Sample records for riparian grey alder

  1. The impact of a pulsing groundwater table on greenhouse gas emissions in riparian grey alder stands. (United States)

    Mander, Ülo; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Teemusk, Alar; Kanal, Arno; Uri, Veiko; Truu, Jaak


    Floods control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in floodplains; however, there is a lack of data on the impact of short-term events on emissions. We studied the short-term effect of changing groundwater (GW) depth on the emission of (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in two riparian grey alder (Alnus incana) stands of different age in Kambja, southern Estonia, using the opaque static chamber (five replicates in each site) and gas chromatography methods. The average carbon and total nitrogen content in the soil of the old alder (OA) stand was significantly higher than in the young alder (YA) stand. In both stands, one part was chosen for water table manipulation (Manip) and another remained unchanged with a stable and deeper GW table. Groundwater table manipulation (flooding) significantly increases CH4 emission (average: YA-Dry 468, YA-Manip 8,374, OA-Dry 468, OA-Manip 4,187 μg C m(-2) h(-1)) and decreases both CO2 (average: OA-Dry 138, OA-Manip 80 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and N2O emissions (average: OA-Dry 23.1, OA-Manip 11.8 μg N m(-2) h(-1)) in OA sites. There was no significant difference in CO2 and CH4 emissions between the OA and YA sites, whereas in OA sites with higher N concentration in the soil, the N2O emission was significantly higher than at the YA sites. The relative CO2 and CH4 emissions (the soil C stock-related share of gaseous losses) were higher in manipulated plots showing the highest values in the YA-Manip plot (0.03 and 0.0030 % C day(-1), respectively). The soil N stock-related N2O emission was very low achieving 0.000019 % N day(-1) in the OA-Dry plot. Methane emission shows a negative correlation with GW, whereas the 20 cm depth is a significant limit below which most of the produced CH4 is oxidized. In terms of CO2 and N2O, the deeper GW table significantly increases emission. In riparian zones of headwater streams, the short-term floods (e.g. those driven by extreme climate events) may significantly enhance

  2. Nitrogen isotope fractionation during N uptake via arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi into grey alder. (United States)

    Schweiger, Peter F


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi affect plant nitrogen (N) dynamics. Plant N isotope patterns have been used to characterise the contribution of ECM fungi to plant N uptake. By quantifying and comparing the effects of an AM and an ECM fungus on growth, N uptake and isotopic composition of one host plant grown at different relative N supply levels, the aim of this study was to improve the mechanistic understanding of natural 15N abundance patterns in mycorrhizal plants and their underlying causes. Grey alders were inoculated with one ECM fungus or one AM fungus or left non-mycorrhizal. Plants were grown under semi-hydroponic conditions and were supplied with three rates of relative N supply ranging from deficient to luxurious. Neither mycorrhizal fungus increased plant growth or N uptake. AM root colonisation had no effect on whole plant δ15N and decreased foliar δ 15N only under N deficiency. The roots of these plants were 15N-enriched. ECM root colonisation consistently decreased foliar and whole plant δ15N. It is concluded, that both mycorrhizal fungi contributed to plant N uptake into the shoot. Nitrogen isotope fractionation during N assimilation and transformations in fungal mycelia is suggested to have resulted in plants receiving 15N-depleted N via the mycorrhizal uptake pathways. Negative mycorrhizal growth effects are explained by symbiotic resource trade on carbon and N and decreased direct plant N uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A Soil Moisture-Heat Based Early Establishment Model of Riparian White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia) (United States)

    Jablkowski, P.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.


    length vs. time data at each matric potential. The derivative of each equation yields the growth rate at a time after germination at a specific matric potential. The soil moisture model and root growth rate are combined by calculating the root growth rate of a seedling at the surface soil water potential at germination. After a 4 hour time step, the depth of root penetration is determined and the root growth rate from the growth chamber experiments is adjusted to the water potential at that depth. These iterations continue over the recession period. The elevational limit to establishment on the bar occurs where the root tip experiences permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa) for a 12 hour period. The results of this method show that the limit to establishment elevation of white alder on bars is limited by decreases in soil moisture driven by water table decline and the root growth response to moisture deficit. This decline is however mitigated by diurnal increases in soil moisture that are only apparent when capillary rise driven by isothermal pressure gradients is considered. This method could be applied to find establishment elevation limits for other riparian species on gravel-sand bars with knowledge of the sites' hydrological, atmospheric and sediment characteristics and the species growth rate response to moisture deficit.

  4. Nitrogen fixation in lysimeter-grown grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) saplings - influence of nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Tom; Rytter, L.


    A lysimeter study was started in order to test if nitrogen fixation as well as biomass production in grey alder plantations (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) can be stimulated by daily addition of small N doses. One-year-old grey alder saplings were planted in undrained lysimeters, each filled with 200 litres of quartz sand. Water and a low-concentrated balanced nutrient solution were distributed daily via a drip irrigation system. In this paper a complete N budget for the first growing season is presented. The results showed that presence of mineral N in the growth substrate had no beneficial effect on growth during the first growing season. The capacity of the plants to make use of the daily N additions was overestimated in this investigation. Almost twice as much N was added with fertilizers as the amount of N accumulating in the tissues. Consequently, the N concentration in the drainage water increased and the annual rate of N{sub 2}-fixation was strongly suppressed, 31 mg N plant{sup -1} (1 kg N ha{sup -1}) versus 1700 mg N plant{sup -1} (32 kg N ha{sup -1}) in the controls. However, no harmful effect of the elevated soil-N concentration on nodule development could be detected.

  5. The Role of Phytodiversity in Riparian Alder Forests in Supporting the Provision of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariničová Patrícia


    Full Text Available Nature, ecosystems and biodiversity provide human society with many benefits known as ecosystem services. Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity. In this paper, we applied inductive approach to the identification, mapping and evaluation of ecosystem services of the Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae community in Tribeč Mts. The results from 2015 show that the alder floodplain forest represents one of the most productive forest ecosystems with seasonal maximum production of 59.03 g m−2, species diversity of N0 = 40 and functional diversity of FD = 10. The forage potential of this community is medium, the melliferous potential is high and the therapeutic potential was estimated as extremely rich in medicinal plants. From the functional groups for providing ecosystem services, woody plants and hemicryptophytes play the most significant role.

  6. Role of river flow and sediment mobilization in riparian alder establishment along a bedrock-gravel river, South Fork Eel River, California (United States)

    Jablkowski, P.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.


    Climatic, hydraulics, hydrologic, and fluvial geomorphic processes are the main drivers of riparian white alder (Alnus rhombifolia Nutt.) distribution in northern California. The Mediterranean climate and canyon bound, bedrock-gravel morphology of the South Fork Eel have a distinct effect on these processes. White alder seeds are preferentially deposited on river bars where river hydraulics create eddies coinciding with the downstream part of riffles and the upstream part of pools. Seeds are generally deposited below bankfull elevations by the descending hydrograph during the spring season in this Mediterranean climate. For successful germination and establishment, the seeds must be deposited at a location such that they are not remobilized by late spring flows. The summer establishment period is defined from the date of seed deposition and germination to the fall/winter date of river sediment mobilization. Seedling root growth rate decreases exponentially with decreasing water potential. However, seedlings are shown not to be generally limited by water availability at the elevations they are most commonly deposited. The establishment of white alder seedlings following the first summer will therefore depend on their ability to resist fall/winter high flows. The method proposed here compares the predicted rooting depth to predicted sediment scour rates. The length of the establishment period rather than water availability determines final seedling rooting depth. Over the past 40 years, very few years had establishment periods that were long enough or had fast enough alder growth rates to survive winter floods that often scour deeper than the total root length. The low survival of seedlings in the first autumn season following germination is believed to be a principal reason for the missing age classes often found in alder distributions along rivers.

  7. Root tensile strength of grey alder and mountain maple grown on a coarse grained eco-engineered slope in the Swiss Alps related to wood anatomical features (United States)

    Kink, Dimitri; Bast, Alexander; Meyer, Christine; Meier, Wolfgang; Egli, Markus; Gärtner, Holger


    . In order to confirm this assumption and possibly find more important root properties which have an influence on soil stabilization, the root systems of seven trees (three grey alder, four mountain maple) were excavated and analyzed. The study site is a catchment, where shallow landslides are common. It is located in the Prättigau valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps and was eco-engineered in 1997. The substrate is coarse-grained morainic material, mean annual air temperature reaches 4.64°C, average precipitation is 1170 mm, and the altitude is about 1000 m a.s.l.. The root system of each tree was uncovered carefully by hand to keep the roots undamaged, before removal it was photographed in situ to document the root distribution. The root systems were then cut into single root pieces of about 20 cm length and the position of each sample was documented. The root samples were then hierarchically classified in several root classes. The tensile strength of more than 500 samples was determined. In addition, the values for age, diameter, and root moisture were ascertained. Since it was assumed, that the cellular structure of the roots has an influence on the tensile strength, two microscopic thin-sections were prepared from all successfully tested root samples. The microscopic analysis focused on anatomical parameters such as the size and number of vessels, their distribution as well as their conductivity. The results for the final correlation between the anatomical characteristics and the root's tensile strength are presented for both tree species.

  8. Grey sets and greyness


    Yang, Yingjie; John, Robert


    This paper discusses the application of grey numbers for uncertainty representation. It highlights the difference between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets, and investigates the degree of greyness for grey sets. It facilitates the representation of uncertainty not only for elements of a set, but also the set itself as a whole. Our results show that a grey set could be specified for interval-valued fuzzy sets or rough sets under special conditions. With the notion of grey sets and their...

  9. Utilization and management of alder. (United States)

    David G. Briggs; Dean S. DeBell; William A. Atkinson


    In the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, red alder often grows on forest lands following natural or man-caused disturbances. Frequently ignored as a pest or weed, many alder stands have developed to the point where important utilization and management questions are being asked. It is recognized that alder is a fast growing species, and that its rapid early growth...

  10. Riparian Inventory (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  11. Long-term biomass production and nutrient uptake of birch, alder and willow plantations on cut-away peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytoenen, Jyrki [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, PO Box 44, FI-69101 Kannus (Finland); Saarsalmi, Anna [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, PO Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland)


    The leafless above-ground biomass production of planted silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (Betula pubescens), grey alder (Alnus incana), indigenous willows (Salix triandra and Salix phylicifolia) and an alder-willow mixture growing on a cut-away peatland area in Central Finland was investigated during a period of 18 (willows) or 19 (birches and alders) years. Biannual fertilization of the birches (0, NPK) and alders (0, PK) and annual fertilization of the willows (NPK1, NPK2) were continued for 10 years. S. phylicifolia had the highest yield (123 t ha{sup -1}). The yield of the fertilized downy and silver birch was 112 t ha{sup -1} and 108 t ha{sup -1} respectively, and that of fertilized grey alder 85 t ha{sup -1}, and alder S. triandra mixture 93 t ha{sup -1}. The mean annual increment of willow was highest at the age of 10 years (S. phylicifolia 7.9 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}; S. triandra 5.6 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}). NPK-fertilization increased the 19-year biomass production of downy and silver birch by 14 and 29 t ha{sup -1} respectively and PK fertilization that of alders by 25 t ha{sup -1}. The alder plantations bound more N, P, K, Ca and Mg per unit leafless biomass produced after 10-11 growing seasons than the silver birch and downy birch plantations. The silver birch used more N, K and Ca, but similar amounts of P and Mg per unit leafless biomass produced than the downy birch. S. triandra used more N, P, K and Mg per unit biomass produced than S. phylicifolia and both birch species. (author)

  12. OpenGrey


    Pejšová, Petra; Stock, Christiane


    OpenGrey is a unique repository providing open access to European grey literature references, the result of 25 years of cooperation. OpenGrey is based on the OpenSIGLE/SIGLE database which contains almost 700 thousand records of grey literature. As a multidisciplinary database it covers Science, Technology, Biomedical Science, Economics, Social Science and Humanities. This paper presents new search functionality, design, logo and vision. The cooperation with GreyNet on GL conference preprints...

  13. Red alder: a state of knowledge. (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington


    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  14. Germination of red alder seed. (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell


    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  15. Forested riparian areas (United States)

    Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Jonathan W. Long


    Riparian areas are typically highly productive areas that sustain important socioecological benefits, including the capacity to modulate effects of watershed disturbances on aquatic systems. Recent studies have shown that fire behavior in riparian areas varies with landscape attributes. Smaller, headwater riparian areas often burn similarly to adjacent uplands, whereas...

  16. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.


    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  17. Grey Communities : A Scientometric Approach to Grey Literature, In and Outside of GreyNet


    Prost, Hélène; Schöpfel, Joachim


    International audience; The paper explores grey communities outside the Grey Literature Network Service (GreyNet) and identifies potential members for GreyNet. GreyNet can be compared to a Learned Society or a special interest group specialised in grey literature as a particular field of library and information sciences (LIS). Its relevance is related to its capacity to enforce the terminology and definition of grey literature in LIS research and publications, and its impact and outreach can ...

  18. Normal yield tables for red alder. (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington; Floyd A. Johnson; George R. Staebler; William J. Lloyd


    Increasing interest in the management of red alder (Alnus rubra) has created a need for reliable yield information. Existing yield tables for red alder have been very useful as interim sources of information, but they are generally inadequate for current and prospective management needs. The advisory committee for the Station's Olympia...

  19. Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets. (United States)

    Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert


    In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.

  20. Serials and "Grey Literature"


    Schmidmaier, Dieter


    "Grey literature" is literature which is not directly accessible. Its procurement, exploitation, storage and incorporation in information systems can only be carried out under complicated conditions. Journals in the sense of "Grey literature" are: (Scientific) journals published by universities, academies and research institutes, as well as periodic publications about the results of research issued by firms engaged in such work. Journals and newspapers published by parties, organisations...

  1. Grey Literature 2.0


    Simandlová, Tereza


    The paper tries to describe grey literature in the context of platforms and tools of the web 2.0. We can follow up that increasing trends in the scientific communication are e.g. microblogging, scientific blogging and there are also scientific social networks in the distribution cycle of grey literature. Except the examples of grey literature 2.0, the paper also discusses the problems of the promotion of grey literature and grey literature community through the social media.

  2. Insects of the riparian (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers


    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  3. Gold(I)-Initiated Cycloisomerization/Diels-Alder/Retro-Diels-Alder Cascade Strategy to Biaryls. (United States)

    Jin, Shengfei; Niu, Yujie; Liu, Chengjun; Zhu, Lifeng; Li, Yangming; Cui, Shanshan; Xiong, Zhiling; Cheng, Maosheng; Lin, Bin; Liu, Yongxiang


    A unique approach to biaryls was developed on the basis of propargyl vinyl ethers and dienophiles substrates via a gold(I)-initiated cycloisomerization/Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder cascade reaction. The scope and mechanism of the reaction were investigated on the basis of a series of synthetic substrates, control experiments, and DFT calculations.

  4. Riparian forest composition affects stream litter decomposition despite similar microbial and invertebrate communities. (United States)

    Kominoski, John S; Marczak, Laurie B; Richardson, John S


    Cross-boundary flows of energy and nutrients link biodiversity and functioning in adjacent ecosystems. The composition of forest tree species can affect the structure and functioning of stream ecosystems due to physical and chemical attributes, as well as changes in terrestrial resource subsidies. We examined how variation in riparian canopy composition (coniferous, deciduous, mixed) affects adjacent trophic levels (invertebrate and microbial consumers) and decomposition of organic matter in small, coastal rainforest streams in southwestern British Columbia. Breakdown rates of higher-quality red alder (Alnus rubra) litter were faster in streams with a greater percentage of deciduous than coniferous riparian canopy, whereas breakdown rates of lower-quality western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) litter were independent of riparian forest composition. When invertebrates were excluded using fine mesh, breakdown rates of both litter species were an order of magnitude less and were not significantly affected by riparian forest composition. Stream invertebrate and microbial communities were similar among riparian forest composition, with most variation attributed to leaf litter species. Invertebrate taxa richness and shredder biomass were higher in A. rubra litter; however, taxa evenness was greatest for T. heterophylla litter and both litter species in coniferous streams. Microbial community diversity (determined from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms) was unaffected by riparian forest or litter species. Fungal allele richness was higher than bacterial allele richness, and microbial communities associated with lower-quality T. heterophylla litter had higher diversity (allele uniqueness and richness) than those associated with higher-quality A. rubra litter. Percent variation in breakdown rates was mostly attributed to riparian forest composition in the presence of invertebrates and microbes; however, stream consumer biodiversity at adjacent trophic levels

  5. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens


    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...... matter and nutrients compared to ordinary wastewater, since urine, faeces and toilet paper are not included. The levels of heavy metals are however in the same concentration range. The information regarding the content of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) is limited. From this study, 900 different XOCs...

  6. Detection of grey seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bleijswijk, J.; Begeman, L.; Witte, H.J.; IJsseldijk, L.L.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Gröne, A.; Leopold, M.F.


    DNA was analysed from external wounds on 3 dead harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena that were stranded in the Netherlands. Puncture wounds as well as the edges of large open wounds were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. With specific primers that target the mtDNA control region of grey seal

  7. National grey literature cooperation model


    Pejšová, Petra; Vyčítalová, Hana


    The National Library of Technology (NTK) has a long tradition of collecting grey literature on the national level. NTK became SIGLE system partner in the 1980s and from 2008 it has been the coordinator of the National Repository of Grey Literature (NRGL). NTK has created a grey literature partnership network in the Czech Republic. Over 130 institutions dedicated to research, science, education, culture etc. participate in this network and provide grey literature to the NRGL. NTK manages coope...

  8. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder. (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen


    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  9. Diels–Alder reactions in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Sijbren; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    This review illustrates how water, as an environmentally friendly solvent, can have significant additional benefits when it is used as a solvent for the Diels–Alder reaction. The mechanism by which the unique properties of water enhance the rate and selectivity are discussed. Also, possibilities for

  10. Intramolecular and Transannular Diels-Alder Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Ascic, Erhad


    Few reactions can compete with the Diels-Alder (DA) [4+2] cycloaddition for the rapid and efficient generation of molecular complexity. The DA reaction is atom-economic and stereospecific, as well as diastereo- and regioselective. The intramolecular version (IMDA) of the DA cycloaddition and its...

  11. Origins of Stereoselectivity in the trans-Diels-Alder Paradigm


    Paton, Robert S.; Mackey, Joel L.; Kim, Woo Han; Lee, Jun Hee; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Houk, K. N.


    The regioselectivity and stereoselectivity aspects of the Diels-Alder/radical hydrodenitration reaction sequence leading to trans-fused ring systems have been investigated with density functional calculations. A continuum of transition structures representing Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadditions as well as a sigmatropic rearrangement have been located, and they all lie very close in energy on the potential energy surface. All three pathways are found to be important in the format...

  12. Correlations between alder specific IgE and alder-related tree pollen specific IgE by RAST method. (United States)

    Maeda, Yuji; Ono, Emiko; Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami; Akiyama, Kazuo


    Wild birch trees grow in limited areas in Japan and are not a common aero-allergen. However, many patients who do not live in the area show positive birch pollen Radioallergosorbent Test (RAST). Therefore, being sensitized by another tree pollen which is closely related to birch may result in showing a specific IgE antibody to birch. Alder is a one of these trees and in the past it grew widely in Japan. However, there is no available RAST data as to the correlations between alder and alder-related trees. We measured the alder specific IgE (CAP-RAST, Phadea) in stored sera which was positive in birch RAST (228 samples), beech RAST (36 samples), oak RAST (152 samples) and cedar RAST (411 samples) and examined correlations between the RAST of alder and other trees. The correlation coefficient value of birch was very high (0.971). The other coefficient values of beech and oak were high (0.884 in beech and 0.895 in oak) but were slightly lower than that of the birch. This means that in terms of allergenicities, birch pollen is almost the same as alder and beech and oak are partly different from the alder. The Japanese respond to alder pollen just same as they do to birch pollen in forming specific IgE antibody. In clinical practice, positive alder RAST has the same meaning as positive birch RAST.

  13. Drapeaux Gris (Grey Flags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Arrivé


    Full Text Available Today it is images, a thickening web of images, amounting to a magic circle through which the citizens of this age have passed, never to return. What a time you chose to be born ! (... The question, then, is how to paint one’s subjectivity in the codes of culture ?Grey Flags, texte de Seth Price, (Communiqué de presse et titre de l’expositionJeux de pistes pour un art « sans drapeau »Si dans les années soixante les Flags de Jasper Johns problématisaient les catégories artistiques en détourn...

  14. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities. (United States)

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy


    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  15. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L Jackrel

    Full Text Available Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra, vine maple (Acer cinereus, bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In

  16. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  17. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic


    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina


    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  18. Grey literature in Australian education


    White, Gerald; Thomas, Julian; Weldon, Paul (ACER); Lawrence, Amanda; Galatis, Helen (ACER); Tyndall, Jessica (Flinders University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    The prevalence of informal publishing or grey literature in education appears to have increased as digital technologies have become main-stream, educators have become more proficient and policies have moved increasingly towards supporting its use. In addition, the take up of social networking technologies and innovative methods of digital publishing have encouraged educators to produce, distribute and share content and commentary. Grey literature may make a substantial contribution to educati...

  19. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  20. Riparian Terminology: Confusion and Clarification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Richard


    Riparian zones occur throughout the United States as long strips of vegetation adjacent to streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and other inland aquatic systems that affect or are affected by the presence of water...

  1. Covalently crosslinked diels-alder polymer networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Christopher (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Adzima, Brian J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Anderson, Benjamin John


    This project examines the utility of cycloaddition reactions for the synthesis of polymer networks. Cycloaddition reactions are desirable because they produce no unwanted side reactions or small molecules, allowing for the formation of high molecular weight species and glassy crosslinked networks. Both the Diels-Alder reaction and the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) were studied. Accomplishments include externally triggered healing of a thermoreversible covalent network via self-limited hysteresis heating, the creation of Diels-Alder based photoresists, and the successful photochemical catalysis of CuAAC as an alternative to the use of ascorbic acid for the generation of Cu(I) in click reactions. An analysis of the results reveals that these new methods offer the promise of efficiently creating robust, high molecular weight species and delicate three dimensional structures that incorporate chemical functionality in the patterned material. This work was performed under a Strategic Partnerships LDRD during FY10 and FY11 as part of a Sandia National Laboratories/University of Colorado-Boulder Excellence in Science and Engineering Fellowship awarded to Brian J. Adzima, a graduate student at UC-Boulder. Benjamin J. Anderson (Org. 1833) was the Sandia National Laboratories point-of-contact for this fellowship.

  2. Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan


    The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).

  3. Chiral Cyclopropenyl Ketones— Reactive and Selective Diels-Alder Dienophiles (United States)

    Fisher, Laural A.; Smith, Natalee J.; Fox, Joseph M.


    The synthesis and Diels-Alder reactions of cyclopropenyl ketones are described. Cyclopropenyl ketones are highly reactive dienophiles that can engage a range of cyclic dienes and 2,3-dimethylbutadiene. The strategy of using cyclopropenyl ketones to facilitate Diels-Alder reactions is not limited to products that contain three-membered rings, as reductive opening by SmI2 can be used to produce a product that lacks a cyclopropane but retains a quaternary stereogenic center. PMID:23438063

  4. Down by the riverside: urban riparian ecology (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Daniel J. Bain; Lawrence E. Band; Kenneth T. Belt; Grace S. Brush; J. Morgan Grove; Richard V. Pouyat; Ian C. Yesilonis; Wayne C. Zipperer


    Riparian areas are hotspots of interactions between plants, soil, water, microbes, and people. While urban land use change has been shown to have dramatic effects on watershed hydrology, there has been surprisingly little analysis of its effects on riparian areas. Here we examine the ecology of urban riparian zones, focusing on work done in the Baltimore Ecosystem...

  5. Grey Literature and the Internet (United States)

    Hartman, Karen A.


    Accreditation standards for professional schools offering social work degrees mandate curriculum content that provides students with skills to analyze, formulate, and influence social policies. An important source of analytical thinking about social policy is the "grey" literature issued by public policy organizations, think tanks,…

  6. Economic Load Dispatch Using Grey Wolf Optimization


    Dr.Sudhir Sharma; Shivani Mehta


    This paper presents grey wolf optimization (GWO) to solve convex economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) is a new meta-heuristic inspired by grey wolves. The leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of the grey wolves is mimicked in GWO. The objective of ELD problem is to minimize the total generation cost while fulfilling the different constraints, when the required load of power system is being supplied. The proposed technique is implemented on two d...

  7. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.


    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  8. Harvesting Options for Riparian Areas (United States)

    James A. Mattson; John E. Baumgras; Charles R. Blinn; Michael A. Thompson


    As the chapters in this book demonstate, forested riparian areas provide many important functions and values, including wildlife habitat, recreation, water, timber production, and cultural resources. The high soil moisture and nutrient availability in these areas make them highly productive sites for plant and animal life, including trees, and this, coupled with the...

  9. Marine Riparian Vegetation Communities of Puget Sound (United States)


    sporadically. Both western white pine and shore pine occur on glacial drift in the Puget Sound area. Hardwoods, such as red alder and big leaf maple, are not...dar, and understory shrubs such as red huckleberry, Oregon grape, trailing blackberry , and salal (Kruckeberg 1991). Other common trees in this zone...include big leaf maple, vine maple, red alder, black cottonwood and madrone. A list of the most common plants of the Western Hemlock Zone, along

  10. Spatial-structural analysis of leafless woody riparian vegetation for hydraulic considerations (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Jalonen, Johanna; Järvelä, Juha; Rauch, Hans Peter


    Woody riparian vegetation is a vital element of riverine environments. On one hand woody riparian vegetation has to be taken into account from a civil engineering point of view due to boundary shear stress and vegetation drag. On the other hand it has to be considered from a river ecological point of view due to shadowing effects and as a source of organic material for aquatic habitats. In hydrodynamic and hydro-ecological studies the effects of woody riparian vegetation on flow patterns are usually investigated on a very detailed level. On the contrary vegetation elements and their spatial patterns are generally analysed and discussed on the basis of an integral approach measuring for example basal diameters, heights and projected plant areas. For a better understanding of the influence of woody riparian vegetation on turbulent flow and on river ecology, it is essential to record and analyse plant data sets on the same level of quality as for hydrodynamic or hydro-ecologic purposes. As a result of the same scale of the analysis it is possible to incorporate riparian vegetation as a sub-model in the hydraulic analysis. For plant structural components, such as branches on different topological levels it is crucial to record plant geometrical parameters describing the habitus of the plant on branch level. An exact 3D geometrical model of real plants allows for an extraction of various spatial-structural plant parameters. In addition, allometric relationships help to summarize and describe plant traits of riparian vegetation. This paper focuses on the spatial-structural composition of leafless riparia woddy vegetation. Structural and spatial analyses determine detailed geometric properties of the structural components of the plants. Geometrical and topological parameters were recorded with an electro-magnetic scanning device. In total, 23 plants (willows, alders and birches) were analysed in the study. Data were recorded on branch level, which allowed for the

  11. An FMEA analysis using grey theory and grey rough sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for detecting the most important failure items as well as the most effective alternative strategy to cope with possible events. The proposed model of this paper uses grey technique to rank various alternatives and FMEA technique to find important faults. The implementation of the proposed method has been illustrated for an existing example on the literature. The results of this method show that the proposed model has been capable of detecting the most trouble making problems with fuzzy logic and finds the most important solution strategy using FMEA technique.

  12. Application of Riparian Evapotranspiration Package in MODFLOW for Riparian Vegetation Restoration (United States)

    Ajami, H.; Maddock, T., III


    Quantifying spatial and temporal variability of riparian evapotranspiration (ET) is essential in water resources management especially in management and restoration of riparian ecosystems where multiple agricultural, industrial, and domestic users may exist. To enhance riparian evapotranspiration estimation in a MODFLOW groundwater model, RIPGIS-NET, an ArcGIS custom application, was developed to derive parameters and visualize results of spatially explicit riparian evapotranspiration in groundwater flow models for ecohydrology, riparian ecosystem management, stream restoration and water resources applications. RIPGIS-NET works with RIP-ET, a modeling package for MODFLOW. RIP-ET improves riparian ET simulations by using a set of eco-physiologically based ET curves for plant functional subgroups (PFSG), and is able to separate ground evaporation and plant transpiration processes. To evaluate impact of riparian restoration scenarios on groundwater resources, the above packages were applied to MODFLOW model of hypothetical Dry Alkaline Valley area. Using riparian ET curve files which show the relation between the groundwater level and ET, aerial extent of riparian vegetation in each season and a digital elevation map, RIPGIS-NET derived RIP-ET model parameters for each season. After running MODFLOW, groundwater head dynamics and spatial variability of riparian ET were visualized in GIS environment for each restoration scenario. This study provided useful information for riparian restoration planning in this area. It further highlighted the advantage of using spatially explicit models and datasets for riparian restoration planning.

  13. The luminous and the grey

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelor, David


    Color surrounds us: the lush green hues of trees and grasses, the variant blues of water and the sky, the bright pops of yellow and red from flowers. But at the same time, color lies at the limits of language and understanding. In this absorbing sequel to Chromophobia-which addresses the extremes of love and loathing provoked by color since antiquity-David Batchelor charts color's more ambiguous terrain.   The Luminous and the Grey explores the places where color comes into being and where it fades away, probing when it begins and when it ends both in the imagination and in the material world.

  14. Land governance as grey zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette


    Weak state capacity has often been in focus when explaining why land reform in sub-Saharan Africa is not implemented. However, an analysis of the deeper politics of land reform brings our attention to a set of incentives which allow rules governing land to be open to interpretation. This article...... demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...... will to implement land reforms....

  15. Computational and Experimental Studies on the Hetero-Diels-Alder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    hetero-Diels-Alder (DTHDA) reactions emerged as an efficient methodology for the construction of ring fused ... explore the energetics of all reactants (1 and sulphene) and the corresponding cycloadducts (2 and 3) with ... large systems due to its computational efficiency compared with the MP2 level and above. Frequency ...

  16. 1-Nitronaphtalene as a Dienophile in Diels-Alder Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paredes


    Full Text Available the utilization of substitued dienes with electron-donor groups and under high pressure conditions, induces the dienophilic character of 1-nitronaphtalene in Diels-Alder reactions, giving the products with and without the nitro-group, the yield depending on the nature of the dienes substituent groups.

  17. High stereoselectivity on low temperature Diels-Alder reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Invernize Paulo


    Full Text Available Abstract We have found that some of the usually poor dienophiles (2-cycloenones can undergo Diels-Alder reaction at -78°C with unusually high stereoselectivity in the presence of niobium pentachloride as a Lewis acid catalyst. A remarkable difference in reaction rates for unsubstituted and α- or β-methyl substituted 2-cycloenones was also observed.

  18. Diels-Alder reactions of anthracenes with C-sulfonyldithioformates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, I.; Ali, O.M.; Fischer, A.


    C-Sulfonyldithioformates (2) (R-1 = ArSO2, R 2 = ArS) readily add to anthracene and 9-methylanthracene (1) in a Diels-Alder fashion with formation of 9,10-dihydro-10,9-(epithiomethano)anthracenes (3) which in turn may suffer thermally induced elimination of arenesulfinic acid to yield the 9...

  19. Retro iminonitroso Diels-Alder reactions: interconversion of nitroso cycloadducts (United States)

    Yang, Baiyuan; Lin, Weimin; Krchnak, Viktor; Miller, Marvin J.


    Retro iminonitroso Diels-Alder reactions were investigated in both solution and solid phase. In thermal or Cu(I)-mediated reactions, interconversion of various nitroso cycloadducts occurred in the presence of separate dienes. Up to 99% of conversion was observed. Use of chiral ligands in the Cu(I)-medicated reactions gave new cycloadducts enantioselectively. PMID:20161032

  20. Intramolecular inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reactions of pyrimidines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, A.E.


    This thesis deals with the intramolecular inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction of pyrimidines. The main objective of the study was to investigate the synthetic applicability of this reaction and to get more insight in the electronic and steric effects which determine the reactivity

  1. Computational and Experimental Studies on the Hetero-Diels-Alder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    derivatives having great biological and medicinal importance. KEYWORDS. Enaminones, cycloadditions, sulphene, DFT, SCRF. 1. Introduction. One of the most widely used reactions in multiple step synthesis1 of natural products and heterocyclic compounds is the Diels-Alder. (DA) reaction.2 This reaction is of great value ...

  2. Grey literature in meta-analyses. (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris M; Rantz, Marilyn J


    In meta-analysis, researchers combine the results of individual studies to arrive at cumulative conclusions. Meta-analysts sometimes include "grey literature" in their evidential base, which includes unpublished studies and studies published outside widely available journals. Because grey literature is a source of data that might not employ peer review, critics have questioned the validity of its data and the results of meta-analyses that include it. To examine evidence regarding whether grey literature should be included in meta-analyses and strategies to manage grey literature in quantitative synthesis. This article reviews evidence on whether the results of studies published in peer-reviewed journals are representative of results from broader samplings of research on a topic as a rationale for inclusion of grey literature. Strategies to enhance access to grey literature are addressed. The most consistent and robust difference between published and grey literature is that published research is more likely to contain results that are statistically significant. Effect size estimates of published research are about one-third larger than those of unpublished studies. Unfunded and small sample studies are less likely to be published. Yet, importantly, methodological rigor does not differ between published and grey literature. Meta-analyses that exclude grey literature likely (a) over-represent studies with statistically significant findings, (b) inflate effect size estimates, and (c) provide less precise effect size estimates than meta-analyses including grey literature. Meta-analyses should include grey literature to fully reflect the existing evidential base and should assess the impact of methodological variations through moderator analysis.

  3. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.


    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  4. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.


    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  5. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas


    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  6. The Riparianness of a Desert Herpetofauna (United States)

    Charles H. Lowe


    Within the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert subdivisions of the North American Desert in the U.S., more than half of 143 total amphibian and reptilian species perform as riparian and/or wetland taxa. For the reptiles, but not the amphibians, there is a significant inverse relationship between riparianness (obligate through preferential and facultative to...

  7. A Riparian Vegetation Ecophysiological Response Model (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Leighton; Roland J. Risser


    A mathematical model is described that relates mature riparian vegetation ecophysiological response to changes in stream level. This model was developed to estimate the physiological response of riparian vegetation to reductions in streamflow. Field data from two sites on the North Fork of the Kings River were used in the model development. The physiological response...

  8. Application of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of natural products. (United States)

    Cao, Min-Hui; Green, Nicholas J; Xu, Sheng-Zhen


    The Diels-Alder reaction that involves a nitrogen atom in the diene or dienophile is termed the aza-Diels-Alder reaction. As well as the powerful all-carbon Diels-Alder reaction, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction has also played an important role in the total synthesis of natural products. Herein, we review various natural products using an aza-Diels-Alder reaction as a key step to their total synthesis, and divide the syntheses into inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions and a retro-aza-Diels-Alder reaction. Inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions involve an imine as an electron deficient dienophile and an imine as an electron deficient azadiene. The significance of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction for the construction of a six-membered ring containing nitrogen is tremendous, but the development of asymmetric, in particular catalytic enantioselective intramolecular aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the total synthesis of natural products remains highly challenging, and will no doubt see enormous advances in the future.

  9. Characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of grey water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. Thorough characterization of 192 time proportional samples of grey water from 32 houses was conducted over a period of 14 months. COD concentrations were 724 ± 150 mg L- 1, of which 34% was

  10. The Diels Alder/retro-Diels Alder concept on solid support : a study of the scope, limitations and conceivable applications as a traceless thermocleavable linker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Reinerus Gerardus


    This thesis deals with the conceivable transfer of the Diels Alder/retro-Diels Alder concept to the solid phase in order to broaden the scope of the methodology to a combinatorial level. In addition, based on this methodology the development of a traceless thermocleavable linking system for

  11. Locating grey literature on communication disorders. (United States)

    Shpilko, Inna


    This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc.

  12. Inverse Electron-Demand Diels-Alder Bioorthogonal Reactions. (United States)

    Wu, Haoxing; Devaraj, Neal K


    Bioorthogonal reactions have been widely used over the last 10 years for imaging, detection, diagnostics, drug delivery, and biomaterials. Tetrazine reactions are a recently developed class of inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions used in bioorthogonal applications. Given their rapid tunable reaction rate and highly fluorogenic properties, tetrazine bioorthogonal reactions have come to be considered highly attractive tools for elucidating biological functions and messages in vitro and in vivo. In this chapter, we present recent advances expanding the scope of precursor reactivity and we introduce new biomedical methodology based on bioorthogonal tetrazine chemistry. We specifically highlight novel applications for different kinds of biomolecules, including nucleic acid, protein, antibodies, lipids, glycans, and bioactive small molecules, in the areas of imaging, detection, and diagnostics. We also briefly present other recently developed inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder bioorthogonal reactions. Lastly, we consider future directions and potential roles that inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions may play in the fields of bioorthogonal and biomedical chemistry.

  13. Link managers for grey literature

    CERN Document Server

    Lodi-Rizzini, E; Vigen, Jens


    In the self service area of the library reading rooms it is required to organise the collections in the simplest way possible. This is an important feature for readers making it possible to a get direct access to the material without necessarily having to go via the library catalogue to retrieve the call number. A typical example will be that a collection is organised so that a reader easily can get directly from an article reference to the article itself in a library where the journal collection simply is organised alphabetically. This requirement seems to have been forgotten by many of the most important actors in the digital library, both by the commercial publishers and many of the bodies producing grey literature. How are the users supposed to get directly to Report XXX without having to navigate through n different web pages? This is on top happening in "The Library" which is intended to be close up to 100 based on self service! CERN Library has developed a mechanism, "Go direct", which handles the prob...

  14. GreyGuide - Guide to Good Practice in Grey Literature: A Community Driven Open Resource Project


    Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Schopfel, Joachim (University of Lille); Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation. The repository will contain guidelines such as those in handling theses and dissertations, how to write research report...

  15. Recovery times of riparian vegetation (United States)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca


    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and decay phases, and its biomass exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a health state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The minimalistic stochastic modeling approach is used for describing vegetation dynamics (i.e., the noise-driven alternation of growth and decay phases). The recovery time of biomass is then evaluated according to the theory of the mean first passage time in systems driven by dichotomous noise. The effect of the main hydrological and biological parameters on the vegetation recovery was studied, and the dynamics along the riparian transect was described in details. The effect of climate change and human interventions (e.g., river damming) was also investigated. We found that: (i) the oscillations of the river stage delay the recovery process (up to one order of magnitude, with respect to undisturbed conditions); (ii) hydrological/biological alterations (due to climate change, damming, exotic species invasion) modify the timescales of the recovery. The result provided can be a useful tool for the management of the river. They open the way to the estimation of: (i) the recovery time of vegetation after devastating floods, clear cutting or fires and; (ii) the timescale of the vegetation response to hydrological and biological alterations.

  16. Indicators: Lakeshore Habitat/Riparian Vegetative Cover (United States)

    Riparian and lakeshore vegetative cover consist of the vegetation corridor alongside streams, rivers, and lakes. Vegetative cover refers to overhanging or submerged tree limbs, shrubs, and other plants growing along the shore of the waterbody.

  17. Legal mechanisms for protecting riparian resource values (United States)

    Lamb, Berton L.; Lord, Eric


    Riparian resources include the borders of rivers, lakes, ponds, and potholes. These border areas are very important for a number of reasons, including stream channel maintenance, flood control, aesthetics, erosion control, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water quality maintenance. These diverse functions are not well protected by law or policy. We reviewed law and policies regarding endangered species habitat designation, land use planning, grazing management, water allocation, takings, and federal permits and licenses, along with the roles of federal, state, and local governments. We discuss the politics of implementing these policies, focusing on the difficulties in changing entrenched water and land use practices. Our review indicates a lack of direct attention to riparian ecosystem issues in almost all environmental and land use programs at every level of government. Protection of riparian resource values requires a means to integrate existing programs to focus on riparian zones.

  18. Expanding the Horizon of Grey Literature


    Mackenzie Owen, John (UvA); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    Grey literature - loosely defined as information distributed directly by its creator - is gaining importance due to the development of digital information networks. Individuals and organizations are using these networks, making vast amounts of information available on a global scale. The role and added value of traditional publishers and libraries is being questioned. Some argue that grey literature will become more important than published literature; others disagree. During the Third Intern...

  19. Grey literature:from hidden to visible


    Pejšová, Petra


    Grey literature is information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishing i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body. (Luxembourg, 1997 - Expanded in New York, 2004, on WWW: The role of grey literature in today society was well expressed by Vaska: “It is therefore remarkable how efforts over the past two decades have altered origi...

  20. Riparian Bird Communities as Indicators of Human Impacts Along Mediterranean Streams (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Sorace, Alberto; Mancini, Laura


    Riparian areas link aquatic and terrestrial habitats, supporting species-rich bird communities, which integrate both terrestrial and aquatic processes. For this reason, inclusion of riparian birds in stream bioassessment could add to the information currently provided by existing programs that monitor aquatic organisms. To assess if bird community metrics could indicate stream conditions, we sampled breeding birds in the riparian zone of 37 reaches in 5 streams draining watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural intensity in central Italy. As a more direct indicator of water quality, stream macroinvertebrates were also sampled for computation of the Italian Extended Biotic Index (IBE). An anthropogenic index was calculated within 1 km of sampled reaches based on satellite-derived land-use classifications. Predictive models of macroinvertebrate integrity based on land-use and avian metrics were compared using an information-theoretic approach (AIC). We also determined if stream quality related to the detection of riverine species. Apparent bird species diversity and richness peaked at intermediate levels of land-use modification, but increased with IBE values. Water quality did not relate to the detection of riverine species as a guild, but two species, the dipper Cinclus cinclus and the grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea, were only observed in reaches with the highest IBE values. Small-bodied insectivorous birds and arboreal species were detected more often in reaches with better water quality and in less modified landscapes. In contrast, larger and granivorous species were more common in disturbed reaches. According to the information-theoretic approach, the best model for predicting water quality included the anthropogenic index, bird species diversity, and an index summarizing the trophic structure of the bird community. We conclude that, in combination with landscape-level information, the diversity and trophic structure of riparian bird communities could

  1. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Briers


    Full Text Available The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a potentially strong impact on survival and success of adult stages through alteration of microclimate, habitat structure and potential food sources, in addition to effects carried over from larval stages. Here, current riparian management strategies are analysed in the light of available information on the ecology of adult stream insects. On the whole, management practices appear to favour adult stream insects, although an increase in tree cover in riparian areas could be beneficial, by providing more favourable microclimatic conditions for adults. This conclusion is drawn based on rather limited information, and the need for further research into the effects of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects is highlighted. Keywords: microclimate, plantation, life history, riparian vegetation

  2. OpenGrey = nová OpenSIGLE


    Pejšová, Petra


    OpenGrey is based on the OpenSIGLE/SIGLE database which contains almost 700 thousand records of grey literature. OpenGrey is a unique repository providing open access to European grey literature references, the result of 25 years of cooperation. As a multidisciplinary database it covers Science, Technology, Biomedical Science, Economics, Social Science and Humanities. This paper presents new search functionality, design and vision. The cooperation with GreyNet on GL conference preprints will ...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal root development in wet Alder carr forests in response to desiccation and eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, J.; Bastiaans, T.; Coevering van de, M.A.; Roelofs, J.G.M.


    Effects of desiccation and eutrophication on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root development in wet Alder carr forests in The Netherlands were studied. In northwestern Europe, wet Alder carr forests are found mostly in peatlands and along streams, forming an important component of wetland ecosystems. The

  4. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice? (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos


    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  5. Stand dynamics of mixed red alder-conifer forests of southeast Alaska. (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Ewa H. Orlikowska; David V. D' Amore


    Stand structure and dynamics were evaluated in mixed red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer forests of southeast Alaska. We assessed stand development, tree density, total basal area, diameter distribution of live and dead trees, height distribution of live trees, and mean diameter of all and largest conifers in 40-year-old red alder - conifer...

  6. Design and synthesis of a transition state analogue for the Diels-Alder reaction. (United States)

    Arora, P S; Van, Q N; Famulok, M; Shaka, A J; Nowick, J S


    This paper describes the design and synthesis of a tricationic transition state analogue (TSA 1) for the Diels-Alder reaction. TSA 1 contains a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene ring system that mimics the boat conformation of the Diels-Alder transition state and is designed to bind tightly to antibodies, nucleic acids, and imprinted polymers by means of hydrogen bonds and salt-bridges. This paper also describes the syntheses of the Diels-Alder reaction substrates (diene 2 and dienophile 3) and a sensitive HPLC assay to monitor the formation of Diels-Alder product 4. In contrast to previously reported TSAs and dienophiles for the Diels-Alder reaction that are based upon maleimides, TSA 1 and dienophile 3 are based upon fumaramide. The fumaramide system should destabilize the initially formed boat conformer of Diels-Alder product 4 and stabilize a half-chair conformer. The conversion of the initially formed boat conformer to the half-chair conformer is designed to help prevent Diels-Alder product 4 from binding strongly to catalysts selected to strongly bind TSA 1. This feature should minimize product inhibition, which can be a problem in the catalysis of the Diels-Alder reaction.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Second-order rate constants and isobaric activation parameters for the intermolecular Diels-Alder reactions of cyclopentadiene with alkyl vinyl ketones (2a,b) and 5-substituted-1,4-naphthoquinones (3a-c) as well as for the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of N-furfuryl-N-methylmaleamic acid (4)

  8. Is it true that polymerization of vegetable oil occurs through Diels-Alder reaction? (United States)

    Diels-Alder reaction mechanism is known to be one of the major reaction mechanisms to produce dimers and polymers during heating process of vegetable oil. However, our NMR study showed no evidence for Diels-Alder products. Soybean oil oxidized at 180 °C for 24 hrs with 1.45 surface area-to-volume ...

  9. Asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions with 5-menthyloxy-2(5H)-furanones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Johannes Cornelis de


    At the beginning of the reseach described in this thesis the catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction had scarcely been investigated. No good catalytic processes with high enantiomeric excess were known at that time. At the same time the Diels-Alder reactions with chiral dienophiles needed further

  10. Controls on ecohydrological dynamics of riparian zones in Alpine catchments: A comparison study of two rivers in the Eastern Italian Alps (United States)

    Engel, Michael; Penna, Daniele; Frentress, Jay; Andreoli, Andrea; Hecher, Peter; Van Meerveld, Ilja; Comiti, Francesco


    In recent decades, restauration actions have been implemented in mountain rivers to face widespread morphological changes. Such natural and anthropogenic modifications can have relevant impacts on the ecological and ecohydrological functioning of riparian vegetation. Understanding the water sources used by riparian vegetation is important for the implementation of effective river restoration initiatives. Therefore, more ecohydrological research is needed to quantify the complex interactions between hydrology and vegetation in different alpine river systems. In this study we used water stable isotopes and electrical conductivity (EC) as tracers to better understand the hydrological and ecohydrological relationship between the riparian vegetation and the river bed of alpine river systems. We choose two catchments, Ahr/Aurino River and Mareit/Ridanna River catchments (South Tyrol, Italy) as study sites. In both catchments, we selected two sites comprising a younger ( 10 years) alder (Alnus incana) stand. At each site, soil moisture at different depths and groundwater levels were monitored. Suction lysimeters were installed at the same depths than the soil moisture sensors. Samples for tracer analysis were collected since June 2016 on a bi-weekly or monthly basis from precipitation, soil water, groundwater and stream water. EC was continuously measured in a piezometer at the Mareit River. In addition, we extracted sap water for isotopic analysis from alder trees. First results show that all water types sampled in both catchments fell along the global meteoric water line showing no evaporative enrichments. Sap samples are expected to deviate from the meteoric line but they have not been analysed yet. At both sites in the Ahr catchment, soil water seemed to be more variable and isotopically more enriched at 10 cm depth (δ2H: - 34 to -69 ‰) than at 50 cm (δ2H: -45 to -71 ‰), indicating a decreasing influence of precipitation with increasing soil depth. In contrast

  11. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge. (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien


    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The status of grey seals in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C D Duck


    Full Text Available Grey seal pup production in Scotland was estimated through annual aerial surveys of the main grey seal breeding colonies. Between 3 and 7 counts of pups were obtained for each colony at intervals through the course of the breeding season. Pup production for individual colonies was estimated from the series of counts using a maximum likelihood model. At 3 colonies, 2 in England, annual pup production was estimated using ground counts. Between the early 1960s and the early 1990s, grey seal pup production progressively increased. At colonies in the Inner and Outer Hebrides, production appeared to stabilize during the 1990s and has remained so. Pup production at colonies in Orkney and in the North Sea has continued to increase but in recent years the rate of increase has declined. This may imply that the UK grey seal population is reaching some limit to its size. The observed changes in pup production imply that some density dependent factors are affecting the British grey seal population. Changes in either juvenile survival and/or female fecundity are the most likely options. Without knowing which of these, or what combination of these factors, is operating, estimating total population size is complicated.

  13. Berni Alder and Phase Transitions in Two Dimensions (United States)

    Kosterlitz, J. Michael

    I do not know Berni Alder as a person, but I feel that I know him well through his seminal paper "Phase Transition in Elastic Disks𠇍 by B. J. Alder and T. E. Wainwright [1962], which was essential in motivating David Thouless and myself to think about phase transitions in two dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry. In the early 1970's, the conventional wisdom was that a crystalline solid could not exist in a two dimensional world because of the rigorous Mermin-Wagner theorem prohibiting true long range translational order at any non-zero temperature. This contradiction was settled by the theory of dislocation mediated melting to an intermediate hexatic phase followed by a second transition to the isotropic fluid at a higher temperature. This scenario, with its associated sophisticated theory, seemed to settle the controversy of two dimensional melting once and for all. However, in our elation at understanding the fundamental physics and the essential excitations of melting in 2D, we had all forgotten that the early work of Berni Alder also showed that this melting involved a weak first order transition while theory now predicted melting by two successive continuous transitions with no discontinuity in area at the critical pressure. This discrepancy could be hand waved away by arguing that Berni's system was far too small and his computers far too slow so that the areal discontinuity could be due to finite size effects or to failing to equilibrate the system. Experiments were not able to resolve the order of the transitions, but seemed to agree quantitatively with theory…

  14. Diels-Alder reactions onto fluorinated and hydrogenated graphene (United States)

    Denis, Pablo A.


    We studied Diels-Alder (DA) reactions onto functionalized graphene. When fluorine, hydrogen or oxygen functional groups are present on one side of the sheet, the DA cycloadditions become significantly more exergonic when performed on the opposite side. Hydrogen is more effective than fluorine and oxygen to promote these cycloadditions. In contrast with the results obtained for perfect graphene, the functionalization with H, F or O turns the DA reactions exergonic, with ΔG°298 = -127.2 kcal/mol. The reaction barriers are expected to be considerably lowered with respect to perfect graphene because the functional groups significantly reduce the distortion energy.

  15. Hetero-Diels-Alder approach to Bis(indolyl)methanes. (United States)

    Grosso, Carla; Cardoso, Ana L; Rodrigues, Maria João; Marques, Cátia; Barreira, Luísa; Lemos, Américo; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M D V


    A novel synthetic approach to bis(indolyl)methanes has been established. Our one-pot synthetic strategy based on two consecutive hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of electrophilic conjugated nitrosoalkenes with indoles was extended to a range of new 1-hydroxyiminomethyl-bis(indolyl)methanes. Furthermore, a similar and broad range approach was applied to the synthesis of previously unknown 1-hydrazonomethyl-bis(indolyl)methanes. The biological evaluation of the new bis(indolyl)methanes as anti-cancer agents was investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... represent a stochastic state space model. In the grey box model the total noise is divided into a measurement noise and a process noise. The process noise is due to model approximations, undiscovered input and uncertainties in the input series. Estimates of the process noise can be used to highlight...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  17. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornwiwan Pothasin

    Full Text Available Fig trees (Ficus are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1 calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2 measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  18. Tribal experiences and lessons learned in riparian ecosystem restoration (United States)

    Ronald K. Miller; James E. Enote; Cameron L. Martinez


    Riparian ecosystems have been part of the culture of land use of native peoples in the Southwest United States for thousands of years. The experiences of tribal riparian initiatives to incorporate modern elements of environment and development with cultural needs are relatively few. This paper describes tribal case examples and approaches in riparian management which...

  19. Burning questions for managers: Fuels management practices in riparian areas (United States)

    Kristen E. Meyer; Kathleen A. Dwire; Patricia A. Champ; Sandra E. Ryan; Gregg M. Riegel; Timothy A. Burton


    Vegetation treatment projects for fuel reduction in riparian areas can pose distinct challenges to resource managers. Riparian areas are protected by administrative regulations, many of which are largely custodial and restrict active management. Like uplands, however, riparian areas have been affected by fire suppression, land use, and multiple types of disturbance....

  20. Fire and riparian ecosystems in landscapes of the western USA (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman


    Despite the numerous values of riparian areas and the recognition of fire as a critical natural disturbance, few studies have investigated the behavior, properties, and influence of natural fire in riparian areas of the western USA. Riparian areas frequently differ from adjacent uplands in vegetative composition and structure, geomorphology, hydrology, microclimate,...

  1. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton


    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  2. Grey literature in library and information studies

    CERN Document Server

    Schopfel, Joachim


    The further rise of electronic publishing has come to change the scale and diversity of grey literature facing librarians and other information practitioners. This compiled work brings together research and authorship over the past decade dealing with both the supply and demand sides of grey literature. While this book is written with students and instructors of Colleges and Schools of Library and Information Science in mind, it likewise serves as a reader for information professionals working in any and all like knowledge-based communities

  3. Flow and transport in Riparian Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn

    the capacity of a riparian zone for removing nitrate. In non-flooding periods groundwater flows horizontally and discharges directly to the river. During periods with flooding parts of the groundwater is forced upwards through the peat layer and causes flow in the area beneath the flood to be more stagnant...... scenarios with changing conditions for flow (steady state with no flooding or transient with flooding), hydrogeology, denitrification rate, and extent of flooding it is demonstrated how flow paths, residence times, and nitrate removal are affected. With this previous conceptual models on the hydrology...... of riparian zones are extended by accounting for the effect of flooding and a key result is that flooding enhances nitrate removal given the right hydrogeological characteristics. Moreover the re-established riparian zones were characterized to understand the effects of flooding on subsurface hydrological...

  4. Anion-π Catalysis of Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Liu, Le; Cotelle, Yoann; Bornhof, Anna-Bea; Besnard, Céline; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan


    Among concerted cycloadditions, the Diels-Alder reaction is the grand old classic, which is usually achieved with acid catalysis. In this report, hydroxypyrones, oxa-, and thiazolones are explored because they provide access to anionic dienes. Their [4+2] cycloaddition with cyclic and acyclic dienophiles, such as maleimides and fumarates, affords bicyclic products with four new stereogenic centers. Bifunctional anion-π catalysts composed of amine bases next to the π surface of naphthalenediimides (NDIs) are shown to selectively stabilize the "open", fully accessible anionic exo transition state on the π-acidic aromatic surface. Our results also include reactivities that are hard to access with conventional organocatalysts, such as the exo-specific and highly enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of thiazolones and maleimides with complete suppression of the otherwise dominant Michael addition. With increasing π acidity of the anion-π catalysts, the rates, chemo-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities increase consistently. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Niobium Pentachloride Activation of Enone Derivatives: Diels-Alder and Conjugate Addition Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Valdo José da Silva


    Full Text Available Niobium pentachloride has proven to be a powerful activating agent for Diels-Alder or conjugate addition reactions of cycloenones. The Diels-Alder product was obtained only with an unsubstituted enone (cyclohexenone and the highly reactive diene cyclopentadiene; substituents in the b-position of enones seem to prevent Diels-Alder reaction: oxygenated substituents favor the formation of vinyl chlorides (ethyl ether or dichloromethane as solvents or enol ethers (ethyl acetate as solvent, while a methyl substituent prevents any kind of transformation with NbCl5. Less reactive dienes, furan and 2-methylfuran gave the conjugate addition products of the furan ring to the enone system.

  6. Solvent Effects in Asymmetric Hetero Diels-Alder and Ene Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Mogens; Jørgensen, Karl Anker


    The use of polar solvents such as nitromethane or 2-nitropropane leads to a significant improvement of the catalytic properties of a cationic copper-Lewis acid in the hetero Diels-Alder reaction of alkyl glyoxylates with dienes; The scope of a newly developed copper(II)-bisoxazoline catalyst...... for the hetero Diels-Alder reaction is demonstrated by the reaction of different dienes with alkyl glyoxylates in nitroalkane solvents with the formation of the hetero Diels-Alder adduct in high enantiomeric excess as the major product. The synthetic application of the reaction is exemplified by an improved...

  7. Evaluating the quality of riparian forest vegetation: the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Magdaleno


    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper presents a novel index, the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index, for assessing the ecological condition of riparian forests. The status of riparian ecosystems has global importance due to the ecological and social benefits and services they provide. The initiation of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE requires the assessment of the hydromorphological quality of natural channels. The Directive describes riparian forests as one of the fundamental components that determine the structure of riverine areas. The RFV index was developed to meet the aim of the Directive and to complement the existing methodologies for the evaluation of riparian forests.Area of study: The RFV index was applied to a wide range of streams and rivers (170 water bodies inSpain.Materials and methods: The calculation of the RFV index is based on the assessment of both the spatial continuity of the forest (in its three core dimensions: longitudinal, transversal and vertical and the regeneration capacity of the forest, in a sampling area related to the river hydromorphological pattern. This index enables an evaluation of the quality and degree of alteration of riparian forests. In addition, it helps to determine the scenarios that are necessary to improve the status of riparian forests and to develop processes for restoring their structure and composition.Main results: The results were compared with some previous tools for the assessment of riparian vegetation. The RFV index got the highest average scores in the basins of northernSpain, which suffer lower human influence. The forests in central and southern rivers got worse scores. The bigger differences with other tools were found in complex and partially altered streams and rivers.Research highlights: The study showed the index’s applicability under diverse hydromorphological and ecological conditions and the main advantages of its application. The utilization of the index allows a

  8. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits (United States)

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma


    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  9. Social and economic value of riparian environments (United States)

    Greg Jones


    Riparian areas commonly represent only a small percentage of a landscape, but typically are more structurally diverse and more productive in plant and animal biomass than adjacent upland areas. Yet, this small percentage of land area provides many benefits to society. These benefits, however, are not generally accounted for in market transactions. One exception to this...

  10. Defining Steamside Management Zones or Riparian Buffers (United States)

    Thomas M. Williams; Donald J. Lipscomb; Christopher J. Post


    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been highly successful in protecting water quality throughout the Southeast. Numerous studies have found them to be effective in protecting water quality. Despite being mostly voluntary, compliance is generally about 90 percent across the region. Streamside Management Zones (SMZs) or riparian buffers are specified for...

  11. Effects of increased flooding on riparian vegetaion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garssen, Annemarie G.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna


    are likely to affect riparian plant communities, but future vegetation changes are hard to predict due to current lack of data. To fill this knowledge gap, we experimentally modified the hydrology of five streams across three countries in north-western Europe during late winter/early spring over a period...

  12. Riparian Protection Rules for Oregon Forests (United States)

    George G. Ice; Robert L. Beschta; Raymond S. Craig; James R. Sedell


    Forest Practice Rules under the Oregon Forest Practices Act were modified in 1987 to increase protection of riparian areas adjacent to timber harvest operations. These modifications addressed concerns about water quality protection and retaining trees as sources of large woody debris for future stream channel structure. The rule changes triggered debate about the...

  13. The Nile River and the Riparian States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An acceptable legal regime to manage the Nile River and its drainage system for equitable intra-and inter- state econo-political and socio-cultural utilisation remains a major challenge. For many decades after independence, particularly since the 1980s, the Nile River riparian states have engaged in numerous bilateral and ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 30, 2011 ... and sensitivity of great basin riparian plant communities: A multi-scale analysis. 94th. ESA annual meeting. Albuquerque Convention Center-. Albuquerque, New Mixico. Collins, B.S. and Battaglia, I. L (2001), Hydrology effects on propagate bank expression and vegetation in six Carolina Bays Community.

  15. Phytostabilization of metals by indigenous riparian vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When measured against an ideal hypothetical buffer zone, the buffer zones under investigation varied between intact and severely compromised. Intact riparian zones showed elevated metal concentrations in the soil, yet significantly lower concentrations in the river water compared to areas with insufficient vegetative cover ...

  16. Towards a continuum of scholarship : the eventual collapse of the distinction between grey and non-grey literature


    Banks, Marcus A.


    This paper argues that the distinction between grey and non-grey (or white) literature will become less relevant over time, as online discovery options proliferate. In the meantime, the political success of the open access publishing movement has valuable lessons for proponents of increasing access to grey literature.

  17. The Alder-Reilly anomaly in association with the myelodysplastic syndrome. (United States)

    Ghandi, M K; Howard, M R; Hamilton, P J


    We describe the Alder-Reilly morphological abnormality in an elderly man with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The literature pertaining to abnormal neutrophil hypergranulation is reviewed and the possible role of myelodysplasia in its causation is discussed.

  18. Domino Wittig Diels-Alder reaction: An expeditious entry into the AB ring system of furanosesquiterpenes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patre, R.E.; Gawas, S.; Sen, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    A domino Wittig Diels - Alder reaction has been employed in delineating a short and flexible synthetic stratagem for ready access to the AB ring system and the tricyclic framework of furanosesquiterpenes, such as the bioactive natural products...

  19. Comparative phytosocioogical investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous...

  20. Salmon and alder as drivers of nutrient availability and lake productivity in southwestern Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We completed a four-year project to investigate the relative importance of nutrients derived from salmon and alder on lake productivity in southwestern Alaska. We...

  1. Mechanistic insights into Diels-Alder reactions in natural product biosynthesis. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa


    Natural enzymes that catalyze Diels-Alder reactions have long been sought after, yet few enzymes have been experimentally confirmed to perform this reaction. In the past five years, several stand-alone enzymes that can catalyze the Diels-Alder reaction had been identified and characterized. Among which, the crystal structures of SpnF, PyrI4 and AbyU have been determined. The structures of PyrI4 and AbyU, which are involved in spirotetronate/spirotetramate biosynthesis, are particularly informative since they shed light on how a natural catalyst captures the flexible substrate and facilitates the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction through stabilization of the transition state in catalysis. These pioneering studies will inspire the design of artificial catalysts for Diels-Alder reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of 3-Alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via Diels-Alder and Electron Transfer Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vanelle


    Full Text Available A convenient route to 3-alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between an azadiene and naphthoquinone, a free radical chlorination and an electron transfer reaction is reported.

  3. A preliminary study of the deterioration of alder and Douglas-fir chips in outdoor piles. (United States)

    Ernest. Wright


    In the fall of 1952, E. E. Matson of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station learned that the Fir-Tex Insulating Board Company bf St. Helens, Oregon was considering mixing alder with Douglas-fir chips for outside storage. Since alder heartwood i s more susceptible to decay than that of Douglas-fir, the question arose whether mixing the two might...

  4. Early survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir with red alder in four mixed regimes. (United States)

    Marshall D. Murray; Richard E. Miller


    To quantify between-species interactions, we measured and compared survival and growth of planted Douglas-fir and associated planted and volunteer red alder at a location on the west side of the Cascade Range in Washington. The planted alder were wildlings dug either from a nearby area or from a distant, coastal site and interplanted into a 3-year-old Douglas-fir...

  5. The first organocatalytic, ortho-regioselective inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. (United States)

    Hejmanowska, Joanna; Jasiński, Marcin; Wojciechowski, Jakub; Mlostoń, Grzegorz; Albrecht, Łukasz


    The development of the unprecedented ortho-regioselective inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder (IEDHDA) reaction is described. It has been demonstrated that by proper choice of reactants and reaction conditions the inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition can be realized with unprecedented regioselectivity arising from the reaction between the terminal carbon atom of the dienophile and the heteroatom of the heterodiene.

  6. Fe(II)/Fe(III)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Didehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Styrene-ynes. (United States)

    Mun, Hyeon Jin; Seong, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Eun Joo


    The intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of styrene-ynes was catalyzed by Fe(II) and Fe(III) to produce various naphthalene derivatives under microwave heating conditions. Mechanistic calculations found that the Fe(II) catalyst activates the styrenyl diene in an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, and the consecutive dehydrogenation reaction can be promoted by either Fe(II)-catalyzed direct dehydrogenation or an Fe(III)-catalyzed rearomatization/dehydrogenation pathway.

  7. Cyclobutenone as a Highly Reactive Dienophile: Expanding Upon Diels-Alder Paradigms (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Danishefsky, Samuel J.


    Cyclobutenone was employed as a dienophile in Diels-Alder cycloadditions which provided diverse complex cycloadducts in good yields. Experimental outcome indicated that cyclobutenone was more reactive in comparison with 2-cyclopentenone or 2-cyclohexenone. In addition, cycloadducts bearing strained cyclobutanone moiety were able to undergo regioselective ring expansions to produce corresponding cyclopentanones, lactones, and lactams, which otherwise were difficultly obtained by direct Diels-Alder reactions. PMID:20698657

  8. Scale perspectives on avian diversity in western riparian ecosystems (United States)

    KNopf, Fritz L.; Samson, Fred B.


    Conservation of riparian vegetation in western North America has, in part, emphasized providing habitats for a locally diverse avifauna. Site diversity, especially relative to the number of species present, is generally high within riparian avifaunas. Between-habitat diversity changes across a watershed, with riparian species assemblages differing most from upland assemblages at the highest and lowest elevations. This pattern can be attributed to enhanced avian movements within the riparian vegetation. The corridors for bird movements, in turn, facilitate faunal mixing on a broader scale, influencing regional diversity within landscapes. Riparian ecosystems are viewed as connectors of forests across fragmental landscapes. In western settings, however, they are highly linearized forests transecting watersheds between upland associations of high elevations and very different associations at lower elevations. Regionally, riparian vegetation represents linear islands that are internally both floristically and faunistically dynamic rather than mere bridges of homogeneous vegetation in landscape networks. The significance of riparian vegetation as habitat for western birds has been defined primarily at the local level. Conservation activities favoring site diversity are short-sighted, however, and could have severe consequences for unique elements of riparian avifaunas. Conservation actions must evaluate how local activities alter potential dispersal opportunities for ecological-generalist versus riparian-obligate species. Maintaining the character and integrity of riparian avifaunas requires planning from regional and continental perspectives.

  9. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe


    Dykyy Ihor; Jędrzejewska Bogumiła; Goszczyński Jacek; Jędrzejewski Włodzimierz; Branicki Wojciech; Pilot Małgorzata; Shkvyrya Maryna; Tsingarska Elena


    Abstract Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of m...

  10. Diels-Alder reactions in confined spaces: the influence of catalyst structure and the nature of active sites for the retro-Diels-Alder reaction. (United States)

    Cantín, Ángel; Gomez, M Victoria; de la Hoz, Antonio


    Diels-Alder cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and p-benzoquinone has been studied in the confined space of a pure silica zeolite Beta and the impact on reaction rate due to the concentration effect within the pore and diffusion limitations are discussed. Introduction of Lewis or Brønsted acid sites on the walls of the zeolite strongly increases the reaction rate. However, contrary to what occurs with mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41), Beta zeolite does not catalyse the retro-Diels-Alder reaction, resulting in a highly selective catalyst for the cycloaddition reaction.

  11. Diels–Alder reactions in confined spaces: the influence of catalyst structure and the nature of active sites for the retro-Diels–Alder reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Cantín


    Full Text Available Diels–Alder cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and p-benzoquinone has been studied in the confined space of a pure silica zeolite Beta and the impact on reaction rate due to the concentration effect within the pore and diffusion limitations are discussed. Introduction of Lewis or Brønsted acid sites on the walls of the zeolite strongly increases the reaction rate. However, contrary to what occurs with mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41, Beta zeolite does not catalyse the retro-Diels–Alder reaction, resulting in a highly selective catalyst for the cycloaddition reaction.

  12. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  13. Searching and synthesising 'grey literature' and 'grey information' in public health: critical reflections on three case studies. (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Lake, Amelia A; Araujo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn


    Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the definition of grey literature. We term this knowledge 'grey information'. Grey information may be even harder to search for and retrieve than grey literature. On three previous occasions, we have attempted to systematically search for and synthesise public health grey literature and information-both to summarise the extent and nature of particular classes of interventions and to synthesise results of evaluations. Here, we briefly describe these three 'case studies' but focus on our post hoc critical reflections on searching for and synthesising grey literature and information garnered from our experiences of these case studies. We believe these reflections will be useful to future researchers working in this area. Issues discussed include search methods, searching efficiency, replicability of searches, data management, data extraction, assessing study 'quality', data synthesis, time and resources, and differentiating evidence synthesis from primary research. Information on applied public health research questions relating to the nature and range of public health interventions, as well as many evaluations of these interventions, may be predominantly, or only, held in grey literature and grey information. Evidence syntheses on these topics need, therefore, to embrace grey literature and information. Many typical systematic review methods for searching, appraising, managing, and synthesising the evidence base can be adapted for use with grey literature and information. Evidence synthesisers should carefully consider the opportunities and problems offered by including grey literature and information

  14. Influence of Gully Erosion Control on Amphibian and Reptile Communities within Riparian Zones of Channelized Streams (United States)

    Riparian zones of streams in northwestern Mississippi have been impacted by agriculture, channelization, channel incision, and gully erosion. Riparian gully formation has resulted in the fragmentation of remnant riparian zones within agricultural watersheds. One widely used conservation practice for...

  15. Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede


    the spatial and temporal variability in the fluxes. Fluxes of CH4 were monitored in 12 wetland plots over a year using static chambers, yielding a dataset with more than 800 measured fluxes of CH4. Yearly emissions of CH4 ranged from −0.2 to 38.3 g CH4-C m−2 year−1, and significant effects of groundwater......The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating...... CH4 emission. Both models gave reliable predictions of the yearly CH4 fluxes in riparian wetlands (modeling efficiency > 0.35). Our findings support the use of vegetation, possibly in combination with some soil parameters such as peat depth, as indicator of CH4 emission in wetlands....

  16. Monitoring Riparian Restoration: A Management Perspective (United States)

    Yasmeen Najmi; Sterling Grogan


    As the largest landholder of cottonwood-dominated riparian forest or “bosque” in the 150 miles of the middle Rio Grande from the Cochiti Dam to the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District (MRGCD; a political subdivision of the State of New Mexico) and its cooperators are implementing “fuels reduction” projects throughout...

  17. Heavy metal stress in alders: Tolerance and vulnerability of the actinorhizal symbiosis. (United States)

    Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Roy, Sébastien


    Alders have already demonstrated their potential for the revegetation of both mining and industrial sites. These actinorhizal trees and shrubs and the actinobacteria Frankia associate in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis which could however be negatively affected by the presence of heavy metals, and accumulate them. In our hydroponic assay with black alders, quantification of the roots and shoots metal concentrations showed that, in the absence of stress, symbiosis increases Mo and Ni root content and simultaneously decreases Mo shoot content. Interestingly, the Mo shoot content also decreases in the presence of Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd for symbiotic alders. In symbiotic alders, Pb shoot translocation was promoted in presence of Pb. On the other hand, Cd exclusion in symbiotic root tissues was observed with Pb and Cd. In the presence of symbiosis, only Cd and Pb showed translocation into aerial tissues when present in the nutrient solution. Moreover, the translocation of Ni to shoot was prevented by symbiosis in the presence of Cd, Ni and Pb. The hydroponic experiment demonstrated that alders benefit from the symbiosis, producing more biomass (total, root and shoot) than non nodulated alders in control condition, and in the presence of metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd). Heavy metals did not reduce the nodule numbers (SNN), but the presence of Zn or Cd did reduce nodule allocation. Our study suggests that the Frankia-alder symbiosis is a promising (and a compatible) plant-microorganism association for the revegetation of contaminated sites, with minimal risk of metal dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Riparian vegetation as an indicator of riparian condition: Detecting departures from historic condition across the North American West. (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W; Gilbert, Jordan T; Jensen, Martha L; Gilbert, Joshua D; Hough-Snee, Nate; McHugh, Peter A; Wheaton, Joseph M; Bennett, Stephen N


    Floodplain riparian ecosystems support unique vegetation communities and high biodiversity relative to terrestrial landscapes. Accordingly, estimating riparian ecosystem health across landscapes is critical for sustainable river management. However, methods that identify local riparian vegetation condition, an effective proxy for riparian health, have not been applied across broad, regional extents. Here we present an index to assess reach-scale (500 m segment) riparian vegetation condition across entire drainage networks within large, physiographically-diverse regions. We estimated riparian vegetation condition for 53,250 km of perennial streams and rivers, 25,685 km in Utah, and 27,565 km in twelve watersheds of the interior Columbia River Basin (CRB), USA. We used nationally available, existing land cover classification derived from 30 m Landsat imagery (LANDFIRE EVT) and a modeled estimate of pre-European settlement land cover (LANDFIRE BpS). The index characterizes riparian vegetation condition as the ratio of existing native riparian vegetation cover to pre-European settlement riparian vegetation cover at a given reach. Roughly 62% of Utah and 48% of CRB watersheds showed significant (>33%) to large (>66%) departure from historic condition. Riparian vegetation change was predominantly caused by human land-use impacts (development and agriculture), or vegetation change (native riparian to invasive or upland vegetation types) that likely resulted from flow and disturbance regime alteration. Through comparisons to ground-based classification results, we estimate the existing vegetation component of the index to be 85% accurate. Our assessments yielded riparian condition maps that will help resource managers better prioritize sites and treatments for reach-scale conservation and restoration activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biogeomorphic feedbacks within riparian corridors: the role of positive interactions between riparian plants (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Till-Bottraud, Irène


    Riparian vegetation affects hydrogeomorphic processes and leads to the construction of wooded fluvial landforms within riparian corridors. Multiple plants form dense multi- and mono-specific stands that enhance plant resistance as grouped plants are less prone to be uprooted than free-standing individuals. Riparian plants which grow in dense stands also enhance their role as ecosystem engineers through the trapping of sediment, organic matter and nutrients. The wooded biogeomorphic landforms which originate from the effect of vegetation on geomorphology lead in return to an improved capacity of the plants to survive, exploit resources, and reach sexual maturity in the intervals between destructive floods. Thus, these vegetated biogeomorphic landforms likely represent a positive niche construction of riparian plants. The nature and intensity of biotic interactions between riparian plants of different species (inter-specific) or the same species (intra-specific) which form dense stands and construct together the niche remain unclear. We strongly suspect that indirect inter-specific positive interactions (facilitation) occur between plants but that more direct intra-specific interactions, such as cooperation and altruism, also operate during the niche construction process. Our aim is to propose an original theoretical framework of inter and intra-specific positive interactions between riparian plants. We suggest that positive interactions between riparian plants are maximized in river reaches with an intermediate level of hydrogeomorphic disturbance. During establishment, plants that grow within dense stands improve their survival and growth because individuals protect each other from shear stress. In addition to the improved capacity to trap mineral and organic matter, individuals which constitute the dense stand can cooperate to mutually support a mycorrhizal fungi network that will connect plants, soil and ground water and influence nutrient transfer, cycling and

  20. Multiattribute Grey Target Decision Method Based on Soft Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang


    Full Text Available With respect to the Multiattribute decision-making problems in which the evaluation attribute sets are different and the evaluating values of alternatives are interval grey numbers, a multiattribute grey target decision-making method in which the attribute sets are different was proposed. The concept of grey soft set was defined, and its “AND” operation was assigned by combining the intersection operation of grey number. The expression approach of new grey soft set of attribute sets considering by all decision makers were gained by applying the “AND” operation of grey soft set, and the weights of synthesis attribute were proved. The alternatives were ranked according to the size of distance of bull’s eyes of each alternative under synthetic attribute sets. The green supplier selection was illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed model.

  1. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf


    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling con...... in order to describe the complicated in vivo system of insulin and glucose following an IVGTT....

  2. A Novel Complex-Valued Encoding Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm


    Qifang Luo; Sen Zhang; Zhiming Li; Yongquan Zhou


    Grey wolf optimization (GWO) is one of the recently proposed heuristic algorithms imitating the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. The aim of these algorithms is to perform global optimization. This paper presents a modified GWO algorithm based on complex-valued encoding; namely the complex-valued encoding grey wolf optimization (CGWO). We use CGWO to test 16 unconstrained benchmark functions with seven different scales and infinite impulse response (IIR) mod...

  3. Diels-Alder reactions of masked o-benzoquinones: new experimental findings and a theoretical study of the inverse electron demand case. (United States)

    Arjona, Odón; Medel, Rocío; Plumet, Joaquín; Herrera, Rafael; Jiménez-Vázquez, Hugo A; Tamariz, Joaquín


    Diels-Alder reactions of the masked o-benzoquinone (MOB) 2 with vinylene carbonate (3), the bicyclic derivatives 4, 5, and 6, and the intramolecular version of the 2-hydroxymethylfuran-MOB Diels-Alder reaction are described. In addition, a theoretical study of the Diels-Alder reactions of MOBs with enol and thioenol ethers is presented.

  4. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...

  5. Quantifying Possible Routes for SpnF-Catalyzed Formal Diels-Alder Cycloaddition. (United States)

    Medvedev, Michael G; Zeifman, Alexey A; Novikov, Fedor N; Bushmarinov, Ivan S; Stroganov, Oleg V; Titov, Ilya Yu; Chilov, Ghermes G; Svitanko, Igor V


    The Diels-Alder reaction is a cornerstone of modern organic synthesis. Despite this, it remains essentially inaccessible to biosynthetic approaches. Only a few natural enzymes catalyze even a formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition, and it remains uncertain if any of them proceed via the Diels-Alder mechanism. In this study, we focus on the [4 + 2] cycloaddition step in the biosynthesis of spinosyn A, a reaction catalyzed by SpnF enzyme, one of the most promising "true Diels-Alderase" candidates. The four currently proposed mechanisms (including the Diels-Alder one) for this reaction in water (as a first-order approximation of the enzymatic reaction) are evaluated by an exhaustive quantum mechanical search for possible transition states (728 were found in total). We find that the line between the recently proposed bis-pericyclic [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138 (11), 3631] and Diels-Alder routes is blurred, and favorable transition states of both types may coexist. Application of the Curtin-Hammett principle, however, reveals that the bis-pericyclic mechanism accounts for ∼83% of the reaction flow in water, while the classical Diels-Alder mechanism contributes only ∼17%. The current findings provide a route for modeling this reaction inside the SpnF active site and inferring the catalytic architecture of possible Diels-Alderases.

  6. Grey Hair Evlsion Technique For Evaluating the Effect of Drugs For the Treatment of Premature Grey Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha


    Full Text Available An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.

  7. A study of the temperature dependent healing capabilities of new polymers based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kötteritzsch, J.; Hager, M.D.; Schubert, U.S.; Bose, R.K.; Garcia Espallargas, S.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.


    Because of its thermal reversibility, the retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction represents an appealing possibility to produce self-healing polymers with well-defined architectures and tunable properties [1]. However, the polymer architecture for which the Diels-Alder (DA) reaction can best be used to

  8. Character-marked furniture made from red alder harvested in southeast Alaska: product perspectives from consumers and retailers (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Valerie Barber


    In recent decades. red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) has become an important Pacific Northwest hardwood in appearance-grade lumber markets, such as exports, furniture, and cabinets. However, red alder generally is a short-lived pioneer species, and small logs can result in proportionally large volumes of lower grade lumber containing numerous visual...

  9. A Ligand Structure-Activity Study of DNA-Based Catalytic Asymmetric Hydration and Diels-Alder Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosati, F.; Roelfes, J.G.

    A structure-activity relationship study of the first generation ligands for the DNA-based asymmetric hydration of enones and Diels-Alder reaction in water is reported. The design of the ligand was optimized resulting in a maximum ee of 83% in the hydration reaction and 75% in the Diels-Alder

  10. Grey Rod Test in HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)


    Westinghouse/KAERI/KNF agreed to perform an irradiation test in the HANARO reactor to obtain irradiation data on the new grey rods that will be part of an AP1000 system. As a preliminary test, two samples containing pure Ag (Reference) and Ag-In-Cd materials provided by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) were inserted in a KNF irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. The specimens were irradiated for 95.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of the HANARO of a 30MW thermal output to have a fast neutron fluence of 1.11x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV). This report provides all the test conditions and data obtained during the irradiation test of the grey rods in HANARO requested by Westinghouse. The test was prepared according to the meeting minutes (June 26, 2007) and the on-going subject test was stopped midway by the request of Westinghouse.

  11. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.


    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  12. Distribution and frequency of wildfire in California riparian ecosystems (United States)

    Bendix, Jacob; Commons, Michael G.


    Although wildfire has been recognized as having important ecological impacts on California’s riparian environments, understanding of its occurrence is largely anecdotal, based on studies of fire impacts in scattered locations. In this paper we use data for 21 years of wildfires to examine the distribution, seasonality and climatic context of riparian wildfire across the state. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity and LANDFIRE databases to identify fires that had burned in areas classified as having riparian vegetation, and matched those fires with the Fire and Resource Assessment Program database to determine the date of occurrence of each. From 1990 through 2010, an average of 1197 ha of riparian vegetation burned per year, which extrapolates to a fire return interval of 843 years. The statewide totals are misleading, however, because there is substantial geographic variance in the occurrence of riparian fire. In southern California ecoregions, extrapolated return intervals are as low as 74 years, contrasting with the Basin and Range ecoregions, where return intervals exceed 1000 years. Moreover, there is substantial geographic variation in the season of riparian fire, and in the relationship between fire occurrence and climatic variables. Both the widespread occurrence of riparian fire and its spatial variability are potentially important for management of critical riparian habitat.

  13. Geomorphic predictors of riparian vegetation in small mountain watersheds (United States)

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Jeanne C. Chambers; Peter J. Weisberg


    Hydrogeomorphic processes operating at watershed, process zone and site scales influence the distribution of riparian vegetation. However, most studies examining the relationships between hydrogeomorphic processes and riparian vegetation are conducted at site scales. We quantified the relative importance of watershed, process zone and site geomorphic characteristics...

  14. Flow of water and sediments through Southwestern riparian systems (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano; Peter F. Ffolliott; Kenneth N. Brooks


    The paper describes streamflow, sediment movement and vegetation interactions within riparian systems of the southwestern United States. Riparian systems are found in a wide range of vegetation types, ranging from lower elevation desert environments to high elevation conifer forests. The climatic, vegetative and hydrologic processes operating in the southwestern...

  15. Metal concentrations in urban riparian sediments along an urbanization gradient (United States)

    Daniel J. Bain; Ian D. Yesilonis; Richard V. Pouyat


    Urbanization impacts fluvial systems via a combination of changes in sediment chemistry and basin hydrology. While chemical changes in urban soils have been well characterized, similar surveys of riparian sediments in urbanized areas are rare. Metal concentrations were measured in sediments collected from riparian areas across the urbanization gradient in Baltimore, MD...

  16. Threats to western United States riparian ecosystems: A bibliography (United States)

    Boris Poff; Karen A. Koestner; Daniel G. Neary; David Merritt


    This bibliography is a compendium of state-of-knowledge publications about the threats affecting western U.S. riparian ecosystems and is a companion to the website: The website...

  17. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance


    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  18. Riparian adaptive management symposium: a conversation between scientists and management (United States)

    Douglas F. Ryan; John M. Calhoun


    Scientists, land managers and policy makers discussed whether riparian (stream side) forest management and policy for state, federal and private lands in western Washington are consistent with current science. Answers were mixed: some aspects of riparian policy and management have a strong basis in current science, while other aspects may not. Participants agreed that...

  19. Concentrated flow paths in riparian buffer zones of southern Illinois (United States)

    R.C. Pankau; J.E. Schoonover; K.W.J. Willard; P.J. Edwards


    Riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes should be designed to trap pollutants in overland flow by slowing, filtering, and infiltrating surface runoff entering the buffer via sheet flow. However, observational evidence suggests that concentrated flow is prevalent from agricultural fields. Over time sediment can accumulate in riparian buffers forming berms that...

  20. Enantioselective Diels-Alder-lactamization organocascades employing a furan-based diene. (United States)

    Abbasov, Mikail E; Hudson, Brandi M; Kong, Weixu; Tantillo, Dean J; Romo, Daniel


    α,β-Unsaturated acylammonium salts are useful dienophiles enabling highly enantioselective and stereodivergent Diels-Alder-initiated organocascades with furan-based dienes. Complex polycyclic systems can thus be obtained from readily prepared dienes, commodity acid chlorides, and a chiral isothiourea organocatalyst under mild conditions. We describe the use of furan-based dienes bearing pendant sulfonamides leading to the generation of oxa-bridged, trans-fused tricyclic γ-lactams. This process constitutes the first highly enantio- and diastereoselective, organocatalytic Diels-Alder cycloadditions with these typically problematic dienes due to their reversibility. Computational studies suggest that the high diastereoselectivity with these furan dienes may be due to a reversible Diels-Alder cycloaddition for the endo adducts. In addition, the utility of this methodology is demonstrated through a concise approach to a core structure with similarity to the natural product isatisine A and a nonpeptidyl ghrelin-receptor inverse agonist.

  1. Theoretical study of the Diels-Alder reaction between o-benzoquinone and norbornadiene (United States)

    Quijano-Quiñones, Ramiro F.; Quesadas-Rojas, M.; Cuevas, Gabriel; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J.


    The reaction between norbornadiene and o-benzoquinone is an important step in polyalicyclic rigid structures synthesis. It has been considered that this reaction is an example of Diels-Alder (DA) and hetero-Diels-Alder (HDA) cycloadditions with o-benzoquinone acting as diene (forming C-C bonds) and heterodiene (forming O-C bonds). We have performed a Density Functional Theory study of this reaction, employing B3LYP, mPW1PW91, and B1B95 functionals and 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31+G(d,p) Gaussian type basis sets. The results indicate that Diels-Alder is a feasible mechanism for both reactions, but should not be the main route to the formation of products with C-C bonds.

  2. Modified lignin: Preparation and use in reversible gel via Diels-Alder reaction. (United States)

    Zhou, Wanpeng; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Fangeng


    In this study, popular soda lignin was modified with either furan or maleimide ring, and the modified lignins were subjected to reversible Diels-Alder reaction. A new process was proposed to prepare the functionalized lignin. A long chain was introduced to the hydroxyl groups of lignin, and then either the furan or maleimide ring was added to the other end of the chain. The test results confirmed that either the furan ring or the maleimide ring was bound to lignin. Furan- and maleimide-functionalized lignins were also combined to generate crosslinking via Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition reaction. Under appropriate conditions, the formation of a gel was identified, which reverted to liquid state after retro Diels-Alder reaction upon heating at 120°C. This study reveals the significant versatility and potential of the developed strategy for the utilization of lignin-based recyclable networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diels-Alder reactions: The effects of catalyst on the addition reaction (United States)

    Yilmaz, Özgür; Kus, Nermin Simsek; Tunç, Tuncay; Sahin, Ertan


    The reaction between 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene and dimethyl 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene-2,3-dicarboxylate is efficiently achieved with small amounts of catalyst, i.e. phenol, AcOH, nafion, and β-cyclodextrin. Exo-diastereoselective cycloaddition reactions were observed both without catalyst and different catalysts for 48 days. As a result, different products (tricyclicmolecule 5, retro-Diels-Alder product 6, and oxidation product 7) were obtained with different catalysts. In addition, we synthesized Diels-Alders product 8 and tricyclocyclitol 10 via Diels-Alder reaction. The structures of these products were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy.

  4. Riparian and Woodlot Landscape Patterns and Migration of Neotropical Migrants in Riparian Forests of Eastern South Dakota (United States)

    David L. Swanson; Kurt L. Dean; Heather A. Carlisle; Eric T. Liknes


    Woodland habitat types in the northern Great Plains compose only a very small fraction of the total land surface. These woodlands occur primarily as natural riparian forests or as scattered anthropogenic woodlots and shelterbelts. Natural riparian woodlands have been markedly reduced over the past century, but anthropogenic woodlands have increased during this same...

  5. Breeding biology of African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parrots are considered a globally threatened group but, despite that, little is known about the ecology and biology of many species in the wild, this is the case for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The aim of this work was to study the reproductive biology of the wild grey parrot and its involvement in the conservation ...

  6. Distribution and Growth of Grey Triggerfish, Balistes capriscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    triggerfish from the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico (Manooch III & Drennon, 1987). The asymptotic length (L∞) was greater, and rate of growth (K) slower than previously reported for the grey triggerfish in Ghana (Table 2). Nevertheless, the rate of growth was comparable to that previously reported for grey triggerfish in ...

  7. Breeding biology of African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parrots are considered a globally threatened group but, despite that, little is known about the ecology and biology of many species in the wild, this is the case for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The aim of this work was to study the reproductive biology of the wild grey parrot and its involvement in the conservation ...

  8. Effect of titanium on the near eutectic grey iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    The effect of Titanium on the microstructure of grey iron was investigated experimentally in this work. Tensile test bars of grey cast iron of near eutectic alloys containing 0.01, 0.1, 0.26 and 0.35% Ti, respectively were made in green sand moulds. Chemical analysis, metallographic investigation...

  9. Stereoselection in Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reactions of 2-Cyano-1-azadienes: Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Synthesis. (United States)

    Tay, Gidget C; Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D


    Progress toward understanding the scope and diastereoselectivity of intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions using 2-cyano-1-azadienes is described herein. The resulting cyanoenamine products are underutilized intermediates in organic synthesis. Assembly of the Diels-Alder precursors was achieved using an improved imine condensation/oxidative cyanation protocol. By this method, several highly substituted indolizidine and quinolizidine architectures were constructed. Quantum mechanical DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory were performed for these cyclizations and provide insights into the origins of the observed diastereoselectivities.

  10. Diels–Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Hornung


    Full Text Available This work describes the Diels–Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels–Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times.

  11. Synthesis of a Phlorin from a Meso-Fused Anthriporphyrin by a Diels-Alder Strategy. (United States)

    Aslam, Adil S; Hong, Jung-Ho; Shin, June-Ho; Cho, Dong-Gyu


    An anthracene-containing meso-fused carbaporphyrin, which has extended π-conjugation pathways as compared to the corresponding naphthalene-containing carbaporphyrin, has been synthesized. The weak global aromaticity of the anthriporphyrin also allowed its use as the diene for a Diels-Alder reaction with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD). The resulting phlorin contains an interesting bicyclic structure. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this phlorin is the first Diels-Alder adduct of a diene forming part of the global π-conjugation pathway of an aromatic porphyrinoid. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Metal-catalyzed Asymmetric Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of Unactivated Dienes with Glyoxylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Mogens; Yao, Sulan; Graven, Anette


    The development of a catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder methodology for the reaction of unactivated dienes with glyoxylates is presented. Several different asymmetric catalysts can be used, but copper-bisoxazolines and aluminium-BINOL give the highest yield, and the best chemo- and enantiose......The development of a catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder methodology for the reaction of unactivated dienes with glyoxylates is presented. Several different asymmetric catalysts can be used, but copper-bisoxazolines and aluminium-BINOL give the highest yield, and the best chemo...

  13. Diels-Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors. (United States)

    Hornung, Christian H; Álvarez-Diéguez, Miguel Á; Kohl, Thomas M; Tsanaktsidis, John


    This work describes the Diels-Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels-Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times.

  14. Schleyer hyperconjugative aromaticity and Diels-Alder reactivity of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes. (United States)

    Levandowski, Brian J; Zou, Lufeng; Houk, K N


    Schleyer's discovery of hyperconjugative aromaticity and antiaromaticity in 5-substituted cyclopentadienes further expanded our understanding of the pervasive influence of aromaticity. Acceptors induce antiaromatic character by Schleyer's negative hyperconjugative aromaticity, and donors have the opposite effect. We computationally explored the Diels-Alder reactivity of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes with ethylene and maleic anhydride. The predicted billionfold difference in the computed gas phase rate constants at room temperature for the Diels-Alder reactions of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes with ethylene or maleic anhydride results from differences in the transition state distortion energies, which are directly related to the hyperconjugative aromaticity of these molecules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-Paeoveitol via a Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    Li, Tian-Ze; Geng, Chang-An; Yin, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Xing-Long; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun


    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-paeoveitol has been accomplished in 42% overall yield via a biomimetic hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction showed excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>99:1 dr and 90% ee); two rings and three stereocenters were constructed in a single step to produce (-)-paeoveitol on a scale of 452 mg. This strategy enabled us to selectively synthesize both paeoveitol enantiomers from the same substrates by simply changing the enantiomer of the catalyst.

  16. Chiral Dawson-Type Hybrid Polyoxometalate Catalyzes Enantioselective Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Xuan, Wen-Jing; Botuha, Candice; Hasenknopf, Bernold; Thorimbert, Serge


    Can achiral organocatalysts linked to chiral polyanionic metal oxide clusters provide good selectivity in enantioselective C-C bond formations? The answer to this question is investigated by developing a new active hybrid polyoxometalate-based catalyst for asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction. Chirality transfer from the chiral anionic polyoxometalate to the covalently linked achiral imidazolidinone allows Diels-Alder cycloaddition products to be obtained with good yields and high enantioselectivities when using cyclopentadiene and acrylaldehydes as partners. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Niobium(V) chloride as catalyst in Diels-Alder reaction of furan ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Deborah A. dos; Rodrigues, Ludmila R.; Arpini, Bruno H.; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar; Greco, Sandro J.; Santos, Reginaldo B. dos; Neto, Alvaro C.; Castro, Eustaquio V.R. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Romao, Wanderson [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFES), Vila Velha, ES (Brazil)


    According to the relevant literature, the Diels-Alder reaction of furan without a catalyst can last several weeks and shows a low yield due to the diene’s low reactivity. The use of Lewis acid catalysts or high pressures is described as an effective method for improving the reaction yields. This paper describes our recent study on the use of niobium pentachloride as the catalyst in Diels-Alder reactions between furan and several reactive dienophiles, among which methyl acrylate showed good yields, especially at lower temperatures. Other dienophiles have shown lower yields because of problems such as byproduct formation and the high reversibility of the reaction. (author)

  18. Diels–Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors (United States)

    Álvarez-Diéguez, Miguel Á; Kohl, Thomas M; Tsanaktsidis, John


    This work describes the Diels–Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels–Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times. PMID:28228853

  19. Adaptation of the QBR index for use in riparian forests of central Ohio (United States)

    Stephanie R. Colwell; David M. Hix


    Although high quality riparian forests are an endangered ecosystem type throughout the world, there has been no ecological index to measure the habitat quality of riparian forests in Ohio. The QBR (qualitat del bosc de ribera, or riparian forest quality) index was developed to assess the quality of habitat in Mediterranean forested riparian areas, and we have modified...

  20. Distribution of riparian vegetation in relation to streamflow in Pima County, Arizona (United States)

    Julia E. Fonseca; Mike List


    We compared the distribution of riparian forest and woodlands relative to water resource availability for a 2.3 million-acre region for the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan (SDCP). Most of Pima County’s riparian vegetation occurs along stream reaches that classify as ephemeral. Ninety percent or more of the mesquite woodlands, riparian scrub, and riparian strand...

  1. Alternative Axiomatic Characterizations of the Grey Shapley Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirma Zeynep Alparslan Gok


    Full Text Available The Shapley value, one of the most common solution concepts of cooperative game theory is defined and axiomatically characterized in different game-theoretic models. Certainly, the Shapley value can be used in interesting sharing cost/reward problems in the Operations Research area such as connection, routing, scheduling, production and inventory situations. In this paper, we focus on the Shapley value for cooperative games, where the set of players is finite and the coalition values are interval grey numbers. The central question in this paper is how to characterize the grey Shapley value. In this context, we present two alternative axiomatic characterizations. First, we characterize the grey Shapley value using the properties of efficiency, symmetry and strong monotonicity. Second, we characterize the grey Shapley value by using the grey dividends.

  2. The Comparative Study of Grey Literature Orgnization at Home and Abroad in Network Environment


    Xu, Liu Jing


    Grey literature is an important information resource , and Internet makes it easier to organize them. This paper introduces how the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe(SIGLE) and GreyNet organize the grey literature. And then it presents how to organize grey literature in China in network environment. Finally, by contrast a conclusion is drawn that there are several disadvantages in the grey literature organization in China.

  3. Riparian plant litter quality increases with latitude. (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Graça, Manuel A S; Tonin, Alan M; Pérez, Javier; J Swafford, Andrew; Ferreira, Verónica; Landeira-Dabarca, Andrea; A Alexandrou, Markos; Gessner, Mark O; McKie, Brendan G; Albariño, Ricardo J; Barmuta, Leon A; Callisto, Marcos; Chará, Julián; Chauvet, Eric; Colón-Gaud, Checo; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Frainer, André; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie E; Iwata, Tomoya; Mathooko, Jude; M'Erimba, Charles; Pringle, Catherine M; Ramírez, Alonso; Swan, Christopher M; Yule, Catherine M; Pearson, Richard G


    Plant litter represents a major basal resource in streams, where its decomposition is partly regulated by litter traits. Litter-trait variation may determine the latitudinal gradient in decomposition in streams, which is mainly microbial in the tropics and detritivore-mediated at high latitudes. However, this hypothesis remains untested, as we lack information on large-scale trait variation for riparian litter. Variation cannot easily be inferred from existing leaf-trait databases, since nutrient resorption can cause traits of litter and green leaves to diverge. Here we present the first global-scale assessment of riparian litter quality by determining latitudinal variation (spanning 107°) in litter traits (nutrient concentrations; physical and chemical defences) of 151 species from 24 regions and their relationships with environmental factors and phylogeny. We hypothesized that litter quality would increase with latitude (despite variation within regions) and traits would be correlated to produce 'syndromes' resulting from phylogeny and environmental variation. We found lower litter quality and higher nitrogen:phosphorus ratios in the tropics. Traits were linked but showed no phylogenetic signal, suggesting that syndromes were environmentally determined. Poorer litter quality and greater phosphorus limitation towards the equator may restrict detritivore-mediated decomposition, contributing to the predominance of microbial decomposers in tropical streams.

  4. Repozitář a webový portál GreyGuide:Odpověď GreyNet na Deklaraci z Pisy


    Farace, Dominic


    In December 2013, the GreyGuide was launched and in early 2014 GreyNet welcomed far reaching developments in its resource management. These developments are in line with the “Pisa Declaration on Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources (May 16, 2014)”. In compliance with this 15-point roadmap, a selection of GreyNet’s web-based content will now migrate to the GreyGuide allowing for seamless browse, search, and retrieval across its collections.

  5. Grey literature: An important resource in systematic reviews. (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio


    Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states......’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect...

  7. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, R.L. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  8. Electrostatic catalysis of a Diels-Alder reaction (United States)

    Aragonès, Albert C.; Haworth, Naomi L.; Darwish, Nadim; Ciampi, Simone; Bloomfield, Nathaniel J.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Diez-Perez, Ismael; Coote, Michelle L.


    It is often thought that the ability to control reaction rates with an applied electrical potential gradient is unique to redox systems. However, recent theoretical studies suggest that oriented electric fields could affect the outcomes of a range of chemical reactions, regardless of whether a redox system is involved. This possibility arises because many formally covalent species can be stabilized via minor charge-separated resonance contributors. When an applied electric field is aligned in such a way as to electrostatically stabilize one of these minor forms, the degree of resonance increases, resulting in the overall stabilization of the molecule or transition state. This means that it should be possible to manipulate the kinetics and thermodynamics of non-redox processes using an external electric field, as long as the orientation of the approaching reactants with respect to the field stimulus can be controlled. Here, we provide experimental evidence that the formation of carbon-carbon bonds is accelerated by an electric field. We have designed a surface model system to probe the Diels-Alder reaction, and coupled it with a scanning tunnelling microscopy break-junction approach. This technique, performed at the single-molecule level, is perfectly suited to deliver an electric-field stimulus across approaching reactants. We find a fivefold increase in the frequency of formation of single-molecule junctions, resulting from the reaction that occurs when the electric field is present and aligned so as to favour electron flow from the dienophile to the diene. Our results are qualitatively consistent with those predicted by quantum-chemical calculations in a theoretical model of this system, and herald a new approach to chemical catalysis.

  9. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones (United States)

    Peter, S.; Rechsteiner, R.; Lehmann, M. F.; Brankatschk, R.; Vogt, T.; Diem, S.; Wehrli, B.; Tockner, K.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.


    For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N) can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3-) removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ) were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3- concentration (> 50%) was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3- pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O) provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3- removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3- concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l-1 d-1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3- removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l-1 d-1). Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation-soil-groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3- removal. We estimated that, despite higher rates in the fairly constrained willow bush hot spot, total NO3- removal from the groundwater is lower than in the extended forest area. Overall, the aquifer in the restored section was more effective and removed ~20% more NO3- than the channelized section.

  10. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter


    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  11. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe. (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Branicki, Wojciech; Jedrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Goszczyński, Jacek; Jedrzejewska, Bogumiła; Dykyy, Ihor; Shkvyrya, Maryna; Tsingarska, Elena


    While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  12. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykyy Ihor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  13. Chemically reprogrammable metal organic frameworks (MOFs) based on Diels-Alder chemistry. (United States)

    Nayab, Sana; Trouillet, Vanessa; Gliemann, Hartmut; Hurrle, Silvana; Weidler, Peter G; Rashid Tariq, Saadia; Goldmann, Anja S; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Yameen, Basit


    We present the reversible Diels-Alder functionalization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Cyclopentadiene (Cp) functional MOFs are ligated with dienophiles to fabricate functional MOFs with a reprogrammable chemical nature. Our strategy thus constitutes an unprecedented concept for chemically dynamic MOFs able to be recoded.

  14. Vinyl quinones as Diels-Alder dienes: concise synthesis of (-)-halenaquinone. (United States)

    Kienzler, Michael A; Suseno, Sandy; Trauner, Dirk


    A concise asymmetric synthesis of (-)-halenaquinone is described. The synthesis features a diastereoselective Heck cyclization to set a quaternary center as well as a novel intramolecular inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction involving a vinyl quinone. The synthesis is highly convergent and features a minimal amount of protecting group manipulations.

  15. Unsaturated aldehydes as alkene equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert


    A one-pot procedure is described for using alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as olefin equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction. The method combines the normal electron demand cycloaddition with aldehyde dienophiles and the rhodium-catalyzed decarbonylation of aldehydes to afford cyclohexenes...... 53 and 88%. In these transformations, the three aldehydes serve as equivalents of ethylene, propylene and styrene, respectively....

  16. Occurrence, structure, and nitrogen-fixation of root nodules of actinorhizal Arizona alder (United States)

    J. O. Dawson; Gerald J. Gottfried; D. Hahn


    Actinorhizal plants are nodulated by the symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia. The genus Alnus in the family Betulaceae is one of the 24 genera in 8 families of angiospermous plants that are actinorhizal. Arizona alder (Alnus oblongifolia Torr.) occurs in isolated populations associated with the watersheds of Madrean Sky Islands in the...

  17. Specific Binding of Liposomal Nanoparticles through Inverse Electron-Demand Diels-Alder Click Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Christian; Iacono, Pasquale; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Kircher, Moritz F.; Reiner, Thomas


    Here, we report a method to specifically bind liposomal radiopharmaceuticals to a CoCrMo alloy, which can be used in arterial stents, via an irreversible inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. Inspired by recent accomplishments in pre-targeted imaging using tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene click

  18. Influence of flooding duration on the biomass growth of alder and willow. (United States)

    Lewis F. Ohmann; M. Dean Knighton; Ronald McRoberts


    Simple second-order (quadratic) polynomials were used to model the relationship between 3-year biomass increase (net ovendry weight in grams) and flooding duration (days) for four combinations of shrub type (alder, willow) and soils type (fine-sand, clay-loam).

  19. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida) (United States)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  20. Synthesis and Diels–Alder cycloaddition reaction of norbornadiene and benzonorbornadiene dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Nişancı


    Full Text Available Dimeric forms of norbornadiene and benzonorbornadiene were synthesized starting with known monobromide derivatives. The Diels–Alder cycloaddition reaction of dimers with TCNE and PTAD was investigated and new norbornenoid polycyclics were obtained. All compounds were characterized properly using NMR spectroscopy.

  1. The reliability of determining age of red alder by ring counts (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Boyd C. Wilson; Bernard T. Bormann


    Examination of cross-sections of 54 red alder trees from 14 stands of varying age and site conditions indicated that abnormal rings (false, partial, or missing) occur infrequently. Rings may be indistinct and ring counting must be done with great care, preferably on prepared surfaces (cross-sections or cores) and under magnification and good lighting. With such...

  2. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests (United States)

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen


    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  3. Thermally reversible rubber-toughened thermoset networks via Diels-Alder chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Hermosilla, R.; Fortunato, G.; Pucci, A.; Raffa, P.; Polgar, L.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Pourhossein, P.; Lima, G. M. R.; Beljaars, M.; Picchioni, F.

    In this work we present a reversible and toughened thermoset system based on the covalent incorporation of a furane functionalized ethylene-propylene rubber (EPM-Fu) into a thermoset furane functionalized polyketone (PK-Fu) via Diels-Alder (DA) reversible cross-linking with bismaleimide (b-MA).

  4. Mixed, short rotation culture of red alder and black cottonwood: growth, coppicing, nitrogen fixation, and allelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman, P.; Stettler, R.F.


    Alnus rubra seedlings were grown in a 1:1 mixture at a spacing of 1.2 x 1.2 m with 28 Populus clones (25 clones pf P. trichocarpa, 2 of P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa, and one P. deltoides x P. nigra) in a study established in W. Washington in March 1979. Trees were harvested at 4 yr old. At harvest, average heights were: pure Populus, 10.2 m; Populus in the mixed stand 11.0 m; and alder 8.4 m. Most Populus sprouted satisfactorily after harvest (6.6 shoots/plant when pure, 7.6 shoots/plant in the mixture), but alder sprouted poorly (3.6 shoots/plant). Above-ground biomass at harvest was 15.9 t/ha p.a. for the mixture and 16.7 t/ha p.a. for pure Populus, although the mixture had been more productive at 2 yr. Nitrogenase activity (nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction) of alder declines in the 4th season; competition was the most important factor influencing this decline. Soil N content had no effect on fixation. A pot study showed that ground Populus leaf and litter material inhibited the growth of red alder seedlings, although soil collected from Populus plots had no effect. Results indicated that allelopathy is probably a minor factor under field conditions, at most, and that growing mixed stands may, on balance, be beneficial. 20 references.

  5. A Computational Experiment of the Endo versus Exo Preference in a Diels-Alder Reaction (United States)

    Rowley, Christopher N.; Woo, Tom K.


    We have developed and tested a computational laboratory that investigates an endo versus exo Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This laboratory employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the cycloaddition of N-phenylmaleimide to furan. The endo and exo stereoisomers of the product were distinguished by building the two isomers in a…

  6. Tandem Mannich/Diels–Alder reactions for the synthesis of indole compound libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Petersen, Rico


    A tandem Mannich/Diels–Alder sequence for the synthesis of small-molecule libraries with an indolyl-octahydro-3a,6-epoxy-isoindole core structure is demonstrated in this study. Representative diversification examples based on this scaffold were performed, and a library is being produced within...

  7. Deeper Insight into the Diels-Alder Reaction through the Activation Strain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, I.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.


    The Diels–Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction has the ability to significantly increase molecular complexity regioselectively and stereospecifically in a single synthetic step. In this review it is discussed how the activation strain model of chemical reactivity reveals the physical factors that

  8. Recent applications of intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions to natural product synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, M.; Tanner, David Ackland


    This tutorial review presents some recent examples of intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reactions as key complexity-generating steps in the total synthesis of structurally intricate natural products. The opportunities afforded by transannular (TADA) versions of the IMDA reaction in complex molecule...

  9. Diels-Alder Reactions Using 5 M LiClO4 -Diethyl Ether Catalyst




    The rate acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions in 5.0 M lithium perchlorate-diethyl ether was re-examined using itaconic anhydride and itaconic acid. Rate acceleration was observed for non-functionalised dienes, but functionalised dienes gave the starting or polymeric materials.

  10. Microbial diversification of Diels-Alder cycloadducts by whole cells of Penicillium brasilianum. (United States)

    Din, Zia Ud; Fill, Taicia P; Donatoni, M Carolina; Dos Santos, Carolina A A; Brocksom, Timothy J; Rodrigues-Filho, E


    Functionalizations of cycloadducts are important steps for the use of Diels-Alder reactions in the construction of complex cyclic or polycyclic molecules from relatively simple starting materials. In the present work, we studied the ability of Penicillium brasilianum to perform microbial transformations of racemic Diels-Alder endo-cycloadducts. Thus, Diels-Alder products, obtained from reacting cyclopentadiene or 2,3-dimethylbutadiene with alkylated para-benzoquinones, were transformed by the resting cells of P. brasilianum producing new functionalized polycyclic compounds. These biotransformations yielded novel products of oxidation and ring closure, reduction of the C=C or C=O in [Formula: see text]-unsaturated system, and allylic hydroxylations. The reduction products (conjugated double bond and carbonyl group) were also synthesized, and the enantioselectivity of both in vitro and in vivo processes was evaluated. In all cases, the microbiological transformations were enantioselective. In silico docking studies of the Diels-Alder cycloadducts with P. brasilianum oxidoreductase "old yellow enzymes" shed more light on these transformations.

  11. Diels-Alder Reactions in Water. Effects of Hydrophobicity and Hydrogen Bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Sijbren; Blokzijl, Wilfried; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    In order to check whether the activated complex for the Diels-Alder reactions of 5-substituted 1,4-naphthoquinones with cyclopentadiene is more polar in water than in other solvents, we have determined the substituent effects in seven different solvents. The substituent effects gradually decrease

  12. Stereoisomeric effects in thermo-remendable polymer networks based on diels-alder crosslink reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canadell, J.; Fischer, H.R.; With, G. de; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van


    This study describes the synthesis, the spectroscopic, and the thermal characterization of linear and crosslinked polymers as well as a number of corresponding model compounds, containing Diels-Alder adducts derived from furan and maleimide groups. The thermal reversibility (rDA, DA) of structurally

  13. Effects of the Hydrophobicity of the Reactants on Diels-Alder Reactions in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Ale; Otto, Sijbren; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    To assess the importance of the hydrophobicity of different parts of diene and dienophile on the aqueous acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions, second-order rate constants have been determined for the reactions of cyclopentadiene (1), 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (4), and 1,3-cyclohexadiene (6) with

  14. Stepwise or concerted? DFT study on the mechanism of ionic Diels-Alder reaction of chromanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghdadi Mina


    Full Text Available The stepwise and concerted Ionic Diels-Alder reaction between phenyl (pyridin-2-ylmethylene oxonium and styrene derivatives are explored using theoretical method. The results support using computational method via persistent intermediates. The DFT method was essential to reproduce a reasonable potential energy surface for these challenging systems.

  15. Asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky's diene with imines in a chiral reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pégot Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract The asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction of chiral imines with Danishefsky's diene in chiral ionic liquids provides the corresponding cycloadduct with moderate to high diastereoselectivity. The reaction has proved to perform better at room temperature in ionic liquids without either Lewis acid catalyst or organic solvent. Chiral ionic liquids are recycled while their efficiency is preserved.

  16. Diels-Alder reactions in water : Enforced hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    Second-order rate constants have been measured for the Diels-Alder (DA) reactions of cyclopentadiene with dienophiles of varying hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bond acceptor capacity in water, in a series of organic solvents and in alcohol-water mixtures. The intramolecular DA reaction of

  17. Surfactant-assisted specific-acid catalysis of Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, Egid B.; Engberts, Jan B. F. N.


    Surfactant-assisted specific-acid catalysis (SASAC) for Diets-Alder reactions of dienophiles 1 and 4 with cyclopentadiene 2 in aqueous media at 32 C was studied. This study showed that acidified anionic surfactants (pH 2) such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    Second-order rate constants have been measured for the Diels-Alder (DA) reactions of cyclopentadiene with dienophiles of varying hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bond acceptor capacity in water, in a series of organic solvents and in alcohol-water mixtures. The intramolecular DA reaction of

  19. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, E.B.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diells-Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas

  20. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, Egid B.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas

  1. Diels–Alder cycloaddition of 2-methylfuran and ethylene for renewable toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Sara K.; Patet, Ryan E.; Nikbin, Nima; Williams, C. Luke; Chang, Chun-Chih; Yu, Jingye; Gorte, Raymond J.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Fan, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.


    Diels–Alder cycloaddition of biomass-derived 2-methylfuran and ethylene provides a thermochemical pathway to renewable toluene. In this work, the kinetics and reaction pathways of toluene formation have been evaluated with H-BEA and Sn-BEA catalysts. Kinetic analysis of the main reaction chemistries reveals the existence of two rate-controlling reactions: (i) Diels–Alder cycloaddition of 2-methylfuran and ethylene where the production rate is independent of the Brønsted acid site concentration, and (ii) dehydration of the Diels–Alder cycloadduct where the production rate is dependent on the Brønsted acid site concentration. Application of a reduced kinetic model supports the interplay of these two regimes with the highest concentration of toluene measured at a catalyst loading equal to the transition region between the two kinetic regimes. Selectivity to toluene never exceeded 46%, as 2-methylfuran was consumed by several newly identified reactions to side products, including dimerization of 2-methylfuran, the formation of a trimer following hydrolysis and ring-opening of 2-methylfuran, and the incomplete dehydration of the Diels–Alder cycloadduct of 2-methylfuran and ethylene.

  2. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals. (United States)

    Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H


    Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.

  3. A Novel Complex-Valued Encoding Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifang Luo


    Full Text Available Grey wolf optimization (GWO is one of the recently proposed heuristic algorithms imitating the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. The aim of these algorithms is to perform global optimization. This paper presents a modified GWO algorithm based on complex-valued encoding; namely the complex-valued encoding grey wolf optimization (CGWO. We use CGWO to test 16 unconstrained benchmark functions with seven different scales and infinite impulse response (IIR model identification. Compared to the real-valued GWO algorithm and other optimization algorithms; the CGWO performs significantly better in terms of accuracy; robustness; and convergence speed.

  4. Invenio: A Modern Digital Library for Grey Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Caffaro, Jerome


    Grey literature has historically played a key role for researchers in the field of High- Energy Physics (HEP). Consequently CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) as the world’s largest particle physics laboratory has always been facing the challenge of distributing and archiving grey material. Invenio, an open-source repository software, has been developed as part of CERN’s institutional repository strategy to answer these needs. In this document we describe how the particular context of grey literature within the HEP community shaped the development of Invenio. We focus on the strategies that have been established in order to process grey material within the software and we analyse how it is used in a real production environment, the CERN Document Server (CDS).

  5. A Reassessment of Archaeological Grey Literature: semantics and paradoxes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tim N.L. Evans


    .... Although these reports are almost ubiquitously referred to as 'grey literature', they are but a facet of a larger corpus of publication and dissemination techniques used by the archaeological community...

  6. How to search for and use 'grey literature' in research. (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric

    An ever-growing amount of grey literature is available to nurses, including oral presentations, personal communication, leaflets, newspapers and magazines, unpublished research, internal reports and minutes of meetings. It can be an invaluable research resource.

  7. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  8. Competing Diels-Alder reactions of activated nitroethylene derivatives and [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements of the cycloadducts. (United States)

    Wade, Peter A; Murray, James K; Shah-Patel, Sharmila; Le, Hung T


    Diels-Alder reaction of nitroethylene derivatives with cyclohexa-1,3-diene afforded three pericyclic products some of which could be converted to others via a new [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement or via a Claisen rearrangement.

  9. Red alder trees distribution in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the basal area of red alder trees within each incremental watershed delineated in...

  10. Ecology, management and monitoring of grey dunes in Flanders


    Provoost, S.; Ampe, C; Bonte, D.; Cosyns, E.; Hoffmann, M


    Grey dunes are a priority habitat type of the European Union Habitats Directive and demand special attention for conservation and management. Knowledge of the ecology of coastal grey dunes can contribute to this policy. Dune grassland succession is initiated by fixation and driven by the complex of soil formation (humus accumulation) and vegetation development. Leaching and mobilization of CaCO3, which are important in nutrient dynamics, complicate the picture. At present, grass- and scrub en...

  11. Bringing Light to Grey


    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01 and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  12. A Diels-Alder Reaction Conducted Within the Parameters of Aqueous Organocatalysis: Still Just Smoke and Mirrors (United States)

    Stowe, G. Neil


    Conducting reactions using water as solvent is a highly prized goal for the organic chemist. Based upon recent literature and our continuing interest in the field of aqueous organocatalysis, we tested the scope of an enamine based Diels-Alder reaction using (±)-nornicotine, proline and a proline derivative as aqueous organocatalysts. Unfortunately, none of the examined catalysts under aqueous conditions proved useful, leaving the aqueous Diels-Alder reaction as an elusive goal. PMID:21516231

  13. Growth of Fullerene Fragments Using the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction: First Step towards a C60 Synthesis by Dimerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Alonso


    Full Text Available Density Functional Theory has been used to model the Diels-Alder reactions of the fullerene fragments triindenetriphenilene and pentacyclopentacorannulene with ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The purpose is to prove the feasibility of using Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions to grow fullerene fragments step by step, and to dimerize fullerene fragments, as a way to obtain C60. The dienophile character of the fullerene fragments is dominant, and the reaction of butadiene with pentacyclopentacorannulene is favored.

  14. Total Synthesis of γ-Indomycinone and Kidamycinone by Means of Two Regioselective Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Mabit, Thibaud; Siard, Aymeric; Pantin, Mathilde; Zon, Doumadé; Foulgoc, Laura; Sissouma, Drissa; Guingant, André; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Carreaux, François; Dujardin, Gilles; Collet, Sylvain


    An efficient access for the synthesis of pluramycinones is described. Total syntheses of racemic γ-indomycinone and kidamycinone were achieved by means of two Diels-Alder reactions. A first Diels-Alder condensation followed by a Stille cross-coupling is used for the elaboration of the desired substituted dienes which will be involved in the second pericyclic reaction with juglone to construct the tetracyclic core of pluramycinones.

  15. Growth of fullerene fragments using the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction: first step towards a C60 synthesis by dimerization. (United States)

    Mojica, Martha; Méndez, Francisco; Alonso, Julio A


    Density Functional Theory has been used to model the Diels-Alder reactions of the fullerene fragments triindenetriphenilene and pentacyclopentacorannulene with ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The purpose is to prove the feasibility of using Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions to grow fullerene fragments step by step, and to dimerize fullerene fragments, as a way to obtain C₆₀. The dienophile character of the fullerene fragments is dominant, and the reaction of butadiene with pentacyclopentacorannulene is favored.

  16. An EGR performance evaluation and decision-making approach based on grey theory and grey entropy analysis (United States)


    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the main methods of reducing NOX emissions and has been widely used in marine diesel engines. This paper proposes an optimized comprehensive assessment method based on multi-objective grey situation decision theory, grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis to evaluate the performance and optimize rate determination of EGR, which currently lack clear theoretical guidance. First, multi-objective grey situation decision theory is used to establish the initial decision-making model according to the main EGR parameters. The optimal compromise between diesel engine combustion and emission performance is transformed into a decision-making target weight problem. After establishing the initial model and considering the characteristics of EGR under different conditions, an optimized target weight algorithm based on grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis is applied to generate the comprehensive evaluation and decision-making model. Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a TBD234V12 turbocharged diesel engine, and the results clearly illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method for providing theoretical support and a reference for further EGR optimization. PMID:29377956

  17. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater. (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H


    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging. (United States)

    Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne


    This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Cyclopentadiene and C60 at the Extreme High Pressure. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Cammi, Roberto; Ehara, Masahiro


    High-pressure Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of fullerenes is an important synthetic method for the thermally stable cycloadducts. The effects of high pressure on the potential energy surfaces of Diels-Alder cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene and C60 were studied with a recently developed approach, the polarizable continuum model for extreme pressure (XP-PCM). It is revealed that the high pressure reduces the activation energies and increases reaction energies drastically, making the DA reaction more favorable. The pressure effects on the reaction energetics can be divided into the cavitation and electronic contributions. For the activation energy, the cavitation contribution is significant in comparison with the electronic contribution. To assist future experiments, the activation volume and reaction volume were computed on the basis of the relationship between activation energy or reaction energy with the pressure as a consequence of the fitting linear correlation between activation energy or reaction energy with the pressure.

  20. Polar Diels-Alder reactions using electrophilic nitrobenzothiophenes. A combined experimental and DFT study (United States)

    Della Rosa, Claudia D.; Mancini, Pedro M. E.; Kneeteman, Maria N.; Lopez Baena, Anna F.; Suligoy, Melisa A.; Domingo, Luis R.


    The reactions between 2- and 3-nitrobenzothiophenes with three dienes of different nucleophilicity, 1-methoxy-3-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-butadiene, 1-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-butadiene and isoprene developed in anhydrous benzene and alternative under microwave irradiation with molecular solvents or in free solvent conditions, respectively, for produce dibenzothiophenes permit to conclude that both nitroheterocycles act as electrophile with the cited dienes. In the cases of the dienes 1-methoxy-3-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-butadiene and 1-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-butadiene which posses major nucleophilicity the observed product is the normal cycloaddition one. However when the diene is isoprene the product with both electrophiles follow the hetero Diels-Alder way. These reactions are considered polar cycloaddition reactions and the yields are reasonables. Moreover the polar Diels-Alder reactions of nitrobenzothiophenes with electron rich dienes 1-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-butadiene have been theoretically studied using DFT methods.

  1. Structural basis for Diels-Alder ribozyme-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation (United States)

    Serganov, Alexander; Keiper, Sonja; Malinina, Lucy; Tereshko, Valentina; Skripkin, Eugene; Höbartner, Claudia; Polonskaia, Anna; Phan, Anh Tuân; Wombacher, Richard; Micura, Ronald; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jäschke, Andres; Patel, Dinshaw J


    The majority of structural efforts addressing RNA’s catalytic function have focused on natural ribozymes, which catalyze phosphodiester transfer reactions. By contrast, little is known about how RNA catalyzes other types of chemical reactions. We report here the crystal structures of a ribozyme that catalyzes enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation by the Diels-Alder reaction in the unbound state and in complex with a reaction product. The RNA adopts a λ-shaped nested pseudoknot architecture whose preformed hydrophobic pocket is precisely complementary in shape to the reaction product. RNA folding and product binding are dictated by extensive stacking and hydrogen bonding, whereas stereoselection is governed by the shape of the catalytic pocket. Catalysis is apparently achieved by a combination of proximity, complementarity and electronic effects. We observe structural parallels in the independently evolved catalytic pocket architectures for ribozyme- and antibody-catalyzed Diels-Alder carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. PMID:15723077

  2. Using chiral ionic liquid additives to enhance asymmetric induction in a Diels-Alder reaction. (United States)

    Goodrich, P; Nimal Gunaratne, H Q; Hall, L; Wang, Y; Jin, L; Muldoon, M J; Ribeiro, A P C; Pombeiro, A J L; Pârvulescu, V I; Davey, P; Hardacre, C


    A bis-oxazoline ligand has been complexed using Cu(ii) and Zn(ii) trifluoromethanesulfonate and a range of chiral ionic liquid (CIL) additives based on natural products were used as a co-catalyst for a Diels-Alder reaction. The catalytic performance of these systems was compared for the asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction between N-acryloyloxazolidinone and cyclopentadiene with and without the presence of a CIL additive. In the absence of the CIL, both catalysts resulted in low enantioselectivities in conventional solvents and ionic liquids. However, whilst only a minor effect of the CIL was observed for the Cu based catalyst, in the case of the Zn based catalyst, significant enhancements in endo enantioselectivity of up to 50% were found on the addition of a CIL.

  3. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated Hydroxy-o-Quinodimethanes. (United States)

    Dell'Amico, Luca; Vega-Peñaloza, Alberto; Cuadros, Sara; Melchiorre, Paolo


    The photoenolization/Diels-Alder strategy offers straightforward access to synthetically valuable benzannulated carbocyclic products. This historical light-triggered process has never before succumbed to efforts to develop an enantioselective catalytic approach. Herein, we demonstrate how asymmetric organocatalysis provides simple yet effective catalytic tools to intercept photochemically generated hydroxy-o-quinodimethanes with high stereoselectivity. We used a chiral organic catalyst, derived from natural cinchona alkaloids, to activate maleimides toward highly stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions. An unconventional mechanism of stereocontrol is operative, wherein the organocatalyst is actively involved in both the photochemical pathway, by leveraging the formation of the reactive photoenol, and the stereoselectivity-defining event. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Microwave-Mediated Hetero Diels-Alder reaction: Synthesis of biologically active compounds


    D’Aurizio, Antonio


    Heterocyclic compounds represent almost two-thirds of all the known organic compounds: they are widely distributed in nature and play a key role in a huge number of biologically important molecules including some of the most significant for human beings. A powerful tool for the synthesis of such compounds is the hetero Diels-Alder reaction (HDA), that involve a [4+2] cycloaddition reaction between heterodienes and suitable dienophiles. Among heterodienes to be used in such six-membered ...

  5. Influence of red alder on chemical properties of a clay loam soil in western Washington. (United States)

    D.S. DeBell; M.A. Radwan; J.M. Kraft


    Chemical characteristics of mineral soil beneath red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) stands of various ages were studied. Total nitrogen (N) of the 0-to 20-centimeter (0- to 8-inch) soil layer increased with stand age, and pH of both the 0- to 20-centimeter and 20- to 50-centimeter (8- to 20-inch) layers decreased with stand age. Contents of some mineral...

  6. Preparation of carbohydrate arrays by using Diels-Alder reactions with inverse electron demand


    Beckmann, Henning S. G.; Niederwieser, Andrea; Wiessler, Manfred; Wittmann, Valentin


    Carbohydrate microarrays are an emerging tool for the high-throughput screening of carbohydrate–protein interactions that represent the basis of many biologically and medicinally relevant processes. The crucial step in the preparation of carbohydrate arrays is the attachment of carbohydrate probes to the surface. We examined the Diels–Alder reaction with inverse-electron-demand (DARinv) as an irreversible, chemoselective ligation reaction for that purpose. After having shown the efficiency of...

  7. Development of annualized diameter and height growth equations for red alder: preliminary results. (United States)

    Aaron Weiskittel; Sean M. Garber; Greg Johnson; Doug Maguire; Robert A. Monserud


    Most individual-tree based growth and yield models use a 5- to 10-year time step, which can make projections for a fast-growing species like red alder quite difficult. Further, it is rather cumbersome to simulate the effects of intensive silvicultural treatments such as thinning or pruning on a time step longer than one year given the highly dynamic nature of growth...

  8. New L-Serine Derivative Ligands as Cocatalysts for Diels-Alder Reaction (United States)

    Sousa, Carlos A. D.; Rodríguez-Borges, José E.; Freire, Cristina


    New L-serine derivative ligands were prepared and tested as cocatalyst in the Diels-Alder reactions between cyclopentadiene (CPD) and methyl acrylate, in the presence of several Lewis acids. The catalytic potential of the in situ formed complexes was evaluated based on the reaction yield. Bidentate serine ligands showed good ability to coordinate medium strength Lewis acids, thus boosting their catalytic activity. The synthesis of the L-serine ligands proved to be highly efficient and straightforward. PMID:24383009

  9. The unexpected product of Diels-Alder reaction between "indanocyclon" and maleimide (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Michał A.; Roszkowski, Piotr; Struga, Marta; Szulczyk, Daniel


    A heterocyclic compound commonly known as "indanocyclon" undergoes an unexpected Diels-Alder addition with maleimide. The resulting product has been isolated and characterized in order to get an information about its structure and possible mechanism of the reaction. Extensive comparison of single crystal properties of 3-(2,8-dioxo-1,3-diphenyl-2,8-dihydrocyclopenta[a]inden-8a(1H)-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and favorable product of the reaction has been also performed.

  10. Gilliam County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coiner, Josh (Gilliam Soil and Water Conservation District, Condon, OR)


    Interest appears to be at an all-time high for riparian conservation programs in Gilliam County. With the recently added Herbaceous Buffer and the already established CREP program interest is booming. However, more and more people are turning towards the herbaceous buffer because of expense. The riparian forest buffer is becoming too expensive. Even with the excellent cost share and incentives landowners are having trouble with Farm Service Agency's payment limitation. Because of this payment limitation landowners are not receiving their full rental and incentive payments, usually in year one. This has cooled the installation of riparian forest buffers and peaked interest in the CP-29 (Herbaceous Buffer for Wildlife). Either way, riparian lands are being enhanced and water quality is being improved. Year three should be very similar to the accomplishments of year 2. There has already been several projects proposed that may or may not be approved during year 3. I am currently working on three projects that are all over 2.5 miles long on each side and total anywhere from 60 to 250 acres in size. Along with these three projects there at least seven small projects being proposed. Four of those projects are riparian forest buffers and the remaining are herbaceous buffers.

  11. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune


    -box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey......-box models may contain terms which can be estimated on-line by use of the models and measurements. In this paper, it is demonstrated that many storage basins in sewer systems can be used as an on-line flow measurement provided that the basin is monitored on-line with a level transmitter and that a grey...

  12. Grey relational clustering associated with CAPRI applied to FPGA placement (United States)

    Wu, Jan-Ou; Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wang, San-Fu


    Grey relational clustering is used to minimise wire length during field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) placement and routing. The proposed Grey Relational Clustering Apply to Placement (GRAP) algorithm combines grey relational clustering and convex assigned placement for regular ICs method to construct a placement netlist, which was successfully used to solve the problem of minimising wire length in an FPGA placement. Upon calculating the grey relational grade, GRAP can rank the sequence and analyse the minimal distance in configuration logic blocks based on the grey relational sequence and combined connection-based approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that the GRAP effectively compares the Hibert, Z and Snake with bounding box (BB) cost function in the space-filling curve. The GRAP improved BB cost by 0.753%, 0.324% and 0.096% for the Hilbert, Z and Snake, respectively. This study also compares the critical path with the space-filling curve. The GRAP approach improved the critical path for Snake by 1.3% in the space-filling curve; however, the GRAP increased critical path wire by 1.38% and 0.03% over that of the Hilbert and Z of space-filling curve, respectively.

  13. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna P. Poudel


    Full Text Available Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg. and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong. trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass equations was fitted simultaneously with a constrained seemingly unrelated regression. Additionally, a linear model that predicts total aboveground biomass as a function of DBH and height was also fitted. The predicted total biomass was then apportioned to different components according to the predicted proportions from beta, Dirichlet, and multinomial log-linear regressions. Accuracy of these methods differed between species with higher root mean squared error (RMSE being produced in red alder trees. Within species, the accuracy of the equation for bole biomass was better than the equations for other components. None of these methods stood out as a clear winner, but the multinomial log-linear regression produced marginally better results compared to other methods in terms of RMSE, except for Western hemlock bark biomass and red alder bole and branch biomass. The equations based on a seemingly unrelated regression provided lower RMSEs for those species-component combinations.

  14. Italian alder (Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. - new species for Allochtonous dendroflora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin


    Full Text Available The foreign tree species, Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. (Italian alder, (Betulaceae/Loisel./Duby, not previously recorded in the dendroflora of Serbia, is described in this paper. Italian alder trees in an experimental plot in the area of Erdevik, aged 11 years, show good vitality and fast growth, and bear fruits since their 10th year. Tree heights are in range from 10.4 to 16.2 m, and diameters at the breast height range from14.6 to 34.9 cm. The morphological properties of leaves, fruiting organs (“cones” and male catkins are in concordance with the values in literature sources, although they show great variability. Since the time of plantation establishment, the absolute minimum air temperature in the nearby meteorological station of Sremska Mitrovica was -26.50C, so it can be assumed that the species is frost hardy. On the basis of the researched properties of Italian alder, it can be concluded that this species can be cultivated in Serbia as an ornamental in urban areas and as a fast growing species in forest plantations for biomass production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  15. Thermoplastic-thermosetting merged polyimides via furan-maleimide Diels–Alder polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S. Patel


    Full Text Available Novel thermoplastic-thermosetting merged polyimide system has been developed via Diels–Alder intermolecular polymerization of bisfuran namely, 2,5-bis(furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyl terephthalic acid A with a series of bismaleimides B1–4. Thus obtained intermediate Diels–Alder adducts C1–4 were aromatized and imidized (i.e. cyclized through carboxylic and amide groups to afford thermoplastic-thermosetting merged polyimides D1–4. Bisfuran A was prepared by the condensation of pyromellitic dianhydride with furan-2-ylmethanamine and characterized by elemental, spectral, thermal and LCMS analyses. Synthesized Diels–Alder adducts C1–4 and polyimides D1–4 were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral features, number average molecular weight (Mn‾, degree of polymerization (DP and thermal analysis. To facilitate the correct structural assessment and to be able to verify the occurrence of the DA adducts and PIs, a model compound 4 was prepared from phthalic anhydride and furan-2-ylmethanamine in a similar way. FTIR spectral features of polyimides D1–4 were compared with model compound 4 and they were found to be quite identical. The ‘in situ' void-free glass fiber reinforced composites GFRC1–4 were prepared from the produced system and characterized by chemical, mechanical and electrical analyses. All the composites showed good mechanical, electrical and thermal properties and good resistance to organic solvents and mineral acids.

  16. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  17. Theory, methods and tools for determining environmental flows for riparian vegetation: Riparian vegetation-flow response guilds (United States)

    Merritt, D.M.; Scott, M.L.; Leroy, Poff N.; Auble, G.T.; Lytle, D.A.


    Riparian vegetation composition, structure and abundance are governed to a large degree by river flow regime and flow-mediated fluvial processes. Streamflow regime exerts selective pressures on riparian vegetation, resulting in adaptations (trait syndromes) to specific flow attributes. Widespread modification of flow regimes by humans has resulted in extensive alteration of riparian vegetation communities. Some of the negative effects of altered flow regimes on vegetation may be reversed by restoring components of the natural flow regime. 2. Models have been developed that quantitatively relate components of the flow regime to attributes of riparian vegetation at the individual, population and community levels. Predictive models range from simple statistical relationships, to more complex stochastic matrix population models and dynamic simulation models. Of the dozens of predictive models reviewed here, most treat one or a few species, have many simplifying assumptions such as stable channel form, and do not specify the time-scale of response. In many cases, these models are very effective in developing alternative streamflow management plans for specific river reaches or segments but are not directly transferable to other rivers or other regions. 3. A primary goal in riparian ecology is to develop general frameworks for prediction of vegetation response to changing environmental conditions. The development of riparian vegetation-flow response guilds offers a framework for transferring information from rivers where flow standards have been developed to maintain desirable vegetation attributes, to rivers with little or no existing information. 4. We propose to organise riparian plants into non-phylogenetic groupings of species with shared traits that are related to components of hydrologic regime: life history, reproductive strategy, morphology, adaptations to fluvial disturbance and adaptations to water availability. Plants from any river or region may be grouped

  18. Potential adoption of agroforestry riparian buffers based on landowner and streamside characteristics (United States)

    K.E. Trozzo; J.F. Munsell; J.L. Chamberlain; W.M. Aust


    Riparian forest buffers provide numerous environmental benefits, yet obstacles to landowner adoption are many. One barrier is the perception that riparian forest buffers are used for conservation at the expense of production. We present a study that focused on why landowners are more or less inclined to adopt native fruit and nut tree agroforestry riparian buffers that...

  19. Influences of watershed geomorphology on extent and composition of riparian vegetation (United States)

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers


    Watershed (drainage basin) morphometry and geology were derived from digital data sets (DEMs and geologic maps). Riparian corridors were classified into five vegetation types (riparian forest, riparian shrub, wet/mesic meadow, dry meadow and shrub dry meadow) using high-resolution aerial photography. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to relate geomorphic...

  20. Farm riparian land use and management: driving factors and tensions between technical and ecological functions. (United States)

    Thenail, Claudine; Baudry, Jacques


    Because of their specific role in the fate of natural resources of landscapes, riparian lands are considered as landscape management units. Yet, they are part of many farms: In what way does this influence their land use and sustainability? In this article, farm riparian land was defined as the set of riparian fields of a given farm. Our aim was to evaluate farm riparian lands as farm management units and the balance between technical and ecological functions associated with farm riparian land-use types. Technical functions designated the role of land use in elaborating farm production and maintaining farm territory. Ecological functions corresponded to farm riparian land-use intensity and ratio of permanent vegetation. The analysis was carried on 102 farms from 5 study sites representative of dairy agriculture and landscapes in a region straddling Brittany and Normandy (France). Farm riparian land-use types were identified using statistical clustering. Technical and ecological functions associated with land-use types were expressed in the light of agronomy and landscape ecology expertise. Descriptors of farm holdings and farm riparian land were tested as explanatory factors of farm riparian land-use types. The use of farm riparian lands was diverse but well defined; they proved to be farm management units. Compatibilities or antagonisms between technical and ecological functions were underscored according to farm riparian land-use type. We argued that decision support could gain in combining perspectives on riparian lands as landscape management units and farm management units.

  1. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose


    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  2. Efficiency of searching the grey literature in palliative care. (United States)

    Cook, A M; Finlay, I G; Edwards, A G; Hood, K; Higginson, I J; Goodwin, D M; Normand, C E; Douglas, H R


    A systematic review into palliative care team effectiveness was undertaken which has, inherent in its methodology, grey literature searching. Over 100 letters were written to a systematically chosen range of service providers, commissioners, and experts in combination with requests for information in six UK national cancer/palliative care organization newsletters. In addition, the System for Information on Grey Literature (SIGLE ) database was searched. As a result, 25 document hard copies were received. The documents were, in all but one case (this one study was also highlighted by the SIGLE search), not relevant as they were predominated by annual reports, service descriptions, and needs assessments. In terms of obtaining unpublished studies for possible inclusion in the review, this comprehensive search was unsuccessful and, therefore, it would appear that grey literature searching is not a useful tool in palliative care systematic reviews.

  3. Present knowledge of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus in Faroese waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarni Mikkelsen


    Full Text Available The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus is the only pinniped species breeding in the Faroe Islands. They are present all year round, and can be observed throughout the archipelago, but prefer to reside in exposed coastal areas, away from human settlements. Grey seals breed primarily in caves, common along the Faroese coastline. Systematic scientific investigations have not been conducted on grey seals in the Faroes. Present population level is presumably around 1,000 to 2,000 animals. These seals have probably been hunted since the Norse settlement in the 8th century. Apparently, this removal has prevented the population from increasing above a certain threshold. Tagging studies have demonstrated a connection with seals from UK waters,but the magnitude and influence of this movement is not known. Present biological knowledge is very limited and insufficient; this is due largely to the inaccessible nature of these seals.

  4. Inbreeding and relatedness in Scandinavian grey wolves Canis lupus. (United States)

    Ellegren, H


    Management of small and threatened populations may require detailed knowledge about the genetic status of individuals and the genetic relatedness between individuals. I show here that individual heterozygosity at a set of 29 microsatellite loci correlates closely to the degree of inbreeding in a captive grey wolf population. Microsatellite allele sharing similarly correlates closely to known relatedness between pairs of individuals. Genotyping the same markers in a small (60-70 individuals) natural population of grey wolves in Sweden, low individual heterozygosities and high values of allele sharing between some animals were found. Since inbreeding depression has been documented in a captive grey wolf population of Scandinavian origin, the results point out an additional risk for the small Swedish wild population.

  5. Green Walls as an Approach in Grey Water Treatment (United States)

    Rysulova, Martina; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vranayova, Zuzana


    Grey water contributes significantly to waste water parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (Ptotal), total nitrogen (Ntotal), ammonium, boron, metals, salts, surfactants, synthetic chemicals, oils and greases, xenobiotic substances and microorganisms. Concentration of these pollutants and the water quality highlights the importance of treatment process in grey water systems. Treatment technologies operating under low energy and maintenance are usually preferred, since they are more cost effective for users. Treatment technologies based on natural processes represent an example of such technology including vegetated wall. Main aim of this paper is to introduce the proposal of vegetated wall managing grey water and brief characteristic of proposed system. Is expected that prepared experiment will establish the purifying ability and the potential of green wall application as an efficient treatment technology.

  6. Performance of Grey Wolf Optimizer on large scale problems (United States)

    Gupta, Shubham; Deep, Kusum


    For solving nonlinear continuous problems of optimization numerous nature inspired optimization techniques are being proposed in literature which can be implemented to solve real life problems wherein the conventional techniques cannot be applied. Grey Wolf Optimizer is one of such technique which is gaining popularity since the last two years. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm on large scale optimization problems. The Algorithm is implemented on 5 common scalable problems appearing in literature namely Sphere, Rosenbrock, Rastrigin, Ackley and Griewank Functions. The dimensions of these problems are varied from 50 to 1000. The results indicate that Grey Wolf Optimizer is a powerful nature inspired Optimization Algorithm for large scale problems, except Rosenbrock which is a unimodal function.

  7. Experimental Investigations on Uprooting of Riparian Vegetation (United States)

    Francalanci, S.; Calvani, G.; Solari, L.; Gumiero, B.


    The morphology of a river reach is the result of many processes involving the motion of sediment (erosion, transport and deposition), the hydrological regime and the development and growth of vegetation. River evolution in the presence of vegetation depends on establishment of pioneer riparian seedlings on bars, and consequently on either their survival or death (Bertoldi et al, 2014). Flooding events can cause young vegetation mortality by burying it with sediment or by uprooting. Despite its important implications in river morphodynamics, interaction of vegetation with sediment transport and its decay due to high flow events have been poorly investigated in the past (Edmaier et al., 2011). In this work, we focused on vegetation uprooting by flow. Aims of the research are to define shear stress threshold and discharge/time relation for flow induced uprooting of juvenile seedlings. We considered two different types of vegetation: Avena Sativa, grown from seeds in external boxes, was used to reproduce annual grass, and Salix Purpurea, collected in the field, a more resistant shrub that can be commonly found in gravel bars. The experiments were carried out in a 5 m long flume in the Hydraulic Laboratory in Florence. The first part of the flume consisted of rigid bed, then a mobile vegetated bed was build for a length of about 2 m. The vegetation was subject to a stepwise increasing flow discharge in order to achieve the condition for quasi-instantaneous uprooting for the two species and to investigate the unit processes which can be observed in a vegetated gravel bar. Bertoldi, W., A. Siviglia, S. Tettamanti, M. Toffolon, D. Vetsch, and S. Francalanci (2014), Modeling vegetation controls on fluvial morphological trajectories, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 7167-7175, doi:10.1002/2014GL061666. Edmaier, K, P Burlando, and P Perona. 2011. `Mechanisms of Vegetation Uprooting by Flow in Alluvial Non- Cohesive Sediment'. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(5): 1615-1627.

  8. Can an Alder Disease Influence the Controls of Ecosystem Water Flux? (United States)

    Rohrs-Richey, J. K.; Mulder, C. P.; Ruess, R. W.; Winton, L. M.; Stanosz, G. R.


    In Alaska, nitrogen-fixing shrubs (Alnus spp.) comprise a large component of the vegetation and are important for water and energy flux in the Alaskan tundra, the Interior boreal forest, and south-central Alaska. Recently there has been high incidence and severity of a canker disease on Alnus which alters small scale controls (e.g., leaves, branches) of water and carbon flux and may have ecosystem scale effects in severely diseased areas. The fungal pathogen, Valsa melanodiscus (anamorph =Cytospora umbrina), kills active xylem and phloem, causes long, girdling cankers on stems, and is frequently associated with stem mortality in the thin leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia) and green alder (Alnus crispa). We are just beginning to understand how this canker disease affects the physiology of its host and the implications for water loss and carbon fixation. An inoculation experiment at the University of Alaska is currently being conducted on well-watered and water-limited green alders to: 1) monitor the response of the water transport system to infection and canker development; 2) assess the ability of colonized alders to adjust water use efficiency; and 3) measure the effect of canker development on photosynthesis. Only 4 weeks after inoculation, stems (3-5 mm diam.) with incipient cankers had an overall reduction in total daily water loss and up to 50 percent decrease in daily peak water loss. Stems with incipient cankers were also unable to attain the maximum photosynthetic rate of healthy stems, and had lower light saturation points and quantum efficiencies. Further quantification of these relationships is underway. This study, in combination with recent field measurements of sapflow, will allow us to estimate the impact of varying degrees of disease severity on stand-level water flux. Alders are a keystone species and are currently responding to climate change by expanding into the Alaska tundra, increasing abundance in northern Alaska, and migrating into river

  9. Persistent elevated nitrate in a riparian zone aquifer. (United States)

    Robertson, William D; Schiff, Sherry L


    Streamside vegetated buffer strips (riparian zones) are often assumed to be zones of ground water nitrate (NO3(-)) attenuation. At a site in southwestern Ontario (Zorra site), detailed monitoring revealed that elevated NO3(-) -N (4-93 mg L(-1)) persisted throughout a 100-m-wide riparian floodplain. Typical of riparian zones, the site has a soil zone of recent river alluvium that is organic carbon (OC) rich (36 +/- 16 g kg(-1)). This material is underlain by an older glacial outwash aquifer with a much lower OC content (2.3 +/- 2.5 g kg(-1). Examination of NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations; N/Cl ratios; and NO3(-) isotopic composition (delta15N and delta18O) provides evidence of four distinct NO3(-) source zones within the riparian environment. Denitrification occurs but is incomplete and is restricted to a narrow interval located within ~0.5 m of the alluvium-aquifer contact and to one zone (poultry manure compost zone) where elevated DOC persists from the source. In older ground water close to the river discharge point, denitrification remains insufficient to substantially deplete NO3(-). Overall, denitrification related specifically to the riparian environment is limited at this site. The persistence of NO3(-) in the aquifer at this site is a consequence of its Pleistocene age and resulting low OC content, in contrast to recent fluvial sediments in modern agricultural terrain, which, even if permeable, usually have zones enriched in labile OC. Thus, sediment age and origin are additional factors that should be considered when assessing the potential for riparian zone denitrification.

  10. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)


    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  11. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting...... in a general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  12. Case Report of dirofilariasis in grey wolf in Serbia. (United States)

    Gavrilović, Pavle; Blitva-Robertson, Gordana; Özvegy, József; Kiskároly, Ferenc; Becskei, Zsolt


    This paper describes a case of dirofilariasis in a two-year old, female grey wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The autopsy revealed the presence of 42 adult forms of Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary artery, right ventricle and right atrium, varying in length from 9.5 to 30 cm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the second report of D. immitis in grey wolves in Serbia. Our finding confirms that the wolf, as a subspecies distinct from the dog, should also be considered as a very suitable definitive host for dirofilariasis.

  13. Dancing in the grey zone between normality and risk. (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah


    Childbirth is mainly grey. The most straightforward of births can lead to unexpected, heart-stopping moments--and the highest risk woman can, despite our fears, birth without any of the imagined horrors being realised. As midwives we can choose to be paralysed with fear over this, or responsive to--and respectful of--such an amazing process. This paper discusses how midwives can learn to 'dance in the grey zone', while meeting their professional obligations and protecting women's human rights. Come dance the waltz, the tango and the hip-hop with me on the dance floor created by the 'triangle of wisdom'.

  14. Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

  15. A black alder plantation improves the greenhouse gas balance of a degraded moist peat grassland (United States)

    Bereswill, Sarah; Hoffmann, Mathias; Huth, Vytas; Popova, Yulia; Zak, Dominik; Augustin, Jürgen


    Drained peatlands are among the strongest terrestrial sources of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O. Therefore, activities of peatland revitalisation through rewetting, often combined with the implementation of peat forming vegetation, aim to restore the GHG sink function that is characteristic for pristine peatlands. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa) naturally occurs in temperate marshes and minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) and is also suitable for paludiculture, the cultivation of biomass on wet or rewetted peatlands. However, only little information exists, if a black alder plantation can reduce the climate impact of restored peatlands. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a newly established black alder plantation on the net GHG balance of a degraded fen in north-eastern Germany during a two-year study (August 2010 - August 2012). We compared the alder plantation (Awet) with an extensively used meadow (Mwet) both characterized by very moist soil conditions and a drier reference meadow (Mdry) characterized by moderately moist soil conditions. CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured monthly to bi-monthly with the manual closed chamber method. Fluxes were calculated using a modular R script and gap filled to obtain continuous daily fluxes. Awet was a net GHG sink of -4.8 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1, Mwet was climate neutral (-0.03 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), and Mdry was a net GHG source of 15.7 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1. This was mainly caused by CO2 uptake at the two very moist sites and a high CO2 release at the drier reference site. In addition, Awet was a larger CO2 sink than Mwet, likely caused by an additional CO2 uptake of the alder stand. All sites were significant CH4 sources. Due to inundation following extraordinarily heavy precipitation in summer 2011 remarkable CH4emission peaks were found on all sites which accounted for up to 70 % of the cumulated two-year CH4emissions. However, overall Awet emitted significantly lesser CH4(4.9 g C m-2 yr-1). We assume that the black

  16. Transport and transformation of nitrate in a riparian wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Prinds, Christian; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    the load of nitrogen from agricultural fields to fresh water bodies. One initiative is moving from a uniform regulation of nitrogen application to a spatially differentiated regulation where less fertilizer should be applied to vulnerable areas. This leads to the identification of vulnerable and robust...... areas, in which riparian wetlands plays an important role. The present case study investigates the transport and transformation of nitrate entering a riparian wetland via drain water from surrounding agricultural areas. The drain pipes are cut off at the hillslope and drain water irrigates the wetland...

  17. Field experimental evidence for diffuse competition among Southwestern riparian birds. (United States)

    Bock, C E; Cruz, A; Grant, M C; Aid, C S; Strong, T R


    In a 6-yr study of 70 generally insectivorous bird species in Arizona riparian woodlands, abundances of cavity-nesting species increased on 50 experimental plots compared with 49 control plots, following addition of artificial nest boxes. Open-nesting birds increased in abundance on control plots during the study but avoided experimental plots relative to control plots after box addition. Multivariate analysis revealed that a negative response of open nesters to the experiment was widespread among a large and ecologically diverse group of species. Results of this field experiment suggest that communitywide (diffuse) competition was an important factor influencing the distribution and abundance of birds in these riparian ecosystems.

  18. Biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogels to control release of dexamethasone through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry for adipose tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Zhang, Ziwei; Mao, Jiahui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Tan, Huaping, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Hu, Xiaohong [School of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China)


    A robust synthetic strategy of biopolymer-based hydrogels has been developed where hyaluronic acid derivatives reacted through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry without the involvement of chemical catalysts, allowing for control and sustain release of dexamethasone. To conjugate the hydrogel, furan and maleimide functionalized hyaluronic acid were synthesized, respectively, as well as furan functionalized dexamethasone, for the covalent immobilization. Chemical structure, gelation time, morphologies, swelling kinetics, weight loss, compressive modulus and dexamethasone release of the hydrogel system in PBS at 37 °C were studied. The results demonstrated that the aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry provides an extremely selective reaction and proceeds with high efficiency for hydrogel conjugation and covalent immobilization of dexamethasone. Cell culture results showed that the dexamethasone immobilized hydrogel was noncytotoxic and preserved proliferation of entrapped human adipose-derived stem cells. This synthetic approach uniquely allows for the direct fabrication of biologically functionalized gel scaffolds with ideal structures for adipose tissue engineering, which provides a competitive alternative to conventional conjugation techniques such as copper mediated click chemistry. - Highlights: • A biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogel was crosslinked via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone was covalently immobilized into the hyaluronic acid hydrogel via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone could be released from the Diels–Alder hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a controlled fashion.

  19. Dimerization of quercetin, Diels-Alder vs. radical-coupling approach: a joint thermodynamics, kinetics, and topological study. (United States)

    Fourré, Isabelle; Di Meo, Florent; Podloucká, Pavlína; Otyepka, Michal; Trouillas, Patrick


    Quercetin is a prototypical antioxidant and prominent member of flavonoids, a large group of natural polyphenols. The oxidation of quercetin may lead to its dimerization, which is a paradigm of the more general polyphenol oligomerization. There exist two opposing mechanisms to describe the dimerization process, namely radical-coupling or Diels-Alder reactions. This work presents a comprehensive rationalization of this dimerization process, acquired from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is found that the two-step radical-coupling pathway is thermodynamically and kinetically preferred over the Diels-Alder reaction. This is in agreement with the experimental results showing the formation of only one isomer, whereas the Diels-Alder mechanism would yield two isomers. The evolution in bonding, occurring during these two processes, is investigated using the atoms in molecules (AIM) and electron localization function (ELF) topological approaches. It is shown that some electron density is accumulated between the fragments in the transition state of the radical-coupling reaction, but not in the transition state of the Diels-Alder process. Graphical Abstract Quantum chemistry calculations of the dimerization process of quercetin show that a radical coupling approach is preferred to a Diels-Alder type reaction, in agreement with experimental results. Analysis of the bonding evolution highlights the reaction mechanism.

  20. The Diels-Alder reaction: A powerful tool for the design of drug delivery systems and biomaterials. (United States)

    Gregoritza, Manuel; Brandl, Ferdinand P


    Click reactions have the potential to greatly facilitate the development of drug delivery systems and biomaterials. These reactions proceed under mild conditions, give high yields, and form only inoffensive by-products. The Diels-Alder cycloaddition is one of the click reactions that do not require any metal catalyst; it is one of the most useful reactions in synthetic organic chemistry and material design. Herein, we highlight possible applications of the Diels-Alder reaction in pharmaceutics and biomedical engineering. Particular focus is placed on the synthesis of polymers and dendrimers for drug delivery, the preparation of functionalized surfaces, bioconjugation techniques, and applications of the Diels-Alder reaction in nanotechnology. Moreover, applications of the reaction for the preparation of hydrogels for drug delivery and tissue engineering are reviewed. A general introduction to the Diels-Alder reaction is presented, along with a discussion of potential pitfalls and challenges. At the end of the article, we provide a set of tools that may facilitate the application of the Diels-Alder reaction to solve important pharmaceutical or biomedical problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyrrole PMOs, incorporating new N-heterocyclic compounds on an ethene-PMO through Diels–Alder reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Dolores; De Canck, Els [Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César [Department of Organic Chemistry, Nanochemistry and Fine Chemistry Research Institute (IUIQFN), Faculty of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Marie Curie Building, Ctra. Nnal. IV, km 396, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Romero-Salguero, Francisco J., E-mail: [Department of Organic Chemistry, Nanochemistry and Fine Chemistry Research Institute (IUIQFN), Faculty of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Marie Curie Building, Ctra. Nnal. IV, km 396, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Van Der Voort, Pascal, E-mail: [Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)


    The ethenylene bridges on the walls of an ethenylene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica were successfully modified with a variety of pyrrole derivatives – pyrrole, methylpyrrole, dimethylpyrrole, trimethylpyrrole and 1-phenylpyrrole – through Diels–Alder reactions. X-ray diffraction measurements and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption analysis confirmed the preservation of the ordering and mesoporosity of the parent material as well as the decoration of the pores with the surface Diels–Alder adducts. Moreover, other techniques such as DRIFT, {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonances revealed the formation of the surface N-heterocyclic compounds at the parent ethenylene sites. - Highlights: • Chemical modification of the double bonds on an ethene-PMO through the Diels–Alder reaction. • A family of pyrrole derivatives act as dienes in the Diels–Alder reaction. • Well-ordering and mesoporosity are retained after the post-functionalization. • N-containing compounds on the surface of ethene-PMO are present after the Diels–Alder reaction.

  2. Comparison of terrestrial invertebrate biomass and richness in young mixed red alder-conifer, young conifer, and old conifer stands of southeast Alaska. (United States)

    Mark E. Schultz; Toni L. De Santo


    Coniferous stands that regenerate following clearcutting in southeast Alaska can be characterized by the amount of soil disturbance during logging. There are indications that red alder in mixed stands mitigates some of the negative effects of clearcutting. We compared invertebrate biomass in four stands each of (1) young conifers, (2) young mixed alder and conifer, and...

  3. Comparative effects of urea fertilizer and red alder in a site III, coast Douglas-fir plantation in the Washington Cascade Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Marshall Murray; Rick. Leon


    Five randomly assigned treatments were used to quantify effects of adding varying numbers of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) or nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of a 10-year-old conifer plantation at a medium quality site in the western Washington Cascade Range. Zero, 20, 40, and 80 alder trees per acre were retained along with about 300 conifers...

  4. Domino Aza-Michael-ih-Diels-Alder Reaction to Various 3-Vinyl-1,2,4-triazines: Access to Polysubstituted Tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridines. (United States)

    Jouha, Jabrane; Buttard, Floris; Lorion, Magali; Berthonneau, Clément; Khouili, Mostafa; Hiebel, Marie-Aude; Guillaumet, Gérald; Brière, Jean-François; Suzenet, Franck


    A straightforward domino aza-Michael-inverse-electron-demand-hetero-Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder reaction between primary and secondary propargylamine derivatives and 3-vinyl-1,2,4-triazines is developed highlighting not only the uniqueness of this dual-heterocyclic platform but also a novel and unprecedented path to polysubstituted tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridine scaffolds.

  5. alpha,beta-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles as a practical class of dienophiles for the DNA-Based catalytic asymmetric diels-alder reaction in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.J.; Feringa, B.L.; Roelfes, G.


    alpha,beta-Unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles are a novel and practical class of dienophiles for the DNA-based catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction in water. The Diels-Alder products are obtained with very high diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities in the range of 83-98%. The catalytic

  6. Enantioselective Cu-II-Catalyzed Diels-Alder and Michael Addition Reactions in Water Using Bio-Inspired Triazacyclophane-Based Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H. Bauke; Rosati, Fiora; Coquiere, David; Roelfes, Gerard; Liskamp, Rob M. J.

    A triazacyclophane (TAC) scaffold decorated with three histidine amino acid residues was used as a tridentate ligand in asymmetric copper(II)-catalysed Diels-Alder and Michael addition reactions in water. Enantiomeric excesses up to 55% were obtained in Diels-Alder reactions using ligands in which

  7. Solvent effects on a Diels-Alder reaction involving a cationic diene: Consequences of the absence of hydrogen-bond interactions for accelerations in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, Gerben K.; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    In order to study the influence of hydrogen-bond interactions on the accelerations of Diels-Alder reactions in water and highly aqueous mixed solvent systems, second-order rate constants for the Diels-Alder reaction of acridizinium bromide (1a) with cyclopentadiene (CP) have been measured in aqueous

  8. Reaction of Aldehydes/Ketones with Electron-Deficient 1,3,5-Triazines Leading to Functionalized Pyrimidines as Diels-Alder/Retro-Diels-Alder Reaction Products: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Studies. (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Dang, Qun; Cai, Pei-Jun; Gao, Yang; Yu, Zhi-Xiang; Bai, Xu


    Catalytic inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reactions of heterocyclic aza-dienes are rarely reported since highly reactive and electron-rich dienophiles are often found not compatible with strong acids such as Lewis acids. Herein, we disclose that TFA-catalyzed reactions of electron-deficient 1,3,5-triazines and electron-deficient aldehydes/ketones can take place. These reactions led to highly functionalized pyrimidines as products in fair to good yields. The reaction mechanism was carefully studied by the combination of experimental and computational studies. The reactions involve a cascade of stepwise inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (ihDA) reactions, followed by retro-Diels-Alder (rDA) reactions and elimination of water. An acid was required for both ihDA and rDA reactions. This mechanism was further verified by comparing the relative reactivity of aldehydes/ketones and their corresponding vinyl ethers in the current reaction system.

  9. A Grey-Box Dynamic Model of Plate Heat Exchangers Used in an Urban Heating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingwei Miao; Shijun You; Wandong Zheng; Xuejing Zheng; Huan Zhang; Yaran Wang


    .... In the grey-box method, a newly developed parameter identification method was established. The simulation results of two outlet temperatures by the grey-box and white-box method, respectively, are compared with the test data...

  10. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses. (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf


    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  11. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  12. Distribution and Growth of Grey Triggerfish, Balistes capriscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grey triggerfish, Balistes capriscus, resource had declined for nearly two decades in West African waters; its distribution and growth remain to be reported after late 1980s. In order to fill this gap, specimens were collected during small pelagic fish stock assessment surveys in 2005 in coastal waters of Benin, Togo, ...

  13. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Hammond, Philip S.


    Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are adaptable generalist predatorswhose diet includes commercial fish species such as cod. Consumption by the seals may reduce the size of some fish stocks or have an adverse effect on stock recovery programmes, especially because predation may trap sparse prey pop...

  14. Collecting Grey Literature : A British Library Lending Division Perspective (United States)

    Chillag, John

    Grey literature in its various aspects presents many problems for producers, intermediaries and end users. The paper describes the British Library Lending Division's activities in this field in the hope that organizations elsewhere will find some of them helpful in overcoming similar difficulties.

  15. A subfossil half-mandible of a Grey Seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.


    The fortuitous discovery, in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History at Leiden, of a probably subfossil right half-mandible of a Grey Seal is reported. A short description of the piece is given and it is compared with some other recent, subfossil and fossil material.

  16. Status of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Tormod Nilssen


    Full Text Available During the period September-December in 2001-2003, ship based surveys of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus pups, including tagging, counting and staging of pups, were conducted along the Norwegian coast. All known and other potential breeding areas were surveyed from Rogaland county in the south to Finnmark county in the north. Most of the breeding sites were surveyed only once, but some sites were surveyed 2-4 times. The investigations resulted in a total minimum estimate of 1,159 grey seal pups born in Norwegian waters. Nordland county was the most important breeding area where about 50% of the pups were born. Total population estimates were derived from the recorded number of pups born using a range of multipliers (4.0-4.7, based on observed annual growth rates of approximately 7-12% in other grey seal populations. This gave a total estimate of about 5,800-6,600 grey seals including pups in Norwegian waters. However, the total pup production was probably underestimated due to only one pup count in most of the breeding sites. Observed mean pup mortality was 1.1% during the breeding season along the Norwegian coast.

  17. Volatile fatty acid production in the grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile fatty acid production was studied in the rumen and caecum of culled grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmial and in the rumen of tame fistulated duikers. The caecum had a higher total VFA concentration and production rate per unit volume than the rumen but when considering total volume the caecum was only 14-17% of ...

  18. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI


    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  19. Grey matter changes in cognitively impaired Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rektorova

    Full Text Available Cortical changes associated with cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD are not fully explored and require investigations with established diagnostic classification criteria.We used MRI source-based morphometry to evaluate specific differences in grey matter volume patterns across 4 groups of subjects: healthy controls (HC, PD with normal cognition (PD-NC, PD with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-PD and PD with dementia (PDD.We examined 151 consecutive subjects: 25 HC, 75 PD-NC, 29 MCI-PD, and 22 PDD at an Italian and Czech movement disorder centre. Operational diagnostic criteria were applied to classify MCI-PD and PDD. All structural MRI images were processed together in the Czech centre. The spatial independent component analysis was used to assess group differences of local grey matter volume.We identified two independent patterns of grey matter volume deviations: a Reductions in the hippocampus and temporal lobes; b Decreases in fronto-parietal regions and increases in the midbrain/cerebellum. Both patterns differentiated PDD from all other groups and correlated with visuospatial deficits and letter verbal fluency, respectively. Only the second pattern additionally differentiated PD-NC from HC.Grey matter changes in PDD involve areas associated with Alzheimer-like pathology while fronto-parietal abnormalities are possibly an early marker of PD cognitive decline. These findings are consistent with a non-linear cognitive progression in PD.

  20. Breeding biology of African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The KNP is bordered to the. South by Kom River which is the natural border between Cameroon ... and more often the leaves of the trees (Tamungang et al., 2016). Throughout their life, grey parrots and other ... every year). The observation was made using binoculars while we hid in a shelter so as not to disturb couples.

  1. Leydig cell tumor in grey zone: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muheilan Mustafa Muheilan


    Conclusion: Inguinal orchiectomy is the therapeutic decision of choice and long-term follow-up is necessary to exclude recurrence or metastasis. Cases which fall in the grey zone like ours need to be followed up carefully for metastasis instead of rushing into an early retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, with its potential risks and complications.

  2. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik


    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  3. Distribution and Growth of Grey Triggerfish, Balistes capriscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    beginning of the 1980s in the Canary current (Caverivière, 1982; Stromme et al., 1982). There are reports that two separate stocks of grey triggerfish used to occur in the Gulf of Guinea – the eastern stock which occurred off Ghana and the western stock off Guinea Bissau and Guinea (Stromme et al.,. 1982; Stromme, 1983 ...

  4. Grey Crowned Cranes Balearica regulorum in urban areas of Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    landscapes: the case of Crowned Crane breeding and distribution outside Protected Areas in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48: 119–125. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980a. Aspects of the ecology of Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum in Uganda. Scopus 4: 29–35. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980b. Growth and plumage changes of the Grey ...

  5. Fos expression in the midbrain periaqueductal grey after trigeminovascular stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoskin, KL; Bulmer, DCE; Lasalandra, M; Jonkman, A; Goadsby, PJ

    There is an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that the periaqueductal grey (PAG) is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans have shown that the caudal ventrolateral midbrain, encompassing the ventrolateral PAG, has activations during

  6. Abundance, movements and habitat use by African Grey Parrots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of African Grey Parrots are threatened by increased forest loss and the pet trade. Budongo forest reserve has, for over 60 years, been subjected to selective logging. Mabira forest reserve faces human pressures characterised by extractive disturbances, and agricultural activities with increased boundary ...

  7. Global population structure and demographic history of the grey seal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimova, A.; Phillips, C. D.; Fietz, Katharina


    a little over 10 000 years ago, consistent with the last proposed isolation of the Baltic Sea. Approximate Bayesian computation also identified genetic signals consistent with postglacial population expansion across much of the species range, suggesting that grey seals are highly responsive to changes...

  8. Estimation of intrinsic volumes from digital grey-scale images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Local algorithms are common tools for estimating intrinsic volumes from black-and-white digital images. However, these algorithms are typically biased in the design based setting, even when the resolution tends to infinity. Moreover, images recorded in practice are most often blurred grey...

  9. Adorno’s Grey, Taussig’s Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon; De Cock, Christian


    theory and organization studies, we discuss colour as a primary phenomenon for the study of ‘critical affect’. We then trace colour’s affect in conditioning the unfolding of organization in two particular ‘colour/spaces’ – Adorno’s grey and Taussig’s blue of our title – and discuss both its ambiguity...

  10. Dynamic neo-corporatism in a grey zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    on policy formulation and permanent involvement in implementation within specific policy areas. Secondly, that the division of labour between state and social partners have started to erode and a ‘grey zone' has developed, where the state and the social partners have to define new divisions of labour...

  11. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review


    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-ping; ZHOU, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; SAVOLAINEN, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong


    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China, published by Princeton University Pres...

  12. OpenGrey - jak funguje a jak se používá


    Stock, Christiane


    OpenGrey is a unique repository providing open access to European grey literature references, the result of 25 years of cooperation. This paper presents the features of the new website, successor to OpenSIGLE, and reports on lessons learned from the transfer of metadata between platforms. OpenGrey usage data and feedback information support our advocacy for more grey literature in repositories.

  13. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell


    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  14. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.


    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  15. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen


    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  16. Effects of riparian vegetation development in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, A.; Crosato, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Groot, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.


    This paper presents the morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth in a lowland restored stream. Hydrological series, high-resolution bathymetric data and aerial photographs are combined in the study. The vegetation root system was found to assert a strong control on soil stabilization,

  17. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  18. Sex and the single Salix: considerations for riparian restoration (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; David R. Dreesen; R. Kasten Dumroese


    Most restoration projects strive to create a sustain able plant community but exclusive use of vegetatively propagated material may be preventing this goal. The dioecious willows and cottonwoods of the Salicaceae are widely used in riparian restoration projects. Hardwood cuttings have traditionally been used to propagate these species in nurseries, and live stakes,...

  19. Linked in: connecting riparian areas to support forest biodiversity (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Kelly Burnett; Deanna Olson


    Many forest-dwelling species rely on both terrestrial and aquatic habitat for their survival. These species, including rare and little-understood amphibians and arthropods, live in and around headwater streams and disperse overland to neighboring headwater streams. Forest management policies that rely on riparian buffer strips and structurebased management—practices...

  20. Transpirational water loss in invaded and restored semiarid riparian forests (United States)

    Georgianne W. Moore; M. Keith Owens


    The invasive tree, Tamarix sp., was introduced to the United States in the 1800s to stabilize stream banks. The riparian ecosystem adjacent to the middle Rio Grande River in central NewMexico consists of mature cottonwood (Populus fremontii ) gallery forests with a dense Tamarix understory. We hypothesized that Populus would compensate for reduced competition by...

  1. Recovery of the Chaparral Riparian Zone After Wildfire (United States)

    Frank W. Davis; Edward A. Keller; Anuja Parikh; Joan Florsheim


    After the Wheeler Fire in southern California in July 1985, we monitored sediment deposition and vegetation recovery in a section of the severely burned chaparral riparian zone of the North Fork of Matilija Creek, near Ojai, California. Increased runoff was accompanied by low magnitude debris flows and fluvial transport of gravel, most of which was added to the channel...

  2. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)


    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  3. Panel - People and riparian ecosystems: Past, present, and future (United States)

    Richard D. Periman; Carol Raish; Frank E. Wozniak; David S. Brookshire; Michael McKee; Christian Schmidt; Tony Barron


    The purpose of this panel is to review past, present, and future human needs and desires associated with riparian environments. Our focus concerns the diverse demands, interactions, and expectations that people have for the riverine lands. The discussion is designed to take place within historic, economic, and social/cultural contexts.

  4. Fire history of coniferous riparian forests in the Sierra Nevada (United States)

    K. Van de Water; M. North


    Fire is an important ecological process in many western U.S. coniferous forests, yet high fuel loads, rural home construction and other factors have encouraged the suppression of most wildfires. Using mechanical thinning and prescribed burning, land managers often try to reduce fuels in strategic areas with the highest fuel loads. Riparian forests, however, are often...

  5. Interpreting Physiological Data from Riparian Vegetation: Cautions and Complications (United States)

    John G. Williams


    Water potential and stomatal conductance are important indicators of the response of vegetation to manipulations of riparian systems. However, interpretation of measurements of these variables is not always straightforward. An extensive monitoring program along the Carmel River in central California, carried out by the Monterey Peninsula Water Management District,...

  6. Riparian trees as common denominators across the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 4, 2014 ... riparian species are adapted to survive under each of these different flow regimes by making use of surface, ground, soil, rainwater, or some ... These water sources are available to varying degrees, depending on local climatic, hydrological .... allow the same diversity of aquatic and semi-aquatic fauna and.

  7. Influence of microtopography on soil chemistry and understory riparian vegetation (United States)

    Irene M. Unger; Rose-Marie Muzika


    The success of riparian forest restoration efforts depends in part on an understanding of the relationship between soil characteristics and vegetation patterns and how these change with site conditions. To examine these relationships for floodplains in northern Missouri, we chose three unchannelized streams as study areas. A sampling grid was established at two plots...

  8. Planting aspen to rehabilitate riparian areas: a pilot study (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Stephen A. Mata


    We planted 742 greenhouse-grown containerized aspen seedlings in the riparian area of Hurd Creek on the Arapaho National Forest east of Tabernash, Colorado. Objectives were to (1) determine whether aspen seedlings can be planted in an operational setting and survive in sufficient numbers to successfully establish a mature aspen stand and (2) determine the effectiveness...

  9. Placement of riparian forest buffers to improve water quality (United States)

    Mark D. Tomer; Michael G. Dosskey; Michael R. Burkart; David E. James; Matthew J. Helmers; Dean E. Eisenhauer


    Riparian forest buffers can improve stream water quality, provided they intercept and remove contaminants from surface runoff and/or shallow groundwater. Soils, topography, hydrology, and surficial geology detemine the capability of forest buffers to intercept and treat these flows. This paper describes landscape analysis techniques for identifying and mapping...

  10. Identifying spatially integrated floodplains/riparian areas and wetlands (United States)

    Floodplain delineation may play an important role in managing wetlands and riparian areas at multiple scales - local, state, and federal. This poster demonstrates multiple GIS-based approaches to delimiting floodplains and contrasts these with observed flooding events from a majo...

  11. Nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in riparian ecosystems along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 5, 2011 ... Keywords: Berg River, dam, nutrient dynamics, silica, nitrogen, phosphorus, vegetation, sediment. Introduction. The Cape Region ... impoundments have changed the hydrology of the upper catch- ment. This combination of .... Vegetation, sediment and pore water in riparian ecosystems were collected at 4 ...

  12. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economic feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe


    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through a literat......A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through...... a literature study and by using a method developed during the study for first hand assessment and comparison of biorefinery system characteristics. The management of an average alder plantation in a 6-year coppicing system was found to fixate atmospheric nitrogen to the soil in yearly rates between 50 and 200...

  13. A Diels-Alder super diene breaking benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units (United States)

    Inagaki, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira


    Cyclic polyene with six carbon atoms (benzene) is very stable, whereas cyclic polyene with four carbon atoms (cyclobutadiene) is extremely unstable. The electron-withdrawing pentafluorophenyl group of a substituted cyclobutadiene lowers the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, greatly increasing its reactivity as a diene in Diels-Alder reactions with acetylene, ethylene and even benzene. Here we show that the reaction with benzene occurs cleanly at the relatively low temperature of 120 °C and results in the formal fragmentation of benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units, via a unique Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder reaction. This is a new example of the rare case where breaking the C-C bond of benzene is possible with no activation by a transition metal.

  14. Riparian erosion vulnerability model based on environmental features. (United States)

    Botero-Acosta, Alejandra; Chu, Maria L; Guzman, Jorge A; Starks, Patrick J; Moriasi, Daniel N


    Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify areas along the riparian zone that are susceptible to erosion. The methodology was developed by integrating the physically-based watershed model MIKE-SHE, to simulate water movement, and a habitat suitability model, MaxEnt, to quantify the probability of presences of elevation changes (i.e., erosion) across the watershed. The presences of elevation changes were estimated based on two LiDAR-based elevation datasets taken in 2009 and 2012. The changes in elevation were grouped into four categories: low (0.5 - 0.7 m), medium (0.7 - 1.0 m), high (1.0 - 1.7 m) and very high (1.7 - 5.9 m), considering each category as a studied "species". The categories' locations were then used as "species location" map in MaxEnt. The environmental features used as constraints to the presence of erosion were land cover, soil, stream power index, overland flow, lateral inflow, and discharge. The modeling framework was evaluated in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed in southcentral Oklahoma. Results showed that the most vulnerable areas for erosion were located at the upper riparian zones of the Cobb and Lake sub-watersheds. The main waterways of these sub-watersheds were also found to be prone to streambank erosion. Approximatively 80% of the riparian zone (streambank

  15. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China. (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying


    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  16. Characterization and treatment of grey water : option for (re)use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.


    Addressing the issues of water shortage and appropriate sanitation in Jordan, domestic grey water treatment receives growing interest. Grey water comprises the domestic wastewater flows excluding waters associated with the toilet. The topics of concern for grey water are its characteristics,

  17. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge | Eriksson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and acids; selected metals and basic parameters as well as characterization of the organic matter content by oxygen utilization rate (OUR). The grey-water sludge ...

  18. Measurement and clinical effect of grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, J.J.G.; Calabrese, M.; Fisher, E.; Rudick, R.A.


    During the past 10 years, the intense involvement of the grey matter of the CNS in the pathology of multiple sclerosis has become evident. On gross inspection, demyelination in the grey matter is rather inconspicuous, and lesions in the grey matter are mostly undetectable with traditional MRI

  19. 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory Riparian Inventory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hathcock, Charles D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keller, David C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zemlick, Catherine M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A total length of 36.7 kilometers of riparian habitat were inventoried within LANL boundaries between 2007 and 2011. The following canyons and lengths of riparian habitat were surveyed and inventoried between 2007 and 2011. Water Canyon (9,669 m), Los Alamos Canyon (7,131 m), Pajarito Canyon (6,009 m), Mortandad Canyon (3,110 m), Two-Mile Canyon (2,680 m), Sandia Canyon (2,181 m), Three-Mile Canyon (1,883 m), Canyon de Valle (1,835 m), Ancho Canyon (1,143 m), Canada del Buey (700 m), Sandia Canyon (221 m), DP Canyon (159 m) and Chaquehui Canyon (50 m). Effluent Canyon, Fence Canyon and Potrillo Canyon were surveyed but no areas of riparian habitat were found. Stretches of inventoried riparian habitat were classified for prioritization of treatment, if any was recommended. High priority sites included stretches of Mortandad Canyon, LA Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, Two-Mile Canyon, Sandia Canyon and Water Canyon. Recommended treatment for high priority sites includes placement of objects into the stream channel to encourage sediment deposition, elimination of channel incision, and to expand and slow water flow across the floodplain. Additional stretches were classified as lower priority, and, for other sites it was recommended that feral cattle and exotic plants be removed to aid in riparian habitat recovery. In June 2011 the Las Conchas Wildfire burned over 150,000 acres of land in the Jemez Mountains and surrounding areas. The watersheds above LA Canyon, Water Canyon and Pajarito Canyon were burned in the Las Conchas Wildfire and flooding and habitat alteration were observed in these canyon bottoms (Wright 2011). Post fire status of lower priority areas may change to higher priority for some of the sites surveyed prior to the Las Conchas Wildfire, due to changes in vegetation cover in the adjacent upland watershed.

  20. Mechanisms and Origins of Selectivities of the Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reactions between Arylallenes and Acrylates. (United States)

    Yu, Peiyuan; Li, Wei; Houk, K N


    The mechanisms of recently reported Lewis acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions of arylallenes and acrylates were studied using density functional theory calculations. A stepwise mechanism involving short-lived zwitterion intermediates is established. The reaction is endo-selective in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst. The [2 + 2] cycloaddition is not observed because of the greater charge separation in the first step of the [2 + 2] cycloaddition. The origins of chirality transfer in the Diels-Alder reaction using chiral arylallenes are uncovered, and the absolute stereochemistry of the product is predicted.

  1. Enantio- and Stereoselective Construction of Atisane Scaffold via Organocatalytic Intramolecular Michael Reaction and Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    Sekita, Hiroko; Adachi, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Ippei; Sato, Yusuke; Nakada, Masahisa


    An enantio- and stereoselective construction of the atisane scaffold via organocatalytic intramolecular Michael reaction and Diels-Alder reaction is described. The organocatalytic intramolecular Michael reaction has been found to stereoselectively generate a trans-stereodiad comprising an all-carbon quaternary and a tertiary stereogenic centers. Use of the chiral secondary amine bearing thiourea with benzoic acid as additive is the key to obtaining the desired product with excellent ee in synthetically acceptable yield. The prepared chiral building block has been successfully converted to the compound including the atisane scaffold via the highly stereoselective intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction.

  2. Nitropyrroles, Diels-Alder reactions assisted by microwave irradiation and solvent effect. An experimental and theoretical study (United States)

    Mancini, Pedro M. E.; Kneeteman, María N.; Cainelli, Mauro; Ormachea, Carla M.; Domingo, Luis R.


    The behaviors of N-tosylnitropyrroles acting as electrophilic dienophiles in polar Diels-Alder reactions joint to different dienes of increeased nucleophilicity are analyzed. The reactions were developed under microwave irradiation using toluene or protic ionic liquids (PILs) as solvents and in free solvent conditions. In all the cases explored we observed good yields in short reaction times. For these reactions, the free solvent condition and the use of protic ionic liquids as solvents offer similar results. However, the free solvent conditions favor environmental sustainability. The role of PILs in these polar Diels-Alder reactions has been theoretically studied within the Molecular Electron Density Theory.

  3. Total synthesis of (-)-aritasone via the ultra-high pressure hetero-Diels-Alder dimerisation of (-)-pinocarvone. (United States)

    Uroos, Maliha; Pitt, Phillip; Harwood, Laurence M; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Hayes, Christopher J


    This paper describes a total synthesis of the terpene-derived natural product aritasone via the hetero-Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cyclodimerisation of pinocarvove, which represents the proposed biosyntheic route. The hetero-Diels-Alder dimerisation of pinocarvone did not proceed under standard conditions, and ultra-high pressure (19.9 kbar) was required. As it seems unlikely that these ultra-high pressures are accessible within a plant cell, we suggest that the original biosynthetic hypothesis be reconsidered, and alternatives are discussed.

  4. Aqueous catalysis: Methylrhenium trioxide (MTO) as a homogeneous catalyst for the Diels-Alder reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, J.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The title compound proves to be an effective and efficient catalyst for the Diels-Alder reaction when the dienophile is an {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketone or aldehyde. It is especially effective in water. Equal amounts of any such dienophile and any of six representative dienes (isoprene, 2-methyl-1,3-pentadiene, 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, cyclopentadiene, 1,2,3,4,5,-pentamethylcyclopentadiene, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene) were used, along with 1% MTO. The reactions gave usually > 90% isolated yield of the cycloaddition product except for the larger dienophiles. Nearly exclusively, there was formed one product isomer, the same one that usually predominates. The reactions were often run in chloroform (mostly) and in other organic solvents. A select number were carried out in water, where the reactions gave a greater product yield in a considerably shorter time. Water, itself, is known to enhance the rates of Diels-Alder reactions, but MTO exerts an additional accelerating effect. Kinetics studies were carried out to show that the rate is proportional to the catalyst concentration. The products do not inhibit the reaction. The desirability of MTO as a Diels-Alder catalyst stems from a combination of favorable properties: the inertness to air/oxygen, the tolerance for many substrates, the use of an aqueous medium, and the absence of product inhibition. The initial step appears to be the (weak) coordination of the carbonyl oxygen to the electropositive rhenium center. Steric crowding around rhenium inhibits reactions of the larger dienophiles. 26 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A Diels-Alder Reaction Between A Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Component and Benzoquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman WM


    Full Text Available A notable amount of research has been placed toward understanding the roles of benzoquinone (Q and hydroquinone (HQ in the chemistry and toxicity of cigarette smoke. To further understanding of the roles of these compounds in cigarette smoke, a series of reactions were performed wherein the levels and chemistries of Q and HQ were monitored after having been added to selected phases of the mainstream smoke from 2R4F cigarettes. Through the application of both fundamental organic chemistry reaction mechanistic principles and qualitative analysis of smoke chemistry, a new reaction pathway for mainstream smoke components was elucidated. During the course of these investigations, the presence of a product from a Diels-Alder reaction between a 2R4F cigarette mainstream smoke component and Q was discovered. Data from carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR, gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED, and gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD revealed a Diels-Alder reaction product resulting from the reaction of benzoquinone (Q, a dienophile, and 1,3-cyclopentadiene, a diene, to yield tricyclo[,7] undeca-4,9-diene-3,6-dione, more commonly referred to as cyclopentadienebenzoquinone. The reaction between Q and 1,3-cyclopentadiene was observed to have occurred when fresh mainstream vapor phase smoke (MSVP from a 2R4F cigarette, captured in acetone, was subsequently treated with Q. Other 13C containing species were detected but inadequate signal to noise values prevented structural assignments. Accompanying the Diels-Alder reaction was an additional reaction of Q to form hydroquinone (HQ. These reactions provide additional information on the complexity of cigarette smoke, particularly as it relates to possible reactions involving Q and HQ and other cigarette smoke components.

  6. Hillslope hydrologic connectivity controls riparian groundwater turnover: Implications of catchment structure for riparian buffering and stream water sources (United States)

    Kelsey G. Jencso; Brian L. McGlynn; Michael N. Gooseff; Kenneth E. Bencala; Steven M. Wondzell


    Hydrologic connectivity between catchment upland and near stream areas is essential for the transmission of water, solutes, and nutrients to streams. However, our current understanding of the role of riparian zones in mediating landscape hydrologic connectivity and the catchment scale export of water and solutes is limited. We tested the relationship between the...

  7. Riparian vegetation dynamics and evapotranspiration in the riparian corridor in the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico (United States)

    Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Hinojosa-Huerta, O.; Zamora, F.; Howard, K. J.


    Like other great desert rivers, the Colorado River in the United States and Mexico is highly regulated to provide water for human use. No water is officially allotted to support the natural ecosystems in the delta of the river in Mexico. However, precipitation is inherently variable in this watershed, and from 1981-2004, 15% of the mean annual flow of the Lower Colorado River has entered the riparian corridor below the last diversion point for water in Mexico. These flows include flood releases from US dams and much smaller administrative spills released back to the river from irrigators in the US and Mexico. These flows have germinated new cohorts of native cottonwood and willow trees and have established an active aquatic ecosystem in the riparian corridor in Mexico. We used ground and remote-sensing methods to determine the composition and fractional cover of the vegetation in the riparian corridor, its annual water consumption, and the sources of water that support the ecosystem. The study covered the period 2000-2004, a flood year followed by 4 dry years. The riparian corridor occupies 30,000 ha between flood control levees in Mexico. Annual evapotranspiration (ET), estimated by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite imagery calibrated against moisture flux tower data, was about 1.1 m yr-1 and was fairly constant throughout the study period despite a paucity of surface flows 2001-2004. Total ET averaged 3.4??108 m3 yr-1, about 15% of Colorado River water entering Mexico from the US Surface flows could have played only a small part in supporting these high ET losses. We conclude that the riparian ET is supported mainly by the shallow regional aquifer, derived from agricultural return flows, that approaches the surface in the riparian zone. Nevertheless, surface flows are important in germinating cohorts of native trees, in washing salts from the soil and aquifer, and in providing aquatic habitat, thereby enriching the habitat value of the

  8. Density and rectangularity of planting influence 20-year growth and development of red alder. (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Constance A. Harrington


    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings were planted in northwestern Oregon, U.S.A., at five initial spacings: 0.6 × 1.2 m, 1.2 × 1.2 m, 1.2 × 1.8 m, 1.8 × 1.8 m, and 2.5 × 2.5 m. Up to about age 10, tree and stand characteristics were correlated primarily with initial planting density in the expected manner; through age 20, however, tree growth...

  9. Nuevas oxazinas con posible actividad antiparasitaria obtenidos por reacciones de hetero Diels-Alder


    Gamenara, Daniela; Seoane, Gustavo; Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick


    Se prepararon 16 nuevas oxazinas con potencial actividad antiparasitaria por la reacción de Diels-Alder partiendo de dos series de dienos con estructuras diferentes (purpurogalina y derivados de cis-3,5-ciclohexadien- 1,2-dioles), y nitrosoarenos como dienófilos. La actividad biológica fué evaluada por ensayos in vitro frente a Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi y T. brucei rhodesiense. Algunas de las oxazinas mostraron actividad en el rango de 8-50 µM, y pudieran ser compuestos de cabe...

  10. Stereo- and regioselectivity of the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of nitroso derivatives with conjugated dienes. (United States)

    Brulíková, Lucie; Harrison, Aidan; Miller, Marvin J; Hlaváč, Jan


    The hetero-Diels-Alder reaction between a nitroso dienophile and a conjugated diene to give the 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazine scaffold is useful for the synthesis of many biologically interesting molecules due to the diverse opportunities created by subsequent transformations of the resulting 1,2-oxazine ring. This review discusses the rationale for the observed regio- and stereoselectivity and the methods developed in recent years used to control and improve the stereo- and regioselectivity for the synthesis of 1,2-oxazine scaffolds.

  11. Stereo- and regioselectivity of the hetero-Diels–Alder reaction of nitroso derivatives with conjugated dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Brulíková


    Full Text Available The hetero-Diels–Alder reaction between a nitroso dienophile and a conjugated diene to give the 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazine scaffold is useful for the synthesis of many biologically interesting molecules due to the diverse opportunities created by subsequent transformations of the resulting 1,2-oxazine ring. This review discusses the rationale for the observed regio- and stereoselectivity and the methods developed in recent years used to control and improve the stereo- and regioselectivity for the synthesis of 1,2-oxazine scaffolds.

  12. Photocatalytic Indole Diels-Alder Cycloadditions Mediated by Heterogeneous Platinum-Modified Titanium Dioxide. (United States)

    Pitre, Spencer P; Scaiano, Juan C; Yoon, Tehshik P


    Indole alkaloids represent an important class of molecules, with many naturally occurring derivatives possessing significant biological activity. One area that requires further development in the synthesis of indole derivatives is the Diels-Alder reaction. In this work, we expand on our previously developed heterogeneous protocol for the [4+2] cycloaddition of indoles and electron-rich dienes mediated by platinum nanoparticles supported on titanium dioxide semiconductor particles (Pt(0.2%)@TiO2) with visible-light irradiation. This reaction proceeds with broad scope and is more efficient per incident photon than the previous homogeneous method, and the catalyst can be easily recycled and reused.

  13. Lead tetraacetate oxidation of the Diels-Alder adduct of 7-dehydrocholestryl acetate with maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder adduct (3, obtained by cycloaddition of 7-dehydrocholesteryl acetate (1 and maleic anhydride (2, was heated at ca. 90°C with a large excess of lead tetraacetate in pyridine solution for 5 h. Under these conditions, compound 3 underwent lactonization with the participation of the olefinic D6-double bond to give two isomeric monolactone derivatives, 9 and 10 (in a total yield of ca. 6%, and the bislactone product 11 (in 11.5% yield. The starting material was recovered in 36% yield.

  14. Catalytic Asymmetric Inverse-Electron-Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Xie, Mingsheng; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming


    In this review, the recent developments in catalytic asymmetric inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction, which is recognized as one of the most powerful routes to construct highly functionalized and enantioenriched six-membered heterocycles, are described. The article is organized on the basis of different kinds of electron-deficient heterodienes, including α,β-unsaturated ketones/aldehydes, o-benzoquinones, α,β-unsaturated imines, N-aryl imines, o-benzoqinone imides, and other aza-olefins. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Deeper Insight into the Diels-Alder Reaction through the Activation Strain Model. (United States)

    Fernández, Israel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias


    In this Focus Review, we present the application of the so-called Activation Strain Model of chemical reactivity to the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. To this end, representative recent examples have been selected to illustrate the power of this new computational approach to gain a deeper quantitative understanding of this fundamental process in chemistry. We cover a wide range of issues, such as, the "endo-rule", reactivity trends emerging from systematic variation in the reactants' strain, and cycloaddition reactions involving relevant species in material science, that is, fullerenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nanotubes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Approach Matters: The Kinetics of Interfacial Inverse-Electron Demand Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Sen, Rickdeb; Gahtory, Digvijay; Escorihuela, Jorge; Firet, Judith; Pujari, Sidharam P; Zuilhof, Han


    Rapid and quantitative click functionalization of surfaces remains an interesting challenge in surface chemistry. In this regard, inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reactions represent a promising metal-free candidate. Herein, we reveal quantitative surface functionalization within 15 min. Furthermore, we report the comprehensive effects of substrate stereochemistry, surrounding microenvironment and substrate order on the reaction kinetics as obtained by surface-bound mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Highly enantioselective access to cannabinoid-type tricyles by organocatalytic Diels–Alder reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bräse


    Full Text Available After prosperous domino reactions towards benzopyrans, the products were used as the starting material in Lewis acid catalyzed and organocatalytic Diels–Alder reactions to build up a tricyclic system. Herein, an asymmetric induction up to 96% enantiomeric excess was obtained by the use of imidazolidinone catalysts. This approach can be utilized to construct the tricyclic system in numerous natural products, in particular the scaffold of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC being the most representative one. Compared with other published methods, condensation with a preexisting cyclohexane moiety in the precursor is needed to gain the heterogenic tricycle systems, whereas we present a novel strategy towards cannabinoid derivatives based on a flexible modular synthesis.

  18. Hetero-Diels–Alder reactions of hetaryl and aryl thioketones with acetylenic dienophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mlostoń


    Full Text Available Selected hetaryl and aryl thioketones react with acetylenecarboxylates under thermal conditions in the presence of LiClO4 or, alternatively, under high-pressure conditions (5 kbar at room temperature yielding thiopyran derivatives. The hetero-Diels–Alder reaction occurs in a chemo- and regioselective manner. The initially formed [4 + 2] cycloadducts rearrange via a 1,3-hydrogen shift sequence to give the final products. The latter were smoothly oxidized by treatment with mCPBA to the corresponding sulfones.

  19. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Materials through Retro Diels-Alder Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hydrolysis and condensation of organically bridged bis-triethoxysilanes, (EtO){sub 3}Si-R-Si(OEt){sub 3}, results in the formation of three dimensional organic/inorganic hybrid networks (Equation 1). Properties of these materials, including porosity, are dependent on the nature of the bridging group, R. Flexible groups (akylene-spacers longer than five carbons in length) polymerize under acidic conditions to give non-porous materials. Rigid groups (such as arylene-, alkynylene-, or alkenylene) form non-porous, microporous, and macroporous gels. In many cases the pore size distributions are quite narrow. One of the motivations for preparing hybrid organic-inorganic materials is to extend the range of properties available with sol-gel systems by incorporating organic groups into the inorganic network. For example, organically modified silica gels arc either prepared by co-polymerizing an organoalkoxysilane with a silica precursor or surface silylating the inorganic gel. This can serve to increase hydrophobicity or to introduce some reactive organic functionality. However, the type and orientation of these organic functionalities is difficult to control. Furthermore, many organoalkoxysilanes can act to inhibitor even prevent gelation, limiting the final density of organic functionalities. We have devised a new route for preparing highly functionalized pores in hybrid materials using bridging groups that are thermally converted into the desired functionalities after the gel has been obtained. In this paper, we present the preparation and characterization of bridged polysilsesquioxanes with Diels-Alder adducts as the bridging groups from the sol-gel polymerization of monomers 2 and 4. The bridging groups are constructed such that the retro Diela-Alder reaction releases the dienes and leaves the dienophiles as integral parts of the network polymers. In the rigid architecture of a xerogel, this loss of organic functionality should liberate sufficient space to modify the

  20. AM1 semiempirical study of benzopyrroles as dienes for Diels-Alder reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jursic, B.S. [New Orleans Univ., LA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    The stereoselectivity of the reactivity of dienes such as cyclopentadiene, furan, pyrrole, indole, and isoindole for Diels-Alder reactions was evaluated. It was demonstrated by the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy gap that pyrrole and benzopyrroles were less satisfactory dienes than cyclopentadiene and furan. The reaction was predicted to be controlled by high molecular orbital (HOMO) diene based on the frontier orbital correlation. It was suggested that the lower reactivity of indole was caused by the loss of aromaticity in the course of the cycloaddition reaction. With isoindole the aromaticity was preserved. 21 refs., figs., tabs.

  1. Establishment area and biogeomorphic feedback window of three pioneer riparian Salicaceae species within a dynamic riparian corridor (Allier River, France) (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Borbála; Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Peiry, Jean-Luc


    Within riparian corridors, biotic-abiotic feedback mechanisms occur between woody vegetation which is highly influenced by hydrogeomorphic constraints (e.g. sediment transport and deposition, shear stress, hydrological variability), fluvial landforms and morphodynamics, which in turn are modulated by established vegetation. During field investigations in spring 2015 we analysed on 16 alluvial bars (e.g. point and lateral bars) within the dynamic riparian corridor of the Allier River, France, the aptitude of three pioneer riparian Salicaceae tree species (Populus nigra L., Salix purpurea L. and Salix alba L.) to establish and to act as ecosystem engineers by trapping sediment and constructing fluvial landforms. Our aim was to empirically identify the preferential establishment area (EA; i.e. the local areas where species establish) and the preferential biogeomorphic feedback window (BFW; i.e. where and to what extent the species affect geomorphology) of these three species on alluvial bars within a river reach of a length of 20 km. Our results show that the EA and BFW of all three species significantly varied along the longitudinal, i.e. upstream-downstream exposure on the alluvial bars, and the transverse gradient, i.e. main channel-floodplain gradient of hydrological connectivity. In the current context of the Allier River it appeared that P. nigra, which is the most abundant species, acts as the main engineer species affecting landform dynamics at the bar scale; S. purpurea establishes and acts as an ecosystem engineer in the locations on the alluvial bars which are the most exposed to hydrosedimentary flow dynamics, while S. alba establishes on the bar tail in the vicinity of secondary channels and affects geomorphology in mixed patches with P. nigra. Thus, our study underlines the role of functional trait diversity of riparian engineer species in controlling the extent of fluvial landform construction along geomorphic gradients within riparian corridors exposed

  2. Niche construction within riparian corridors. Part I: Exploring biogeomorphic feedback windows of three pioneer riparian species (Allier River, France) (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Borbála; Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Peiry, Jean-Luc


    Within riparian corridors, biotic-abiotic feedback mechanisms occur between woody vegetation strongly influenced by hydrogeomorphic constraints (e.g., sediment transport and deposition, shear stress, hydrological variability), fluvial landforms, and morphodynamics, which in turn are modulated by the established vegetation. During field investigations in spring 2015, we studied 16 alluvial bars (e.g., point and lateral bars) within the dynamic riparian corridor of the Allier River (France) to assess the aptitude of three pioneer riparian Salicaceae species (Populus nigra L., Salix purpurea L., and Salix alba L.) to establish and act as ecosystem engineers by trapping sediment and constructing fluvial landforms. Our aim is to empirically identify the preferential establishment area (EA; i.e., the local areas where species become established) and the preferential biogeomorphic feedback window (BFW; i.e., where and to what extent the species and geomorphology interact) of these three species on alluvial bars within a 20-km-long river reach. Our results show that the EA and BFW of all three species vary significantly along the longitudinal profile, i.e., upstream-downstream exposure on the alluvial bars, as well as transversally, i.e., the main hydrological connectivity gradient from the river channel toward the floodplain. In the present-day context of the Allier River, P. nigra is the most abundant species, appearing to act as the main engineer species affecting landform dynamics at the bar scale; S. purpurea is established and acts as an ecosystem engineer at locations on alluvial bars that are most exposed to hydrosedimentary flow dynamics, while S. alba is established on the bar tail close to secondary channels and affects the geomorphology in mixed patches along with P. nigra. Our study highlights the role of functional trait diversity of riparian engineer species in controlling the extent of fluvial landform construction along geomorphic gradients within riparian

  3. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries. (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E


    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  4. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope


    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  5. Riparian zone hydrology and soil water total organic carbon (TOC: implications for spatial variability and upscaling of lateral riparian TOC exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grabs


    Full Text Available Groundwater flowing from hillslopes through riparian (near-stream soils often undergoes chemical transformations that can substantially influence stream water chemistry. We used landscape analysis to predict total organic carbon (TOC concentration profiles and groundwater levels measured in the riparian zone (RZ of a 67 km2 catchment in Sweden. TOC exported laterally from 13 riparian soil profiles was then estimated based on the riparian flow–concentration integration model (RIM. Much of the observed spatial variability of riparian TOC concentrations in this system could be predicted from groundwater levels and the topographic wetness index (TWI. Organic riparian peat soils in forested areas emerged as hotspots exporting large amounts of TOC. These TOC fluxes were subject to considerable temporal variations caused by a combination of variable flow conditions and changing soil water TOC concentrations. Mineral riparian gley soils, on the other hand, were related to rather small TOC export rates and were characterized by relatively time-invariant TOC concentration profiles. Organic and mineral soils in RZs constitute a heterogeneous landscape mosaic that potentially controls much of the spatial variability of stream water TOC. We developed an empirical regression model based on the TWI to move beyond the plot scale and to predict spatially variable riparian TOC concentration profiles for RZs underlain by glacial till.

  6. Prediction Model of Interval Grey Numbers with a Real Parameter and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zeng


    Full Text Available Grey prediction models have become common methods which are widely employed to solve the problems with “small examples and poor information.” However, modeling objects of existing grey prediction models are limited to the homogenous data sequences which only contain the same data type. This paper studies the methodology of building prediction models of interval grey numbers that are grey heterogeneous data sequence, with a real parameter. Firstly, the position of the real parameter in an interval grey number sequence is discussed, and the real number is expanded into an interval grey number by adopting the method of grey generation. On this basis, a prediction model of interval grey number with a real parameter is deduced and built. Finally, this novel model is successfully applied to forecast the concentration of organic pollutant DDT in the atmosphere. The analysis and research results in this paper extend the object of grey prediction from homogenous data sequence to grey heterogeneous data sequence. Those research findings are of positive significance in terms of enriching and improving the theory system of grey prediction models.

  7. Riparian Vegetation Encroachment Ratios in rivers below large Dams (United States)

    Garcia de Jalón, Diego; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; González del Tánago, Marta


    Large Dams and reservoirs change the natural flow regime and consequently cause many alterations in riparian vegetation dynamics which may be assessed at different spatial and temporal scales. In Mediterranean regions flow regulation is frequently associated with irrigation. Regulated rivers with this purpose very often show reduced discharges during the wet season when the reservoir is being filled and increased discharges during the dry season when irrigation takes place. This type of regulation frequently promotes riparian vegetation growth as soil moisture levels are increased during summer when a natural drought would otherwise limit its growth. Additionally, flow regulation by large dams promotes the aging of late seral riparian vegetation reducing the frequency of flood disturbance and consequently, the potential recruitment of pioneer species. In this work we study the response of woody riparian vegetation to flow regulation by large dams in four rivers from Central Spain: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadalix and Alberche. The aim is to quantify the annual vegetation encroachment ratios and to develop a model to understand the main controlling factors, such as floodplain and channel traits; flow regulation intensity; type of regulation; present vegetation canopy; distance to the dam; and time since dam commissioning. A temporal comparison using aerial photographs from 1956, 1966, 1972, 1991, 2011 and 2014 was done in thirteen river reaches downstream from large dams, to evaluate their morphological evolution.. Floodplain dimensions and channel and riparian vegetation changes were assessed by comparing different pre-dam and post-dam conditions. Recent coloured photographs with 0.5 m spatial resolution and older black-and-white photographs at 1:33 000 spatial scale were supplied by the National Geographic Institute of Spain ( and the Statistical Institute ( from Madrid Community. Similar visual scales were used to cope

  8. RIP-ET: A riparian evapotranspiration package for MODFLOW-2005 (United States)

    Maddock, Thomas; Baird, Kathryn J.; Hanson, R.T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Ajami, Hoori


    A new evapotranspiration package for the U.S. Geological Survey's groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW, is documented. The Riparian Evapotranspiration Package (RIP-ET) provides flexibility in simulating riparian and wetland transpiration not provided by the Evapotranspiration (EVT) or Segmented Function Evapotranspiration (ETS1) Packages for MODFLOW 2005. This report describes how the RIP-ET package was conceptualized and provides input instructions, listings and explanations of the source code, and an example. Traditional approaches to modeling evapotranspiration (ET) processes assume a piecewise linear relationship between ET flux and hydraulic head. The RIP-ET replaces this traditional relationship with a segmented, nonlinear dimensionless curve that reflects the eco-physiology of riparian and wetland ecosystems. Evapotranspiration losses from these ecosystems are dependent not only on hydraulic head, but on the plant types present. User-defined plant functional groups (PFGs) are used to elucidate the interaction between plant transpiration and groundwater conditions. Five generalized plant functional groups based on transpiration rates, plant rooting depth, and water tolerance ranges are presented: obligate wetland, shallow-rooted riparian, deep-rooted riparian, transitional riparian and bare ground/open water. Plant functional groups can be further divided into subgroups (PFSGs) based on plant size, density or other characteristics. The RIP-ET allows for partial habitat coverage and mixtures of plant functional subgroups to be present in a single model cell. RIP-ET also distinguishes between plant transpiration and bare-ground evaporation. Habitat areas are designated by polygons; each polygon can contain a mixture of PFSGs and bare ground, and is assigned a surface elevation. This process requires a determination of fractional coverage for each of the plant functional subgroups present in a polygon to account for the mixture of coverage types and resulting

  9. Bryophyte responses to microclimatic edge effects across riparian buffers. (United States)

    Stewart, Katherine J; Mallik, Azim U


    Although riparian buffers are an important aspect of forest management in the boreal forest of Canada, little is known about the habitat conditions within buffers, due in part to complex edge effects in response to both the upland clearcut and the stream. We investigated microclimatic conditions and bryophyte growth and vitality in seven locations between the stream edge and 60 m into the upland undisturbed conifer forests and at the clearcut sites with riparian buffer 30 km northwest of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that the growth and vitality of a pleurocarpous moss, Hylocomium splendens, and an acrocarpous moss, Polytrichum commune, would be directly related to the microclimatic gradients detected. We further hypothesized that sensitivity of the bryophytes to environmental factors will vary depending on their life form type, i.e., pleurocarpous moss will respond differently than the acrocarpous moss. Both bryophyte species were transplanted in pots and placed at 10-m intervals along 60-m transects perpendicular to the stream across the buffer and undisturbed sites. Bryophyte growth, cover, and vitality, as well as microclimatic parameters and plant cover, were measured over the summer in 2003. The riparian buffers were simultaneously affected by microclimatic gradients extending from both the clearcut edge and the riparian-upland ecotonal edge. Both bryophyte species responded to changes in the microclimatic conditions. However, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was the most important factor influencing the growth of H. splendens, whereas for P. commune growth soil moisture was most important. Our study confirms earlier findings that interior forest bryophytes such as H. splendens can be used as indicators to monitor edge effects and biodiversity recovery following forest harvesting. We demonstrate that growth and vitality of these bryophytes reflect the prevailing near-ground microclimatic conditions at the forest edges. Abundance estimates of such

  10. Characterization and kinetic study of Diels-Alder reaction: Detailed study on N-phenylmaleimide and furan based benzoxazine with potential self-healing application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stirn


    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder reaction between N-phenylmaleimide and benzoxazine bearing furan group was investigated for the purpose of successful appliance of self-healing in benzoxazine polymer networks. The reaction as a function of temperature/time was performed in molten state and in a solution, where also the kinetic study was performed. The Diels-Alder reaction leads to a mixture of two diastereomers: endo presented at lower cyclo-reversion temperature and exo at higher. Therefore, the conversion rates and exo/endo ratio were studied in detail for both systems. For instance, in molten state the Diels-Alder reaction was triggered by the temperature of the melting point at 60 °C with exo/endo ratio preferable to the endo adduct. The study of the kinetics in a solution revealed that the Diels-Alder reaction followed typical bimolecular reversible second-order reaction. The activation energies were close to the previous literature data; 48.4 and 51.9 kJ·mol–1 for Diels-Alder reaction, and 91.0 and 102.3 kJ·mol–1 for retro-Diels-Alder reaction, in acetonitrile and chloroform, respectively. The reaction equilibrium in a solution is much more affected by the retro-Diels-Alder reaction than in a molten state. This study shows detailed investigation of DA reaction and provides beneficial knowledge for further use in self-healing polymer networks.

  11. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the eastern grey kangaroo. (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi


    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus gigantues) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex and anterior body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex had several processes. The filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body were thread-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body consisted of many slender processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. Three vallate papillae with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly consisted of a groove and pad. Several conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The surface structure of the tongue in the eastern grey kangaroo resembles that of the red kangaroo.

  12. Chronic phalaris toxicity in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). (United States)

    Bacci, B; Whiteley, P L; Barrow, M; Phillips, P H; Dalziel, J; El-Hage, C M


    Seven eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) grazing pastures including Phalaris spp. in Victoria showed neurological deficits characterised by ataxia, head tremors and collapse. Gross examination of the brains and spinal cords of affected kangaroos showed a greenish discolouration in several regions of the grey matter. Histologically, intracytoplasmic accumulation of pigment granules was detected in the neurons, most prominently in the thalamus, brainstem and ventral horns of the spinal cord. Pigment granules were positive to stains used for identification of melanin, including Fontana-Masson stain and Schmorl's reaction. The combination of clinical signs and obvious neuronal pigmentation is consistent with chronic Phalaris spp. toxicity, a condition well documented in domestic ruminants. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)


    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of Selected Properties of Alder Wood as Functions of Sanding and Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia-Adela Salca


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize the sanding and coating processes of black alder wood to promote and support its use in furniture manufacturing. Two criteria have been applied for process optimization, namely, the minimum surface roughness of the samples and power consumption during sanding as a function of various sanding systems. The surface roughness of the sanded specimens and the power consumption during sanding strongly depends on the grit size used. Two eco-varnishes were applied to the samples by spraying. Moreover, the effect of the surface preparation and varnish type on the coating properties expressed by the varnish layer adherence to the substrate and surface glossiness was evaluated. For better glossiness values, the UV-cured varnish was preferred. The sanding with a grit sequence of 60, 120, and 150 grit size abrasives was found to be optimal when applied to black alder wood, and it is recommended to obtain performant UV-coated wood surfaces for furniture products.

  15. Colour Changes Evaluation of Freshly Cut Alder Veneers Under the Influence of Indoor Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Adela SALCA


    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental study concerning the colour changes occurred on the surfaces ofblack alder veneers (Alnus glutinosa, obtained from a freshly cut (not treated log, after their exposure tosunlight and darkness, for 1 and 3 months, under indoor conditions.A Chroma Meter Konika Minolta CR-410 device was used for colour measurement.The colorimetric coordinates were recorded before and after the exposure, according to ISO 7724-2.The results highlight a significant decrease of colour lightness, right after the first month of sunlight exposure.The a* and b* colour coordinates showed an increasing tendency with increasing exposure time, whichsignifies a colour darkening under sunlight radiation that penetrates the window glass. Colour differenceswere noticed right after the first month of sunlight exposure, while under darkness conditions, a relativecolour constancy was noticed, the colour changes being less pronounced, but yet perceptible by the humaneye.The study results complete the colorimetric database of veneers used in furniture industry, but theyalso contribute to the rehabilitation of black alder as a wood species with a real potential of use in furnitureindustry.

  16. Reactivity of End-functionalized Polymers Containing Diels-Alder Functional Groups (United States)

    Meng, Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Anthamatten, Mitchell


    Incorporation of reversible covalent bond into macromolecular systems has proven useful in engineering novel responsive architectures, and Diels-Alder bonding in this context is now well established. However, efficient synthesis of end-functionalized polymers is a major obstacle hindering further development of responsive and modular polymer architectures. In this current research, two immiscible polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) with controlled molecular weight, bearing terminal furan-maleimide groups, are prepared via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The reactivity of such end-functionalized polymers is explored to expose the relationship between chain composition and their ability to undergo modular cross-coupling to form monodisperse block copolymers. To elucidate how reaction conditions affect the efficiency of the Diels-Alder reaction, Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) techniques are actively applied. Experimental results will be interpreted on the basis of dissimilarity between interaction energies of polymer segments and the concentration of reactive groups.

  17. Unconventional exo selectivity in thermal normal-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions (United States)

    Ho, Guo-Ming; Huang, Ci-Jhang; Li, Elise Yu-Tzu; Hsu, Sheng-Kai; Wu, Ti; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Wu, Kevin Binchia; Hung, Shang-Cheng


    The Diels-Alder reaction is a useful tool for generating functionalized chiral molecules through the concerted cycloaddition of dienes and dienophiles leading to six-membered rings. Traditionally, the selective predictions of the products rely heavily on consideration of the secondary orbital interactions that stabilize the endo pathway. However, there remain some basic examples defying this notion and produce the exo-isomer as major product. Here we systematically evaluated of the structural features driving exo selectivity in thermal normal-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions. Substitution at the Cβ position and the size and electronegativity of the electron-withdrawing group of the dienophile are contributing factors. Experimental and computational studies both point toward the steric and electrostatic forces between the substituents in both the diene and the dienophile that increase the likelihood of the exo pathway. For these substrates, the dominance of the endo pathway is reduced by transition state distortions and poor structural alignments of the reacting partners. We also noted the tilt of the dienophile with respect to the diene causing steric strain on the functionalities at the more advanced bond forming carbon-carbon position of the endo transition state. Insights into such factors may benefit synthetic planning and asserting control over this important named reaction.

  18. Growth and reproduction in the Icelandic grey seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson


    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791 from Iceland were examined. The oldest Icelandic grey seals obtained were a 36 year old female and a 23 year old male. The longest animals were a 255 cm 13 year old male, and a 230 cm 20 year old female. The heaviest grey seal was an 11 year old male weighing 310 kg. The heaviest female was a 20 year old female that weighed 240 kg. Females reached an asymptotic standard length and weight of 200 (95% CI 196 - 204 cm and 164 (95% CI 157 - 171 kg. Males attained an asymptotic standard length of 243 (95% CI 232 - 254 cm and mass of 279 (95% CI 254 - 306 kg. Investigations of the ovaries and testes indicate that, by the time that females were seven years old, over 90% were pregnant. The average age of sexual maturity of females was 4.0 years (95% CI 3.59 - 4.41 and the average age of first pupping was 5.3 (95% CI 4.95 - 5.72. Average age of sexual maturity for males was 4.9 (95% CI 4.43 - 5.40. Seven out of 8 grey seal males had fully developed testes at the age of 7. All males, 8 years of age and older were mature. Adult (5+ years females and males are fattest in the summer right before breeding in the autumn, but leanest in the winter after breeding and mating, and in the spring after moulting.

  19. Device-Enabled Authorization in the Grey System (United States)


    correspondingly modest screen size. For example, our primary development platform to date has been the Nokia 6620, a smartphone with dimensions 4.28×2.29...SMT 5600, a more modern smartphone with an even smaller form factor than the Nokia 6620. Our measurements show a 30% improvement in RSA signing times...implementation of Grey, a set of software extensions that convert an off-the-shelf smartphone -class device into a tool by which its owner exercises and delegates

  20. Sorocenols G and H, Anti-MRSA Oxygen Heterocyclic Diels-Alder-type Adducts from Sorocea muriculata Roots (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a root extract of Sorocea muriculata led to the isolation and identification of two new oxygen heterocyclic Diels-Alder-type adducts, sorocenols G (1) and H (2), along with lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxytetradecanoate) and oxyresveratrol. The structures of 1 and 2 were eluci...

  1. Occurrence, structure, and function of the nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont Frankia from nodules of Arizona alder [Abstract (United States)

    J. O. Dawson; G. J. Gottfried; D. Hahn


    Actinorhizal plants are nodulated by the symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia. The genus Alnus in the family Betulaceae is one of the 25 genera in 8 families of angiospermous plants that are actinorhizal. Arizona alder (Alnus oblongifolia Torr.) occurs in isolated populations associated with the...

  2. Diels-Alder based, thermo-reversible cross-linked epoxies for use in self-healing composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, D.H.; Fischer, H.R.


    Epoxy resins are functionalized with Diels-Alder based thermo-reversible crosslinks to enable the fabrication of composites that are capable of multiple self-healing-repair processes. The key challenge in realizing a structural combination of conventional epoxy amine systems with furfuryl and


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLOKZIJL, W; ENGBERTS, JBFN; Cramer, CJ; Truhlar, DG


    Following pioneering work of Breslow, Grieco and others, we find that intermolecular Diels-Alder (DA) reactions of cyclopentadiene with alkyl vinyl ketones and 5-substituted-1,4 naphthoquinones as well as intramolecular DA reactions of N-furfuryl-N-alkylacrylamides are greatly accelerated in water

  4. Red alder, Alnus rubra, as a potential mitigating factor for wildlife habitat following clearcut logging in southeastern Alaska. (United States)

    T.A. Hanley; J.C. Barnard


    Within-stand variation in understory species composition and biomass was studied in 16 even-aged stands of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce-western hemlcock (Alnus rubra-Picea sitchensis-Tsuga heterophylla) forest. The sites were upland sites, and the stands were 28-39 years old. We compared understory within...

  5. Asymmetric Brønsted acid-catalyzed aza-Diels–Alder reaction of cyclic C-acylimines with cyclopentadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rueping


    Full Text Available A new chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed aza-Diels–Alder reaction of cyclic C-acylimines with cyclopentadiene has been developed. The reaction provides optically active aza-tetracycles in good yields with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities under mild reaction conditions.

  6. N,N-Diethyl-1-Tosyl-3-Indoleglyoxylamide as a Dienophile in Diels-Alder Reactions. Hyperbaric vs. Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Biolatto


    Full Text Available Under high pressure conditions, the Diels-Alder reaction involving N,N-diethyl-1-tosyl-3-indoleglyoxylamide and 1-(N-acetyl-N-propylamino-1,3-butadiene produces a highly functionalized intermediate for the synthesis of Indole Alkaloids, in shorter times and higher yields than under thermal conditions.

  7. Preparation and Diels–Alder/cross coupling reactions of a 2-diethanolaminoboron-substituted 1,3-diene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Wang


    Full Text Available A 2-diethanolamine boronyl substituted 1,3-diene has been synthesized in high yield and characterized spectroscopically as well as by X-ray crystallography. This diene has then subsequently been used in a number of fast, high yielding Diels–Alder/cross coupling reactions.

  8. First catalytic hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of imidazole-2-thiones and in silico biological evaluation of the cycloadducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Samatidou, Evanthia; Neochoritis, Constantinos G.

    The Lewis acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions of suitably substituted imidazole-2-thiones with dienes were studied. It was found that the electron density of the imidazole core influenced the reaction, since electron withdrawing groups led to the novel spiro-derivatives 2 whereas electron donating

  9. No evidence found for Diels-Alder reaction products in soybean oil oxidized at the frying temperature by NMR study (United States)

    It has been generally accepted that the Diels-Alder reaction mechanism is one of the major reaction mechanisms to produce dimers and polymers during heating process of vegetable oil. Soybean oil oxidized at 180 °C for 24 hrs with 1.45 surface area-to-volume ratio showed 36.1% polymer peak area in g...

  10. Microwave-Enhanced Organic Syntheses for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Diels-Alder Cycloaddition, Wittig Reaction, and Williamson Ether Synthesis (United States)

    Baar, Marsha R.; Falcone, Danielle; Gordon, Christopher


    Microwave heating enhanced the rate of three reactions typically performed in our undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory: a Diels-Alder cycloaddition, a Wittig salt formation, and a Williamson ether synthesis. Ninety-minute refluxes were shortened to 10 min using a laboratory-grade microwave oven. In addition, yields improved for the Wittig…

  11. Investigation of the possibility of functionalization of C20 fullerene by benzene via Diels-Alder reaction (United States)

    Siadati, Seyyed Amir; Nami, Navabeh


    C20 fullerene, this novel species with all its pentagonal faces has displayed some unique operations in making fast pericyclic reactions. As an example, the high dienophile character of the C20 fullerene and the ability of this species in making an ultra-fast Diels-Alder reaction with 1,3-butadiene, has been recently reported. Moreover, new experimental reports claim that the C60 fullerene, one of the fullerene family, could make a Diels-Alder reaction with the central ring of anthracene and make the ring non-aromatic. These reports may encourage researchers to do more studies on the properties of this small carbon cage. To address this question, the present research has discussed all the reaction channels of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of benzene molecule as a 1,3-diene with the C20 fullerene in order to answer this question: ;Is C20fullerene able to make a Diels-Alder reaction with this molecule?;.

  12. Retro-Diels-Alder reaction in aqueous solution : Toward a better understanding of organic reactivity in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, J.W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    The retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction of anthracenedione 1a proceeds considerably faster in aqueous solutions than in organic solvents. Addition of organic solvents to water retards the reaction, whereas glucose induces a modest acceleration. SDS micelles induce a considerable retardation, but even

  13. Water in oil microemulsions as reaction media for a Diels-Alder reaction between N-ethylmaleimide and cyclopentadiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, JBFN; Fernandez, E; Garcia-Rio, L; Leis, J.R.


    The Diels-Alder reaction between N-ethylmaleimide and cyclopentadiene in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions, where AOT denotes sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, was studied. The rate of the reaction was found to be higher than that obtained in pure isooctane, irrespective of the particular

  14. Improving germination of red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) seeds with gibberellic acid (United States)

    Brenda Morales; Charles Barden; Cheryl Boyer; Jason Griffin; Lillian Fisher; Joni Thompson


    Red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) are considered important plants for many Native American tribes in the United States. Native Americans use these 3 species for a variety of traditional and medicinal purposes. For example, red elm is still the preferred firewood for the cultural ceremonies of several tribes....

  15. A novel kernel regularized nonhomogeneous grey model and its applications (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Hu, Yi-sheng; Liu, Zhi-bin


    The nonhomogeneous grey model (NGM) is a novel tool for time series forecasting, which has attracted considerable interest of research. However, the existing nonhomogeneous grey models may be inefficient to predict the complex nonlinear time series sometimes due to the linearity of the differential or difference equations based on which these models are developed. In order to enhance the accuracy and applicability of the NGM model, the kernel method in the statistical learning theory has been utilized to build a novel kernel regularized nonhomogeneous grey model, which is abbreviated as the KRNGM model. The KRNGM model is represented by a differential equation which contains a nonlinear function of t. By constructing the regularized problem and using the kernel function which satisfies the Mercer's condition, the parameters estimation of KRNGM model only involves in solving a set of linear equations, and the nonlinear function in the KRNGM model can be expressed as a linear combination of the Lagrangian multipliers and the selected kernel function, and then the KRNGM model can be solved numerically. Two case studies of petroleum production forecasting are carried to illustrate the effectiveness of the KRNGM model, comparing to the existing nonhomogeneous models. The results show that the KRNGM model outperforms the existing NGM, ONGM, NDGM model significantly.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya HANOĞLU


    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  17. Diversity-Oriented Approaches to Polycyclics and Bioinspired Molecules via the Diels-Alder Strategy: Green Chemistry, Synthetic Economy, and Beyond. (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Chavan, Arjun S; Goyal, Deepti


    We describe diverse approaches to various dienes and their utilization in the Diels-Alder reaction to produce a variety of polycycles. The dienes covered here are prepared by simple alkylation reaction or via the Claisen rearrangement or by enyne metathesis of alkyne or enyne building blocks. Here, we have also included the Diels-Alder chemistry of dendralenes, a higher analog of cross-conjugated dienes. The present article is inclusive of o-xylylene derivatives that are generated in situ starting with benzosultine or benzosulfone derivatives. The Diels-Alder reaction of these dienes with various dienophiles gave diverse polycyclic systems and biologically important targets.

  18. Double-Diels-Alder Approach to Maoecrystal V. Unexpected C-C Bond-Forming Fragmentations of the [2.2.2]-Bicyclic Core. (United States)

    Smith, Brandon R; Njardarson, Jon T


    Synthetic studies toward maoecrystal V are reported. An oxidative dearomatization/Diels-Alder cascade to assemble the natural product carbocyclic core in one step is proposed. A facile electrocyclization is shown to suppress the intramolecular allene Diels-Alder pathway. This obstacle is alleviated via a stepwise approach with an allene equivalent to access the key cyclopentadiene-fused [2.2.2]-bicyclic core. Upon treatment with Lewis acid, the proposed intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is cleanly and unexpectedly diverted either via C-C bond-forming fragmentation to the spiro-indene product (when R = OMe) or via elimination (when R = H).

  19. Catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reactions of unactivated acyclic 1,3-dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines. (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yasuo; Nantaku, Shuuto; Nishimura, Yuhki; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Sekikaw, Tohru


    A catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines is described. With 5-10 mol% loadings of a new Brønsted acid catalyst, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes proceeded to give the corresponding aza-Diels-Alder adducts in high yields (up to 98%) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). Preliminary DFT calculations suggest that the reaction proceeds through a chiral ion pair intermediate.

  20. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with agricultural surroundings (United States)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Cooper, Miguel; Alencar de Matos, Vitor; Ortega Gomes, Matheus; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo


    The riparian forests are considered Permanent Preservation Areas due to the ecological services provided by these forests. One of these services is the interception of the sediments before they reach the water bodies, which is essential to preserve water quality. The maintenance and restoration of riparian forests are mandatory, and the extent of these areas is defined based on water body width, following the Brazilian Forest Code. The method used to define the size of riparian forest areas elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data of the influence of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests of a Semideciduous Tropical Forest situated in agricultural areas inserted in sugarcane landscapes in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We defined two sites with soils of contrasting texture to monitor the dynamics and amount of deposited sediments. Site A is in the municipality of Araras and the soil is mainly clay. Site B is in the municipality of São Manuel and is dominated by sandy soils. In both areas, we defined plots to install graded metal stakes that were partially buried to monitor the dynamics of sediments. In site A, we defined eight plots and installed 27 metal stakes in each one. Three of the plots presented 30 m of riparian forest, two presented 15 m of riparian forest and three, 15 m of pasture followed by 15 m of forest. The design of the metal stakes was similar for all plots and was defined based on the type of erosion observed in site A. In site B, we defined seven points to monitor the sediments inside the reforested areas. Here, we observed erosive processes of great magnitude inside the forests, which results in a different design for the metal stakes. A total of nearly 150 metal stakes were installed to monitor these processes and also to verify the deposition in areas not yet

  1. Heavy metal enrichment in the riparian sediments and soils of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Tang


    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Reservoir encompasses a riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km2 that has been subjected to alternate inundation and exposure due to regular impoundment. Sedimentation on the riparian landforms constitutes an important pathway for riverine contaminant redistribution. In an attempt to understand heavy metal enrichment since water inundation, riparian sediments and soils were sampled along five transects in a typical riparian zone composed of cultivated bench terraces in the middle reaches. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were determined to characterize the lateral distribution and vertical transfer ratio. The results indicated that all heavy metals were enriched to varying extents both in the riparian sediments and soils, compared with regional background contents in soils and the reference levels in sediments. However, heavy metal levels in the riparian sediments were generally higher than those in the riparian soils, while those in the upper riparian soils (0–5 cm were overall slightly higher than those in the lower riparian soils (5–10 cm. There was a decreasing trend of heavy metal contents with increasing elevation. The elevated levels of heavy metals in the riparian sediments may be attributed to sediment yields from upstream anthropogenic sources, especially during major rainstorms in the wet season when large loads of contaminated sediment may be produced from diffuse source areas. Heavy metals can also be adsorbed to pure sediment in the course of mobilization or after deposition. Considering that the riparian soils are local weathering products without mobilization, the enrichment of heavy metals may principally be ascribed to chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions or vertical transfer from overlaid sediments. Heavy metal enrichment may further be affected by the specific type of hydrologic regime such that relatively long flooding duration caused by water

  2. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services


    Sweeney, Bernard W.; Bott, Thomas L.; Jackson, John K.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Standley, Laurel J.; Hession, W. Cully; Horwitz, Richard J.


    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation ...

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of a Riparian Vegetation Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nones


    Full Text Available The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of two main parameters used in a mathematic model able to evaluate the effects of changing hydrology on the growth of riparian vegetation along rivers and its effects on the cross-section width. Due to a lack of data in existing literature, in a past study the schematization proposed here was applied only to two large rivers, assuming steady conditions for the vegetational carrying capacity and coupling the vegetal model with a 1D description of the river morphology. In this paper, the limitation set by steady conditions is overcome, imposing the vegetational evolution dependent upon the initial plant population and the growth rate, which represents the potential growth of the overall vegetation along the watercourse. The sensitivity analysis shows that, regardless of the initial population density, the growth rate can be considered the main parameter defining the development of riparian vegetation, but it results site-specific effects, with significant differences for large and small rivers. Despite the numerous simplifications adopted and the small database analyzed, the comparison between measured and computed river widths shows a quite good capability of the model in representing the typical interactions between riparian vegetation and water flow occurring along watercourses. After a thorough calibration, the relatively simple structure of the code permits further developments and applications to a wide range of alluvial rivers.

  4. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.


    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  5. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution. (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu


    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  6. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate the energetic reuse of riparian vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recchia, Lucia; Cini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Agraria e Forestale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 15, 50144 Firenze (Italy); Corsi, Stefano [Consorzio di Bonifica per la difesa del suolo e la tutela dell' ambiente della Toscana Centrale, via Verdi 16, 50122 Firenze (Italy)


    The management of riparian vegetation which includes cutting operations of grass, reeds, bushes and trees, is very important to reduce hydrogeologic risk. In Tuscany, riparian biomass and residues are mainly left shredded along courses or disposed in landfills as special wastes: actually different laws prohibit that tree trunks are abandoned in areas naturally affected by flooding, because they can be moved contributing to increase the water level and to maximize the hydraulic risk of some other nearby areas. In some cases, it is also possible to store the logs in specified sites from where they can be taken and used as a fuel in fireplaces or domestic heating plants. This work studies the possibility of the reuse of riparian vegetation as biomass for energy production and evaluates benefits and drawbacks from the economical, environmental and managerial points of view. Particularly, a specific methodology has been developed for two hydrological districts of Tuscany, with different typologies and densities of vegetation. First, an estimation of biomass distribution on the land and an evaluation of annual wood availability have been carried out; then, different chains concerning harvesting operation, biomass transport, storage conditions and final utilisation, have been defined and compared by a specific multicriteria analysis (MCA); finally, for the most suitable bio-energy chains the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been implemented. Results of the LCA have also permitted to validate some environmental indicators used in the MCA, as mechanisation level of yards, energy efficiency of plants or transport distances. The decision making tool developed allows to compare costs and environmental benefits of the energy use of riparian vegetation, supporting local authorities involved in energy planning: in this way it is possible to confront different alternatives to match the energy demand and meet the energy saving and sustainability issues at the lowest cost for the

  7. A model study for the concise construction of the oxapentacyclic core of cortistatins through intramolecular Diels-Alder and oxidative dearomatization-cyclization reactions. (United States)

    Liu, Lianzhu; Gao, Yingxiang; Che, Chao; Wu, Na; Wang, David Zhigang; Li, Chuang-Chuang; Yang, Zhen


    A unified strategy towards the facile construction of the [] oxapentacyclic skeleton of cortistatins is reported, featuring intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) and oxidative dearomatization-cyclization reactions as key steps.

  8. Fault Diagnosis in Transformer Based on Weighted Degree of Grey Slope Incidence of Optimized Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Anping


    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA is an important method to find the hidden or incipient insulation faults of oil-immersed power transformer. However, code deficiency exists in the gas ratio methods specified by the IEC standard and complexity of fault diagnosis for power transformer. Hence a new model based on optimized weighted degree of grey slope incidence was put forward. Firstly, the entropy weight is used to determine objective weight of indices; then the model fault types are obtained by weighted degree of grey slope incidence. The combination of entropy weight with grey slope incidence analysis can fully utilize over all information of DGA and give full play to the superiority of grey slope incidence, which overcomes shortcomings of original grey slope incidence analysis. The experimental results also demonstrate that the improved method has higher accuracy compared with three-ratio method and general grey slope incidence analysis method. The diagnosis accuracy is 92.8%.

  9. Riparian trees as common denominators across the river flow spectrum: are ecophysiological methods useful tools in environmental flow assessments?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schachtschneider, K


    Full Text Available Riparian tree species, growing under different conditions of water availability, can adapt their physiology to maximise their survival chances. Rivers in South Africa may flow perennially, seasonally or ephemerally (episodically). Different riparian...

  10. Synthèse de réseaux polymères thermoréversibles par réaction de Diels-Alder


    Okhay, Nidhal


    This study focuses on the application of the Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of thermoreversible polymer networks and compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends. The studied polymers are polymethyl methacrylate and polyurethane. Thermoreversible networks were obtained by a Diels-Alder involving furan-maleimide couple. The furan or maleimide functionalized polymers were obtained either by chemical modification of a commercial polymer (case of PMMA) or by polyaddition reaction (case o...

  11. Rethinking the Role of Grey Literature in the Fourth Industrial Revolution


    Savić, Dobrica


    This paper examines the potential impact of the emerging Fourth Industrial Revolution on grey literature and the challenges it will bring to the information management profession. Based on analysis of the most prevalent current trends and developments, it appears we will need to rethink the defi nition of grey literature, its creation and types, processing, storage, sustainability and usability. Information professionals, including the grey literature ones, will require training and new knowl...

  12. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park


    Wilmers, C C; Crabtree, R L; Smith, D W; Murphy, K M; Getz, Wayne M.


    1. The reintroduction of grey wolves Canis lupus (L.) to Yellowstone National Park provides a natural experiment in which to study the effects of a keystone predator on ecosystem function. 2. Grey wolves often provision scavengers with carrion by partially consuming their prey. 3. In order to examine how grey wolf foraging behaviour influences the availability of carrion to scavengers, we observed consumption of 57 wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (L.) and determined the percentage of edible bi...

  13. Description and identification of Alnus acuminata ectomycorrhizae from Argentinean alder stands. (United States)

    Pritsch, Karin; Becerra, Alejandra; Põlme, Sergei; Tedersoo, Leho; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard


    The objective of this study was to describe the morphological and anatomical features of five unidentified ectomycorrhizal types of Alnus acuminata and to complement their identification based on ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The combined approach of morphotyping and sequence analysis based on ITS sequence comparison with sequences contained in GenBank and the UNITE database let us assign three of the five field-collected ectomycorrhiza morphotypes to the tomentella-thelephora lineage that closely matched European and North American species. The sequencing results within Tomentella point toward alder specific clades within T. sublilacina, T. ellisii and T. stuposa sensu lato. The two other EcM morphotypes matched Lactarius omphaliiformis and a Russula sp. Better focused, concomitant fruit body surveys are needed for accurate identification of South American ectomycorrhizal fungi because of the evidence of cryptic speciation in both agaricoid and resupinate mycobionts.

  14. Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of Novel Spiroindan-1,3-Dione: A Diels Alder Adduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Zargar


    Full Text Available DMSO/Ac2O reagent converts 1,3-indandione (1 to an unusual dimer 1H,1′H-2,2′-biindene-1,1′,3,3′(2H,2′H tetrone and a dimeric condensation product along with an ylide (1a at room temperature. This reagent also brings about oxidation of secondary alcohols to corresponding ketones, methyl thiomethylation, and N-hydroxymethylation in phthalimide and converts 4-hydroxycoumarins and dicoumarol to different oxidative and degradation products under varying conditions. However, when 1,3-indandione was refluxed with DMSO/Ac2O reagent at 150°C, it afforded a novel compound, 2-spiroindan 1,3-dione (2, a Diels Alder Adduct, analogous to (3 obtained upon treatment of 1,3-indandione with formaldehyde in presence of primary amines.

  15. Recyclable thermosetting thermal pad using silicone-based polyurethane crosslinked by Diels-Alder adduct (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Woong; Lee, Da Hee; Jeon, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Sung Il; Cho, Hyun Min; Kim, Youngmin


    The recyclable silicone-based thermoset was successfully synthesized by making use of a Diels-Alder (DA) adduct as a cross-linker. The incorporation of the furan-tethered diol 1 into the polymer backbones realized the crosslinking of polymers via the DA reaction. The thermosetting polymer was dissolved in DMF after the retro DA reaction which was monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Due to the retro DA reaction, polymer showed the mendable behavior when it was scratched followed by being heated. This polymer was mixed with alumina powders to fabricate the thermal pad. The thermal resistance of this pad was measured to be 0.48 K/W by a thermal transient test. The thermosetting composite was recycled via the retro DA reaction. The thermal resistance of the recycled one was similar to that of the original one.

  16. Cucurbit[7]uril as a Supramolecular Artificial Enzyme for Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Palma, Aniello; Artelsmair, Markus; Wu, Guanglu; Lu, Xiaoyong; Barrow, Steven J; Uddin, Najib; Rosta, Edina; Masson, Eric; Scherman, Oren A


    The ability to mimic the activity of natural enzymes using supramolecular constructs (artificial enzymes) is a vibrant scientific research field. Herein, we demonstrate that cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) can catalyse Diels-Alder reactions for a number of substituted and unreactive N-allyl-2-furfurylamines under biomimetic conditions, without the need for protecting groups, yielding powerful synthons in previously unreported mild conditions. CB[7] rearranges the substrate in a highly reactive conformation and shields it from the aqueous environment, thereby mimicking the mode of action of a natural Diels-Alderase. These findings can be directly applied to the phenomenon of product inhibition observed in natural Diels-Alderase enzymes, and pave the way toward the development of novel, supramolecular-based green catalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Tri-O-Bridged Diels-Alder Adduct from Cortex Mori Radicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Qi Lu


    Full Text Available Sanggenon X, an unusual tri-O-bridged Diels-Alder adduct, was isolated from Cortex Mori Radicis. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HR-MS (High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Sanggenon X contained three O-bridged rings, where the oxygenated bridgeheads were all quaternary carbons. Chemical methylation was carried out to deduce the linkages of the three O-bridges. The absolute configuration was determined by calculating the ECD (Electronic Circular Dichroism using the TDDFT (Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory method. Sanggenon X showed significant antioxidant activity against Fe2+-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, and was as effective as the positive control, curcumin.

  18. Asymmetric Diels-Alder Cycloadditions of Trifluoromethylated Dienophiles Under Trienamine Catalysis. (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Zhang, Shan-Jun; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun


    β-Trifluoromethyl (CF3 ) enones were proved to act as good dienophiles in asymmetric normal-electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloadditions with 2,4-dienals under trienamine catalysis with a chiral secondary amine. The sequential reductive amination transformations with benzylamine produced cis- and trans-fused chiral trifluoromethylated octahydroisoquinolines in a diastereodivergent manner by using NaBH(OAc)3 and NaBH3 CN as the reductants, respectively. Moreover, other types of activated alkenes that bear a CF3 group have also been successfully utilized to construct a diverse range of chiral cyclic frameworks in high stereoselectivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Diels-Alder addition to H2O@C60 an electronic and structural study (United States)

    Reveles, J. Ulises; Govinda, K. C.; Baruah, Tunna; Zope, Rajendra R.


    Exohedral reactivity of endohedral fullerenes has aroused a significant interest because of its potential applications. The present letter examines the effect of an entrapped single water molecule on the reactivity of C60. We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of a Diels-Alder reaction occurring at all non-identical bonds of free C60 and H2O@C60. Our calculations show that encapsulation of water does not have a significant effect on H2O@C60 reactivity compared to C60, as attested by the investigation of the reaction under several orientations of H2O inside C60. Reaction and activation energies indicate that [6,6] bonds are the most reactive sites.

  20. A Tri-O-Bridged Diels-Alder Adduct from Cortex Mori Radicis. (United States)

    Lu, An-Qi; Chen, Ming-Hua; Gao, Jie; Wang, Lu; Yang, Han-Yu; Li, Lan; Zhang, Bo; He, Hao-Ke; Wang, Su-Juan


    Sanggenon X, an unusual tri-O-bridged Diels-Alder adduct, was isolated from Cortex Mori Radicis. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HR-MS (High Resolution Mass Spectrometry). Sanggenon X contained three O-bridged rings, where the oxygenated bridgeheads were all quaternary carbons. Chemical methylation was carried out to deduce the linkages of the three O-bridges. The absolute configuration was determined by calculating the ECD (Electronic Circular Dichroism) using the TDDFT (Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory) method. Sanggenon X showed significant antioxidant activity against Fe2+-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, and was as effective as the positive control, curcumin.

  1. Bio-orthogonal Fluorescent Labelling of Biopolymers through Inverse-Electron-Demand Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Kozma, Eszter; Demeter, Orsolya; Kele, Péter


    Bio-orthogonal labelling schemes based on inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) cycloaddition have attracted much attention in chemical biology recently. The appealing features of this reaction, such as the fast reaction kinetics, fully bio-orthogonal nature and high selectivity, have helped chemical biologists gain deeper understanding of biochemical processes at the molecular level. Listing the components and discussing the possibilities and limitations of these reagents, we provide a recent snapshot of the field of IEDDA-based biomolecular manipulation with special focus on fluorescent modulation approaches through the use of bio-orthogonalized building blocks. At the end, we discuss challenges that need to be addressed for further developments in order to overcome recent limitations and to enable researchers to answer biomolecular questions in more detail. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. A mechanochemical study of the effects of compression on a Diels-Alder reaction (United States)

    Jha, Sanjiv K.; Brown, Katie; Todde, Guido; Subramanian, Gopinath


    We examine the effects of compressive external forces on the mechanisms of the parent Diels-Alder (DA) reaction between butadiene and ethylene. Reaction pathways and transition states were calculated using the nudged elastic band method within a mechanochemical framework at the CASSCF(6,6)/6-31G**, as well as the B3LYP/6-311++G** levels of theory. Our results suggest that compressive hydrostatic pressure lowers the energy barrier for the parent DA reaction while suppressing the undesirable side reaction, thereby leading to a direct increase in the yield of cyclohexene. Compressive pressure also increases the exothermicity of the parent DA reaction, which would lead to increased temperatures in a reaction vessel and thereby indirectly increase the yield of cyclohexene. Our estimates indicate that the compression used in our study corresponds to a range of 68 MPa-1410 MPa.

  3. Epoxy-functionalized Porous Organic Polymers via Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction for Atmospheric Water Capture. (United States)

    Byun, Yearin; Coskun, Ali


    We report on the synthesis of highly microporous, epoxy-functionalized porous organic polymers (ep-POPs) through one pot, catalyst-free Diels-Alder cycloaddition polymerization. The high oxygen content of ep-POPs offered efficient hydrogen bonding sites for water molecules, thus leading to high water uptake capacities, up to 39.2-42.4%, under a wide temperature range of 5-45oC, covering the climatic conditions and various manufacturing applications. Importantly, ep-POPs demonstrated regeneration temperatures as low as 55oC and excellent water stability, recyclability as well as high specific surface areas (up to 852 m2 g-1). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Direct Access to Multifunctionalized Norcamphor Scaffolds by Asymmetric Organocatalytic Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Mose, Rasmus; Jensen, Magnus E; Preegel, Gert; Jørgensen, Karl Anker


    A general organocatalytic cross-dienamine activation strategy to produce chiral multifunctionalized norcamphor compounds having a large diversity in substitution pattern is presented. The strategy is based on a Diels-Alder reaction of an amino-activated cyclopentenone reacting with most common classes of electron-deficient olefins, such as nitro-, ester-, amide-, and cyano-substituted olefins, chalcones, conjugated malononitriles, CF3-substituted enones, and fumarates. The corresponding norcamphor derivatives are formed in good yield, excellent enantioselectivities, and with complete diastereoselectivity. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that quaternary stereocenters and spiro norcamphor compounds can be formed with high stereoselectivity. The present development provides a simple, direct, and efficient approach for the preparation of important norcamphor scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Freshwater lichens on submerged stones and alder roots in the Polish lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Hachułka


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the studies of lichens in streams and spring areas of the escarpment zone of Wzniesienia Łódzkie Heights in Central Poland. The boulders, stones and roots of Alnus glutinosa, situated in 3 inundated zones in the streams: submerged zone, fluvial mesic zone and fluvial xeric zone, were examined in the streams. The studies have shown 23 species connected with these streams. Six species of freshwater lichens: Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, Hydropunctaria rheitrophila, V. margacea, V. praetermissa and V. madida, occupied stones in 3 different zones. Verrucaria aquatilis and Hydropunctaria rheitrophila colonized also secondary substrates – the bark of alder roots incrusted with sand grains and silt.

  6. Polyurethanes based on thermoreversible networks designed by Diels-Alder reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ursache


    Full Text Available Urethane bismaleimides (BMIs were used in order to obtain crosslinked structures by their reaction with an aromatic trifuran compound. The Diels-Alder (DA reaction between the maleimide and furan moieties was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy for a model compound (CTF, due to the fact that the networks are insoluble in usual NMR solvents. The structure of the networks was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. Thermal properties were investigated (by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetrical analyses (TGA and compared with the ones of similar compounds, previously obtained from the same BMIs and a different trifuran compound (which contains tertiary nitrogen in its structure. Mechanical and rheological properties were also investigated. The influence of the nature of the polyol from the BMIs structure and/or the influence of using a trifurylic compound with or without tertiary nitrogen on the properties of the crosslinked networks were also discussed.

  7. Magnetically Separable Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Imino Diels-Alder Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Mishra, Kanchan; Lee, Yong Rok; Joh, Young-Gull [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis) leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent via ultrasonication. The size, morphology, crystallinity, elemental composition, weight loss, surface chemical state, and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated. The synthe-sized nanoparticles were used as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of a variety of 2-methyl-4-substituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives by the imino Diels-Alder reaction. After the reaction, the catalyst was recovered by an external magnetic field. The recovered catalyst was then reused in a subsequent reaction under identical conditions. The recycled iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were reused five times with-out any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  8. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik


    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  9. A TEM Study on the Ti-Alloyed Grey Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg


    The microstructure of graphite flakes in titanium alloyed cast iron is studied using electron microscopy techniques. Dual beam SEM/FIB has been used for TEM sample preparation. A TEM study has been carried out on graphite flakes in grey cast iron using selected area electron diffraction. Based...... and that there is a high proportion of twins in the fine grained graphite. It appears that twinning and stacking faults are involved in the fine grained structure of the graphite. It is discussed how Ti addition affect crystal growth and may lead to formation of superfine graphite....

  10. Putative sporidesmin toxicity in an Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). (United States)

    Hum, S


    A 2-year-old, captive, male Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) died after progressive weight loss over a 4 week period. Biochemical analysis suggested hepatobiliary injury. At necropsy the liver was small, pale and firm. There were no abnormalities detected in other organs. Histopathological examination revealed a severe, diffuse, obliterative cholangiohepatopathy with advanced periportal fibrosis. This chronic hepatotoxicity was consistent with exposure to sporidesmin, the toxic metabolite in the spores of the fungus Pithomyces chartarum. Restricted grazing opportunities and heavy fungal pasture contamination may have precipitated sporidesmin toxicity in this animal. Sporidesmin toxicity has not previously been reported in this species.

  11. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis). (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A


    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  12. Research on wind field algorithm of wind lidar based on BP neural network and grey prediction (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Chun-Li; Luo, Xiong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ze-hou; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Xiao-ding; Wang, Lei


    This paper uses the BP neural network and grey algorithm to forecast and study radar wind field. In order to reduce the residual error in the wind field prediction which uses BP neural network and grey algorithm, calculating the minimum value of residual error function, adopting the residuals of the gray algorithm trained by BP neural network, using the trained network model to forecast the residual sequence, using the predicted residual error sequence to modify the forecast sequence of the grey algorithm. The test data show that using the grey algorithm modified by BP neural network can effectively reduce the residual value and improve the prediction precision.

  13. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C


    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  14. Assessing Riparian Vegetation Condition and Function in Disturbed Sites of the Arid Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Cornejo-Denman


    Full Text Available Transformation or modification of vegetation distribution and structure in arid riparian ecosystems can lead to the loss of ecological function. Mexico has 101,500,000 ha of arid lands, however there is a general lack of information regarding how arid riparian ecosystems are being modified. To assess these modifications, we use eight sites in the San Miguel River (central Sonora to analyze (1 riparian vegetation composition, structure and distribution using field sampling and remote sensing data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; (2 productivity (proxies, using vegetation indices derived from satellite data; and (3 variability posed by riparian vegetation and vegetation adjacent to riparian habitats. The development of a simple yet informative Anthropogenic-disturbance Index (ADI allowed us to classify and describe each study site. We found sharp differences in vegetation composition and structure between sites due to the absence/presence of obligate-riparian species. We also report significant difference between EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index values for the dry season among vegetation types that develop near the edges of the river but differ in composition, suggesting that land cover changes form obligate-riparian to facultative-riparian species can lead to a loss in potential productivity. Finally, our tests suggest that sites with higher disturbance present lower photosynthetic activity.

  15. Headwater stream flow, climate variation, and riparian buffers with thinning in western Oregon (United States)

    Julia I. Burton; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann


    Headwater streams and adjacent riparian areas provide reproductive, foraging, and dispersal habitat for many forest-dependent species, especially amphibians. Although previous studies have shown that the composition of aquatic and riparian animal communities is associated with spatial and temporal patterns of stream fl ow, the relationships among stream fl ow, climate...

  16. Valuation Challenges of Riparian Restoration in a Dynamic Decision Support Context: What Could Possibly Go Wrong? (United States)

    A dynamic simulation model is constructed to compare benefit-cost ratios of riparian restoration options for the Middle Rio Grande riparian corridor in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The model is built from original choice experiment valuation data, regional benefit-transfer studi...

  17. Amphibian and reptile abundance in riparian and upslope areas of five forest types in western Oregon (United States)

    Gomez, D.M.; Anthony, R.G.


    We compared species composition and relative abundance of herpetofauna between riparian and upslope habitats among 5 forest types (shrub, open sapling-pole, large sawtimber and old-growth conifer forests, and deciduous forests) in Western Oregon. Riparian- and upslope- associated species were identified based on capture frequencies from pitfall trapping. Species richness was similar among forest types but slightly greater in the shrub stands. The abundances of 3 species differed among forest types. Total captures was highest in deciduous forests, intermediate in the mature conifer forests, and lowest in the 2 young coniferous forests. Species richness was similar between stream and upslope habitats; however, captures were higher in riparian than upslope habitat. Tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei), Dunn's salamanders (Plethodon dunni), roughskin newts(Tanicha granulosa), Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) and red-legged frogs(Rana aurora) were captured more frequently in riparian than upslope habitats. Of these species the red-legged frog and Pacific giant salamander may depend on riparian habitat for at least part of their life requirements, while tailed frogs, Dunn's salamanders and roughskin newts appear to be riparian associated species. In addition, we found Oregon salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzi) were associated with upslope habitats. We suggest riparian management zones should be al least 75-100 m on each side of the stream and that management for upslope/and or old forest associates may be equally as important as for riparian species.

  18. Native aquatic plants and ecological condition of southwestern wetlands and riparian areas (United States)

    Alvin L. Medina


    The determination of the ecological condition of wetland and riparian habitats has been the focus of research by many scientists, because of the importance to understand the processes and related functions of these systems. Research on montane wetland and riparian systems has shown the relative importance of native aquatic plants in maintaining these systems in a...

  19. Riparian restoration in the Southwest: Species selection, propagation, planting methods, and case studies (United States)

    David Dreesen; John Harrington; Tom Subirge; Pete Stewart; Greg Fenchel


    Riparian plant communities, though small in overall area, are among the most valuable natural areas in the Southwest. The causes of degradation of southwestern riparian zones range from excessive cattle and elk grazing in montane watersheds to invasive woody exotic species and lack of natural flooding in the cottonwood forests, "bosque," of low elevation...

  20. Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) removal and its effect on native plant communities of Riparian Forests (United States)

    James Hanula; Scott Horn; John W. Taylor


    Chinese privet is a major invasive shrub within riparian zones throughout the southeastern United States. Weremoved privet shrubs from four riparian forests in October 2005 with a GyrotracH mulching machine or by handfelling with chainsaws and machetes to determine how well these treatments controlled privet and how they affected plant...

  1. The Role of Riparian Vegetation in Protecting and Improving Chemical Water Quality in Streams (United States)

    Michael G. Dosskey; Philippe Vidon; Noel P. Gurwick; Craig J. Allan; Tim P. Duval; Richard Lowrance


    We review the research literature and summarize the major processes by which riparian vegetation influences chemical water quality in streams, as well as how these processes vary among vegetation types, and discuss how these processes respond to removal and restoration of riparian vegetation and thereby determine the timing and level of response in stream water quality...

  2. Water quality modeling based on landscape analysis: Importance of riparian hydrology (United States)

    Thomas Grabs


    Several studies in high-latitude catchments have demonstrated the importance of near-stream riparian zones as hydrogeochemical hotspots with a substantial influence on stream chemistry. An adequate representation of the spatial variability of riparian-zone processes and characteristics is the key for modeling spatiotemporal variations of stream-water quality. This...

  3. Riparian forest as a management tool for moderating future thermal conditions of lowland temperate streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, P.B.; Kristensen, E.A.; Riis, T.; Baisner, A.J.; Larsen, S.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.


    Predictions of the future climate infer that stream water temperatures may increase in temperate lowland areas and that streams without riparian forest will be particularly prone to elevated stream water temperature. Planting of riparian forest is a potential mitigation measure to reduce water

  4. Riparian forest as a management tool for moderating future thermal conditions of lowland temperate streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, P.B.; Kristensen, E.A.; Riis, T.; Alnoee, A.B.; Larsen, S.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.


    Predictions of future climate suggest that stream water temperature will increase in temperate lowland areas. Streams without riparian forest will be particularly prone to elevated temperature. Planting riparian forest is a potential mitigation measure to reduce water temperature for the benefit

  5. Testing a simple field method for assessing nitrate removal in riparian zones (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Michael G. Dosskey


    Being able to identify riparian sites that function better for nitrate removal from groundwater is critical to using efficiently the riparian zones for water quality management. For this purpose, managers need a method that is quick, inexpensive, and accurate enough to enable effective management decisions. This study assesses the precision and accuracy of a simple...

  6. Riparian Restoration and Watershed Management: Some Examples from the California Coast (United States)

    Laurel Marcus


    Managing and restoring watersheds often involves recreation of riparian habitats. The natural functions of riparian forest natural to slow flood water, stabilize stream banks and trap sediments can be used in restoring disturbed creek systems. The State Coastal Conservancy's wetland enhancement program is preserving wetlands on the California coast through repair...

  7. Human impacts on riparian ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Valley during historic times (United States)

    Frank E. Wozniak


    The development of irrigation agriculture in historic times has profoundly impacted riparian ecosystems in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. A vital relationship has existed between water resources and settlement in the semi-arid Southwest since prehistoric times. Levels of technology have influenced human generated changes in the riparian ecosystems of the...

  8. Watershed scale assessment of the impact of forested riparian zones on stream water quality (United States)

    J. A. Webber; K. W. J. Williard; M. R. Whiles; M. L. Stone; J. J. Zaczek; D. K. Davie


    Federal and state land management agencies have been promoting forest and grass riparian zones to combat non-point source nutrient and sediment pollution of our nations' waters. The majority of research examining the effectiveness of riparian buffers at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to streams has been conducted at the field scale. This study took a...

  9. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: riparian zones. (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Chris Maser; Jon E. Rodiek


    Riparian zones can be identified by the presence of vegetation that requires free or unbound water or conditions that are more moist than normal (fig. 1) (Franklin and Dyrness 1973, Minore and Smith 1971). Riparian zones can vary considerably in size and vegetative complex because of the many combinations that can be created between water sources (fig. 2) and physical...

  10. Management and techniques for riparian restorations: roads field guide, vol. II (United States)

    Roads/Riparian Restoration Team


    Improperly constructed or maintained roads near riparian and wetland areas may degrade these valuable sites. Degradation affects many aspects of the riparian and wetland ecosystems. This field guide presents information in a practical, user friendly format to help resource managers and professionals. Well-documented evaluation and monitoring strategies are critical in...

  11. Management and techniques for riparian restorations: roads field guide, vol. I (United States)

    Roads/Riparian Restoration Team


    Improperly constructed or maintained roads near riparian and wetland areas may degrade these valuable sites. Degradation affects many aspects of the riparian and wetland ecosystems. This field guide presents information in a practical, user friendly format to help resource managers and professionals. Well-documented evaluation and monitoring strategies are critical in...

  12. Plant biomass and species composition along an environmental gradient in montane riparian meadows (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; E. N. Jack Brookshire; John E. Baham


    In riparian meadows, narrow zonation of the dominant vegetation frequently occurs along the elevational gradient from the stream edge to the floodplain terrace. We measured plant species composition and above- and belowground biomass in three riparian plant communities - a priori defined as wet, moist, and dry meadow - along short streamside topographic gradients in...

  13. Evaluating the ecological economic success of riparian restoration projects in Arizona (Abstract) (United States)

    Gary B. Snider


    The past 4 years the Arizona Water Protection Fund provided more than $25 million to individuals and organizations for stream and riparian restoration projects in Arizona. Information which increases the awareness of the value of Arizona's riparian systems is crucial to the incorporation of ecosystem services into decision-making frameworks, which are largely...

  14. Effects of riparian buffer width on wood loading in headwater streams after repeated forest thinning (United States)

    Julia I. Burton; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann


    Forested riparian buffer zones are used in conjunction with upland forest management, in part, to provide for the recruitment for large wood to streams. Small headwater streams account for the majority of stream networks in many forested regions. Yet, our understanding of how riparian buffer width influences wood dynamics in headwater streams is relatively less...

  15. Initial riparian down wood dynamics in relation to thinning and buffer width (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Deanna H. Olson; Adrian. Ares


    Down wood plays many functional roles in aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Simplifi cation of forest structure and low abundance of down wood in stream channels and riparian areas is a common legacy of historical management in headwater forests west of the Cascade Range in the US northwest. Contemporary management practices emphasize the implementation of vegetation...

  16. Thinning and riparian buffer configuration effects on down wood abundance in headwater streams in coniferous forests (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann


    Down wood is associated with the function, structure, and diversity of riparian systems. Considerable knowledge has been generated regarding down wood stocks and dynamics in temperate forests, but there are few studies on effects of silvicultural practices and riparian buffer design on down wood, particularly in headwater streams. We analyzed interactive eff ects of...

  17. Riparian wetlands and visitor use management in Big Bend National Park, Texas (United States)

    C. M. Fleming; S. H. Kunkle; M. D. Flora


    Wetlands and riparian habitats constitute a small, but nonetheless vital component in the Chihuahuan Desert. Big Bend National Park, 801,000 acres, contains about 27,000 acres of wetland. The park has riparian or wetland habitat distributed around 315 water sources, some perennial streams, and along 118 miles of the Rio Grande. These areas contain unique vegetation...

  18. Riparian and Related Values Associated with Flood Control Project Alternatives at Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks (United States)

    Philip A. Meyer


    This analysis will consider Riparian benefits from alternative project designs at Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks. Particular emphasis will be placed on quantification of riparian values and on the relationship of projects benefits for each project alternative to estimated costs of implementation.

  19. Plant species distribution in relation to water-table depth and soil redox potential in montane riparian meadows (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; John E. Baham


    The distribution of riparian plant species is largely driven by hydrologic and soil variables, and riparian plant communities frequently occur in relatively distinct zones along streamside elevational and soil textural gradients. In two montane meadows in northeast Oregon, USA, we examined plant species distribution in three riparian plant communities¡ªdefined as wet,...

  20. Biotransformation of a cage-like diels-alder adduct and derivatives by Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch Biotransformação de um aduto de diels-alder cage-like e derivados por Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Megumi Ito


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the ability for biotransformation of the Diels-Alder adduct tricyclo[,7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-dione (1 and two synthetic derivatives by the saprobe fungus Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Products from oxidation, isomerization and, regioselective and enantioselective reduction were achieved.Neste trabalho avaliou-se a capacidade de biotransformação do aduto de Diels-Alder triciclo[]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-diona (1 e dois derivados sintéticos pelo fungo sapróbio Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Produtos de oxidação, isomerização e redução regiosseletiva e enantiosseletiva foram obtidos.

  1. 2004 progress report : Effects of ungulate browsing on post-fire recovery of riparian cottonwoods : Implications for management of riparian forests, Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge, Wyoming (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Browsing pressure by ungulates may limit natural establishment of native cottonwood and willow stands, and fires, which have become more frequent on riparian lands...

  2. Cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). (United States)

    Péron, F; Rat-Fischer, L; Lalot, M; Nagle, L; Bovet, D


    One of the main characteristics of human societies is the extensive degree of cooperation among individuals. Cooperation is an elaborate phenomenon, also found in non-human primates during laboratory studies and field observations of animal hunting behaviour, among other things. Some authors suggest that the pressures assumed to have favoured the emergence of social intelligence in primates are similar to those that may have permitted the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in some bird species such as corvids and psittacids. In the wild, parrots show cooperative behaviours such as bi-parental care and mobbing. In this study, we tested cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Our birds were tested using several experimental setups to explore the different levels of behavioural organisation between participants, differing in temporal and spatial complexity. In our experiments, African grey parrots were able to act simultaneously but mostly failed during the delay task, maybe because of a lack of inhibitory motor response. Confronted with the possibility to adapt their behaviour to the presence or absence of a partner, they showed that they were able to coordinate their actions. They also collaborated, acting complementarily in order to solve tasks, but they were not able to place themselves in the partner's role.

  3. Grey parrots use inferential reasoning based on acoustic cues alone. (United States)

    Schloegl, Christian; Schmidt, Judith; Boeckle, Markus; Weiß, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt


    Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences.

  4. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Bin; Li, Shujing


    The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO), which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur's entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO), the differential evolution (DE), the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC), and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability. PMID:28127305

  5. A Reassessment of Archaeological Grey Literature: semantics and paradoxes

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    Tim N.L. Evans


    Full Text Available This article takes a fresh view of unpublished archaeological reports, common in archaeological practice in England since the advent of PPG16. Although these reports are almost ubiquitously referred to as 'grey literature', they are but a facet of a larger corpus of publication and dissemination techniques used by the archaeological community. It is argued that the term 'grey' has become synonymous with a liminal status and inferior quality that is in fact contrary to the realities of the increased online publication of fieldwork reports. The article also considers the current upsurge in research projects and academic theses using fieldwork reports, and highlights the necessity that findings from research are fed back into the curatorial sector and baseline data to inform all aspects of archaeological work rather than isolated in published literature often unavailable to those outside of academia. Finally, the article argues that although the challenge of increased access – via the web – is being met, this is not consistent across the country, leading to lacunae in the information landscape. Furthermore, as the number of online reports grows into the tens of thousands there is a need for greater sophistication and archaeological context in the accompanying metadata, to aid classification and reuse.

  6. Modified Grey Wolf Optimizer for Global Engineering Optimization

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    Nitin Mittal


    Full Text Available Nature-inspired algorithms are becoming popular among researchers due to their simplicity and flexibility. The nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms are analysed in terms of their key features like their diversity and adaptation, exploration and exploitation, and attractions and diffusion mechanisms. The success and challenges concerning these algorithms are based on their parameter tuning and parameter control. A comparatively new algorithm motivated by the social hierarchy and hunting behavior of grey wolves is Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO, which is a very successful algorithm for solving real mechanical and optical engineering problems. In the original GWO, half of the iterations are devoted to exploration and the other half are dedicated to exploitation, overlooking the impact of right balance between these two to guarantee an accurate approximation of global optimum. To overcome this shortcoming, a modified GWO (mGWO is proposed, which focuses on proper balance between exploration and exploitation that leads to an optimal performance of the algorithm. Simulations based on benchmark problems and WSN clustering problem demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and stability of mGWO compared with the basic GWO and some well-known algorithms.

  7. Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

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    Wendy J King

    Full Text Available Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms.

  8. Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care? (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Forsyth, David M; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco


    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms.

  9. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati


    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  10. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding. (United States)

    Li, Linguo; Sun, Lijuan; Guo, Jian; Qi, Jin; Xu, Bin; Li, Shujing


    The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO), which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur's entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO), the differential evolution (DE), the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC), and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  11. "Osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). (United States)

    Ajmat, M T; Chamut, S; Black-Decima, P


    Osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (Müller-Schwarze, et al. 1977). These authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. Chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. Brocket deer also possess tarsal tufts. The purpose of this study was to examine hairs from several glandular areas in this species. Osmetrichia, similar to those found in black tailed deer, were found in tarsal tufts and in interdigital gland hairs; these hairs possessed open scales with deep pockets suitable for holding secretions, in comparison to the flat scales seen on control hairs. Hairs with different morphological characteristics (slightly open scales) were found over the frontal gland. Specialized hairs were not found in the tarsal tufts of one specimen of a related species, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana). The similarities in the hairs of grey brocket and black-tailed deer are remarkable in light of the ecological and behavioral differences between these two species.

  12. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linguo Li


    Full Text Available The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO, which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur’s entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO, the differential evolution (DE, the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC, and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  13. Reproductive cycle of grey mullet Mugil cephalus L.

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    Ana Luísa Rente Medeiros


    Full Text Available Grey mullet it is an ecological and biologically important species suitable for sustainable aquaculture. It plays an important role for the economy of several Mediterranean countries, where it is produced in aquaculture based on capture of wild juveniles. The capture of wild juveniles for aquaculture it is not sustainable, and therefore the reproductive cycle must be known in order to obtain eggs for larval production. In this species, the reproductive cycle is still not closed for aquaculture purposes. This work presents the results obtained on a study on the reproductive cycle of grey mullet Mugil cephalus L. based on oocyte diameter measured over a period of one year at Olhão Aquaculture Research Center (EPPO. Monthly measures of body weight, standard and fork length of 15 females kept in 18 m3 tanks in natural conditions were recorded. The state of ovarian maturity was evaluated based on the oocyte diameter. The mean length of the females were 56,41 cm ± 26,71 and the weight 1770,91 g ± 5,70 and the results obtained so far suggests that spawning must occur during Summer.

  14. The impact of flood variables on riparian vegetation (United States)

    Dzubakova, Katarina; Molnar, Peter


    The riparian vegetation of Alpine rivers often grows in temporally dynamic riverine environments which are characterized by pronounced meteorological and hydrological fluctuations and high resource competition. Within these relatively rough conditions, riparian vegetation fulfils essential ecosystem functions such as water retention, biomass production and habitat to endangered species. The identification of relevant flood attributes impacting riparian vegetation is crucial for a better understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the riverine ecosystem. Hence, in this contribution we aim to quantify the ecological effects of flood attributes on riparian vegetation and to analyze the spatial coherence of flood-vegetation interaction patterns. We analyzed a 500 m long and 300-400 m wide study reach located on the Maggia River in southern Switzerland. Altogether five floods between 2008 and 2011 with return periods ranging from 1.4 to 20.1 years were studied. To assess the significance of the flood attributes, we compared post-flood to pre-flood vegetation vigour to flood intensity. Pre- and post-flood vegetation vigour was represented by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which was computed from images recorded by high resolution ground-based cameras. Flood intensity was expressed in space in the study reach by six flood attributes (inundation duration, maximum depth, maximum and total velocity, maximum and total shear stress) which were simulated by the 2D hydrodynamic model BASEMENT (VAW, ETH Zurich). We considered three floodplain units separately (main bar, secondary bar, transitional zone). Based on our results, pre-flood vegetation vigour largely determined vegetation reaction to the less intense floods (R = 0.59-0.96). However for larger floods with a strong erosive effect, its contribution was significantly lower (R = 0.59-0.68). Using multivariate regression analysis we show that pre-flood vegetation vigour and maximum velocity proved to be

  15. The surrounding landscape influences the diversity of leaf-litter ants in riparian cloud forest remnants. (United States)

    García-Martínez, Miguel Á; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela


    Riparian vegetation is a distinctive and ecologically important element of landscapes worldwide. However, the relative influence of the surrounding landscape on the conservation of the biodiversity of riparian remnants in human-modified tropical landscapes is poorly understood. We studied the surrounding landscape to evaluate its influence on leaf-litter-ant alpha and beta diversity in riparian remnants in the tropical montane cloud forest region of central Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 12 sites with riparian vegetation during both rainy (2011) and dry (2012) seasons. Ten leaf-litter samples were collected along a 100-m transect per site and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we characterized the landscape around each site according to nine land cover types and computed metrics of landscape composition and configuration. We collected a total of 8,684 ant individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, 11 tribes, and 7 subfamilies. Species richness and the diversity of Shannon and Simpson increased significantly in remnants immersed in landscapes with a high percentage of riparian land cover and a low percentage of land covers with areas reforested with Pinus, cattle pastures, and human settlements and infrastructure. The composition of ant assemblages was a function of the percentage of riparian land cover in the landscape. This study found evidence that leaf-litter ants, a highly specialized guild of arthropods, are mainly impacted by landscape composition and the configuration of the focal remnant. Maintaining or improving the surrounding landscape quality of riparian vegetation remnants can stimulate the movement of biodiversity among forest and riparian remnants and foster the provision of ecosystem services by these ecosystems. Effective outcomes may be achieved by considering scientific knowledge during the early stages of riparian policy formulation, in addition to

  16. Terrain-based Predictive Modeling of a Functional Riparian Corridor in a Coastal Northern California Watershed (United States)

    Robinson, T.; Davis, J. D.


    Riparian corridors and their associated geomorphic landforms (e.g., channels, floodplains, and terraces) and vegetation communities (e.g., forests and wetlands) have been significantly degraded in California, prompting an expansion of efforts to delineate riparian corridors and identify priorities for conservation via deed restrictions and easements. Current techniques to delineate riparian corridors for these purposes include fixed-width buffers based on stream centerlines and digitization of woody vegetation from aerial photos. Although efficient, these delineation methods do not accurately capture the extent of ecologically functional riparian corridors and result in riparian habitat being excluded from conservation efforts while non-riparian is included. From a physical perspective, ecologically functional riparian corridors have widths that vary with topography and ample space for dynamic fluvial geomorphic processes that create and maintain river morphology and vegetation and sustain ecological interactions that extend from the stream channel laterally into upland ecosystems and up- and downstream ecosystems in longitudinal directions. New terrain-based spatial analysis techniques and high-resolution digital terrain data show promise in delineating ecologically functional riparian corridors. In this study, we compare the efficacy of three terrain-based predictors of riparian corridors that have emerged in the literature—elevation above channel, flow accumulation, and distance from channel. The results of each terrain predictor are compared with field-based indicators of the riparian corridor of an alluvial reach of Mark West Creek in Sonoma County, California (a mediterranean climate). Indicators include soil type, fluvial geomorphic landforms, and vegetation. A one-meter digital terrain model from LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) supplied by a NASA ROSES grant is used as the base terrain data for spatial analysis. We discuss in detail the use of

  17. The surrounding landscape influences the diversity of leaf-litter ants in riparian cloud forest remnants (United States)

    Valenzuela-González, Jorge E.; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela


    Riparian vegetation is a distinctive and ecologically important element of landscapes worldwide. However, the relative influence of the surrounding landscape on the conservation of the biodiversity of riparian remnants in human-modified tropical landscapes is poorly understood. We studied the surrounding landscape to evaluate its influence on leaf-litter-ant alpha and beta diversity in riparian remnants in the tropical montane cloud forest region of central Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 12 sites with riparian vegetation during both rainy (2011) and dry (2012) seasons. Ten leaf-litter samples were collected along a 100-m transect per site and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we characterized the landscape around each site according to nine land cover types and computed metrics of landscape composition and configuration. We collected a total of 8,684 ant individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, 11 tribes, and 7 subfamilies. Species richness and the diversity of Shannon and Simpson increased significantly in remnants immersed in landscapes with a high percentage of riparian land cover and a low percentage of land covers with areas reforested with Pinus, cattle pastures, and human settlements and infrastructure. The composition of ant assemblages was a function of the percentage of riparian land cover in the landscape. This study found evidence that leaf-litter ants, a highly specialized guild of arthropods, are mainly impacted by landscape composition and the configuration of the focal remnant. Maintaining or improving the surrounding landscape quality of riparian vegetation remnants can stimulate the movement of biodiversity among forest and riparian remnants and foster the provision of ecosystem services by these ecosystems. Effective outcomes may be achieved by considering scientific knowledge during the early stages of riparian policy formulation, in addition to

  18. Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. (United States)

    Tang, Qiang; Bao, Yuhai; He, Xiubin; Zhou, Huaidong; Cao, Zhijing; Gao, Peng; Zhong, Ronghua; Hu, Yunhua; Zhang, Xinbao


    Impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir has created an artificial riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km(2), which has been subjected to seasonal inundation and exposure due to regular reservoir impoundment and the occurrence of natural floods. The significant alteration of hydrologic regime has caused numerous environmental changes. The present study investigated the magnitude and spatial pattern of sedimentation and metal enrichment in a typical section of the riparian zone, composed of bench terraces with previous agricultural land uses, and explored their links to the changed hydrologic regime. In particular, we measured the total sediment depths and collected surface riparian sediments and down-profile sectioned riparian soils (at 5 cm intervals) for trace metal determination. Our analysis showed that the annual average sedimentation rates varied from 0.5 to 10 cm·yr(-1) and they decreased significantly with increasing elevation. This lateral distribution was principally attributed to seasonal variations in water levels and suspended sediment concentrations. Enriched concentrations of trace metals were found both in the riparian sediments and soils, but they were generally higher in the riparian sediments than in riparian soils and followed a similar lateral decreasing trend. Metal contamination assessment showed that the riparian sediments were slightly contaminated by Ni, Zn, and Pb, moderately contaminated by Cu, and moderately to strongly contaminated by Cd; while riparian soils were slightly contaminated by As, and moderately contaminated by Cd. Trace metal enrichment in the riparian sediments may be attributed to external input of contaminated sediments produced from upstream anthropogenic sources and chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions during pure sediment mobilization and after sink for a prolonged flooding period due to reservoir impoundment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Reaction Mechanism on Generalized Force Modified Potential Energy Surfaces (G-FMPES) for Diels-Alder Reaction (United States)

    Jha, Sanjiv; Brown, Katie; Subramanian, Gopinath

    We apply a recent formulation for searching minimum energy reaction path (MERP) and saddle point to atomic systems subjected to an external force. We demonstrate the effect of a loading modality resembling hydrostatic pressure on the trans to cis conformational change of 1,3-butadiene, and the simplest Diels-Alder reaction between ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The calculated MERP and saddle points on the generalized force modified potential energy surface (G-FMPES) are compared with the corresponding quantities on an unmodified potential energy surface. Our study is performed using electronic structure calculations at the HF/6-31G** level as implemented in the AIMS-MOLPRO code. Our calculations suggest that the added compressive pressure lowers the energy of cis butadiene. The activation energy barrier for the concerted Diels-Alder reaction is found to decrease progressively with increasing compressive pressure.

  20. Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated Dienes with Acrylic Esters: A Novel Approach to Photocured Polymer Film Development (United States)

    Ilhan, Faysal; Tyson, Daniel S.; Smith, Deedee; Meador, Mary Ann; Meador, Michael A.


    Diels-Alder cycloadditions have often been utilized in polymer synthesis as an alternative to condensation reactions. In our earlier efforts, we developed a new method for the preparation of linear aromatic polyimides, which employs o-quionodimethanes (o-QDMs), generated by a well-known photochemical reaction: the photoenolization of o-methylphenyl ketones. Photolysis of o-methylbenzophenone 1 produces hydroxy-o-quino- diemthane 2, which can be trapped with dienophiles, such as dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, to efficiently yield the corresponding cycloadduct (Scheme 1). Here we extend this approach to a novel photocuring process for development of polymer films. We synthesized a series of molecules with multi o-mehtylphenyl ketone functionalities. We further investigated these molecules as photoreactive monomers to obtain polyester films through Diels-Alder cycloadditions.

  1. Expanding the scope of cyclopropene reporters for the detection of metabolically engineered glycoproteins by Diels–Alder reactions

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    Anne-Katrin Späte


    Full Text Available Monitoring glycoconjugates has been tremendously facilitated by the development of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. Recently, the inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between methylcyclopropene tags and tetrazines has become a popular ligation reaction due to the small size and high reactivity of cyclopropene tags. Attaching the cyclopropene tag to mannosamine via a carbamate linkage has made the reaction even more efficient. Here, we expand the application of cyclopropene tags to N-acylgalactosamine and N-acylglucosamine derivatives enabling the visualization of mucin-type O-glycoproteins and O-GlcNAcylated proteins through Diels–Alder chemistry. Whereas the previously reported cyclopropene-labeled N-acylmannosamine derivative leads to significantly higher fluorescence staining of cell-surface glycoconjugates, the glucosamine derivative gave higher labeling efficiency with protein preparations containing also intracellular proteins.

  2. Revisiting the stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts between cyclopentadiene and 1,4-benzoquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormena, Claudio F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Oliveira, Kleber T. de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas


    In this work it is presented a detailed theoretical analysis of the relative stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts formed by the reaction between cyclopentadiene (1) and 1,4-benzoquinone (2). The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) showed the existence of only one transition state for the reaction studied, for both endo 3 and exo 4 adducts. The energies of both adducts were obtained at high level of theory (CBS-Q) confirming that the endo adduct is more stable than exo, which is in the opposite way to the observed in reactions that usually follow Alder's rule. An electronic structure analysis was performed through NBO methodology, indicating that the attractive delocalization interaction predominates over the steric repulsive interaction in the endo adducts. In summary, for the studied cycloaddition reaction the endo adduct is the thermodynamic and kinetic product, which can be also confirmed by experimental data mentioned in this work. (author)

  3. Performance and Kinetics Study of Self-Repairing Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene Binders Based on the Diels–Alder Reaction

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    Chuyao Liang


    Full Text Available Based on the Diels–Alder reaction and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binders of solid propellants, two novel compounds—furfuryl-terminated polybutadiene (FTPB and trifurfuryl propane (TFP—were designed and synthesized, and their structures were characterized. A new kind of reversible Diels–Alder reaction system was formed by FTPB as main resin, N,N′-1,3-phenylenedimaleimide (PDMI as curing agent and TFP as chain extender. The results showed that this system had good mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 1.76 MPa and a tensile strain of 284% after curing, and the repair efficiency of the crack was 88%. Therefore, it could be used as a novel binder of energetic materials such as solid propellant and PBX explosives to provide them with self-repairing characteristics and improve the reliability for application.

  4. Studies toward the synthesis of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids: a Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder approach. (United States)

    Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D


    A synthetic route to the isotwistane core of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids is described. A Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) strategy sets the vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers present in this family of natural products. The regioselectivity of the IMDA reaction is dictated by the conditions employed for silyl enol ether formation, with one set of conditions providing the core of cardionine and alternate conditions generating the desired isotwistane core of isopalhinine.

  5. Design and synthesis of fused polycycles via Diels–Alder reaction and ring-rearrangement metathesis as key steps

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    Sambasivarao Kotha


    Full Text Available Atom efficient processes such as the Diels–Alder reaction (DA and the ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM have been used to design new polycycles. In this regard, ruthenium alkylidene catalysts are effective in realizing the RRM of bis-norbornene derivatives prepared by DA reaction and Grignard addition. Here, fused polycycles are assembled which are difficult to produce by conventional synthetic routes.

  6. A 11-Steps Total Synthesis of Magellanine through a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Dehydro Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    McGee, Philippe; Bétournay, Geneviève; Barabé, Francis; Barriault, Louis


    We have developed an innovative strategy for the formation of angular carbocycles via a gold(I)-catalyzed dehydro Diels-Alder reaction. This transformation provides rapid access to a variety of complex angular cores in excellent diastereoselectivities and high yields. The usefulness of this AuI -catalyzed cycloaddition was further demonstrated by accomplishing a 11-steps total synthesis of (±)-magellanine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis of 2,5-Disubstituted Octahydroquinolin-4-ones via anIntramolecular Hetero Diels-Alder Reaction

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    J. Antonio Palenzuela


    Full Text Available A route for the preparation of 2,5-disubstituted octahydroquinolin-4-ones, synthetic precursors of the decahydroquinoline-type toxins, is presented. The key steps are an asymmetric epoxidation and an intramolecular hetero Diels-Alder reaction between an activated diene and an imine. The presence of an allylic stereogenic center induces some selectivity and thus only two cycloadducts are obtained in 70:30 ratio and good yield.

  8. C2-symmetric bisamidines: Chiral Brønsted bases catalysing the Diels-Alder reaction of anthrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available C2-symmetric bisamidines 8 have been tested as chiral Brønsted bases in the Diels-Alder reaction of anthrones and N-substituted maleimides. High yields of cycloadducts and significant asymmetric inductions up to 76% ee are accessible. The proposed mechanism involves proton transfer between anthrone and bisamidine, association of the resulting ions and finally a cycloaddition step stereoselectively controlled by the chiral ion pair.

  9. Tandem cross enyne metathesis (CEYM)-intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction (IMDAR). An easy entry to linear bicyclic scaffolds. (United States)

    Miró, Javier; Sánchez-Roselló, María; Sanz, Álvaro; Rabasa, Fernando; Del Pozo, Carlos; Fustero, Santos


    A new tandem cross enyne metathesis (CEYM)-intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction (IMDAR) has been carried out. It involves conjugated ketones, esters or amides bearing a remote olefin and aromatic alkynes as the starting materials. The overall process enables the preparation of a small family of linear bicyclic scaffolds in a very simple manner with moderate to good levels of diastereoselectivity. This methodology constitutes one of the few examples that employ olefins differently than ethylene in tandem CEYM-IMDAR protocols.

  10. Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors (United States)


    Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

  11. Red Alder-Conifer Stands in Alaska: An Example of Mixed Species Management to Enhance Structural and Biological Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Deal


    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest in managing forests to improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An increasingly important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity and improve wildlife and aquatic habitat. Well-planned silvicultural systems containing a mixture of broadleaf-conifer species have potential to enhance stand diversity and provide other ecosystem services earlier than typical even-aged conifer plantations. Here, we use the example of mixed Sitka spruce/western hemlock and red alder in young, managed stands in southeast Alaska to achieve these goals. We briefly describe the silvics of Sitka spruce, western hemlock and red alder plantations as pure conifer stands or pure broadleaf stands. Then, we synthesize studies of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce/western hemlock stands in southeast Alaska and present their potential for improving stand structural complexity, biodiversity and other ecosystem services over pure conifer forests. Finally, we discuss some of the opportunities and potential tradeoffs for managing mixed broadleaf-conifer stands for providing a number of natural resources and the influence of these broadleaf-conifer forests on ecosystem linkages and processes.

  12. Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance. (United States)

    Bryant, J P; Chapin, F S; Reichardt, P B; Clausen, T P


    Plant carbon/nutrient balance has been implicated as an important factor in plant defensive chemistry and palatability to herbivores. We tested this hypothesis by fertilizing juvenile growth form Alaska paper birch and green alder with N, P and N-plus-P in a balanced 2x2 factorial experiment. Additionally, we shaded unfertilized plants of both species. Fertilization with N and N-plus-P increased growth of Alaska paper birch, reduced the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased the palatability of birch twigs to snowshoe hares. Shading decreased birch growth, decreased the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased twig palatability. These results indicate that the defensive chemistry and palatability of winter-dormant juvenile Alaska paper birch are sensitive to soil fertility and shade. Conversely the defensive chemistry and palatability of green alder twigs to snowshoe hares were not significantly affected by soil fertility or shade. The greater sensitivity of Alaska paper birch defensive chemistry and palatability to snowshoe hares in comparison to green alder is in agreement with the hypothesis that early successional woody plants that are adapted to high resource availability are more plastic in their chemical responses to the physical environment than are species from less favorable environments.

  13. Well-defined Polymethylene-Based Co/Terpolymers by Combining Anthracene/Maleimide Diels-Alder Reaction with Polyhomologation

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos


    A novel strategy towards well-defined polymethylene-based co/terpolymers, by combining anthracene/maleimide Diels-Alder reaction with polyhomologation, is presented. For the synthesis of diblock copolymers the following approach was applied: a) synthesis of α-anthracene-ω-hydroxy- polymethylene by polyhomologation using tri (9-anthracene-methyl propyl ether) borane as initiator, b) synthesis of furan-protected-maleimide-terminated poly (ε-caprolactone) or polyethylene glycol and c). Diels-Alder reaction between the anthracene and maleimide-terminated polymers. In the case of triblock terpolymers the α-anthracene-ω-hydroxy-polymethylene was used as macroinitiator for the ring-opening polymerization of D, L-lactide to afford an anthracene-terminated PM-b-PLA copolymer, followed by Diels-Alder reaction with furan-protected maleimide-terminated poly (ε-caprolactone) or polyethylene glycol to give the triblock terpolymers. All intermediate and final products were characterized by SEC, 1H NMR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and DSC.

  14. Naturally occurring Diels-Alder-type adducts from Morus nigra as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B. (United States)

    Mascarello, Alessandra; Orbem Menegatti, Angela Camila; Calcaterra, Andrea; Martins, Priscila Graziela Alves; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise Domeneghini; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Ferrari, Franco; Pau, Valentina; Sanna, Adriana; De Logu, Alessandro; Botta, Maurizio; Botta, Bruno; Terenzi, Hernán; Mori, Mattia


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) protein tyrosine phosphatases A and B (PtpA and PtpB) have been recognized as potential molecular targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies against tuberculosis (TB). In this context, we have recently reported that the naturally occurring Diels-Alder-type adduct Kuwanol E is an inhibitor of PtpB (Ki = 1.6 ± 0.1 μM). Here, we describe additional Diels-Alder-type adducts isolated from Morus nigra roots bark that inhibit PtpB at sub-micromolar concentrations. The two most potent compounds, namely Kuwanon G and Kuwanon H, showed Ki values of 0.39 ± 0.27 and 0.20 ± 0.01 μM, respectively, and interacted with the active site of the enzyme as suggested by kinetics and mass spectrometry studies. Molecular docking coupled with intrinsic fluorescence analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) further characterized the interaction of these promising PtpB inhibitors. Notably, in an Mtb survival assay inside macrophages, Kuwanon G showed inhibition of Mtb growth by 61.3%. All these results point to the common Diels-Alder-type adduct scaffold, and highlight its relevance for the development of PtpB inhibitors as candidate therapeutics for TB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. A new approach to the synthesis of monomers and polymers incorporating furan/maleimide Diels-Alder adducts (United States)

    Banella, Maria Barbara; Gioia, Claudio; Vannini, Micaela; Colonna, Martino; Celli, Annamaria; Gandini, Alessandro


    The Diels-Alder reaction between furan and maleimide moieties is a well-known and widely used strategy to build bio-based macromolecular structures with peculiar properties. The furan-maleimide adducts are thermally reversible because they can be broken above about 120°C and recombined at lower temperatures. At the moment only the monomers exhibiting the furan or the maleimide moieties on their extremity are used in order to get linear or cross-linked polymeric structures. The innovative idea described here consists in using a monomer bearing two carboxylic acidic groups on its extremities and a furan-maleimide Diels-Alder adduct within its structure. This monomer can give rise to classical polycondensation reactions leading to polymers. These polymers (which are polyesters in the present case) can be broken at high temperatures in correspondence of the furane-maleimide Diels-Alder adduct leading to segments exhibiting furan or maleimide moieties at their extremities, which at lower temperature recombine leading to random or block copolymers.

  16. Design Paradigm Utilizing Reversible Diels-Alder Reactions to Enhance the Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Materials. (United States)

    Davidson, Joshua R; Appuhamillage, Gayan A; Thompson, Christina M; Voit, Walter; Smaldone, Ronald A


    A design paradigm is demonstrated that enables new functional 3D printed materials made by fused filament fabrication (FFF) utilizing a thermally reversible dynamic covalent Diels-Alder reaction to dramatically improve both strength and toughness via self-healing mechanisms. To achieve this, we used as a mending agent a partially cross-linked terpolymer consisting of furan-maleimide Diels-Alder (fmDA) adducts that exhibit reversibility at temperatures typically used for FFF printing. When this mending agent is blended with commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) and printed, the resulting materials demonstrate an increase in the interfilament adhesion strength along the z-axis of up to 130%, with ultimate tensile strength increasing from 10 MPa in neat PLA to 24 MPa in fmDA-enhanced PLA. Toughness in the z-axis aligned prints increases by up to 460% from 0.05 MJ/m(3) for unmodified PLA to 0.28 MJ/m(3) for the remendable PLA. Importantly, it is demonstrated that a thermally reversible cross-linking paradigm based on the furan-maleimide Diels-Alder (fmDA) reaction can be more broadly applied to engineer property enhancements and remending abilities to a host of other 3D printable materials with superior mechanical properties.

  17. Performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific Canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions. (United States)

    Beaudoin-Nadeau, Martin; Gagné, André; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Fortin, J André; Roy, Sébastien; Greer, Charles W; Khasa, Damase P


    Canadian oil sands tailings are predominately sodic residues contaminated by hydrocarbons such as naphthenic acids. These conditions are harsh for plant development. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inoculating roots of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa and Alnus incana ssp. rugosa with ectomycorrhizal fungi in the presence of tailings compounds. Seedlings were inoculated with 7 different strains of Paxillus involutus and Alpova diplophloeus and were grown under different treatments of NaCl, Na2SO4, and naphthenic acids in a growth chamber. Afterwards, seedling survival, height, dry biomass, leaf necrosis, and root mycorrhization rate were measured. Paxillus involutus Mai was the most successful strain in enhancing alder survival, health, and growth. Seedlings inoculated with this strain displayed a 25% increase in survival rate, 2-fold greater biomass, and 2-fold less leaf necrosis compared with controls. Contrary to our expectations, A. diplophloeus was not as effective as P. involutus in improving seedling fitness, likely because it did not form ectomycorrhizae on roots of either alder species. High intraspecific variation characterized strains of P. involutus in their ability to stimulate alder height and growth and to minimize leaf necrosis. We conclude that in vivo selection under bipartite symbiotic conditions is essential to select effective strains that will be of use for the revegetation and reclamation of derelict lands.

  18. A Whiter Shade of Grey: A new approach to archaeological grey literature using the XML version of the TEI Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Falkingham


    Full Text Available This article has arisen through the author's interest in two contemporary issues within archaeology: the production and dissemination of grey literature and the potential of XML. Grey literature is examined, with specific reference to unpublished reports literature produced in the present climate of developer-funded archaeology in England. There are concerns about the accessibility of this literature, both from within and beyond the archaeological profession. The vast majority of reports are word-processed and then printed in hard-copy format for limited distribution. The original, digital document however, has largely been seen as a by-product. Awareness of the importance of these digital reports, and their preservation must be raised. Electronic means of delivery and dissemination via the World Wide Web offer huge potential and present opportunities for new ways of working. Archaeology is not alone in seeking to promote the accessibility of grey literature; indeed there are many disciplines that have created online initiatives aiming to do just this, utilising a variety of means and a range of electronic file formats. The use of XML technology appears to offer many advantages over traditional formats, such as word-processed, PDF and even (XHTML files, particularly with regard to the manipulation and presentation of encoded electronic text. Increasingly, XML technology is being used for electronic delivery and dissemination and the pros and cons of so doing are discussed in this article. This theme has been developed by the author through a 'proof of concept' practical case study of three unpublished grey literature archaeology reports from the North Yorkshire Historic Environment Record. XML documents have been created from the original word-processed electronic reports by the manual application of XML markup, the methodology for which was devised following the XML version of the Text Encoding Initiative's TEI P4 Guidelines. The level of

  19. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.


    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  20. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.


    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were