, also had the lowest wood production in the plantation. The number of visible buds on the cutting was also clone-specific.

  3. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  4. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Today's notice announces BPA's proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA's obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  5. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  6. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Julie K.; Holm, Peter E.; Nejrup, Jens; Larsen, Morten B.; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber uptakes. Despite high concentrations of cadmium (≥80 mg/kg) and zinc (≥3000 mg/kg) in leaves of willow grown on strongly polluted soil with up to 18 mg Cd/kg, 1400 mg Cu/kg, 500 mg Pb/kg and 3300 mg Zn/kg, it is unsuited on strongly polluted soils because of poor growth. However, willow proved promising on moderately polluted soils (2.5 mg Cd/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg), where it extracted 0.13% of total Cd and 0.29% of the total Zn per year probably representing the most mobile fraction. Cu and Pb are strongly fixed in calcareous soils. - Willow is suited for remediation of moderately heavy metal polluted calcareous soils

  7. Improving the water use efficiency of short rotation coppice (SRC) willows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, W.; Bonneau, L.; Groves, S.; Armstrong, A.; Lindegard, K.

    2003-07-01

    On the premise that biofuels will make a significant contribution to the UK's renewable energy sources by the year 2010, willow short rotation coppicing is being studied. The high water requirement of willow is seen as a potential problem in the drier regions of the UK and increasing the water use efficiency and/or draught resistance would extend the areas where willow coppicing would be profitable. The first part of the project was to investigate the water use of a number of near-market varieties of willow and evaluate techniques for early drought tolerance screening in a breeding program and for this, field studies were conducted. This report gives some very early results from the preliminary study. Since DTI funding ceased before the one-season study of the three-year program was complete, the results should be regarded as tentative only. The next phase of the program will be funded by DEFRA and will include efforts to identify how a range of high-yielding willows respond to water stress.

  8. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  9. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, Paer; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m 2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (≤2160 kg N/ha), chloride (≤8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  10. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N.

    2003-01-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment

  11. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-11-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment.

  12. Foraging intention affects whether willow tits call to attract members of mixed-species flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how individual behaviour influences the spatial and temporal distribution of other species is necessary to resolve the complex structure of species assemblages. Mixed-species bird flocks provide an ideal opportunity to investigate this issue, because members of the flocks are involved in a variety of behavioural interactions between species. Willow tits ( Poecile montanus ) often produce loud calls when visiting a new foraging patch to recruit other members of mixed-species flocks. The costs and benefits of flocking would differ with individual foraging behaviours (i.e. immediate consumption or caching); thus, willow tits may adjust the production of loud calls according to their foraging intention. In this study, we investigated the link between foraging decisions and calling behaviour in willow tits and tested its influence on the temporal cohesion with members of mixed-species flocks. Observations at experimental foraging patches showed that willow tits produced more calls when they consumed food items compared with when they cached them. Playback experiments revealed that these calls attracted flock members and helped to maintain their presence at foraging patches. Thus, willow tits adjusted calling behaviour according to their foraging intention, thereby coordinating the associations with members of mixed-species flocks. Our findings demonstrate the influence of individual decision-making on temporal cohesion with other species and highlight the importance of interspecific communication in mixed-species flocking dynamics.

  13. Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perry, Laura G; Rose, Chanoane A; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dams affect the shifting habitat mosaic of river bottomlands is key for protecting the many ecological functions and related goods and services that riparian forests provide and for informing approaches to riparian ecosystem restoration. We examined the downstream effects of two large dams on patterns of forest composition, structure, and dynamics within different geomorphic contexts and compared them to upstream reference conditions along the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Patterns of riparian vegetation in river segments downstream of the dams were driven largely by channel and bottomland geomorphic responses to a dramatically reduced sediment supply. The river segment upstream of both dams was the most geomorphically dynamic, whereas the segment between the dams was the least dynamic due to substantial channel armoring, and the segment downstream of both dams was intermediate due to some local sediment supply. These geomorphic differences were linked to altered characteristics of the shifting habitat mosaic, including older forest age structure and fewer young Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa stands in the relatively static segment between the dams compared to more extensive early-successional forests (dominated by Alnus rubra and Salix spp.) and pioneer seedling recruitment upstream of the dams. Species composition of later-successional forest communities varied among river segments as well, with greater Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla abundance upstream of both dams, Acer spp. abundance between the dams, and P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa and Thuja plicata abundance below both dams. Riparian forest responses to the recent removal of the two dams on the Elwha River will depend largely on channel and geomorphic adjustments to the release, transport, and deposition of the large volume of sediment formerly stored in the reservoirs, together with changes in large wood dynamics.

  14. Influence of Gully Erosion Control on Amphibian and Reptile Communities within Riparian Zones of Channelized Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian zones of streams in northwestern Mississippi have been impacted by agriculture, channelization, channel incision, and gully erosion. Riparian gully formation has resulted in the fragmentation of remnant riparian zones within agricultural watersheds. One widely used conservation practice for...

  15. Denitrification potential of riparian soils in relation to multiscale spatial environmental factors: a case study of a typical watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianbing; Feng, Hao; Cheng, Quanguo; Gao, Shiqian; Liu, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that environmental regulators of riparian zone soil denitrification potential differ according to spatial scale within a watershed; consequently, a second objective was to provide spatial strategies for conserving and restoring the purification function of runoff in riparian ecosystems. The results show that soil denitrification in riparian zones was more heterogeneous at the profile scale than at the cross-section and landscape scales. At the profile scale, biogeochemical factors (including soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen) were the major direct regulators of the spatial distribution of soil denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). At the cross-section scale, factors included distance from river bank and vegetation density, while landscape-scale factors, including topographic index, elevation, and land use types, indirectly regulated the spatial distribution of DEA. At the profile scale, soil DEA was greatest in the upper soil layers. At the cross-section scale, maximum soil DEA occurred in the mid-part of the riparian zone. At the landscape scale, soil DEA showed an increasing trend towards downstream sites, except for those in urbanized areas.

  16. Flow and transport in Riparian Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn

    scenarios with changing conditions for flow (steady state with no flooding or transient with flooding), hydrogeology, denitrification rate, and extent of flooding it is demonstrated how flow paths, residence times, and nitrate removal are affected. With this previous conceptual models on the hydrology......The PhD study presents research results from two re-established Danish riparian zones, Brynemade and Skallebanke, located along Odense River on the island Funen, Denmark. The overall objectives of the PhD study have been to improve the understanding of flow and transport in riparian zones....... The methodology focuses on; construction of field sites along Odense River, understanding flow and transport, and performing numerical/analytical model assessments of flow and transport. An initial 2D simulation study was performed with a conceptual setup based on the Brynemade site. Through a series of 2D model...

  17. Can energy willow (Salix sp.) remediate cadmium- and nickel-contaminated fish farm sludge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    it meets the criteria. Phytoremediation by willow may combine accumulation of cadmium and nickel from the sludge with the production of an energy crop. The ability of eight selected willow clones to take up and tolerate cadmium and nickel was studied in pots under outdoor conditions. Fish farm sludge...

  18. Willow as fuel for district heating. Experiences from test combustion; Energipil som braendsel til fjernvarme - Erfaringsindsamling fra testfyringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Joergen

    2012-10-15

    The project has been a study of the fuel characteristics of willow chips. The study was carried out on Trustrup-Lyngby Heating Plant and Assens District Heating Plant in the period 2011-12. Operating experiences were collected from the two plants. Furthermore, yield and crop data were collected from suppliers of willow chips to Assens District Heating Plant, and the analysis of particle size distribution of the willow chips is carried out. The collected data on yield and particle size distribution are compared with results from previous studies. The project has shown that willow chips generally are a suitable and attractive fuel in wood-fired heat and power plants. The plants are very aware of quality of willow chips and want chips with coarse structure. Furthermore, there is the wish that water content of willow chips are on par with the moisture content of wood chips, i.e. around 30-40%; woodchips are the vast majority of the chips used in the plants. Wood chips produced from fresh willow shoots with chopper will typically have a moisture content of 50-60 %. Such ''wet'' chips will of some plants be deselected during winter, where there is a requirement of safe and high boiler output. Other plants will simply mix the ''wet'' willow chips with other, drier types of chips and can use it almost all the year. If the willow shoots are harvested as branches, which subsequently are allowed to dry for a period before chipping, willow chips can be produced with a moisture content that is in line with what is typical in wood chips. Analysis of particle size distribution shows that willow chips harvested with a cutting machine usually can meet the requirements for quality classes ''fine'', ''medium'' and ''coarse''. An account of the harvested yields of willow among the growers who supplied willow chips to Assens Heating Plant, showed a relatively low yield of 5.1 tonnes dry

  19. Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 μmol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

  20. Storage and handling of willow from short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P. D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the project two main storage and drying trials were organised. The first trial in 1996 consisted of 14 piles of 6 different size material (whole shoots, via 200 mm chunk, 100 mm chunk, 50 mm chip, 28 mm chips, 25 mm chips) and six different methods of covering: Open air storage, storage under plastic cover, storage under top-cover, airtight storage, unventilated storage under roof, and intermittent ventilation (cooling) under roof. The drying trial in 1997 which consisted of four piles was established in Horsens in the same building as the ventilated trials the year before. Only Austoft 50 mm chips were used for this trial. The four piles were established in February and removed in May. Based on all the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn: Storage of willow from short rotation coppice is very difficult. Fine chips, such as producted by the two main harvesting machines Claas and Austoft are not suitable for storage over prolonged periods of time (more than 2 months); fine chips loose a large amount of dry matter and a lot of their lower heating value; fine chips also have a heavy infestation of micro-organisms which might cause working environment problems; short rotation coppice is best delivered straight into the heating plants during harvest; if short rotation coppice has to be stored, then this should be done as whole shoots or large chunk; if short rotation coppice has to be stored as chips for a longer period of time (more than two months), then these chips should be sealed airtight as silage. (EG) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96. 10 refs.

  1. Environmental effects of energy forest (short rotation willow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with environmental effects of producing and combusting energy forest fuel. Energy forest means short rotation willow (Salix). Supposed effects of sewage sludge application are discussed as well. Energy forestry on agricultural land implies both advantages and disadvantages for the environment. Leaf litter (humified leaves) increases the humus content in the top soil. The soil fauna is also positively affected. Until now performed studies about nitrogen leakage from fields cultivated with energy forest (Salix), have not given any distinct results. A retarded drainage within energy forest fields is on the other hand noticed. While the root system of Salix is active during a long period of the year, the nitrogen leakage become less compared to traditional cultivation. The content of plant nutrients and organic matter in sewage sludge make a resource that can be useful for agricultural purposes, especially for energy forest cultivation. The content of heavy metals and organic emissions contradicts sludge application to agricultural land. Sewage sludge with todays quality increases somewhat the content of heavy metals in the soil. This condition can be counteracted to a certain extent by growing energy forest. It has been established that Salix has high ability to heavy metal uptake, especially cadmium. Growing energy forest on drained farm land is connected with a risk for root penetration into the drainage system. With enough water and plant nutrients in the top soil the risk is reduced. Shallow depth of the pipes increases the risk. Combustion of wood chip from energy forests (and other types of biomass) gives especially two advantages. It does not give any net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulphur discharge will be minimal since the sulphur content in wood fuels is low. Discharge of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons may give some problems. These can be reduced by technological measures when combusting. 27 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea to Arsenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Yanitch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.

  3. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea) to Arsenic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanitch, Aymeric; Brereton, Nicholas J. B.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect) toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production. PMID:28702037

  4. Protocols for Mapping and Characterizing Land Use/Land Cover in Riparian Zones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Michaela R; Zelt, Ronald B

    2005-01-01

    .... Characterization of riparian systems is critical to a comprehensive understanding of nutrient enrichment effects on stream ecosystems because riparian functions provide an important ecological...

  5. Biogeomorphic feedbacks within riparian corridors: the role of positive interactions between riparian plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Till-Bottraud, Irène

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation affects hydrogeomorphic processes and leads to the construction of wooded fluvial landforms within riparian corridors. Multiple plants form dense multi- and mono-specific stands that enhance plant resistance as grouped plants are less prone to be uprooted than free-standing individuals. Riparian plants which grow in dense stands also enhance their role as ecosystem engineers through the trapping of sediment, organic matter and nutrients. The wooded biogeomorphic landforms which originate from the effect of vegetation on geomorphology lead in return to an improved capacity of the plants to survive, exploit resources, and reach sexual maturity in the intervals between destructive floods. Thus, these vegetated biogeomorphic landforms likely represent a positive niche construction of riparian plants. The nature and intensity of biotic interactions between riparian plants of different species (inter-specific) or the same species (intra-specific) which form dense stands and construct together the niche remain unclear. We strongly suspect that indirect inter-specific positive interactions (facilitation) occur between plants but that more direct intra-specific interactions, such as cooperation and altruism, also operate during the niche construction process. Our aim is to propose an original theoretical framework of inter and intra-specific positive interactions between riparian plants. We suggest that positive interactions between riparian plants are maximized in river reaches with an intermediate level of hydrogeomorphic disturbance. During establishment, plants that grow within dense stands improve their survival and growth because individuals protect each other from shear stress. In addition to the improved capacity to trap mineral and organic matter, individuals which constitute the dense stand can cooperate to mutually support a mycorrhizal fungi network that will connect plants, soil and ground water and influence nutrient transfer, cycling and

  6. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a dry climate. However, the reclaimed water can also change biosolids properties, which will influence the effectiveness of willows to extract different metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim

    2017-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a low-input, short rotation coppice (SRC) willow grown on different Danish lands was performed. Woodchips are gasified, producer gas is used for co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and the ash-char output is applied as soil amendment in the field. A hybrid model...... for abandoned farmland, as a relative C stock loss compared to natural regeneration. ILUC results show that area related GHG emissions are dominant (93% of iLUCfood and 80% of iLUCfeed), transformation being more important (82% of iLUCfood) than occupation (11%) impacts. LCA results show that CHP from willow...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF A 5-YEAR-OLD REHABILITATED RIPARIAN FOREST: IS IT ALREADY SUSTAINABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Londe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAs important as the establishment of projects of ecological restoration is its assessment post-implementation to know whether the area is becoming self-sustainable or need to be redirected. In this way, this study aimed to know the current situation of a 5-year-old rehabilitated riparian forest,inserted in an anthropogenic impacted region,at the das Velhas River, Minas Gerais State, studying the canopy openness and recruitment of seedlings as plant indicators. 15 plots were allocated in the forest, where hemispherical photographs were taken to analyze the canopy openness and evaluate all seedlings from 0.30 m to 1.30 m height.Canopy openness ranged from 23.7% to 38.8% between seasons and only 192 seedlings were found,from 13 species, five of them exotic and aggressive. Although canopy openness was low, it seems that lateral penetration of light has been favoring the development and dominancy of plants from invasive species, whereas few native ones have been recruited. The exotic/invasive plants may compromise the success of restoration mainly by competition with native planted species. The outcomes evidenced an unsustainability of the riparian forest and the requirement of some management actions to control exotic and invasive plants and ensure the preservation of the area and its ecological roles over time.

  9. Assessing Anthropogenic Influence and Edge Effect Influence on Forested Riparian Buffer Spatial Configuration and Structure: An Example Using Lidar Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Forested riparian buffers (FRB) perform numerous critical ecosystem services. However, globally, FRB spatial configuration and structure have been modified by anthropogenic development resulting in widespread ecological degradation as seen in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. Riparian corridors within developed areas are particularly vulnerable to disturbance given two edges - the naturally occurring stream edge and the matrix edge. Increased edge length predisposes riparian vegetation to "edge effects", characterized by modified physical and environmental conditions at the interface between the forested buffer and the adjacent landuse, or matrix and forest fragment degradation. The magnitude and distance of edge influence may be further influenced by adjacent landuse type and the width of the buffer corridor at any given location. There is a need to quantify riparian buffer spatial configuration and structure over broad geographic extents and within multiple riparian systems in support of ecologically sound management and landuse decisions. This study thus assesses the influence of varying landuse types (agriculture, suburban development and undeveloped) on forested riparian buffer 3-dimensional structure and spatial configuration using high resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data collected within a headwater watershed. Few studies have assessed riparian buffer structure and width contiguously for an entire watershed, an integral component of watershed planning and restoration efforts such as those conducted throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The objectives of the study are to 1) quantify differences in vegetation structure at the stream and matrix influenced riparian buffer edges, compared to the forested interior and 2) assess continuous patterns of changes in vegetation structure throughout the buffer corridor beginning at the matrix edge and ending at the stream within buffers a) of varying width and b) that are adjacent to varying landuse

  10. Phosphorus retention in riparian buffers: review of their efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Kronvang, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Ground water and surface water interactions are of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical processes governing phosphorus (P) dynamics in riparian buffers. The four most important conceptual hydrological pathways for P losses from and P retention in riparian buffers are reviewed in this paper: (i) The diffuse flow path with ground water flow through the riparian aquifer, (ii) the overland flow path across the riparian buffer with water coming from adjacent agricultural fields, (iii) irrigation of the riparian buffer with tile drainage water from agricultural fields where disconnected tile drains irrigate the riparian buffer, and (iv) inundation of the riparian buffer (floodplain) with river water during short or longer periods. We have examined how the different flow paths in the riparian buffer influence P retention mechanisms theoretically and from empirical evidence. The different hydrological flow paths determine where and how water-borne P compounds meet and interact with iron and aluminum oxides or other minerals in the geochemical cycling of P in the complex and dynamic environment that constitutes a riparian buffer. The main physical process in the riparian buffer-sedimentation-is active along several flow paths and may account for P retention rates of up to 128 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1), while plant uptake may temporarily immobilize up to 15 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Retention of dissolved P in riparian buffers is not as pronounced as retention of particulate P and is often below 0.5 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Several studies show significant release of dissolved P (i.e., up to 8 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)).

  11. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  12. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  13. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  14. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian/non-riparian

  15. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  16. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  17. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  18. A framework for profiling a lake's riparian area development potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Ciara Schlichting; Dorothy H. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges for managing residential development occur at the interface between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems -in a lake`s riparian area. Land use planners need a framework they can use to identify development hotspots, areas were the next push for development will most likely occur. Lake riparian development profiles provide a framework...

  19. SNAG AND LARGE WOODY DEBRIS DYNAMICS IN RIPARIAN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Important components of riparian forests are snags and streamside large woody debris (LWD) because they are functional in maintaining water quality and providing habitat for numerous plants and animals. To effectively manage riparian forests, it is important to understand the dy...

  20. Riparian adaptive management symposium: a conversation between scientists and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas F. Ryan; John M. Calhoun

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, land managers and policy makers discussed whether riparian (stream side) forest management and policy for state, federal and private lands in western Washington are consistent with current science. Answers were mixed: some aspects of riparian policy and management have a strong basis in current science, while other aspects may not. Participants agreed that...

  1. Metal concentrations in urban riparian sediments along an urbanization gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Bain; Ian D. Yesilonis; Richard V. Pouyat

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization impacts fluvial systems via a combination of changes in sediment chemistry and basin hydrology. While chemical changes in urban soils have been well characterized, similar surveys of riparian sediments in urbanized areas are rare. Metal concentrations were measured in sediments collected from riparian areas across the urbanization gradient in Baltimore, MD...

  2. Concentrated flow paths in riparian buffer zones of southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Pankau; J.E. Schoonover; K.W.J. Willard; P.J. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes should be designed to trap pollutants in overland flow by slowing, filtering, and infiltrating surface runoff entering the buffer via sheet flow. However, observational evidence suggests that concentrated flow is prevalent from agricultural fields. Over time sediment can accumulate in riparian buffers forming berms that...

  3. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  4. Cadmium in willow plantations - municipal waste products as fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselgren, K.

    1995-07-01

    Plantations of willows (i.e. Salix spp) seem to absorb cadmium (Cd) from arable land to a greater extent than other plant cultivations. Thus, energy forestry, based upon cultivation of Salix, could possibly be used for biofuel production in combination with biological purification of arable land contaminated with Cd by atmospheric deposition and P fertilizers during the passed 100 years. Application of sewage sludge (5-7 ppm Cd of dry solids) up to 550 g Cd per hectare, or 140 g Cd hectare and year, resulted in clearly increased concentrations of Cd in the upper 10 cm layer of the soil. In deeper soil layers the differences compared with control plots were small. Lower rates of sludge application, corresponding to less than 70 g added per hectare and year, did not materially affect the Cd-content in the soil irrespective of layer. A general pattern was that the content of Cd in plant tissues decreased with increased stem diameter, increased age of stems and stands as well as increased biomass growth. Thus, concentrations of Cd in Salix material, in clones from some of the first generation of energy forest plants (S. viminalis, S. dasyclados and S. schwerinii). were fairly high in young stands. In general, 1-year-old shoots contained 5-6 ppm Cd of dry solids in stems and 10-15 ppm in leaves. In older shoots, up to three years, and older stands, up to six years, the Cd contents decreased to 1-2 ppm Cd and 2-4 ppm Cd of dry solids for stems and leaves, respectively. Abundant supplies of water and nutrients seem to stimulate the Cd uptake in Salix in terms of higher concentrations in plant tissues as well as higher plant growth levels compared with conventional energy forestry. Stands with older stems, not irrigated and not fully fertilized resulted in uptake rates in the range of 10-30 g Cd per hectare and year. 14 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  5. Machinery management data for willow harvest with a bio-baler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Hebert, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Robert, F.S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Sols et environnement

    2010-07-01

    Willow harvested in 2-to-3-year rotations has been touted as a reliable source of biomass. A newly designed harvester based on a round baler was developed in 2006. The third generation biobaler was evaluated in 2009 at 2 willow plantations in Quebec. The first site at Godmanchester was a three-year old regrowth with an estimated 52,000 stems/ha of large diameter willow. The biobaler with a flail cutter harvested three plots totalling 4,136 m{sup 2}. Total harvested biomass was 10.36 t DM in 42 bales. The harvest rate averaged 29 bale/h with an average bale size of 1.22 m wide by 1.30 m in diameter. Diesel fuel consumption averaged 0.81 L/bale. Measured losses averaged 11 per cent of the yield. The second site at Saint-Roch-del'Achigan was a two-year old growth with an estimated 49,000 stems/ha of large stem willow. The biobaler harvested seven plots totalling 15,740 m{sup 2}. Total harvest was 30.70 t DM in 148 bales. The first 14 bales were harvested with a saw blade header. All other bales were harvested with the flail cutter at a faster rate. Bale density averaged 129 kg DM/m{sup 3}. Fuel consumption averaged 0.72 L/bale. Losses averaged 20 per cent of the yield with the saw blade header.

  6. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  7. Effect of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.-Z.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Plants’ uptake and metabolism of cyanide in response to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with potassium cyanide for 2–3 d. Ten different temperatures were used, ranging from 11◦C to 32◦C. Cyanide...

  8. Phytotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride and Uptake of Fluoride in Willow Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Gosewinkel Karlson, Ulrich; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The willow tree (Salix viminalis) toxicity test and a cress seed germination test (Lepidium sativum) were used to determine uptake and phytotoxicity of NaF. Concentrations in hydroponic solutions were 0-1000 mg F/L and 0-400 mg F/L in the preliminary and definitive test. A third test was done...

  9. Uptake, removal, accumulation, and phytotoxicity of 4-chlorophenol in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    of implementing phytoremediation as a treatment method for 4-CP contamination was investigated. Willows were exposed to 4-CP levels ≤79.9 mg/L in hydroponic solution. The transpiration of the trees was used to determine toxic effects. Almost no inhibition of transpiration was detected at concentrations ≥15 mg...

  10. Development of an applied black willow tree improvement program for biomass production in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    The development of rapidly growing biomass woody crops is imperative as the United States strives to meet renewable energy goals. The Department of Energy has indicated that biomass is a prime source for renewable energy for the southern United States. Black Willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is a potential bioenergy/biofuels crop for dedicated short-...

  11. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from...

  12. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C1...

  13. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Paer; Elowson, Torbjoern

    2006-01-01

    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters. -- By irrigating willow and couchgrass soil-plant systems with log yard run-off water, TOC, phenols, and phosphorus were reduced with 35% to 96% in the water

  15. Comparison of willow and sunflower for uranium phytoextraction induced by citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan Mihalik; National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague; CZU, FAPPZ, Prague; Pavel Tlustos; Jirina Szakova

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with an efficiency of a low dose of citric acid soil application on phytoextraction of uranium. Willow (Salix spp.) and sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) were tested in this experiment with contaminated soil. The enhancing of uranium bioaccumulation was confirmed, but in contrast to previous studies, the highest quantity of uranium was accumulated in leaves. After 5 weeks of citric acid treatment, willow was more efficient in the uptake and translocation of uranium than sunflower. The transfer coefficient calculated for leaves increased from 0.033 (control) to 0.74, or 0.56 after five doses of 5 mmol of citric acid per 1 kg of soil for willow or sunflower, respectively. The uptake characterized by the total U content achieved 88 and 108 mg kg -1 in relation to the above ground parts of sunflower and willow, respectively. Even though both plants accumulated U in their above ground parts in significant rate, they employed diverse ways to achieve it. At the end of the treatment, the physiological condition of the plants enabled us to continue this method. (author)

  16. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algreen, Mette; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg(-1) for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit. Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were superior to poplars, except when screening for Ni. Phytoextraction of HMs was quantified from measured concentration in wood at the most polluted site. Extraction efficiencies were best for willows and Cd, but below 0.5% over 10 years, and below 1‰ in 10 years for all other HMs.

  17. Community outreach and education: key components of the Salix consortium's willow biomass project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, T.A.; Edick, S.; Brown, S.; Downing, M.

    1999-01-01

    This project facilitates the commercialization of willow biomass crops as a locally grown source of renewable energy. The challenge is to simultaneously optimize production and utilization technology, develop farmer interest and crop acreage, and establish stable and reliable markets. The participation of farmers and landowners, businesses, and local and regional governments in the process is essential for success. A three-phased approach elicits this participation: focused outreach and education, active involvement of potential producers of willow biomass crops, and the development of a user-friendly economic and business model that can be used by a variety of stakeholders. Barriers to commercialization have been identified, such as misconceptions about the production system and crop, assurances of a stable and reliable market for the material, and indications that the equipment and infrastructure to grow and process willow biomass crops are in place. Outreach efforts have specifically addressed these issues. As a result target audiences' responses have changed from passive observation to inquiries and suggestions for active participation. This shift represents a significant step towards the goal of making willow biomass crops a viable source of locally produced fuel. (author)

  18. Concentrations of Chemical Elements in Willow Biomass Depend on Clone, Site and Management in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Eight willow (Salix) clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) were planted on two soil types in Denmark. The biomass quality was evaluated after 3 years of growth by measuring differences in concentrations of 14 elements associated with ash behavior during combus...

  19. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  20. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  1. A genetic linkage map of willow (Salix viminalis) based on AFLP and microsatelite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanley, S.; Barker, J.H.A.; Ooijen, van J.W.; Aldam, C.; Harris, S.L.; Ahman, I.; Larsson, S.; Karp, A.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Salix (willow) contains a number of species of great value as biomass crops. Efforts to breed varieties with improved biomass yields and resistances to pests and diseases are limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. We have used AFLP and microsatellite markers

  2. Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Verbeeren, S.; Vervaeke, P; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for

  3. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  4. The Pen Branch Project: Restoration of a Forested Wetland in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Eric A. Nelson; Ronald E. Bonar; Neil C. Dulohery; David Gartner

    1998-01-01

    The Pen Branch Project is a program to restore a forested riparian wetland that has been subject to thermal disturbance caused by nuclear reactor operations at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), an 80,200-hectare nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Various levels of thermal discharges to streams located across the US. have occurred...

  5. An Application of BLM's Riparian Inventory Procedure to Rangeland Riparian Resources in the Kern and Kaweah River Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gradek; Lawrence Saslaw; Steven Nelson

    1989-01-01

    The Bakersfield District of the Bureau of Land Management conducted an inventory of rangeland riparian systems using a new method developed by a Bureau-wide task force to inventory, monitor and classify riparian areas. Data on vegetation composition were collected for 65 miles of streams and entered into a hierarchical vegetation classification system. Ratings of...

  6. What Should a Restored River Look Like? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Chin, A.

    2010-12-01

    Removal of infrastructure such as dams, levees, and erosion control structures is a promising approach toward restoring river system connectivity, processes, and ecology. Significant management challenges exist, however, related to removal of such structures that have already transformed riparian processes or societal perceptions. Here, we consider the effects of bank erosion infrastructure versus the benefits of allowing channel banks to erode in order to address the question: what should a restored river look like? The extent of channel bank infrastructure globally is unknown; nevertheless, it dominates rivers in most urban areas and is growing in rural areas as small projects merge and creeks and rivers are progressively channelized. Bank erosion control structures are usually installed to limit land loss and to reduce associated hazards. Structures are sometimes themselves considered restoration under the assumption that sediment erosion is bad for ecosystems. Geomorphic and ecological effects of bank erosion control structures are well understood, however, and include loss of sediment sources, bank substrate, dynamic geomorphic processes, and riparian habitat. Thus, a rationale for allowing eroding banks in restored rivers is as follows: 1) bank erosion processes are a component of system-scale channel adjustment needed to accommodate variable hydrology and sediment loads and to promote long-term stability; 2) bank erosion is a source of coarse and fine sediment to channels needed to maintain downstream bed elevations and topographic heterogeneity; and 3) bank erosion is a component of river migration, a process that promotes riparian vegetation succession and provides large woody material and morphologic diversity required to sustain habitat and riparian biodiversity. When structures that were originally intended to control or manage dynamic natural processes such as flooding and erosion are removed, not surprisingly, a return to dynamic processes may cause

  7. Complete annual CO2, CH4, and N2O balance of a temperate riparian wetland 12 years after rewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Lærke, Poul Erik; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2018-01-01

    Drained riparian wetlands have been rewetted and restored in recent decades to remove nutrients, increase biodiversity, and mitigate soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Yet, few studies have documented the long-term effects of rewetting on complete greenhouse gas (GHG) balances including emissio...

  8. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  9. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  10. Adaptation of the QBR index for use in riparian forests of central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie R. Colwell; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Although high quality riparian forests are an endangered ecosystem type throughout the world, there has been no ecological index to measure the habitat quality of riparian forests in Ohio. The QBR (qualitat del bosc de ribera, or riparian forest quality) index was developed to assess the quality of habitat in Mediterranean forested riparian areas, and we have modified...

  11. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  12. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J.; Barraclough, Tim J.P.; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L.; Jones, Laurence E.; Shield, Ian F.; Gregory, Andrew S.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. - Highlights: • SRC willows are a source of biomass and act as carbon (C) sinks. • Biomass allocation was measured in 4 willow genotypes grown in two UK field sites. • The greatest yielding genotype had the greatest below ground biomass at both sites. • Below ground biomass allocation differed by up to 10% between genotypes and 94% between sites. • Environment e.g. wind

  13. Assessing the impact of changes in landuse and management practices on the diffuse pollution and retention of nitrate in a riparian floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Stefan; Jacobs, Joerg; Voss, Anja; Bronstert, Axel; Zehe, Erwin

    2008-01-15

    In many European lowland rivers and riparian floodplains diffuse nutrient pollution is causing a major risk for the surface waters and groundwater to not achieve a good status as demanded by the European Water Framework Directive. In order to delimit the impact of diffuse nutrient pollution substantial and often controversial changes in landuse and management are under discussion. In this study we investigate the impact of two complex scenarios considering changes in landuse and land management practices on the nitrate loads of a typical lowland stream and the riparian groundwater in the North German Plains. Therefore the impacts of both scenarios on the nitrate dynamics, the attenuation efficiency and the nitrate exchange between groundwater and surface water were investigated for a 998.1 km(2) riparian floodplain of the Lower and Central Havel River and compared with the current conditions. Both scenarios target a substantial improvement of the ecological conditions and the water quality in the research area but promote different typical riparian landscape functions and consider a different grade of economical and legal feasibility of the proposed measures. Scenario 1 focuses on the optimisation of conservation measures for all natural resources of the riparian floodplain, scenario 2 considers measures in order to restore a good status of the water bodies mainly. The IWAN model was setup for the simulation of water balance and nitrate dynamics of the floodplain for a perennial simulation period of the current landuse and management conditions and of the scenario assumptions. The proposed landuse and management changes result in reduced rates of nitrate leaching from the root zone into the riparian groundwater (85% for scenario 1, 43% for scenario 2). The net contributions of nitrate from the floodplain can be reduced substantially for both scenarios. In case of scenario 2 a decrease by 70% can be obtained. For scenario 1 the nitrate exfiltration rates to the

  14. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  15. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  16. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  17. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  18. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  19. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Boland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp., an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball, and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav. Pers.. Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60% in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70% of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley

  20. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, John M

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  1. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global...... and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O...... emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy...

  2. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential impacts of willow and mineral fertilizer on bacterial communities and biodegradation in diesel fuel oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Cathrine C.E. Leewis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research there is limited understanding of how vegetation impacts the ability of microbial communities to process organic contaminants in soil. Using a combination of traditional and molecular assays, we examined how phytoremediation with willow and/or fertilization affected the microbial community present and active in the transformation of diesel contaminants. In a pot study, willow had a significant role in structuring the total bacterial community and resulted in significant decreases in diesel range organics (DRO. However, stable isotope probing (SIP indicated that fertilizer drove the differences seen in community structure and function. Finally, analysis of the total variance in both pot and SIP experiments indicated an interactive effect between willow and fertilizer on the bacterial communities. This study clearly demonstrates that a willow native to Alaska accelerates DRO degradation, and together with fertilizer, increased aromatic degradation by shifting microbial community structure and the identity of active naphthalene degraders.

  4. Tamarisk control, water salvage, and wildlife habitat restoration along rivers in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    In the latter part of the 19th century, species of the nonnative shrub tamarisk (also called saltcedar; for example, Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis) were introduced to the United States for use as ornamental plants for erosion control. By 1877, some naturalized populations had become established, and by the 1960s, tamarisk was present along most rivers in the semi-arid and arid parts of the West and was quite abundant along downstream ranches of the major southwest rivers such as the Colorado, Rio Grande, Gila, and Pecos. The principal period of tamarisk invasion coincided with changing physical conditions along western rivers associated with the construction and operation of dams. In many cases, these altered physical conditions appear to have been more favorable for tamarisk than native riparian competitors like cottonwoods and willows (Populus and Salix; Glenn and Nagler, 2005).

  5. Pathogenic and Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) Bacteria causing Dieback of Willows in Short Rotation Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Pajand

    2005-03-01

    To find out whether bacteria isolated from diseased plant parts can be the main causal agent for the dieback appearing in Salix energy forestry plantations in Sweden during the last few years, and if the joint effects of bacteria and frost injury are synergistic, extensive sampling of shoots from diseased Salix plants was performed. We performed several laboratory and greenhouse investigations and used evaluation techniques on the functions of the Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) bacteria. We carried out a comparison between spring and autumn bacterial communities isolated from within (endophytically) and surface (epiphytically) plant tissues of Salix viminalis. Seasonal variation of bacteria in willow clones with different levels of frost sensitivity and symptoms of bacterial damage was also investigated. We further focussed on possible effect of fertilisation and nutrient availability on the bacterial community in relation to plant dieback in Estonian willow plantations. The identification and detection of INA bacteria which cause damage in combination with frost to willow (Salix spp) plants in late fall, winter and spring was performed using BIOLOG MicroPlate, biochemical tests, selective INA primers and 16S rDNA analysis. To distinguish the character for differentiation between these bacteria morphologically and with respect to growing ability different culture media were used. We studied the temperature, at which ice nucleation occurred for individual bacteria, estimated the population of INA bacteria, effect of growth limiting factors, and evaluated the effect of chemical and physical agents for disruption and possible inhibition of INA among individual bacterial strains. The concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on INA is discussed. We demonstrate that among the bacterial isolates recovered from the willow plantations, there were many that were capable of ice nucleation at temperatures between -2 and -10 deg C, many that were capable of inducing a

  6. Mortality of radio collared willow ptarmigan in Smoela wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Hans Chr.; Broeseth, Henrik; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Bevanger, Kjetil

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In the project Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind), Smoela willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus variegatus) has been one of the species studied. This sub-species represent gallinaceous birds, known to be bad flyers susceptible to collide with artificial structures, e.g. power lines. However, the possible impact of a wind-power plant on survival and behaviour in a willow ptarmigan population was unknown. The objectives of the study were therefore rather wide; to study direct and indirect effects of wind turbines on willow ptarmigan behaviour, habitat selection, reproduction and survival in areas where wind-power plants are established. To collect data on habitat selection, movements, collision risks, avoidance behaviour, survival and general population dynamic parameters, willow ptarmigan were radio-tagged in 2008-2010, using traditional VHF-transmitters (Holohill) with mortality switch, necklace mount, 12 g, lasting for approximately 24 months. Due to low population density and only occasional snow cover, a method using strong lights, dipnet and car was used to catch birds. In total, 34 willow ptarmigan were caught (19 males and 15 females). All birds were caught inside the wind-power plant area (WPA). The birds were radio-tracked at irregular intervals and almost all birds, when found, was located within the WPA. All carcasses of dead birds were examined. When possible, cause of death was determined as; predation (raptor), collision, unknown, other. In total, 28 of the radio-tagged birds have died since January 2008. A Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulative survival rates, show an exceptionally low survival (<30%). Unlike other willow ptarmigan populations most of the mortality takes place during winter, from December throughout March. Although a thorough analysis of mortality causes has yet not been carried out, a majority of the birds have probably been killed by avian predators and to

  7. The potential of willow and poplar plantations as carbon sinks in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2012-01-01

    A large share, estimated at 12–25%, of the annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to global deforestation. Increasing the forested areas therefore has a positive impact on carbon (C) sequestration and mitigation of high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Fast-growing species, such as willow and poplar, are of high interest as producers of biomass for fuel, but also as C sinks. The present study estimated the rate of C sequestration in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. Calculations were based on above- and below-ground biomass production data from field experiments, including fine root turnover, litter decomposition rates, and production levels from commercial plantations. Accumulation of C in woody biomass, above and below ground, was estimated at 76.6–80.1 Mg C ha −1 and accumulation of C in the soil at 9.0–10.3 Mg C ha −1 over the first 20–22 years. The average rates of C sequestration were 3.5–4.0 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in woody biomass, and 0.4–0.5 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in the soil. If 400,000 ha of abandoned arable land in Sweden were planted with willow and poplar, about 1.5 Tg C would be sequestered annually in woody biomass and 0.2 Tg C in soils. This would be nearly one tenth of the annual anthropogenic emissions of C in Sweden today. These calculations show the potential of fast-growing plantations on arable land to mitigate the effect of high CO 2 concentrations over a short time span. Knowledge gaps were found during the calculation process and future research areas were suggested. -- Highlights: ► Poplars and willows as producers of biomass for fuel and as C sinks. ► Calculation of C sequestration rates in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. ► Increasing forested areas has positive impact on high CO 2 levels. ► Willow and poplar plantations on arable land mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

  8. Yield and Water Quality Impacts of Field-Scale Integration of Willow into a Continuous Corn Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumpf, Colleen; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina; Campbell, Patty; Cacho, Julian

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural landscape design has gained recognition by the international environmental and development community as a strategy to address multiple goals in land, water, and ecosystem service management; however, field research is needed to quantify impacts on specific local environments. The production of bioenergy crops in specific landscape positions within a grain-crop field can serve the dual purpose of producing cellulosic biomass (nutrient recovery) while also providing regulating ecosystem services to improve water quality (nutrient reduction). The effectiveness of such a landscape design was evaluated by the strategic placement of a 0.8-ha short-rotation shrub willow ( Seemen) bioenergy buffer along marginal soils in a 6.5-ha corn ( L.) field in a 6-yr field study in central Illinois. The impact of willow integration on water quality (soil water, shallow groundwater leaching, and crop nutrient uptake) and quantity (soil moisture and transpiration) was monitored in comparison with corn in the willow's first cycle of growth. Willows significantly reduced nitrate leachate in shallow subsurface water by 88% while maintaining adequate nutrient and water usage. Results suggest that willows offer an efficient nutrient-reduction strategy and may provide additional ecosystem services and benefits, including enhanced soil health. However, low values for calculated willow biomass will need to be readdressed in the future as harvest data become available to understand contributing factors that affected productivity beyond nutrient availability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Experimental study on water transport observations of desert riparian forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Zhou, Honghua; Chen, Yapeng; XinmingHao; Fu, Aihong; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Studying the water use processes of desert riparian vegetation in arid regions and analyzing the response and adaptation strategies of plants to drought stress are of great significance for developing ecological restoration measures. Based on field monitoring and test analyses of physiological ecological indicators of dominant species (Populus euphratica and Tamarix chinensis) in the desert riparian forest in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, the water relations of P. euphratica and T. chinensis under drought stress are discussed and some water use strategies put forward. The results show that (1) concerning plant water uptake, desert riparian forests depend mainly on groundwater to survive under long-term water stress. (2) Concerning plant water distribution, the survival of P. euphratica and nearby shallow root plants is mainly due to the hydraulic lift and water redistribution of P. euphratica under drought stress. (3) Concerning plant water transport, P. euphratica sustains the survival of competitive and advantageous branches by improving their ability to acquire water while restraining the growth of inferior branches. (4) Concerning plant transpiration, the sap flow curves of daily variations of P. euphratica and T. chinensis were wide-peak sin and narrower-peak respectively. T. chinensis has better environmental adaptability.

  10. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography (ECOSERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  11. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  12. Advances on Modelling Riparian Vegetation-Hydromorphology Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solari, L.; Van Oorschot, M.; Belletti, B.; Hendriks, D.; Rinaldi, M.; Vargas-Luna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Riparian vegetation actively interacts with fluvial systems affecting river hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and groundwater. These interactions can be coupled because both vegetation and hydromorphology (i.e. the combined scientific study of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology) involve dynamic

  13. Riparian trees as common denominators across the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riparian tree species, growing under different conditions of water availability, can ... leaf area and increasing wood density correlating with deeper groundwater levels. ... and Sanddrifskloof Rivers (South Africa) under reduced flow conditions.

  14. RESEARCH SHOWS IMPORTANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS FOR AQUATIC HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten aquatic ecosystem health. Riparian buffers -- the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands -- are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling excess ...

  15. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  16. Phytoremediation capacity of poplar (Populus spp. and willow (Salix spp. clonesin relation to photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Slobodanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good photosynthetic features and a favorable water regimes of woody plants improve their survival and remediation potential under unfavorable ecological conditions. Accordingly, we here present results of testing plant tolerance of Pb, Cd, Ni, and diesel fuel based on gas exchange parameters and WUE of four poplar and two willow clones grown in a greenhouse on soil culture. Photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown on soils with individually applied heavy metals decreased significantly, but this was less obvious in the case of Cd treatment. A heavy metal mixture in the soil induced significant reduction in photosynthesis (by more than 50%. Diesel fuel as the only pollutant in soil caused very strong and significant inhibition of photosynthesis and transpiration of willow clones. The results indicate genotypic specificity of all investigated physiological parameters and mark poplar clones as very useful in phytoextraction technology for the bio-cleaning of chemically polluted soils.

  17. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botkova, K.; Petrasova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Invasions of neophyte plant species are considered as one of the major threats to the diversity of natural ecosystems including floodplain forests. The aims of our study were to find out if there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophyte species in the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland over time. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests was evaluated from 1950 to the present time using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA. According to the analysis results, along the time gradient there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophytes among analysed periods. This result is not caused by increasing biodiversity, because the number of native species significantly decreased. Therefor it is necessary to look for reasons of this situation in deteriorating condition of floodplain biotopes. (authors)

  18. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusemets, V.; Mauring, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD 7 , 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha -1 , respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  19. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a non-native predators on stream-rearing salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Butcher, Don P.; Crown, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory non-native smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and non-native species on stream-rearing salmon, and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin; we compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing Chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of Chinook salmon rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing Chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (2-4-fold increase) and greater abundance of bass. We

  20. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a nonnative predator on stream-rearing salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D; Ruesch, Aaron S; Torgersen, Christian E; Lawler, Joshua J; Butcher, Don P; Crown, Julia K

    2014-06-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use-related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory, nonnative smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams, and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and nonnative species on stream-rearing salmon and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin. We compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of chinook salmon-rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (two- to fourfold increase) and greater abundance of

  1. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenh...

  2. Ecohydrological consequences of non-native riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States: A review from an ecophysiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.

    2011-07-01

    Protecting water resources for expanding human enterprise while conserving valued natural habitat is among the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of non-native plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. This paper sets out to identify when and where non-native riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semiarid river systems. We develop an ecophysiological framework that focuses on two main criteria: (1) examination of the physiological traits that promote non-native species establishment and persistence across environmental gradients, and (2) assessment of where and to what extent hydrologic fluxes are potentially altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales from individual plants, to small river reaches, to entire river basins. We highlight three non-native plant species that currently dominate southwestern United States riparian forests. These include tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). As with other recent reviews, we suspect that in many cases the removal of these, and other non-native species will have little or no impact on either streamflow volume or groundwater levels. However, we identify potential exceptions where the expansion of non-native plant species could have significant impact on ecohydrologic processes associated with southwestern United States river systems. Future research needs are outlined that will ultimately assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given

  3. UTILIZATION OF ANIMAL MEAL FOR GROWING OF WILLOW DEDICATED FOR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of increased rates of meat and bone meal (MBM to the soil on biomass yield, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P content, and their accumulation in above ground biomass Salix viminalis, as well as the content of mineral N and available P forms in the soil. A two-year pot experiment was conducted at Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn (north-eastern Poland. Average biomass yield from two seasons of the studies was three higher from MBM treatments comparing to unfertilized control. Higher rates of MBM particularly in the second year showed higher yielding potential compared with mineral fertilizers. Willow biomass harvested from MBM treatments generally showed lower content of studied nutrients than willow from control treatment. It was found that in relation to the control accumulation of N in willow above ground biomass was significantly lower for 0.5% MBM treatment and significantly higher for the treatment with the highest rate (2.0%. The higher accumulation of P was found in the second year after MBM application, except treatment with the lowest MBM rate. Correlation coefficients values indicated that there is a relation between MBM rate and content of mineral N and available P in soil.

  4. Predictive models of biomass for poplar and willow. Short rotation coppice in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, A.C.; Morgan, G.W.; Poole, E.J.; Baldwin, M.E.; Tubby, I. (Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    A series of forty-nine experimental trials on short rotation coppice (SRC) were conducted throughout the United Kingdom using a selection of varieties of poplar and willow with the aim of evaluating their performance for wood fuel production under a representative range of UK conditions. Observations on the crops and on a range of site and climatic conditions during the growth of the crops were taken over two three-year cutting cycles. These observations were used to develop a suite of empirical models for poplar and willow SRC growth and yield from which systems were constructed to provide a- priori predictions of biomass yield for any site in the UK with known characteristics (predictive yield models), and estimates of biomass yield from a standing crop (standing biomass models). The structure of the series of field trials and the consequent approach and methodology used in the construction of the suite of empirical models are described, and their use in predicting biomass yields of poplar and willow SRC is discussed. (orig.)

  5. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp. Bark Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Durak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia. Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  6. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by willows growing in biosolids under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, W S; Arndt, S K; Huynh, T T; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids produced by sewage treatment facilities can exceed guideline thresholds for contaminant elements. Phytoextraction is one technique with the potential to reduce these elements allowing reuse of the biosolids as a soil amendment. In this field trial, cuttings of seven species/cultivars of Salix(willows) were planted directly into soil and into biosolids to identify their suitability for decontaminating biosolids. Trees were irrigated and harvested each year for three consecutive years. Harvested biomass was weighed and analyzed for the contaminant elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. All Salix cultivars, except S. chilensis, growing in soils produced 10 to 20 t ha(-1) of biomass, whereas most Salix cultivars growing in biosolids produced significantly less biomass (metals from biosolids, driven by superior biomass increases and not high tissue concentrations. The willows were effectual in extracting the most soluble/exchangeable metals (Cd, 0.18; Ni, 0.40; and Zn, 11.66 kg ha(-1)), whereas Cr and Cu were extracted to a lesser degree (0.02 and 0.11 kg ha(-1)). Low bioavailable elements, As, Hg, and Pb, were not detectable in any of the aboveground biomass of the willows. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    was 12.1 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for willow and 10.2 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for Miscanthus. Coefficent of variation as a measure for yield stability was poorest on the sandy soils of northern and western Jutland and the year-to-year variation in yield was greatest on these soils. Willow was predicted to outyield...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared....... The semi-mechanistic crop model BioCro was used to simulate the production of both short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and Miscanthus across Denmark. Predictions were made from high spatial resolution soil data and weather records across this area for 1990-2010. The potential average, rain-fed mean yield...

  8. From leaf to basin: evaluating the impacts of introduced plant species on evapotranspiration fluxes from riparian ecosystems in the southwestern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Morino, K.; Burtch, K.; Dennison, P. E.; Glenn, E. P.; Ehleringer, J.

    2010-12-01

    Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of introduced plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. The question of whether these invasive species have had or will have impacts on water resources is currently under intense debate. We identify a framework for assessing when and where introduced riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semi-arid river systems. We focus on three introduced plant systems that currently dominate southwestern U.S. riparian forests: tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). Our framework focuses on two main criteria: 1) the ecophysiological traits that promote establishment of invasive species across environmental gradients, and 2) an assessment of how hydrologic fluxes are altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales. The framework identifies when and where introduced species should have the highest potential impact on the water cycle. This framework will assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given limited economic resources.

  9. Can riparian vegetation shade mitigate the expected rise in stream temperatures due to climate change during heat waves in a human-impacted pre-alpine river?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Trimmel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has already affected European rivers and their aquatic biota, and climate models predict an increase of temperature in central Europe over all seasons. We simulated the influence of expected changes in heat wave intensity during the 21st century on water temperatures of a heavily impacted pre-alpine Austrian river and analysed future mitigating effects of riparian vegetation shade on radiant and turbulent energy fluxes using the deterministic Heat Source model. Modelled stream water temperature increased less than 1.5 °C within the first half of the century. Until 2100, a more significant increase of around 3 °C in minimum, maximum and mean stream temperatures was predicted for a 20-year return period heat event. The result showed clearly that in a highly altered river system riparian vegetation was not able to fully mitigate the predicted temperature rise caused by climate change but would be able to reduce water temperature by 1 to 2 °C. The removal of riparian vegetation amplified stream temperature increases. Maximum stream temperatures could increase by more than 4 °C even in annual heat events. Such a dramatic water temperature shift of some degrees, especially in summer, would indicate a total shift of aquatic biodiversity. The results demonstrate that effective river restoration and mitigation require re-establishing riparian vegetation and emphasize the importance of land–water interfaces and their ecological functioning in aquatic environments.

  10. Can riparian vegetation shade mitigate the expected rise in stream temperatures due to climate change during heat waves in a human-impacted pre-alpine river?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Heidelinde; Weihs, Philipp; Leidinger, David; Formayer, Herbert; Kalny, Gerda; Melcher, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Global warming has already affected European rivers and their aquatic biota, and climate models predict an increase of temperature in central Europe over all seasons. We simulated the influence of expected changes in heat wave intensity during the 21st century on water temperatures of a heavily impacted pre-alpine Austrian river and analysed future mitigating effects of riparian vegetation shade on radiant and turbulent energy fluxes using the deterministic Heat Source model. Modelled stream water temperature increased less than 1.5 °C within the first half of the century. Until 2100, a more significant increase of around 3 °C in minimum, maximum and mean stream temperatures was predicted for a 20-year return period heat event. The result showed clearly that in a highly altered river system riparian vegetation was not able to fully mitigate the predicted temperature rise caused by climate change but would be able to reduce water temperature by 1 to 2 °C. The removal of riparian vegetation amplified stream temperature increases. Maximum stream temperatures could increase by more than 4 °C even in annual heat events. Such a dramatic water temperature shift of some degrees, especially in summer, would indicate a total shift of aquatic biodiversity. The results demonstrate that effective river restoration and mitigation require re-establishing riparian vegetation and emphasize the importance of land-water interfaces and their ecological functioning in aquatic environments.

  11. Adaptive restoration of river terrace vegetation through iterative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Michelle P.; Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Decker, Cheryl E.; O’Neil, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Restoration projects can involve a high degree of uncertainty and risk, which can ultimately result in failure. An adaptive restoration approach can reduce uncertainty through controlled, replicated experiments designed to test specific hypotheses and alternative management approaches. Key components of adaptive restoration include willingness of project managers to accept the risk inherent in experimentation, interest of researchers, availability of funding for experimentation and monitoring, and ability to restore sites as iterative experiments where results from early efforts can inform the design of later phases. This paper highlights an ongoing adaptive restoration project at Zion National Park (ZNP), aimed at reducing the cover of exotic annual Bromus on riparian terraces, and revegetating these areas with native plant species. Rather than using a trial-and-error approach, ZNP staff partnered with academic, government, and private-sector collaborators to conduct small-scale experiments to explicitly address uncertainties concerning biomass removal of annual bromes, herbicide application rates and timing, and effective seeding methods for native species. Adaptive restoration has succeeded at ZNP because managers accept the risk inherent in experimentation and ZNP personnel are committed to continue these projects over a several-year period. Techniques that result in exotic annual Bromus removal and restoration of native plant species at ZNP can be used as a starting point for adaptive restoration projects elsewhere in the region.

  12. Physiological responses of eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) to biological control and silvicultural release: implications for hemlock restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy F. Miniat; David Zeitlow; Steven T. Brantley; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Rusty Rhea; Robert Jetton; Paul.  Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The rapid loss of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) from riparian zones in the southern Appalachian Mountains due to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelgis tsugae, HWA) infestation has resulted in changes to watershed structure and function. Several restoration strategies have been proposed, including silvicultural treatments that increase incident light in forest...

  13. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Thomas; Neven, An; Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  14. Variation in experimental flood impacts and ecogeomorphic feedbacks among native and exotic riparian tree seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kui, L.; Stella, J. C.; Skorko, K.; Lightbody, A.; Wilcox, A. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding interacts with riparian plants on a variety of scales, resulting in coevolution of geomorphic surfaces with plant vegetation communities. Our research aims to develop a mechanistic understanding of riparian seedling damage from small floods, with a focus on differential responses among species (native and non-native), ecogeomorphic feedbacks, and implications for riparian restoration. We tested the effects of controlled flood events on cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) seedlings in an experimental meandering stream channel. We hypothesized that seedling dislodgement and burial would be influenced by individual plant height, species-specific morphology, patch density, and differences in hydraulic forces (as a function of location on the bar). Four experimental floods were tested, with different combinations of plant species and seedling densities. For each flood run, rooted seedlings were installed within a 1.5-m-wide sandbar during low flow conditions and stream discharge was increased to a constant flood level for approximately 8 hours, after which seedling response was assessed. Seedling damage was analyzed within a logistic regression framework that predicted the probability of dislodgement or burial as a function of the explanatory variables. Plant dislodgement depended on root length and the location on the sandbar, whereas burial depended on plant height, species-specific morphology, and location. For every centimeter increase in plant height, the odds of plant burial decreased by 10 percent, illustrating the rate at which plants developed flood resistance as they grow taller. With every meter closer to the thalweg, plant dislodgement was four times more likely, and plant burial was 2.6 times more likely. The probability of burial was twice as great for tamarisk seedlings as for cottonwood. The increased sedimentation within tamarisk patches was associated with a denser foliage and a more compact crown for this species. The

  15. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing and Assessing Restored Meandering River Planform Using RVR Meander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; Motta, D.; Frias, C. E.; Wong, M.; Barnes, B. J.; Anderson, C. D.; Garcia, M. H.; MacDonald, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    The ongoing modification and resulting reduction in water quality of U.S. rivers have led to a significant increase in river restoration projects over the last two decades. The increased interest in restoring degraded streams, however, has not necessarily led to improved stream function. Palmer and Allan (2005) found that many restoration projects fail to achieve their objectives due to the lack of policies to support restoration standards, to promote proven methods and to provide basic data needed for planning and implementation. Proven models of in-stream and riparian processes could be used not only to guide the design of restoration projects but also to assess both pre- and post-project indicators of ecological integrity. One of the most difficult types of river restoration projects concern reconstructing a new channel, often with an alignment and channel form different from those of the degraded pre-project channel. Recreating a meandering planform to provide longitudinal and lateral variability of flow and bed morphology to improve in-stream aquatic habitat is often desired. Channel meander planform is controlled by a multitude of variables, for example channel width to depth ratio, radius of curvature to channel width ratio, bankfull discharge, roughness, bed-material physical characteristics, bed material transport, resistance to erosion of the floodplain soils, riparian vegetation, etc. Therefore, current practices that use simple, empirically based relationships or reference reaches have led to failure in several instances, for example a washing out of meander bends or a highly unstable planform, because they fail to address the site-specific conditions. Recently, progress has been made to enhance a physically- and process-based model, RVR Meander, for rapid analysis of meandering river morphodynamics with reduced empiricism. For example, lateral migration is based on measurable physical properties of the floodplain soils and riparian vegetation versus

  17. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  18. The dark side of suibsidies: quantifying contaminant exposure to riparian predators via stream insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic insects provide a critical nutrient subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated relationships between aquatic (resource utilization) and contaminant exposure for a riparian invert...

  19. Riparian Raptors on USACE Projects: Red-Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    2000-01-01

    ...) reservoir operations. For management purposes, these raptors are considered riparian generalists because they inhabit the riparian zones surrounding streams and lakes on Corps project lands but may seasonally use adjacent...

  20. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  1. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker

  2. Water use sources of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhua; Feng, Qi; Cao, Shengkui; Yu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunyan

    2014-09-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main body of natural oases in the lower reaches of inland rivers; its growth and distribution are closely related to water use sources. However, how does the desert riparian forest obtains a stable water source and which water sources it uses to effectively avoid or overcome water stress to survive? This paper describes an analysis of the water sources, using the stable oxygen isotope technique and the linear mixed model of the isotopic values and of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests growing at sites with different groundwater depths and conditions. The results showed that the main water source of Populus euphratica changes from water in a single soil layer or groundwater to deep subsoil water and groundwater as the depth of groundwater increases. This appears to be an adaptive selection to arid and water-deficient conditions and is a primary reason for the long-term survival of P. euphratica in the desert riparian forest of an extremely arid region. Water contributions from the various soil layers and from groundwater differed and the desert riparian P. euphratica forests in different habitats had dissimilar water use strategies.

  3. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  4. Climate change and wildfire effects in aridland riparian ecosystems: An examination of current and future conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch

    2017-01-01

    Aridland riparian ecosystems are limited, the climate is changing, and further hydrological change is likely in the American Southwest. To protect riparian ecosystems and organisms, we need to understand how they are affected by disturbance processes and stressors such as fire, drought, and non-native plant invasions. Riparian vegetation is critically important as...

  5. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  6. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  7. Influences of watershed geomorphology on extent and composition of riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Watershed (drainage basin) morphometry and geology were derived from digital data sets (DEMs and geologic maps). Riparian corridors were classified into five vegetation types (riparian forest, riparian shrub, wet/mesic meadow, dry meadow and shrub dry meadow) using high-resolution aerial photography. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to relate geomorphic...

  8. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  9. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia C.; Johnson, James E. (James Eric), 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Discusses riparian forests' ability to support many species of wildlife and explains that the importance of a particular riparian area for wildlife will depend on the size of the area, adjoining land uses, riparian vegetation, features inside the area, and the wildlife species of interest.

  10. Riparian Habitat Management for Reptiles and Amphibians on Corps of Engineers Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickerson, Dena

    2001-01-01

    ... important taxonomic groups such as reptiles and amphibians. This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian habitat at Corps projects for reptiles and amphibians, identifies riparian zone functions and habitat characteristics, provides examples of representative taxa and regional comparisons, and describes impacts of riparian habitat modification.

  11. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  12. River restoration - Malaysian/DID perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Darus

    2006-01-01

    Initially the river improvement works in Malaysia was weighted on flood control to convey a certain design flood with the lined and channelized rivers. But in late 2003 did has makes the approaches that conservation and improvement of natural function of river, i.e. river environment and eco-system should be incorporated inside the planning and design process. Generally, river restoration will focus on four approaches that will improve water quality, which is improving the quality of stormwater entering the river, maximizing the quantity of the urban river riparian corridor, stabilizing the riverbank, and improving the habitat within the river. This paper outlined the appropriate method of enhancing impairment of water quality from human activities effluent and others effluent. (Author)

  13. Impacts of paper sludge and manure on soil and biomass production of willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaye, Amos K.; Volk, Timothy A.; Hafner, Sasha; Leopold, Donald J.; Schirmer, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Land application of organic wastes to short rotation woody crops (SRWC) can reduce the environmental impacts associated with waste disposal and enhance the productivity of biomass production systems. Understanding the potential impacts of organic amendments however, requires the examination of changes in soil characteristics and plant productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of paper sludge and dairy manure on biomass production of shrub willow (Salix dasyclados SV1) and to determine the impacts of these amendments on soil chemical properties. Treatments included urea, dairy manure and paper sludge separately and in combination, and a control. These materials were applied in the summer of 2005 to two fields of SV1 at different stages of growth: An old field with one year old shoots on a 10 year old root system and a young field which was beginning regrowth after being coppiced at the end of its first growing season. Foliar nutrient concentrations and soil chemical properties were analyzed at the end of the second growing season after treatment application to determine plant response to the fertilization regimes and to determine the effects of fertilization on soil characteristics. Fertilization did not increase biomass production in either field. However, application of the N-poor paper sludge did not reduce yield either. In general, fertilization did not influence soil or foliar chemistry, although there were some exceptions. The lack of response observed in this study is probably related to the nutrient status of the site or losses of applied nutrients. -- Highlights: → The fertilization treatments did not have any significant effect biomass production. → Application of paper sludge did not reduce willow biomass yield in both fields. → Foliar N concentration of willow crops in this study is in the range considered for optimal growth. → The limited response of foliar nutrients to fertilization indicates that the site was not limited by

  14. Production of Probiotic Drink Using Pussy willow and Echium amoenum Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Eksiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nowadays, due to the lack of lactose and cholesterol, demand for consumption of non-dairy probiotic products is increasing. Probiotic drinks mixed with medicinal plant have great beneficial effect on human health. The main problems of non-dairy probiotic drinks are lack of nutrients for the growth of probiotics and bad taste of the product. The aim of this study was to produce a probiotic medicinal plant drink with favorable physicochemical, viability and sensory properties.Material and Methods: Probiotic drink prepared by Pussy willow and Echium amoenum extract (0.5 % w v-1, for each extract or together, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (108 CFU ml-1, individually and their combination. Glucose and whey powder (0.2% were used as a source of nutrition for the probiotics, and apple juice (20 and 30% was added to improve the taste of drink. The level of glucose was adjusted to reach the brix of 13 g100 g-1. Ascorbic acid (0.05% was used to improve micro-aerophilic conditions. The pH, acidity, glucose and viability of probiotic bacteria as well as the sensory properties of the prepared drink were investigated during 28 days at 4°C.Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, the treatment containing L. casei, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice due to the highest probiotic viability and the treatment containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice because of higher total acceptance score, proper pH and acidity values were selected as the best treatments.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  15. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  16. 3. Rethinking Borders in Empire and Nation at the Foot of the Willow Palisade

    OpenAIRE

    E.Bulag, Uradyn

    2015-01-01

    Prologue: stony wars at the foot of the willow palisade Every year, on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, i.e. the traditional Duanwu Festival (also known as Dragon Boat Festival or Double Fifth Festival), people in Wangsiyingzi and the neighbouring village Sifangtai, just about one and half kilometres to the south, would climb atop a small mountain that lies between the two villages. Instead of racing dragon-headed boats as is the practice in south China, where the tradition first start...

  17. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  18. The influence of electrical charge and indolebutyric acid on rooting of willow cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Domański

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Willow cuttings were treated by direct electrical current (DEC, with a negative or a positive electrode inserted inside them, and with the other being outside. Both directions of DEC flow between electrodes stimulated rooting as actively as growth stimulators. The mung bean or oat coleoptile straight growth test showed that the cuttings released some growth promoters into the surrounding water. However, the simultaneous release of some undetected rooting inhibitors was not excluded. The experiment, shows the possibility of changing the chemical regulatory mechanisms of tissues by the use of weak, direct electrical current which causes, the migration of particular substance{s into or from a definite tissue or organ.

  19. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Lærke, Poul Erik; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Heating value and fuel quality of wood is closely connected to moisture content. In this work the variation of moisture content (MC) of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow shoots is described for five clones during one harvesting season. Subsequently an appropriate sampling procedure minimising...... labour costs and sampling uncertainty is proposed, where the MC of a single stem section with the length of 10–50 cm corresponds to the mean shoot moisture content (MSMC) with a bias of maximum 11 g kg−1. This bias can be reduced by selecting the stem section according to the particular clone...

  20. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  1. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  2. Estimating changes in riparian and channel features along the Trinity River downstream of Lewiston Dam, California, 1980 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Dam construction, flow diversion, and legacy landuse effects reduced the transport capacity, sediment supply, channel complexity and floodplain-connectivity along the Trinity River, CA below Lewiston Dam. This study documents the geomorphic evolution of the Trinity River Restoration Program’s intensively managed 65-km long restoration reach from 1980 to 2011. The nature and extent of riparian and channel changes were assessed using a series of geomorphic feature maps constructed from ortho-rectified photography acquired at low flow conditions in 1980, 1997, 2001, 2006, 2009, and 2011. Since 1980 there has been a general conversion of riparian to channel features and expansion of the active channel area. The primary mechanism for expansion of the active channel was bank erosion from 1980 to 1997 and channel widening was well distributed longitudinally throughout the study reach. Subsequent net bar accretion from 1997 to 2001, followed by slightly higher net bar scour from 2001 to 2006, occurred primarily in the central and lower reaches of the study area. In comparison, post-2006 bank and bar changes were spatially-limited to reaches with sufficient local transport capacity or sediment supply supported by gravel augmentation, mechanical channel rehabilitation, and tributary contributions to flow and sediment supply. A series of tributary floods in 1997, 1998 and 2006 were the primary factors leading to documented increases in channel complexity and floodplain connectivity. During the post-2006 period managed flow releases, in the absence of large magnitude tributary flooding, combined with gravel augmentation and mechanical restoration caused localized increases in sediment supply and transport capacity leading to smaller but measurable increases in channel complexity and floodplain connectivity primarily in the upper river below Lewiston Dam.

  3. Annual variations in the solar energy conversion efficiency in a willow coppice stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha-Sannervik, A.; Kowalik, P.

    2003-01-01

    Productivity of an experimental willow coppice forest located at Uppsala, Sweden, was monitored between 1985 and 1994. The 2.7 ha stand was planted in 1984 with a density of 20 000 cuttings per ha and was harvested three times. During the monitored period, the annual stem wood production and the cumulated values of total solar radiation during the growing season, were measured. The conversion of incoming solar radiation into stem biomass was evaluated and the results show that the solar energy conversion efficiency (ECE), for the first and fourth year of the cutting cycle, is, on average, 64% of the ECE for the second and third year of the cutting cycle. It is discussed that the low ECE of 1-year-old shoots is related to a delay in leaf canopy development at the beginning of the growing season and lack of weed control after harvest. For the 4-years-old shoots, the low ECE, is believed to be related to the increased shoot and stool mortality caused by the self-thinning process ongoing in the willow stand. It is recommended that the harvesting interval should be based on the specific development of the stand and more attention should be paid to weed control, especially in the first growing season after harvest

  4. Porous Carbon with Willow-Leaf-Shaped Pores for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Linlin; Schon, Tyler B; Li, Huanhuan; Fan, Chaoying; Li, Xiaoying; Wang, Haifeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Haizhu; Seferos, Dwight S; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-12-13

    A novel kind of biomass-derived, high-oxygen-containing carbon material doped with nitrogen that has willow-leaf-shaped pores was synthesized. The obtained carbon material has an exotic hierarchical pore structure composed of bowl-shaped macropores, willow-leaf-shaped pores, and an abundance of micropores. This unique hierarchical porous structure provides an effective combination of high current densities and high capacitance because of a pseudocapacitive component that is afforded by the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen dopants. Our synthetic optimization allows further improvements in the performance of this hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) material by providing a high degree of control over the graphitization degree, specific surface area, and pore volume. As a result, a large specific surface area (1093 m 2 g -1 ) and pore volume (0.8379 cm 3 g -1 ) are obtained for HPC-650, which affords fast ion transport because of its short ion-diffusion pathways. HPC-650 exhibits a high specific capacitance of 312 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , retaining 76.5% of its capacitance at 20 A g -1 . Moreover, it delivers an energy density of 50.2 W h kg -1 at a power density of 1.19 kW kg -1 , which is sufficient to power a yellow-light-emitting diode and operate a commercial scientific calculator.

  5. Development of short-rotation willow coppice systems for environmental purposes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Verwijst, Theo; Isebrands, J.G.; Ledin, Stig

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades, driving forces behind the development of short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) in Sweden have been changing from a primary focus on biomass production towards emphasis on environmental applications. In most cases, current commercial SRWC practice is geared towards a combination of biomass production for energy purposes and environmental goals. The latter goals range from decreasing the impact of specific contaminants in the environment to organic waste handling in a recycling system in urban and/or agricultural areas. Where biomass production and pollutant management overlap, the science of phytoremediation has its practical application. Through phytoremediation, waste products that previously have been a burden for society can be used as valuable resources to increase short-rotation willow biomass production. In this paper we will present the terminology and definitions of different types of phytoremediation. We also give an overview of five different cases of phytoremediation activities with a potential for large-scale implementation. Some of the types of activities are already commercially used in Sweden; others seem promising but still need further development. (Author)

  6. Enzymatic Saccharification of Shrub Willow Genotypes with Differing Biomass Composition for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Serapiglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the conversion of woody biomass feedstocks into liquid fuel ethanol, the pretreatment process is the most critical and costly step. Variations in biomass composition based on genetic differences or environmental effects have a significant impact on the degree of accessibility accomplished by pretreatment and subsequent sugar release by enzymatic hydrolysis. To evaluate this, biomass from 10 genetically diverse, genotypes of shrub willow (Salix spp. was pretreated with a hot-water process at two levels of severity, hydrolyzed using a combination of two commercial enzyme cocktails, and the release of hexose and pentose monomers was quantified by HPLC. Among the genotypes selected for analysis, cellulose content ranged from 39 to 45% (w/w and lignin content ranged from 20 to 23% (w/w at harvest. Differences in the effectiveness of the pretreatment process were observed among the various willow genotypes. Correlations were identified between total sugar release and % cellulose and % lignin content. There was a significant effect of pretreatment severity on polysaccharide accessibility, but the response to pretreatments was different among the genotypes. At the high severity pretreatment ‘SV1’ was the least recalcitrant with sugar release representing as much as 60% of total biomass. These results suggest that structural, as well as chemical characteristics of the biomass may influence pretreatment and hydrolytic efficiency.

  7. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  8. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  9. Fire history of coniferous riparian forests in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Van de Water; M. North

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological process in many western U.S. coniferous forests, yet high fuel loads, rural home construction and other factors have encouraged the suppression of most wildfires. Using mechanical thinning and prescribed burning, land managers often try to reduce fuels in strategic areas with the highest fuel loads. Riparian forests, however, are often...

  10. Recovery of the Chaparral Riparian Zone After Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank W. Davis; Edward A. Keller; Anuja Parikh; Joan Florsheim

    1989-01-01

    After the Wheeler Fire in southern California in July 1985, we monitored sediment deposition and vegetation recovery in a section of the severely burned chaparral riparian zone of the North Fork of Matilija Creek, near Ojai, California. Increased runoff was accompanied by low magnitude debris flows and fluvial transport of gravel, most of which was added to the channel...

  11. Feasibility of Mapping Riparian Habitats Under Natural Conditions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Dawdy

    1989-01-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is conducting hearings to set quantity and quality standards for river flows into San Francisco Bay. Comparisons of present conditions with "natural conditions" prior to European settlement were introduced into the hearings. Consumptive use relations were developed for various riparian and water-related...

  12. Identifying spatially integrated floodplains/riparian areas and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floodplain delineation may play an important role in managing wetlands and riparian areas at multiple scales - local, state, and federal. This poster demonstrates multiple GIS-based approaches to delimiting floodplains and contrasts these with observed flooding events from a majo...

  13. Panel - People and riparian ecosystems: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Periman; Carol Raish; Frank E. Wozniak; David S. Brookshire; Michael McKee; Christian Schmidt; Tony Barron

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to review past, present, and future human needs and desires associated with riparian environments. Our focus concerns the diverse demands, interactions, and expectations that people have for the riverine lands. The discussion is designed to take place within historic, economic, and social/cultural contexts.

  14. Linked in: connecting riparian areas to support forest biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Kelly Burnett; Deanna Olson

    2010-01-01

    Many forest-dwelling species rely on both terrestrial and aquatic habitat for their survival. These species, including rare and little-understood amphibians and arthropods, live in and around headwater streams and disperse overland to neighboring headwater streams. Forest management policies that rely on riparian buffer strips and structurebased management—practices...

  15. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  16. Nitrogen transformation and retention in riparian buffer zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hefting, Maria Margaretha

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of nutrients and pesticides from agricultural areas is increasingly recognised as a major problem in water management. Ecotechnological measures as constructed wetlands and riparian buffer zones clearly have an important role in the reduction of diffuse pollution by removing and

  17. Riparian trees as common denominators across the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-04

    Mar 4, 2014 ... may be a valuable indicator for water stress, while the other measurements might provide ... O'Keeffe, 2000) as the life histories of riparian plants are inti- .... Southern Africa, some in the context of groundwater depend- .... and C. gratissimus were spread out next to a ruler on a white .... The data were log.

  18. A phytosociological study of riparian forests in Benin (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Floristic ordination and classification of riparian forests in Benin were derived from a comprehensive floristic inventory. TWINSPAN classification and DCA analysis of a data set of 818 plant species and 180 releve's yielded 12 plant communities. Importance of waterways, relief, topography, latitude

  19. A baseline classification of riparian woodland plant communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plots were placed along a gradient from the main water body to the drier fringe of the riparian zone. Plant species present in each plot were recorded with their estimated percentage cover using the Braun–Blanquet cover abundance scale. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to determine vegetation communities.

  20. Plant Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Three Riparian Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers can significantly reduce sediment-bound phosphorus (P) entering surface water, but control of dissolved P inputs is more challenging. Because plant roots remove P from soil solution, it follows that plant uptake will reduce dissolved P losses. We evaluated P uptake of smooth bromegr...

  1. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: f-akamt55@pwri.go.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  2. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  3. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  4. Woody riparian vegetation response to different alluvial water table regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, P.B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Patten, D.T.

    2000-01-01

    Woody riparian vegetation in western North American riparian ecosystems is commonly dependent on alluvial groundwater. Various natural and anthropogenic mechanisms can cause groundwater declines that stress riparian vegetation, but little quantitative information exists on the nature of plant response to different magnitudes, rates, and durations of groundwater decline. We observed groundwater dynamics and the response of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima saplings at 3 sites between 1995 and 1997 along the Bill Williams River, Arizona. At a site where the lowest observed groundwater level in 1996 (-1.97 m) was 1.11 m lower than that in 1995 (-0.86 m), 92-100% of Populus and Salix saplings died, whereas 0-13% of Tamarix stems died. A site with greater absolute water table depths in 1996 (-2.55 m), but less change from the 1995 condition (0.55 m), showed less Populus and Salix mortality and increased basal area. Excavations of sapling roots suggest that root distribution is related to groundwater history. Therefore, a decline in water table relative to the condition under which roots developed may strand plant roots where they cannot obtain sufficient moisture. Plant response is likely mediated by other factors such as soil texture and stratigraphy, availability of precipitation-derived soil moisture, physiological and morphological adaptations to water stress, and tree age. An understanding of the relationships between water table declines and plant response may enable land and water managers to avoid activities that are likely to stress desirable riparian vegetation.

  5. Vegetative zonation patterns in depression and riparian wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The vegetation of depressional and riparian wetlands in the Sanjiang ... Three transplanted species showed different effects of biomass ... nutrient concentrations in soil, as well as disturbance, ... (2) to discern underlying environmental variables that .... variance (ANOVA) and the construction of scatter plots.

  6. Characterising the water use and hydraulic properties of riparian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily transpiration was strongly correlated to solar radiation (R2 > 0.81) while the air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) constrained transpiration at high VPD values. We conclude that the water use of the poplar invasions is significantly lower than that of other riparian invasions. The impact of these invasions on the water ...

  7. Vegetative zonation patterns in depression and riparian wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and seventy-two (172) sampling plots in depression and riparian wetland was used. Samples were classified in 9 groups at the fourth level using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN): Four marsh communities, one meadow marsh community, one wet meadow community, two swamp communities ...

  8. Developing rapid methods for analyzing upland riparian functions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity. These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to information on functions and values, regulators have very specific needs that include: an analysis at the site scale, low cost, usability, and inclusion of policy interpretations. To meet these needs a rapid method has been developed that uses a multi-criteria decision matrix to categorize riparian areas in Washington State, USA. Indicators are used to identify the potential of the site to provide a function, the potential of the landscape to support the function, and the value the function provides to society. To meet legal needs fixed boundaries for assessment units are established based on geomorphology, the distance from "Ordinary High Water Mark" and different categories of land uses. Assessment units are first classified based on ecoregions, geomorphic characteristics, and land uses. This simplifies the data that need to be collected at a site, but it requires developing and calibrating a separate model for each "class." The approach to developing methods is adaptable to other locations as its basic structure is not dependent on local conditions.

  9. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  10. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Toda, Hideshige

    2011-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ 15 N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ 15 N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ 15 N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ 15 N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ 15 N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  11. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  12. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands.

  13. 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory Riparian Inventory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hathcock, Charles D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keller, David C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zemlick, Catherine M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-03-29

    A total length of 36.7 kilometers of riparian habitat were inventoried within LANL boundaries between 2007 and 2011. The following canyons and lengths of riparian habitat were surveyed and inventoried between 2007 and 2011. Water Canyon (9,669 m), Los Alamos Canyon (7,131 m), Pajarito Canyon (6,009 m), Mortandad Canyon (3,110 m), Two-Mile Canyon (2,680 m), Sandia Canyon (2,181 m), Three-Mile Canyon (1,883 m), Canyon de Valle (1,835 m), Ancho Canyon (1,143 m), Canada del Buey (700 m), Sandia Canyon (221 m), DP Canyon (159 m) and Chaquehui Canyon (50 m). Effluent Canyon, Fence Canyon and Potrillo Canyon were surveyed but no areas of riparian habitat were found. Stretches of inventoried riparian habitat were classified for prioritization of treatment, if any was recommended. High priority sites included stretches of Mortandad Canyon, LA Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, Two-Mile Canyon, Sandia Canyon and Water Canyon. Recommended treatment for high priority sites includes placement of objects into the stream channel to encourage sediment deposition, elimination of channel incision, and to expand and slow water flow across the floodplain. Additional stretches were classified as lower priority, and, for other sites it was recommended that feral cattle and exotic plants be removed to aid in riparian habitat recovery. In June 2011 the Las Conchas Wildfire burned over 150,000 acres of land in the Jemez Mountains and surrounding areas. The watersheds above LA Canyon, Water Canyon and Pajarito Canyon were burned in the Las Conchas Wildfire and flooding and habitat alteration were observed in these canyon bottoms (Wright 2011). Post fire status of lower priority areas may change to higher priority for some of the sites surveyed prior to the Las Conchas Wildfire, due to changes in vegetation cover in the adjacent upland watershed.

  14. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  15. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  16. Plants living on the edge: colonization processes of aquatic and riparian vegetation along restored lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, R.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding species distributions and patterns in plant diversity is a central goal in ecology. Two contrasting concepts occur in this field, explaining species distributions by species requirements and tolerances to environmental conditions (known as ‘environmental filtering’), or by patterns in

  17. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Riparian Restoration and Stabilization at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    trail ATV use, paintball use, and cutting of young, healthy trees; unmanaged grazing and wildfires; monitoring for insects and disease such as Dutch Elm...maximillianii), jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), white violet (Viola canadensis), wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica...for insects and disease such as Dutch Elm disease, gypsy moths, tent worms, or other pathogens that could damage the forest health. During

  18. Integrated long-term responses of an arctic-alpine willow and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi to an altered environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and morphotype community composition together with growth response and biomass distribution in the arctic-alpine, prostrate willow Salix herbacea L. x Salix polaris Wahlenb. after 11 seasons of shading, warming, and fertilization at a fellfield...

  19. The Willow Microbiome is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and, after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67 growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment and thus protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology.

  20. Results from software based empirical models of and standing biomass for poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.E.; Morgan, G.W.; Brewer, A.C. (Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Wrecclesham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    Statistical analysis was used to create a model for estimating the quantity of biomass produced by crops of poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice. This model was converted into a software system as described here. The software is currently available for scientific demonstration. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  2. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Nunavik, Northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigue, Jean [Environment Canada, Service canadien de la faune, 1141 route de l' Eglise, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4H5 (Canada)]. E-mail: jean.rodrigue@ec.gc.ca; Champoux, Louise [Environment Canada, Service canadien de la faune, 1141 route de l' Eglise, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4H5 (Canada); Leclair, Daniel [Centre de recherche du Nunavik, Societe Makivik, C.P. 179, Kuujjuaq, Quebec, J0M 1C0 (Canada); Duchesne, Jean-Francois [Unite de recherche en sante publique du CHUQ, 945, avenue Wolfe, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Willow and rock ptarmigan were obtained from Northern Quebec. Willow ptarmigan were found to have mean cadmium concentrations of 179.7 {mu}g/g (dw) in the kidneys and 25.8 {mu}g/g (dw) in the liver; these levels were three times higher than those found in the rock ptarmigan. The cadmium levels in the ptarmigan were below the threshold above which adverse effects can be observed in birds. The difference between the two ptarmigan species in cadmium content is explained by the diet. A comparison of their diet showed that willow, which stores cadmium, is an important food resource for willow ptarmigan but not for rock ptarmigan. Because there is limited information available on the consumption of ptarmigan kidneys and liver by the Inuit, and the fact that this is a traditional way of life and provides nutritional benefits to the Inuit population, no consumption guidelines are proposed. - High levels of cadmium were found in ptarmigan in Northern Quebec. No consumption guidelines are proposed for the Inuit people.

  3. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Nunavik, Northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigue, Jean; Champoux, Louise; Leclair, Daniel; Duchesne, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    Willow and rock ptarmigan were obtained from Northern Quebec. Willow ptarmigan were found to have mean cadmium concentrations of 179.7 μg/g (dw) in the kidneys and 25.8 μg/g (dw) in the liver; these levels were three times higher than those found in the rock ptarmigan. The cadmium levels in the ptarmigan were below the threshold above which adverse effects can be observed in birds. The difference between the two ptarmigan species in cadmium content is explained by the diet. A comparison of their diet showed that willow, which stores cadmium, is an important food resource for willow ptarmigan but not for rock ptarmigan. Because there is limited information available on the consumption of ptarmigan kidneys and liver by the Inuit, and the fact that this is a traditional way of life and provides nutritional benefits to the Inuit population, no consumption guidelines are proposed. - High levels of cadmium were found in ptarmigan in Northern Quebec. No consumption guidelines are proposed for the Inuit people

  4. Evaluating the impact of three incentive programs on the economics of cofiring willow biomass with coal in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, P.J.; Volk, T.A.; Lindsey, C.A.; Abrahamson, L.P.; White, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing willow shrubs are being promoted as a source quality biomass feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts in New York State (NY). In the near-term, cofiring of the feedstock--in combination with other woody biomass--with coal in existing utility power boilers is considered to be the most promising conversion method for energy generation. Despite the clear technological viability and associated environmental benefits, cofiring of willow has not been widely adopted. The relatively high production cost of the willow feedstock, which is over twice that of coal, is the primary reason for this lack of interest. Taxes that account for some of the social costs of using coal and/or incentives that appropriate value for some of the social benefits of using willow are essential for eliminating most or the entire current price differential. This paper presents an integrated analysis of the economics of power generation from cofiring willow biomass feedstock with coal, from the perspective of the grower, aggregator and the power plant. Emphasis is placed on analyzing the relative impact of a green premium price, a closed-loop biomass tax credit, and payments to growers under the proposed Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) harvesting exemption policy. The CRP payments reduced the delivered cost of willow by 36-35%, to $1.90 GJ -1 and $1.70 GJ -1 , under current and increased yield conditions, respectively. These prices are still high, relative to coal. Other incentives are required to ensure commercial viability. The required levels of green premium price (0.4-1.0 cents kWh -1 ) and biomass tax credit (0.75-2.4 cents kWh -1 ) vary depending on whether the incentives were being applied by themselves or in combination, and whether current yield or potential increased yields were being considered. In the near term, cofiring willow biomass and coal can be an economically viable option for power generation in NY if the expected overall beneficial effects

  5. Niche construction within riparian corridors. Part I: Exploring biogeomorphic feedback windows of three pioneer riparian species (Allier River, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Borbála; Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Peiry, Jean-Luc

    2018-03-01

    Within riparian corridors, biotic-abiotic feedback mechanisms occur between woody vegetation strongly influenced by hydrogeomorphic constraints (e.g., sediment transport and deposition, shear stress, hydrological variability), fluvial landforms, and morphodynamics, which in turn are modulated by the established vegetation. During field investigations in spring 2015, we studied 16 alluvial bars (e.g., point and lateral bars) within the dynamic riparian corridor of the Allier River (France) to assess the aptitude of three pioneer riparian Salicaceae species (Populus nigra L., Salix purpurea L., and Salix alba L.) to establish and act as ecosystem engineers by trapping sediment and constructing fluvial landforms. Our aim is to empirically identify the preferential establishment area (EA; i.e., the local areas where species become established) and the preferential biogeomorphic feedback window (BFW; i.e., where and to what extent the species and geomorphology interact) of these three species on alluvial bars within a 20-km-long river reach. Our results show that the EA and BFW of all three species vary significantly along the longitudinal profile, i.e., upstream-downstream exposure on the alluvial bars, as well as transversally, i.e., the main hydrological connectivity gradient from the river channel toward the floodplain. In the present-day context of the Allier River, P. nigra is the most abundant species, appearing to act as the main engineer species affecting landform dynamics at the bar scale; S. purpurea is established and acts as an ecosystem engineer at locations on alluvial bars that are most exposed to hydrosedimentary flow dynamics, while S. alba is established on the bar tail close to secondary channels and affects the geomorphology in mixed patches along with P. nigra. Our study highlights the role of functional trait diversity of riparian engineer species in controlling the extent of fluvial landform construction along geomorphic gradients within riparian

  6. Climate impact and energy efficiency from electricity generation through anaerobic digestion or direct combustion of short rotation coppice willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Niclas; Nordberg, Åke; Sundberg, Cecilia; Ahlgren, Serina; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using LCA, CHP from willow use in biogas was compared with direct combustion. • Direct combustion was ninefold more energy-efficient. • Biogas had a much greater cooling effect on global mean surface temperature. • The effects of soil carbon changes on temperature over time differed. • Biogas had long-term temperature effects, direct combustion short-term effects. - Abstract: Short rotation coppice willow is an energy crop used in Sweden to produce electricity and heat in combined heat and power plants. Recent laboratory-scale experiments have shown that SRC willow can also be used for biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes. Here, life cycle assessment is used to compare the climate impact and energy efficiency of electricity and heat generated by these measures. All energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil organic carbon fluxes were included in the life cycle assessment. The climate impact was determined using time-dependent life cycle assessment methodology. Both systems showed a positive net energy balance, but the direct combustion system delivered ninefold more energy than the biogas system. Both systems had a cooling effect on the global mean surface temperature change. The cooling impact per hectare from the biogas system was ninefold higher due to the carbon returned to soil with the digestate. Compensating the lower energy production of the biogas system with external energy sources had a large impact on the result, effectively determining whether the biogas scenario had a net warming or cooling contribution to the global mean temperature change per kWh of electricity. In all cases, the contribution to global warming was lowered by the inclusion of willow in the energy system. The use of time-dependent climate impact methodology shows that extended use of short rotation coppice willow can contribute to counteract global warming

  7. Sex- and habitat-specific responses of a high arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.H.; Macdonald, S.E. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Henry, G.H.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Dioecious plant species and those occupying diverse habitats may present special analytical problems to researchers examining effects of climate change. Here we report the results from two complementary studies designed to determine the importance of sex and habitat on gas exchange and growth of male and female individuals of a dioecious, circumpolar willow, Salix arctica, in the Canadian High Arctic. In field studies, male and female willows from dry and wet habitats were subjected to passively enhanced summer temperature ({approx} to 1.3 deg C) using small open-top chambers over three years. Peak season gas exchange varied significantly by willow sex and habitat. Overall net assimilation was higher in the dry habitat than in the wet, and higher in females than in males. In the dry habitat, net assimilation of females was enhanced by experimental warming, but decreased in males. In the wet habitat, net assimilation of females was substantially depressed by experimental warming, while males showed an inconsistent response. Development and growth of male and female catkins were enhanced by elevated temperature more than leaf fascicles, but leaf fascicle development and growth varied more between the two habitats, particularly in males. In a controlled environment study, male and female willows from these same wet and dry habitats were grown in a 2x2 factorial experiment including 1 x or 2 x ambient [CO{sub 2}] and 5 or 12 deg. C. The sexes responded very differently to the experimental treatments, but we found no effect of original habitat. Net assimilation in males was affected by the interaction of temperature and CO{sub 2}, but in females by CO{sub 2} only. Our results demonstrate (a) significant intraspecific and intersexual differences in arctic willow physiology and growth, (b) that these differences are affected by environmental conditions expected to accompany global climate change, and (c) that sex- and habitat-specific responses should be explicitly

  8. Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow forest. Variation with season and stand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritz, Z.

    1996-10-01

    Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow (Salix viminalis L.) forest was studied in relation to season and stand development. The developmental stage of the forest stand considerably influenced how the energy, received as net radiation, was partitioned between the connective fluxes and the storage components. The main part of the available energy was utilised for evaporation during most of the season. Only at the beginning of the season did the willow forest supply heat to the atmosphere. Later in the season, energy was taken from air and utilised for evaporation, which resulted in negative sensible heat fluxes. Soil heat storage was also a significant term in the energy balance and also strongly depended on canopy development. Changes in energy partitioning relative to leaf area indices indicated the existence of a threshold value for leaf area index of the developing canopy. The analysis suggested that the canopy of the willow forest could be considered as closed at a leaf area index of 2. It was further found that evaporation from well-irrigated willow forest occurred also during night-time, particularly in windy and dry weather conditions. The sources of nocturnal evaporation were both the canopy, i.e. indicating non-closed stomata, and the soil surface. Partitioning of the total evaporation into components was investigated using a physically-based model with a two-layer aboveground representation and a two-layer soil module. The model estimates evaporation with respect to developmental stage of the willow stand and also takes into account the interaction between the fluxes from the canopy and the soil surface. Good performance of the model indicated that, after further testing in drier conditions, it could be used as a tool for analysing the prerequisites for energy-forest establishment, and practical management of energy forest stands. 37 refs, 9 figs

  9. Above- and Belowground Development of a Fast-Growing Willow Planted in Acid-Generating Mine Technosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, M; Lortie, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface metal mining produces large volumes of waste rocks. If they contain sulfide minerals, these rocks can generate a flow of acidic water from the mining site, known as acid mine drainage (AMD), which increases trace metals availability for plant roots. Adequate root development is crucial to decreasing planting stress and improving phytoremediation with woody species. However, techniques to improve revegetation success rarely take into account root development. An experiment was conducted at a gold mine in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the establishment ability over 3 yr of a fast-growing willow ( Sx64) planted in acid-generating waste rocks. The main objective was to study root development in the soil profile and trace element accumulation in leaves among substrates varying in thickness (0, 20, and 40 cm of soil) and composition (organic carbon [OC] and alkaline AMD treatment sludge). Trees directly planted in waste rocks survived well (69%) but had the lowest productivity (lowest growth in height and diameter, aerial biomass, total leaf area, and root-system size). By contrast, the treatment richer in OC showed the greatest aerial biomass and total leaf area the first year; the thicker treatment resulted in the greatest growth in height and diameter, aboveground biomass, and root-system size in both the first and third years. Willow root development was restricted to soil layers during the first year, but this restriction was overcome in the third year after planting. Willow accumulation factors in leaves were below one for all investigated trace metals except for zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and strontium. For Cd and Zn, concentrations increased with time in willow foliage, decreasing the potential of this willow species use for phytostabilization, despite its ability to rapidly develop extensive root systems in the mine Technosol. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Explaining landholders' decisions about riparian zone management: the role of behavioural, normative, and control beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Terry, Deborah J; Masser, Barbara M; Bordia, Prashant; Hogg, Michael A

    2005-10-01

    Water quality is a key concern in the current global environment, with the need to promote practices that help to protect water quality, such as riparian zone management, being paramount. The present study used the theory of planned behaviour as a framework for understanding how beliefs influence decisions about riparian zone management. Respondents completed a survey that assessed their behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to intentions to manage riparian zones on their property. The results of the study showed that, overall, landholders with strong intentions to manage their riparian zones differed significantly in terms of their beliefs compared to landholders who had weak intentions to manage their riparian zones. Strong intentions to manage riparian zones were associated with a favourable cost-benefit analysis, greater perceptions of normative support for the practice and lower perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede management of riparian zones. It was also evident that willingness to comply with the recommendations of salient referents, beliefs about the benefits of riparian zone management and perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede riparian zone management were most important for determining intentions to manage riparian zones. Implications for policy and extension practice are discussed.

  11. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS OF WILLOW TRIANDRA (SALIX TRIANDRA L., GROWING IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of willow genus are rich in various flavonoids. In 60-e years of the XX century the works of V. A. Kompantsev showed that leaves of willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, contain up to 5% of rutin. The method, which required long sample preparation (extraction of the raw material with TLC, chromatographic layer extraction with methanol, removal of the solvent, dissolution in ethanol, optical density measurements was used. Currently available and simple methods for the determination of rutin in plant material are described. Given that leaves of Salix triandra contain significant amounts of rutin and can be a potential raw material for the creation of medicines on their basis, it is essential to determine the amount of flavonoids in the leaves of Salix triandra and its branches.The purpose of this study is determination of the amount of flavonoids in the willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, depending on the place and time of collection.Methods. TLC and the method of differential spectrophotometry were used to study chemical reactions. Results. The presence of flavonoids in various vegetative plant organs was established using qualitative reactions (cyanidin test; boric-citric reaction; the reaction with solution of lead acetate and solution of ammonia. Rutin and quercetin flavonoids in the presence of standard samples were identified using TLC. the method of differential spectrophotometry, based on the reaction of flavonoids with aluminum chloride was used for the quantitative determination of the amount of flavonoids. It is shown that the greatest quantity of flavonoids amount accumulated in the leaves (up to 3.76%, its value in branches is slightly smaller (up to 3.26%. The branches without leaves have almost 10 times less flavonoids. It was established experimentally that the accumulation of flavonoids in raw material of Salix triandra is dependent on the place and time of

  12. Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

    2003-07-01

    The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

  13. RIP-ET: A riparian evapotranspiration package for MODFLOW-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Thomas; Baird, Kathryn J.; Hanson, R.T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Ajami, Hoori

    2012-01-01

    A new evapotranspiration package for the U.S. Geological Survey's groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW, is documented. The Riparian Evapotranspiration Package (RIP-ET) provides flexibility in simulating riparian and wetland transpiration not provided by the Evapotranspiration (EVT) or Segmented Function Evapotranspiration (ETS1) Packages for MODFLOW 2005. This report describes how the RIP-ET package was conceptualized and provides input instructions, listings and explanations of the source code, and an example. Traditional approaches to modeling evapotranspiration (ET) processes assume a piecewise linear relationship between ET flux and hydraulic head. The RIP-ET replaces this traditional relationship with a segmented, nonlinear dimensionless curve that reflects the eco-physiology of riparian and wetland ecosystems. Evapotranspiration losses from these ecosystems are dependent not only on hydraulic head, but on the plant types present. User-defined plant functional groups (PFGs) are used to elucidate the interaction between plant transpiration and groundwater conditions. Five generalized plant functional groups based on transpiration rates, plant rooting depth, and water tolerance ranges are presented: obligate wetland, shallow-rooted riparian, deep-rooted riparian, transitional riparian and bare ground/open water. Plant functional groups can be further divided into subgroups (PFSGs) based on plant size, density or other characteristics. The RIP-ET allows for partial habitat coverage and mixtures of plant functional subgroups to be present in a single model cell. RIP-ET also distinguishes between plant transpiration and bare-ground evaporation. Habitat areas are designated by polygons; each polygon can contain a mixture of PFSGs and bare ground, and is assigned a surface elevation. This process requires a determination of fractional coverage for each of the plant functional subgroups present in a polygon to account for the mixture of coverage types and resulting

  14. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their influencing factors in the downstream Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jingyi; Zhao, Wenwu; Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Fan, Hao; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Yaping

    2017-05-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main restored vegetation community in Heihe River basin. They provide critical habitats and a variety of ecosystem services in this arid environment. Since desert riparian forests are also sensitive to disturbance, examining the spatial distribution and temporal variation of these forests and their influencing factors is important to determine the limiting factors of vegetation recovery after long-term restoration. In this study, field experiment and remote sensing data were used to determine the spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their relationship with the environmental factors. We classified five types of vegetation communities at different distances from the river channel. Community coverage and diversity formed a bimodal pattern, peaking at the distances of 1000 and 3000 m from the river channel. In general, the temporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) trend from 2000 to 2014 was positive at different distances from the river channel, except for the region closest to the river bank (i.e. within 500 m from the river channel), which had been undergoing degradation since 2011. The spatial distribution of desert riparian forests was mainly influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture, bulk density and soil particle composition). Meanwhile, while the temporal variation of vegetation was affected by both the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture and soil particle composition) and to a lesser extent, the temporal variation of water availability (e.g. annual average and variability of groundwater, soil moisture and runoff). Since surface (0-30 cm) and deep (100-200 cm) soil moisture, bulk density and the annual average of soil moisture at 100 cm obtained from the remote sensing data were regarded as major determining factors of community distribution and temporal variation, conservation measures that protect the soil structure

  15. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  16. A Systematic Study of Zerbar Lake Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Reza; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Forman Asgharzadeh, Deonna

    2017-04-01

    The beautiful lake of Zerbar, located near Marivan City at the west of Iran, is a freshwater lake with an area of 20 km2 and average depth of 5 meters. The lake is created by regional tectonic activities and is mainly fed with natural spring water from bottom. During the past three decades, regional development has caused much disturbance to the natural environment of the lake and its watershed. Rescuing the lake is crucial to the sustainability of the whole region. The study of Zerbar Restoration was performed with the aim to restore its health indicators. Variety of human activities in the watershed, as well as the multidisciplinary nature of lake restoration studies, made it necessary to develop a systematic approach to conduct the study. In Step I of restoration studies, satellite images were investigated to identify the historical changes of watershed during the past 30 years. Meanwhile, documents since 50 years ago were studied. Results indicate that farmland and graze land areas have been relatively constant during the past 50 years. Also, the area of lake, its riparian canes and floating plants have not changed much. In fact, the only significant land use change observed was the significant spread of Marivan City that has stretched toward the lake. The main physical variation to the lake has been elevating the southern edge of the lake by a constructing a landfill dam which was done to control the lake's overflow discharge for irrigation of downstream farmland development. Step II consists of studies performed by disciplines of water resources, hydrogeology, water quality, wetland and watershed ecology, agriculture, animal farming and fishery. Study results indicate that eutrophication (TSL>100), mainly caused by sewage from Marivan City and the surrounding rural areas has been the main reason for lake ecosystem degradation. DPSIR framework, as a novel approach in lake restoration, was applied to synthesize the study results of different disciplines in a

  17. Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we used computer tools to examine the spatial patterns of fluvial landscapes that are associated with five domains of hydro-geomorphic processes and landforms. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to hillslope and valley topography, river network structure, and channel elevation profiles. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  18. New Rust Disease of Korean Willow (Salix koreensis) Caused by Melampsora yezoensis, Unrecorded Pathogen in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran; Yoon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Hoo Hyun; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    During the growing season of 2015, leaf specimens with yellow rust spots were collected from Salix koreensis Andersson, known as Korean willow, in riverine areas in Cheonan, Korea. The fungus on S. koreensis was identified as the rust species, Melampsora yezoensis , based on the morphology of urediniospores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the molecular properties of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the urediniospores are the causal agent of the rust symptoms on the leaves and young stems of S. koreensis . Here, we report a new rust disease of S. koreensis caused by the rust fungus, M. yezoensis , a previously unrecorded rust pathogen in Korea.

  19. Vegetation and flora of short-rotation willow stands from a conservation viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, L.

    1986-01-01

    The energy forests were studied using random 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrats in which cover for field- and bottom-layer species was recorded in a percentage scale. The data were analysed using various multivariate methods. The vegetation and flora of twelve coppices in southern Sweden were investigated. Also the succession during the establishment phase on a meadow on the west coast and on a peat bog in the east-central part of the country was studied. Moreover, the impact on fen vegetation downstream of an energy forest on a peat bog was investigated. The flora and vegetation of energy forests is dominated by common ruderal species like Cirsium arvense, Galeopsis tetrahit and Urtica dioica. Uncommon species from woodland and fen habitats are only occasionally found. The field layer of energy forests shows a clear seasonality with maximal cover in July. The species number and the composition of vegetation vary greatly between the coppices and is largely determined by the management system. Intense cultivation including fertilization and the use of herbicides depletes the flora. Long rotation times decrease both species diversity and the field-layer cover. Uncommon species are mostly found in old coppices, which also often have a rich spring flora. A change in flora and vegetation occurs when an energy forest is established. The change is great and the time needed for stabilization of the energy forest flora is long when the original flora is dissimilar to the coppice flora. Willow coppices can increase habitat diversity in regions dominated by coniferous forests or in large-scale agricultural areas. Structural heterogeneity of a stand promotes diversity of the flora. Such heterogeneity can be created if a stand is composed of a variety of willow clones, if it is harvested at intervals, contains gaps, open ditches and is surrounded by edge zones of various types.

  20. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  1. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  2. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: → Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. → Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. → The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. → In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. → This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  3. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Dana, E-mail: dana.zimmer@uni-rostock.de [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Borca, Camelia [Paul Scherrer Institute, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laue, Michael [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Rostock, Medical Faculty, Strempelstr. 14, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Hause, Gerd [Microscopy Unit, Biocenter of the University of Halle, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Meissner, Ralph [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Soil Physics, Lysimeter Station, Dorfstrasse 55, D-39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Leinweber, Peter [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: {yields} Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. {yields} Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. {yields} The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. {yields} In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. {yields} This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  4. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  5. Recent land cover history and nutrient retention in riparian wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D.M.; Walbridge, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are profoundly affected by altered nutrient and sediment loads received from anthropogenic activity in their surrounding watersheds. Our objective was to compare a gradient of agricultural and urban land cover history during the period from 1949 to 1997, with plant and soil nutrient concentrations in, and sediment deposition to, riparian wetlands in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. We observed that recent agricultural land cover was associated with increases in Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) concentrations in a native wetland plant species. Conversely, recent urban land cover appeared to alter receiving wetland environmental conditions by increasing the relative availability of P versus N, as reflected in an invasive, but not a native, plant species. In addition, increases in surface soil Fe content suggests recent inputs of terrestrial sediments associated specifically with increasing urban land cover. The observed correlation between urban land cover and riparian wetland plant tissue and surface soil nutrient concentrations and sediment deposition, suggest that urbanization specifically enhances the suitability of riparian wetland habitats for the invasive species Japanese stiltgrass [Microstegium vimenium (Trinius) A. Camus]. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of a Riparian Vegetation Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of two main parameters used in a mathematic model able to evaluate the effects of changing hydrology on the growth of riparian vegetation along rivers and its effects on the cross-section width. Due to a lack of data in existing literature, in a past study the schematization proposed here was applied only to two large rivers, assuming steady conditions for the vegetational carrying capacity and coupling the vegetal model with a 1D description of the river morphology. In this paper, the limitation set by steady conditions is overcome, imposing the vegetational evolution dependent upon the initial plant population and the growth rate, which represents the potential growth of the overall vegetation along the watercourse. The sensitivity analysis shows that, regardless of the initial population density, the growth rate can be considered the main parameter defining the development of riparian vegetation, but it results site-specific effects, with significant differences for large and small rivers. Despite the numerous simplifications adopted and the small database analyzed, the comparison between measured and computed river widths shows a quite good capability of the model in representing the typical interactions between riparian vegetation and water flow occurring along watercourses. After a thorough calibration, the relatively simple structure of the code permits further developments and applications to a wide range of alluvial rivers.

  7. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  8. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  9. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Poff, N LeRoy

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight ecoregions in arid and semiarid portions of the western United States, measuring Tamarix and native Populus recruitment and abundance at 64 sites along 13 perennial rivers spanning a range of altered flow regimes. We quantified biologically relevant attributes of flow alteration as an integrated measure (the index of flow modification, IFM), which was then used to explain between-site variation in abundance and recruitment of native and nonnative riparian plant species. We found the likelihood of successful recruitment of Tamarix to be highest along unregulated river reaches and to remain high across a gradient of regulated flows. Recruitment probability for Populus, in contrast, was highest under free-flowing conditions and declined abruptly under even slight flow modification (IFM > 0.1). Adult Tamarix was most abundant at intermediate levels of IFM. Populus abundance declined sharply with modest flow regulation (IFM > 0.2) and was not present at the most flow-regulated sites. Dominance of Tamarix was highest along rivers with the most altered flow regimes. At the 16 least regulated sites, Tamarix and Populus were equally abundant. Given observed patterns of Tamarix recruitment and abundance, we infer that Tamarix would likely have naturalized, spread, and established widely in riparian communities in the absence of dam construction, diversions, and flow regulation in western North America. However, Tamarix dominance over native species would likely be less extensive in the absence of human alteration of river-flow regimes. Restoration that combines active mechanical removal of established stands of Tamarix with a program of flow releases conducive to

  10. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate the energetic reuse of riparian vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recchia, Lucia; Cini, Enrico; Corsi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The management of riparian vegetation which includes cutting operations of grass, reeds, bushes and trees, is very important to reduce hydrogeologic risk. In Tuscany, riparian biomass and residues are mainly left shredded along courses or disposed in landfills as special wastes: actually different laws prohibit that tree trunks are abandoned in areas naturally affected by flooding, because they can be moved contributing to increase the water level and to maximize the hydraulic risk of some other nearby areas. In some cases, it is also possible to store the logs in specified sites from where they can be taken and used as a fuel in fireplaces or domestic heating plants. This work studies the possibility of the reuse of riparian vegetation as biomass for energy production and evaluates benefits and drawbacks from the economical, environmental and managerial points of view. Particularly, a specific methodology has been developed for two hydrological districts of Tuscany, with different typologies and densities of vegetation. First, an estimation of biomass distribution on the land and an evaluation of annual wood availability have been carried out; then, different chains concerning harvesting operation, biomass transport, storage conditions and final utilisation, have been defined and compared by a specific multicriteria analysis (MCA); finally, for the most suitable bio-energy chains the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been implemented. Results of the LCA have also permitted to validate some environmental indicators used in the MCA, as mechanisation level of yards, energy efficiency of plants or transport distances. The decision making tool developed allows to compare costs and environmental benefits of the energy use of riparian vegetation, supporting local authorities involved in energy planning: in this way it is possible to confront different alternatives to match the energy demand and meet the energy saving and sustainability issues at the lowest cost for the

  12. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate the energetic reuse of riparian vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recchia, Lucia; Cini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Agraria e Forestale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 15, 50144 Firenze (Italy); Corsi, Stefano [Consorzio di Bonifica per la difesa del suolo e la tutela dell' ambiente della Toscana Centrale, via Verdi 16, 50122 Firenze (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The management of riparian vegetation which includes cutting operations of grass, reeds, bushes and trees, is very important to reduce hydrogeologic risk. In Tuscany, riparian biomass and residues are mainly left shredded along courses or disposed in landfills as special wastes: actually different laws prohibit that tree trunks are abandoned in areas naturally affected by flooding, because they can be moved contributing to increase the water level and to maximize the hydraulic risk of some other nearby areas. In some cases, it is also possible to store the logs in specified sites from where they can be taken and used as a fuel in fireplaces or domestic heating plants. This work studies the possibility of the reuse of riparian vegetation as biomass for energy production and evaluates benefits and drawbacks from the economical, environmental and managerial points of view. Particularly, a specific methodology has been developed for two hydrological districts of Tuscany, with different typologies and densities of vegetation. First, an estimation of biomass distribution on the land and an evaluation of annual wood availability have been carried out; then, different chains concerning harvesting operation, biomass transport, storage conditions and final utilisation, have been defined and compared by a specific multicriteria analysis (MCA); finally, for the most suitable bio-energy chains the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been implemented. Results of the LCA have also permitted to validate some environmental indicators used in the MCA, as mechanisation level of yards, energy efficiency of plants or transport distances. The decision making tool developed allows to compare costs and environmental benefits of the energy use of riparian vegetation, supporting local authorities involved in energy planning: in this way it is possible to confront different alternatives to match the energy demand and meet the energy saving and sustainability issues at the lowest cost for the

  13. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  14. Do invasive riparian Tamarix alter hydrology of riparian areas of arid and semi-arid regions under climate change scenarios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, M. P.; Acharya, K.; Chen, L.

    2012-12-01

    Competitiveness of riparian invasive species, Tamarix, in arid and semi-arid riparian areas of the southwestern United States under climate change scenario (SRES A2) was investigated. Tamarix has been replacing native vegetation along the riparian corridors of these areas for the past several decades and is thought to alter water balance. Changes in depth to groundwater, soil moisture distribution and flood frequency are critical in survival and growth of a facultative phreatophyte such as Tamarix. In this study, a fully coupled 2d surface flow and 3d subsurface flow hydrologic model, HydroGeoSphere, was used to simulate surface-subsurface hydrology of the lower Virgin River basin (4500 sq. km), located in Nevada, Utah and Arizona. The hydrologic model results, depth to groundwater and soil saturation, were then applied to the species distribution model, Maxent, along with other bioclimatic parameters to asses future Tamarix distribution probability. Simulations were made for the climate scenarios of the end of 21st centry conditions. Depth to groundwater is found to be the most important predictor variable to the Maxent model. Future Tamarix distribution range is not uniform across the basin. It is likely to decrease at lower elevations and increase in some higher elevation areas.

  15. The neutral species of the weak base trimethoprim is more toxic to willow trees (Salix viminalis) than the cation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, O.; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of the veterinary antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) to willow trees was tested at three different pH levels in hydroponic solutions with TMP concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L. The pH variation was achieved by using ammonium (pH 4.3, low) or nitrate (pH 6.4, medium) as nitro......The acute toxicity of the veterinary antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) to willow trees was tested at three different pH levels in hydroponic solutions with TMP concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L. The pH variation was achieved by using ammonium (pH 4.3, low) or nitrate (pH 6.4, medium...

  16. Investigation of Solid Energy Potential of Wood and Bark Obtained from Four Clones of a 2-Year Old Goat Willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sim-Hee; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the solid raw material characteristics of willow (Salix caprea) bark and woody core, this study analyzed overall chemical composition, monosaccharide composition, ash content, and main ash composition of both tree components. Significant differences were observed between the two in terms of chemical composition, carbohydrate composition, ash content, and major inorganics. The ash content in bark was 3.8–4.7%, compared with 0.6–1.1% in the woody core. Polysaccharide content in the woody core was 62.8–70.6% but was as low as 44.1–47.6% in the bark. The main hemicelluloses consisting of monosaccharides were xylose in the case of the woody core, and xylose, galactose, and arabinose in the case of bark. Woody core biomass of willow provides superior solid fuel raw material, as compared with bark biomass, with higher heating values, less ash content, and less slagging-causing material.

  17. Investigation of Solid Energy Potential of Wood and Bark Obtained from Four Clones of a 2-Year Old Goat Willow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sim-Hee [Department of Forest Genetic Resources, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Soo-Jeong, E-mail: soojshin@cbnu.ac.kr [Department of Wood and Paper Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-31

    To investigate the solid raw material characteristics of willow (Salix caprea) bark and woody core, this study analyzed overall chemical composition, monosaccharide composition, ash content, and main ash composition of both tree components. Significant differences were observed between the two in terms of chemical composition, carbohydrate composition, ash content, and major inorganics. The ash content in bark was 3.8–4.7%, compared with 0.6–1.1% in the woody core. Polysaccharide content in the woody core was 62.8–70.6% but was as low as 44.1–47.6% in the bark. The main hemicelluloses consisting of monosaccharides were xylose in the case of the woody core, and xylose, galactose, and arabinose in the case of bark. Woody core biomass of willow provides superior solid fuel raw material, as compared with bark biomass, with higher heating values, less ash content, and less slagging-causing material.

  18. Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jon D; Tognetti, Roberto; Paris, Piero

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of shifts in rainfall patterns as atmospheric [CO2] increases could impact the growth of fast growing trees such as Populus spp. and Salix spp. and the interaction between elevated CO2 and water stress in these species is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the responses to elevated CO2 and water stress in these two species, and to determine if elevated CO2 mitigated drought stress effects. Gas exchange, water potential components, whole plant transpiration and growth response to soil drying and recovery were assessed in hybrid poplar (clone 53-246) and willow (Salix sagitta) rooted cuttings growing in either ambient (350 &mgr;mol mol-1) or elevated (700 &mgr;mol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Predawn water potential decreased with increasing water stress while midday water potentials remained unchanged (isohydric response). Turgor potentials at both predawn and midday increased in elevated [CO2], indicative of osmotic adjustment. Gas exchange was reduced by water stress while elevated [CO2] increased photosynthetic rates, reduced leaf conductance and nearly doubled instantaneous transpiration efficiency in both species. Dark respiration decreased in elevated [CO2] and water stress reduced Rd in the trees growing in ambient [CO2]. Willow had 56% lower whole plant hydraulic conductivity than poplar, and showed a 14% increase in elevated [CO2] while poplar was unresponsive. The physiological responses exhibited by poplar and willow to elevated [CO2] and water stress, singly, suggest that these species respond like other tree species. The interaction of [CO2] and water stress suggests that elevated [CO2] did mitigate the effects of water stress in willow, but not in poplar.

  19. The silviculture, nutrition and economics of short rotation willow coppice in the uplands of mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R J; Randerson, P F; Slater, F M

    2000-07-01

    The potential of short rotation coppice as a biomass crop on land over 250m (the uplands) of mid Wales was studied. The results found in this study indicate that growing short rotation coppice willow in the uplands is a viable proposition with regard to establishment success and yields. In the event of a secure wood chip market in Wales, returns to the grower would be comparable to those from sheep production. (author)

  20. Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C; Pulford, I D; Riddell-Black, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow (Salix) clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial. If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues. The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul (S. triandra) were less resistant to elevated concentrations of heavy metals than a group of hardier clones, including S. burjatica 'Germany,' S.x dasyclados, S. candida and S. spaethii. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

  1. Positive impact of bio-stimulators on growth and physiological activity of willow in climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Duda, Zdzisława

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the physiological activity and growth of willow (Salix viminalis L.) plants cultivated under the conditions of adverse temperature and soil moisture content, and to assess the effect of the foliar application of Biojodis (1.0%) and Asahi SL (0.03%) bio-stimulators, or a mixture of Microcistis aeruginosa MKR 0105 and Anabaena PCC 7120 cyanobacteria under such changing growth conditions. The obtained results showed different reactions to the applied constant or periodically changed temperature and soil moisture content. The plants which grew at periodically changed adverse temperature (from -5 to 40oC) or in scantily (20% m.c.) or excessively (60% m.c.) watered soils, grew slowly, in comparison with those growing at 20oC and in optimally moistened soil (30% m.c.). Foliar application of Biojodis and Asahi SL cyanobacteria increased the growth of willow at optimal and adverse temperature or in scantily and excessively moistened soil. The changes in plant growth were associated with the changes in electrolyte leakage, activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases, RNase, index of chlorophyll content in leaves and gas exchange. The above indicates that the foliar application of the studied cyanobacteria and bio-stimulators partly alleviates the harmful impact of adverse temperature and water stress on growth and physiological activity of willow plants

  2. Seasonal variation in radiocaesium concentration in willow ptarmigan and rock ptarmigan in central Norway after the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.C.; Nyboe, S.; Varskog, P.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive caesium (20-60 kBq m -2 ) was deposited after the Chernobyl accident in the mountains of central Norway. Two sympatric ptarmigan species, willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus and rock ptarmigan L. mutus, inhabit this alpine ecosystem and are important game species. In 1987 and 1988, a study was carried out to try to identify factors affecting radioactive caesium concentration in these birds. Juvenile willow ptarmigan contained more radiocaesium than adults, but the two sexes did not differ in radiocaesium concentration. The radiocaesium concentration of food plants correlated with radiocaesium concentration of rock ptarmigan, and a seasonal variation in radiocaesium concentration of both ptarmigan species was seen. Rock ptarmigan contained more radiocaesium than willow ptarmigan during winter, but not in summer. This difference was related to differences in diet. The bioconcentration factor was 0·4-0·6. The aggregated transfer coefficient was 0·003-0·009 m 2 kg -1 for both species. In spite of the high deposition, the radiocaesium concentration in muscle rarely exceeded the limit recommended for human food consumption (600 Bq kg -1 ). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Phytoremediation potential of poplar and willow species in small scale constructed wetland for boron removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Kasım, Gözde Çıtır

    2018-03-01

    Boron (B) pollution is an expanding environmental problem throughout the world due to intensive mining practices and extensive usage of B in agricultural chemicals and industrial products in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate B removal performance of four poplar and four willow species in small scale Constructed Wetland (CW). Rooted cuttings of tested species were treated with simulated wastewater having five elevated B concentrations (0.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm). All the tested species could resist up to 20 ppm wastewater B supply and could regrow from their roots in the soil having maximum 15 mg/kg B content. The result of the study indicated that 65% ± 5.3 of B was removed from the wastewater in 5 ppm B treatment while the same efficiency decreased to 45% ± 4.6 at 40 ppm B supply. The average effect of sediment on B removal was found to be approximately 20% for all B treatments while the remaining part of the loaded B was removed from the CW within effluent (35-54%). Therefore, actual effects of plant species on B removal was ranged from 45% to 25% between 5 and 40 ppm B treatments. Mass B removal within plant body (phytextraction) comprised the 13-10% of total loaded B in CW while the remaining part of the loaded B (31-15%) was stabilized into the sediment with the effects of poplar and willow roots. These results presented clear understanding of effective B purification mechanisms in CWs. Boron phytextraction capacity of a plant species was less effective than its phytstabilization efficiency which increase filtering capacity of the sediment and stabilization of more B around the rhizosphere. In terms of their B removal ability, P.nigra and S.anatolica had the highest B removal capacities with phytextraction (20-11%) while S.alba, P.alba and S.babylonica had more phytstabilizaiton performance (40-15%) in CW. Disposal of B loaded plant material create another environmental costs for CW applications. Therefore, B loaded

  4. Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) removal and its effect on native plant communities of Riparian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Scott Horn; John W. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Chinese privet is a major invasive shrub within riparian zones throughout the southeastern United States. Weremoved privet shrubs from four riparian forests in October 2005 with a GyrotracH mulching machine or by handfelling with chainsaws and machetes to determine how well these treatments controlled privet and how they affected plant...

  5. Reconstructing Historical Riparian Conditions of Two River Basins in Eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lynne S.

    2008-09-01

    As land use continues to alter riparian areas, historical information is increasingly needed to help establish reference conditions for monitoring and assessment. I developed and applied a procedure in the John Day and Deschutes river basins of eastern Oregon for synthesizing historical documentary records available across broad spatial areas to reconstruct 19th-century riparian conditions. The study area was stratified by ecoregion and stream physical characteristics to partition regional variability. Three primary data sources—General Land Office survey notes, historical photographs, and written accounts—provided descriptive records, which were grouped by topic to develop common riparian attributes. The number of records for each attribute was tallied by stratum to compare and contrast riparian structure and composition across strata and ecoregions. Detailed descriptions of historical riparian conditions using the original documentary records further illustrated the unique riparian conditions in each stratum. Similarities and differences in historical riparian structure and composition at the stratum and ecoregion levels were evident based on the distributional pattern and numbers of records of attributes across strata. A high number of repeated observations within and among primary data sources helped to corroborate descriptive data. Although these reference data cannot provide the detail needed for rigorous quantitative assessments, they do describe a range of conditions approaching a minimally disturbed condition and provide an important perspective for conducting riparian assessments in highly disturbed regions where least-disturbed reference sites are often poor examples of a desired condition.

  6. Where should buffers go? modeling riparian habitat connectivity in northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Bentrup; Todd Kellerman

    2004-01-01

    Through many funding programs, riparian buffers are being created on agricultural lands to address significant water quality problems. Society and landowners are demanding many other environmental and social services (e.g., wildlife habitat and income diversification) from this practice. Resource planners therefore need to design riparian buffer systems in the right...

  7. Analysis of microbial populations, denitrification, and nitrous oxide production in riparian buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers are used extensively to protect water bodies from nonpoint source nitrogen pollution. However there is relatively little information on the impact of these buffers on production of nitrous oxide (N2O). In this study, we assessed nitrous oxide production in riparian buffers of the so...

  8. Aquatic grazers reduce the establishment and growth of riparian plants along an environmental gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Sarneel, J.M.; Ravensbergen, Lone; Huig, N.; van Paassen, José; Rip, W.; Bakker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The establishment of riparian plants is determined by abiotic conditions and grazing, although it is usually presumed that the former are most important. We tested the impact of aquatic grazers on the survival and growth of establishing riparian plants and whether the impact of grazing

  9. Small mammals in saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) - invaded and native riparian habitats of the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive saltcedar species have replaced native riparian trees on numerous river systems throughout the western US, raising concerns about how this habitat conversion may affect wildlife. For periods ranging from 1-10 years, small mammal populations were monitored at six riparian sites impacted by s...

  10. Plant biomass and species composition along an environmental gradient in montane riparian meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; E. N. Jack Brookshire; John E. Baham

    2004-01-01

    In riparian meadows, narrow zonation of the dominant vegetation frequently occurs along the elevational gradient from the stream edge to the floodplain terrace. We measured plant species composition and above- and belowground biomass in three riparian plant communities - a priori defined as wet, moist, and dry meadow - along short streamside topographic gradients in...

  11. Cicada emergence in southwestern riparian forest: Influences of wildfire and vegetation composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    2006-01-01

    Annually emerging cicadas are a numerically and ecologically dominant species in Southwestern riparian forests. Humans have altered disturbance regimes that structure these forests such that floods are less common and wildfires occur more frequently than was historically the case. Impacts of these changes on primary consumers such as riparian cicadas are unknown....

  12. Assessing Riparian Vegetation Condition and Function in Disturbed Sites of the Arid Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Cornejo-Denman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation or modification of vegetation distribution and structure in arid riparian ecosystems can lead to the loss of ecological function. Mexico has 101,500,000 ha of arid lands, however there is a general lack of information regarding how arid riparian ecosystems are being modified. To assess these modifications, we use eight sites in the San Miguel River (central Sonora to analyze (1 riparian vegetation composition, structure and distribution using field sampling and remote sensing data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; (2 productivity (proxies, using vegetation indices derived from satellite data; and (3 variability posed by riparian vegetation and vegetation adjacent to riparian habitats. The development of a simple yet informative Anthropogenic-disturbance Index (ADI allowed us to classify and describe each study site. We found sharp differences in vegetation composition and structure between sites due to the absence/presence of obligate-riparian species. We also report significant difference between EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index values for the dry season among vegetation types that develop near the edges of the river but differ in composition, suggesting that land cover changes form obligate-riparian to facultative-riparian species can lead to a loss in potential productivity. Finally, our tests suggest that sites with higher disturbance present lower photosynthetic activity.

  13. Human impacts on riparian ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Valley during historic times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank E. Wozniak

    1996-01-01

    The development of irrigation agriculture in historic times has profoundly impacted riparian ecosystems in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. A vital relationship has existed between water resources and settlement in the semi-arid Southwest since prehistoric times. Levels of technology have influenced human generated changes in the riparian ecosystems of the...

  14. Water quality modeling based on landscape analysis: Importance of riparian hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Grabs

    2010-01-01

    Several studies in high-latitude catchments have demonstrated the importance of near-stream riparian zones as hydrogeochemical hotspots with a substantial influence on stream chemistry. An adequate representation of the spatial variability of riparian-zone processes and characteristics is the key for modeling spatiotemporal variations of stream-water quality. This...

  15. Watershed scale assessment of the impact of forested riparian zones on stream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Webber; K. W. J. Williard; M. R. Whiles; M. L. Stone; J. J. Zaczek; D. K. Davie

    2003-01-01

    Federal and state land management agencies have been promoting forest and grass riparian zones to combat non-point source nutrient and sediment pollution of our nations' waters. The majority of research examining the effectiveness of riparian buffers at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to streams has been conducted at the field scale. This study took a...

  16. The Importance and Future Condition of Western Riparian Ecosystems as Migratory Bird Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Rob Hazlewood; Michael L. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Riparian forests have long been considered important habitats for breeding western landbirds, and growing evidence reinforces their importance during the migratory period as well. Extensive modification of natural flow regimes, grazing, and forest clearing along many rivers in the western U.S. have led to loss and simplification of native riparian forests and to...

  17. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher

    2005-01-01

    Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...

  18. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L...

  19. Initial riparian down wood dynamics in relation to thinning and buffer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Deanna H. Olson; Adrian. Ares

    2013-01-01

    Down wood plays many functional roles in aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Simplifi cation of forest structure and low abundance of down wood in stream channels and riparian areas is a common legacy of historical management in headwater forests west of the Cascade Range in the US northwest. Contemporary management practices emphasize the implementation of vegetation...

  20. Thinning and riparian buffer configuration effects on down wood abundance in headwater streams in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Down wood is associated with the function, structure, and diversity of riparian systems. Considerable knowledge has been generated regarding down wood stocks and dynamics in temperate forests, but there are few studies on effects of silvicultural practices and riparian buffer design on down wood, particularly in headwater streams. We analyzed interactive eff ects of...