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Sample records for rio valdivia chile

  1. Epidemiología de la difilobotriasis en la cuenca del río Valdivia, Chile Epidemiologia de difílobotriase na bacia do rio Valdivia, Chile Epidemiology of diphyllobothriasis in the Valdivia River basin, Chile

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    Patricio Torres

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de marzo y octubre de 1987 fueron examinados 1295 personas de seis distritos ribereños de la cuenca del río Valdivia, determinándose un 1,2% de prevalencia de infección por Diphyllobothrium en los distritos de Riñihue y Las Huellas. Además, se comprobó un 5,3% y un 9,8% de prevalencia en perros de los distritos de Riñihue y Malihue, respectivamente, pero no se observó infección en gatos y cerdos. Los parásitos recuperados después del tratamiento fueron identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. La infección humana por D. latum en los distritos afectados se favorece por el consumo de peces ahumados o sometidos a cocción insuficiente. La investigación de 1450 peces (4 especies introducidas y 11 autóctonas capturados entre 1986-1987 en la cuenca del río Valdivia, demostró la existencia de plerocercoides de D. latum y/o Diphyllobothrium dendriticum en Salmo gairdneri y Salmo trutta, entre los peces introducidos, y en algunas especies autóctonas. La prevalencia e intensidad media en las infecciones de los peces así como el grado de agregación de las infrapoblaciones varía en los distintos sectores. Algunas especies de peces actuarían como huésped intermediario y otras como huéspedes paraténicos de Diphyllobothrium spp. en la cuenca del río Valdivia. Como medidas de control para la difilobotriasis en los distritos afectados se propone un mejoramiento de las condiciones de saneamiento básico, educación sanitaria y tratamiento de las personas infectadas.Foram examinadas 1.295 pessoas de seis localidades situadas às margens da bacia do rio Valdivia (Chile, encontrando-se uma prevalência de infecção por Diphyllobothrium igual a 1,2% em Riñihue e Las Huellas. Em cães a prevalência foi de 5,3% e e 9,8% em Riñihue e Malihue, respectivamente, não tendo sido observada infecção em gatos nem porcos. Os parasitas obtidos após tratamento foram identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. A infecção humana

  2. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  3. Un caso de infeccion humana por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localizacion parenquimatosa en Valdivia, Chile A case of human cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus in Valdivia, Chile

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    Eduardo Ortega

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de infección por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localización parenquimatosa en un paciente de la ciudad de Valdivia (Chile cuyo diagnóstico definitivo se efectuó a través del estudio morfológico del parásito. Se discute brevemente la escasa frecuencia de la localización parenquimatosa del cisticerco racemoso, así como su diagnóstico diferencial con otros estados larvarios de cestodos que desarrollan en el sistema nervioso.A clinical case of cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus, diagnosed by means of morphological characteristics in a patient of Valdivia city is described. The rare frequency of parenquimal location of racemose cysticercus as well as its differential diagnosis with other larval stages of cestodes that develop in the brain and its treatment are discussed.

  4. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

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    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  5. 198 "Viviendas dinámicas sin deuda" en Valdivia, X Región, Chile

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    Bonet Miró, Ana

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the competition as well as the project developed in response to the social, constructive and climate specific conditions of Valdivia, X Region, Chile, is the design and construction of experimental social housing, whose cost, including land and services, would not exceed 7,500 $ per unit. The housing units should be designed in order to grow and to be adapted by owners and should allow for achieving higher urban density as average so to reduce the burden of costs derived from land acquisition and services. The project adopts a three-storey compact typology such as a “big house”, with 2 units on ground floor and 4 duplex on upper floors. The local wood construction tradition and the good level of acceptance of it within the context of Valdivia, bring us to develop a mixed construction system, concrete and wood, which not only is suitable to the geotechnical and seismic conditions of the ground, but also to the economical restrictions and to the requirements of spatial flexibility so necessary when designing a minimal housing unit.El objetivo del concurso y del proyecto desarrollado posteriormente, adaptado a los condicionantes sociales, constructivos y climatológicos de Valdivia, X Región, Chile, es el diseño y construcción de unas viviendas sociales experimentales, cuyo coste, incluida la repercusión del suelo no exceda de 7.500 $ por unidad. Dichas viviendas tienen que ser aptas para su crecimiento y adaptación posterior y lograr una mayor densidad que las habitualmente conseguidas en estos programas con el fin de abaratar los costos derivados de la compra del terreno. Se adopta una tipología compacta de “casa grande”, de tres alturas, con 2 viviendas en planta baja y 4 dúplex en las plantas superiores. La tradición constructiva local en madera y la buena aceptación que la misma tiene en el contexto de Valdivia han llevado a proponer un sistema mixto, hormigón y madera que no sólo responde bien a los

  6. Antecedentes históricos sobre el Complejo Forestal y Maderero Panguipulli, provincia de Valdivia, Centro-sur de Chile

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    Ruiz, José Barrena; Arrese, Maite Hernando; Marchini, Fernanda Rojas

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to inquire on the historical background of Panguipulli Forestry and Timber Complex, a forestry company that emerged in 1971 in the province of Valdivia, South-central Chile. The company managed an area larger than 400,000 hectares and employed over 3,000 workers, functioning under a

  7. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E.; Estay, Sergio A.; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the ci...

  8. 198 “Viviendas dinámicas sin deuda” en Valdivia, X Región, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Miró, Ana; Brunelli, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the competition as well as the project developed in response to the social, constructive and climate specific conditions of Valdivia, X Region, Chile, is the design and construction of experimental social housing, whose cost, including land and services, would not exceed 7,500 $ per unit. The housing units should be designed in order to grow and to be adapted by owners and should allow for achieving higher urban density as average so to reduce the burden of costs derived from l...

  9. Prevalencia de Ansiedad Dental en Niños Atendidos en los Servicios de Salud Públicos de Valdivia, Chile

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    Claudia Mautz-Miranda

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de ansiedad dental (AD en niños de entre 6 a 10 años de edad atendidos en los servicios de salud públicos (SSP de la ciudad de Valdivia, Chile. Material y método: Se diseñó un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se midió la prevalencia de AD previa a la atención odontológica utilizando la Escala de Imagen Facial (FIS en niños de 6 a 10 años que fueron atendidos en los SSP, durante los meses de marzo a junio de 2015. Resultados: De los 200 niños(as encuestados el 22,5% presentó ansiedad dental; 51% eran niñas (n=102; edad promedio de 7,9 ± 1,45 años. Conclusión: La prevalencia de AD en Valdivia es mayor a la observada en otro estudio similar realizado en Santiago de Chile. Recomendamos implementar FIS, dentro de la atención odontológica pediátrica, para facilitar una mejor adaptación y adherencia al tratamiento.

  10. Comparación de recursos energéticos residenciales en las ciudades de Valdivia (Chile) y Bariloche (Argentina): precios y consumos

    OpenAIRE

    Schueftan, Alejandra; Gonzalez, Alejandro Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Se investigó la disponibilidad de recursos energéticos en el sector residencial de Valdivia en Chile y de Bariloche en Argentina. Se compararon los precios de los recursos y los consumos promedio. En ambos casos, el requerimiento principal es en calefacción, para la cual en Valdivia en su mayoría se usa leña, y en Bariloche gas natural, en ambos casos con los precios relativos menores. Por unidad de energía y de salario el gas natural en Bariloche resulta 12 veces más barato que la leña e...

  11. Prevalencia de Ansiedad Dental en Niños Atendidos en los Servicios de Salud Públicos de Valdivia, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mautz-Miranda, Claudia; Fernández-Delgadillo, Carolina; Saldivia-Ojeda, Constanza; Rodríguez-Salinas, Carolina; Riquelme-Carrasco, Sebastián; Linco-Olave, Jared

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de ansiedad dental (AD) en niños de entre 6 a 10 años de edad atendidos en los servicios de salud públicos (SSP) de la ciudad de Valdivia, Chile. Material y método: Se diseñó un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se midió la prevalencia de AD previa a la atención odontológica utilizando la Escala de Imagen Facial (FIS) en niños de 6 a 10 años que fueron atendidos en los SSP, durante los meses de marzo a junio de 2015. Resultados: De los 20...

  12. Sedimentologic development of a Late Oligocene Miocene forearc embayment, Valdivia Basin Complex, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, J. P.; Elgueta, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Deposition of Tertiary sediments in the southeastern part of the Valdivia Basin commenced during the Late Oligocene with the rapid incision of rivers draining the Palaeo-Coastal Range. Alluvial fans developing along the steep valley flanks joined gravelly braided streams transporting bedload to the coast. Tectonic and eustatic stability lasting into the Early Miocene subsequently allowed lateral erosion of the valley flanks and the development of extensive fluvial and estuarine peat swamps. This stable period was interrupted briefly by a volcanic eruption at 23.5 Ma. Shortly after 23 Ma, rapid uplift caused by an acceleration in plate convergence resulted in renewed erosion of the landscape, as reflected in the deposition of coarse river gravels. Basin subsidence and marine transgression proceeding up the river valleys subsequently formed still, deep embayments, occasionally disturbed by debris flows and turbidity currents originating on the steep, wooded valley flanks. At the upper limits of the inlets, bayhead deltas, tidal flats and beaches existed. In some areas, fan deltas prograded into the embayments, as reflected in the interfingering relationship between conglomerates and marine mudrocks. In the deeper parts of the embayments, the frequency of debris flows and turbidity currents increased markedly during periods of relative sea-level lowstand. The landscape was eventually inundated by continued subsidence and marine transgression, which lasted until a possibly eustatic sea-level fall in the early Tortonian.

  13. Periodontal status of teeth restored with crowns and its contralateral homologue, Valdivia- Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Antonio Juárez; Sofía Larroulet; Makarena Ojeda; Cristian Rosas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To determine periodontal status of fixes single prostheses (FSP) made during the year 2013 in Austral University of Chile, and its contralateral homologue (CH).Methods: All patients with FSP made during 2013, that met the selection criteria and agreed to participate were evaluated. During the year 2014 was measured: probing depth, attachment level; bleeding on probing and dental plaque index for each FSP and CH; and consigned biological width invasion. Were measured one FSP...

  14. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristóbal E.; Estay, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  15. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

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    Carmen Paz Silva

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2 distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC, building density (BD, impervious surface (IS,municipal green space (MG,non-municipal green space (NG, domestic garden space (DG, distance to the periphery (DP, social welfare index (SW, and vegetation diversity (RV. Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat

  16. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E; Estay, Sergio A; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  17. [Prevalence of infection by intestinal helminths and protozoa in school children from a coastal locality in the province of Valdivia, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, N; Torres, P

    1994-01-01

    During July-August 1989, 219 coprological samples from primary school children from Niebla and Los Molinos localities (39 degrees 52'S, 73 degrees 26'W) in the coast of province of Valdivia, Chile, were analysed. Prevalence % (in parentheses) of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths were the followings: Entamoeba histolytica: (18.0), Entamoeba coli (34.0), Endolimax nana (34.4), Iodamoeba buetschlii (7.4), Blastocystis hominis (64.3), Giardia intestinalis (27.9) Chilomastix mesnili (0.8), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.7), Trichuris trichiura (32.0), Trichostronqylidea gen. sp. (0.8), Enterobius vermicularis (1.6), Hymenolepis nana (0.4) Diphyllobothrium sp. (0.4). No sanitary conditions, water, faeces and garbage disposal were detected in the 55.5%, 86.4% and 52.7% of 110 houses from the sector, respectively. The high prevalence of protozoa and helminths intestinal infections in the sector are related to no sanitary conditions of houses and fecal contamination of the estuary of the Valdivia river.

  18. Antecedentes históricos sobre el Complejo Forestal y Maderero Panguipulli, provincia de Valdivia, Centro-sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Ruiz, José; Hernando Arrese, Maite; Rojas Marchini, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    El Complejo Forestal y Maderero Panguipulli, empresa surgida en 1971 en la provincia de Valdivia, administró un área superior a 400.000 ha y empleó a más de 3.000 trabajadores bajo un esquema de comanejo entre obreros y Estado. El objetivo fue indagar en los procesos sociales que influyeron en la conformación de esta empresa. Se desarrolló una revisión bibliográfica que incluyó artículos científicos, trabajos de tesis, informes y libros. Adicionalmente, se realizaron dos entrevistas en profun...

  19. Small Valdivia compact spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubi's, W; Kubi\\'s, Wieslaw; Michalewski, Henryk

    2005-01-01

    We prove a preservation theorem for the class of Valdivia compact spaces, which involves inverse sequences of ``simple'' retractions. Consequently, a compact space of weight $\\loe\\aleph_1$ is Valdivia compact iff it is the limit of an inverse sequence of metric compacta whose bonding maps are retractions. As a corollary, we show that the class of Valdivia compacta of weight at most $\\aleph_1$ is preserved both under retractions and under open 0-dimensional images. Finally, we characterize the class of all Valdivia compacta in the language of category theory, which implies that this class is preserved under all continuous weight preserving functors.

  20. The Chiloé Mw 7.6 earthquake of 2016 December 25 in Southern Chile and its relation to the Mw 9.5 1960 Valdivia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Dietrich; Ruiz, Javier; Carrasco, Sebastián; Manríquez, Paula

    2018-04-01

    On 2016 December 25, an Mw 7.6 earthquake broke a portion of the Southern Chilean subduction zone south of Chiloé Island, located in the central part of the Mw 9.5 1960 Valdivia earthquake. This region is characterized by repeated earthquakes in 1960 and historical times with very sparse interseismic activity due to the subduction of a young (˜15 Ma), and therefore hot, oceanic plate. We estimate the coseismic slip distribution based on a kinematic finite-fault source model, and through joint inversion of teleseismic body waves and strong motion data. The coseismic slip model yields a total seismic moment of 3.94 × 1020 N.m that occurred over ˜30 s, with the rupture propagating mainly downdip, reaching a peak slip of ˜4.2 m. Regional moment tensor inversion of stronger aftershocks reveals thrust type faulting at depths of the plate interface. The fore- and aftershock seismicity is mostly related to the subduction interface with sparse seismicity in the overriding crust. The 2016 Chiloé event broke a region with increased locking and most likely broke an asperity of the 1960 earthquake. The updip limit of the main event, aftershocks, foreshocks and interseismic activity are spatially similar, located ˜15 km offshore and parallel to Chiloé Islands west coast. The coseismic slip model of the 2016 Chiloé earthquake suggests a peak slip of 4.2 m that locally exceeds the 3.38 m slip deficit that has accumulated since 1960. Therefore, the 2016 Chiloé earthquake possibly released strain that has built up prior to the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

  1. Impactos económicos y sociales de la inmigración alemana en Valdivia (Chile en el siglo XIX

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    Lisette Winkler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista (en español Presentación (en español Patricio Bernedo, doctor (Dr. Phil. por la Katholische Universität de Eichstätt, Alemania, es director del Instituto de Historia de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Actualmente investiga y publica sobre problemáticas relacionadas con la historia económica de Chile y la historia de la prensa en América Latina. En esta entrevista, Patricio Bernedo da cuenta del proceso de colonización alemana que se desarrolló a fines del siglo XIX ...

  2. Impactos económicos y sociales de la inmigración alemana en Valdivia (Chile) en el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Lisette

    2009-01-01

    Entrevista (en español) Presentación (en español) Patricio Bernedo, doctor (Dr. Phil.) por la Katholische Universität de Eichstätt, Alemania, es director del Instituto de Historia de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Actualmente investiga y publica sobre problemáticas relacionadas con la historia económica de Chile y la historia de la prensa en América Latina. En esta entrevista, Patricio Bernedo da cuenta del proceso de colonización alemana que se desarrolló a fines del siglo XIX ...

  3. Caracterización hidrográfica del estuario del río Valdivia, centro-sur de Chile

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    José Garcés-Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La costa sureste del Océano Pacífico entre 37° y 41°S, se caracteriza por la presencia de un gran número de estuarios micromareales (rango mareal menor a 2 m. Uno de los estuarios más importantes dentro de estas latitudes es el estuario del río Valdivia, cuya estructura y dinámica termal y halina es poco conocida. Mediante mediciones hidrográficas de temperatura y salinidad tomadas durante un ciclo estacional anual y el análisis de sus principales forzantes (marea, caudal del río, vientos y radiación solar se explica la variabilidad así como sus cambios en la estratificación vertical. El análisis de la estructura termohalina de la columna de agua reveló que el estuario varió estacionalmente comportándose como un estuario de cuña salina en invierno y primavera producto del mayor caudal de los ríos afluentes, mientras que en verano y otoño se comportó como parcialmente mezclado, producto del menor caudal de los ríos. En invierno y primavera la columna de agua presentó inversión térmica, la cual fue asociada a pérdida de calor superficial y a la advección sub-superficial de aguas cálidas desde el océano adyacente hacia el interior del estuario que no se mezclaron con las de la superficie debido a la intensa estratificación salina. El cambio en el régimen estuarino de cuña salina a parcialmente mezclado según la estación del año y presencia de la inversión térmica estacional, son características hidrográficas necesarias tanto para la implementación de esfuerzos de conservación de hábitat vulnerables presentes en la zona (áreas de crianza de juveniles de especies explotadas, como para la utilización de este sistema para actividades de acuicultura y manejo de recursos marinos.

  4. Ciudadanía y sustentabilidad ambiental en la ciudad: la recuperación del humedal Angachilla y la organización local en la Villa Claro de Luna, Valdivia, Chile

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    Juan C Skewes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La recuperación del humedal Angachilla por la junta de vecinos de la Villa Claro de Luna en la ciudad de Valdivia constituye un ejercicio donde se yuxtaponen la preocupación ambiental y el ejercicio de la soberanía ciudadana. Por medio de su organización, los residentes logran, por una parte, contribuir a la protección del medio ambiente; y por la otra, incrementar su participación en los procesos urbanos de una ciudad intermedia. A partir del redescubrimiento de las relaciones con la naturaleza, la comunidad amplía sus repertorios de significación y elabora nuevas formas de valorización del territorio basadas en la extensión de su cotidianidad y en las dinámicas de vida asociadas al paisaje n atural, las cuales permiten la incorporación de la naturaleza a la ciudad.

  5. Gas Hydrate and Free Gas Concentrations in Two Sites inside the Chilean Margin (Itata and Valdivia Offshores

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    Vargas-Cordero Iván

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two sectors, Itata and Valdivia, which are located in the Chilean margin were analysed by using seismic data with the main purpose to characterize the gas hydrate concentration. Strong lateral velocity variations are recognised, showing a maximum value in Valdivia offshore (2380 ms−1 above the BSR and a minimum value in the Itata offshore (1380 m·s−1 below the BSR. In both of the sectors, the maximum hydrate concentration reaches 17% of total volume, while the maximum free gas concentration is located Valdivia offshore (0.6% of total volume in correspondence of an uplift sector. In the Itata offshore, the geothermal gradient that is estimated is variable and ranges from 32 °C·km−1 to 87 °C·km−1, while in Valdivia offshore it is uniform and about 35 °C·km−1. When considering both sites, the highest hydrate concentration is located in the accretionary prism (Valdivia offshore and highest free gas concentration is distributed upwards, which may be considered as a natural pathway for lateral fluid migration. The results that are presented here contribute to the global knowledge of the relationship between hydrate/free gas presence and tectonic features, such as faults and folds, and furnishes a piece of the regional hydrate potentiality Chile offshore.

  6. The structure of Valdivia compact lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalenda, O.F.K.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 7 (2010), s. 1142-1151 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : valdivia compact line * increasing map * retraction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864110000374

  7. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  8. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  9. EL TERREMOTO CHILENO DEL 27 DE FEBRERO DE 2010: ANÁLISIS PRELIMINAR DE LAS CONSECUENCIAS EN LA CIUDAD DE VALDIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rojas Hoppe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El mayor sismo que haya afectado a la ciudad de Valdivia con posterioridad al famoso terremoto de 1960 fue el generado por el evento (Mw 8,8 del 27 de febrero de 2010 en la zona central de Chile. La intensidad asignada para la ciudad de Valdivia alcanzó el valor VI en la escala de Mercalli. Con el objeto de comprender la distribución espacial de los daños a la infraestructura urbana, se relacionó ésta con las condiciones locales de suelo. Los antecedentes de la historia sísmica y del desarrollo urbano de Valdivia proporcionan información valiosa que se agregó al análisis. La diferente severidad con la que el sismo repercutió en los diversos barrios de Valdivia, guarda una estrecha relación con las unidades geomorfológicas y los tipos de suelos de fundación existentes en la ciudad. Se pudo establecer una buena coincidencia con la respuesta sísmica de los suelos prevista para la ciudad en estudios previos.

  10. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  11. Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla.

  12. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E FLOTAÇÃO DE MINÉRIO DE FOSFATO DO CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meise Pricila Paiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho resume estudos de caracterização e desenvolvimento de rota técnica de tratamento de um minério de fosfato do Chile. Os principais objetivos foram a adequação de tamanho de partícula e flotação para a obtenção de um concentrado com teores >36% de P2O5 e com impurezas que permitam a produção de um fertilizante fosfatado. A caracterização tecnológica incluiu análises mineralógicas e de distribuição de espécies (elementos por tamanho (granuloquímica, em particular de impurezas de arsênio. As amostras (duas correspondiam a um minério pobre (20-24% P2O5 e um “enriquecido” (27-29% P2O5 com teores entre 40-47% CaO, 89-100ppm As, 4-7% SiO2, 2-4% Fe2O3, 1-1,5% MgO e 2-5% Al2O3. As principais espécies minerais identificadas por DRX foram hidroxiapatita, actinolita, hornblenda, tremolita, clorita-serpentina, quartzo. Os melhores resultados de flotação, obtidos em estudos otimizados em bancada e de coluna (200mL/min foram obtidos com a amostra “enriquecida” e classificada entre 37-149 µm, oleato de sódio como coletor (444g/t e óleo diesel (100g/t como co-coletor “extender”. Os teores (médios dos concentrados foram 39% de P2O5, 128ppm de As e baixas concentrações de impurezas (2,0% SiO2, 0,5% Fe2O3, 0,2% MgO e 0,4% Al2O3, recuperações de P2O5 (>96%, alcançando taxas de BPL de até 87% e razão CaO/P2O5 de 1,3. A qualidade desses concentrados é condizente para fabricação de um insumo fertilizante. Não foram identificadas espécies de arsênio via DRX ou MEV devido a seu baixo teor. Entretanto, foi encontrada via análise de FRX, técnica desenvolvida para este minério, dos produtos de flotação uma correlação direta entre Ca, P e As, e inversa entre Fe e As. Conclui-se que o As está associado aos minerais de apatita, sendo o P substituído pelo As em sua estrutura, dificultando a remoção por métodos físicos. Estes resultados foram discutidos em termos dos parâmetros químicos, f

  13. [Modeling a clinical process for differentiated thyroid cancer health care in Hospital Base Valdivia, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Schwerter, C; Torres-Andrade, M C; Méndez, C A; Márquez-Manzano, M

    2016-01-01

    To design a clinical process model in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer in order to improve accessibility to this treatment. Based on modified Participatory Action Research, a model design process was conducted using a literature review and meetings with organisations committed to the redesigning process, and to agree an improved and feasible process. The process map was constructed by participatory action including, characterisation of the value chain, fault detection in the flow of the process, relevant documents and process for proposing modifications and approvals necessary for this purpose. Links were established between the main process and the support and strategic processes. The participatory model helped to cut the waiting times for diagnosis and treatment of this disease from 12 to 4 months. For each unit to be able to fully visualise the map of the process and understand their contribution as a set of integrated contributions and not fragmented, helps in the comprehensive management of patients and operation processes based on the hierarchical and dominant organisational model in Chilean hospitals. To analyse and remodel clinical processes by participatory action helps to limit failures in the fluidity of care of the patients, by presenting each participating unit with a general view of the process, the problems, and the possible solutions. Furthermore, this approach helps to clarify the process in order to make it more efficient, to harmonise relationships, and to improve coordination in order to optimise patient care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Large wood budget assessment along a gravel bed river affected by volcanic eruption: the Rio Blanco study case (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroume, Andres; Lenzi, Mario; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Wood in riverine environments exerts different functions on ecological and geomorphic settings, influencing morphological processes, and increasing risks for sensitive structures. Large wood (LW) is defined as wood material, dead or alive, larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length. Natural hazards can strongly increase the presence of LW in waterways and flood events can transport it affecting the ecosystem and landscape. This study aims to increase the knowledge of wood budget, considering the effects of two subsequent slight flood events along a sub-reach of the Rio Blanco gravel bed river , in Chilean Patagonia, strongly affected by the eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The volcanic eruption affected almost 3,5 km 2 of evergreen forest on the southern (left) bank, because of primary direct effects from pyroclastic density currents and lahar-floods that caused deposition up to 8 m of reworked tephra, alluvium, and wood on floodplains and terrace along the Rio Blanco. After the eruption, there was a considerable increase of LW into the main channel: into the bankfull channel, volume exceeds 100 m 3 /ha. Field surveys were carried out in January and March 2015, before and after two slight flood events (Recurrence Intervals lower than 1 year). The pre-event phase permitted to detect and analyze the presence of LW into the study area, along a 80 m-long reach of Rio Blanco (7500 m 2 . Every LW element was manually measured and described, a numbered metal tag was installed, and the position was recorded by GPS device. In January, there was a total amount of 113 m 3 /ha, 90% accumulated in LW jams (WJ) and 10% as single logs. The LW was characterized by mean dimensions of 3,36 m height, 0,25 m diameter and 0,26 m 3 volume, respectively. The WJ are characterized by wide range of dimension: volume varies from 0,28 m 3 to 672 m 3 , length from 1,20 m to 56 m, width from 0,40 m to 8,70 m and height from 0,20 m to 3 m, respectively. After the flood events, field

  15. Los parlamentos hispano-mapuches bajo el reinado de Felipe III: la labor del padre Luis de Valdivia (1605-1617 = Os parlamentos hispânico-mapuches durante o reinado de Felipe III: a função do padre Luis de Valdivia (1605-1617 = The hispano-mapuche parlamentos under the reign of Philip III of Spain: the work of father Luis de Valdivia (1605-1617

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepeda, José Manuel Zavala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante o reinado de Felipe III são detectados elos intermediários entre as origens quinhentistas das instituições parlamentarias hispânico mapuches e sua etapa de plenitude, inaugurada em meados do século XVII. O grande impulsionador dos planos de pacificação no início do século XVII, foi o jesuíta Luís de Valdivia, que graças as sua aptidões diplomáticas, linguísticas e etnográficas consegue consolidar uma tradição de negociação fronteiriça hispânico-indígena marcada pela importância do diálogo, dos rituais, e da mediação linguística

  16. O Exílio e as Transformações de Repertórios de Ação Coletiva: A Esquerda Brasileira no Chile e na França (1968-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Schneider Marques

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente artigo analisa a trajetória política da segunda geração de exilados brasileiros pelo regime militar no Chile e na França, visando compreender a dinâmica das transformações dos repertórios de ação dos migrantes frequentemente observadas nos estudos sobre exílio. Verificou-se que a migração forçada promove uma metamorfose total da estrutura de oportunidades políticas. Como resultado, o exilado se vê inserido em uma estrutura que não é a mesma daquela verificada pelos estudos sobre o confronto político nos enfrentamentos no interior do Estado-Nação e nem mesmo pelos movimentos transnacionais globais mais atuais. Com efeito, no Chile os exilados apresentaram um repertório adaptado às particularidades do exílio chileno, tendo como foco a continuidade do confronto travado com o regime brasileiro. Na França, por sua vez, eles viveram transformações profundas, ao abandonar o projeto revolucionário e adotar os direitos humanos e a democracia, entre outras reivindicações até então novas para a esquerda brasileira.

  17. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  18. Los sermones de Valdivia: distribución de lugares, didáctica y polémica en un testimonio del choque de dos culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosel, Ana Carina

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    En el presente trabajo se analiza un corpus de sermones jesuíticos del siglo XVII, destinados a la prédica entre las tribus araucanas en Chile. A través de marcas textuales, tales como el uso de los pronombres personales, los recursos retóricos, el discurso referido y demás manifestaciones de subjetividad, los textos construyen una posición privilegiada para el enunciador, quien se legitima como portador de la Verdad frente a una cultura y una religión diferentes, que se consideran falsas y pecaminosas. Estos textos exhiben un abanico de estrategias para imponer un modo de vida sobre otro y evidencian los prejuicios y las representaciones que sobre los indígenas manejaban entonces quienes debían incorporarlos a la Cristiandad. Los sermones de Valdivia constituyen un testimonio del desencuentro, la violencia (simbólica, en este caso y la expropiación cultural que produjo la Conquista.

  19. [Etiology and antimicrobial resistance profile of urinary tract infection in children, Valdivia 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carolina; Navarro, Diego; Täger, Marlis

    2014-12-01

    Since initial antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) is empiric, is very important to know the local epidemiology to make the correct therapeutical decisions. Determinate local features of antimicrobial resistance in pediatric patients with UTI. Retrospective review of urine culture tests of children under 15 years old, obtained in a pediatric emergency department in Valdivia, between february and december 2012. Escherichia coli showed high percentage of resistance to ampicillin (44,8%) and first generation cephalosporin (36%). A well understanding of local antimicrobial resistance profile is useful to a correct empiric treatment.

  20. The Lived Space: Possession, Ownership, and Land Sales on the Chilean Frontier (Valdivia, 1790-1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bastias Saavedra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking into sales of indigenous land in the territory of Valdivia between 1790 and 1830, this article discusses how legal interactions were tied to the local spaces of rural habitation. Since ownership was linked with possession and use in Spanish colonial law, local social relations and shared local knowledge were crucial for determining legal ownership and ensuring the validity of land transfers. This article provides insights into how law operated in newly integrated colonial spaces, and reveals that land transfers did not yet constitute purely contractual relations but were instead socially negotiated transactions involving different levels of authority and dependency.

  1. O déficit da previdência social e os reflexos do pensamento neoconservador nos direitos previdenciários no Brasil, México e Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Toralles dos Santos Braga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende buscar elementos e mecanismos institucionais para uma reflexão que subsidie o debate em torno da influência do pensamento neoconservador nas reformas operadas na legislação previdenciária de países em desenvolvimento como Brasil, México e Chile. Na primeira parte há a demonstração de como o neoconservadorismo afetou os direitos sociais previdenciários nas últimas décadas, através do estudo dos expoentes deste momevimento: Ludwig Von Misses, Milton Friedman e Friedrich Augusto Von Hayek. Na segunda parte, busca-se fazer uma relação entre as influências do pensamento neoliberal nas reformas operadas na legislação previdenciária do Brasil após a promulgação da Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil, em 1988. Após, procura-se demonstrar as consequências dessa influência através de breve relato sobre as experiências vividas por países também em desenvolvimento como México e Chile. Ao final, são apresentados dados que embasam o questionamento sobre o déficit da Previdência Social no Brasil, em busca de uma barreira de contenção para o hegemônico discurso neoconservador.

  2. La expresión de impersonalidad en el español de Chile

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    LUZ MARCELA HURTADO CUBILLOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio sobre la expresión de impersonalidad en el español hablado en Chile. Con base en la clasificación de María Luisa Hernanz (1990 se analizan como categorías impersonales elUSO dese, uno y las segundas personas usted y tú con referencias generalizadoras. La hipótesis de partida consiste en que el conocimiento de otra lengoa inIluye enla selección dela forma impersonal: en el español deValdivia, los hablantes filvorecen elimpersonal uno para las referencias generalizadoras, posiblemente porinIluencia del alemán, lengoa delos antigoos inmigrantes ylaprimera lengoa demuchos desus descendientes. Para corrobo- raresta hipótesis, se analizan 40 entrevistas recogidas enValdivia yenSantiago (Chile en1988 y2002. Con el enfoque de la lingüística de la variación yla incorporación de algonos delos factores previamente estudiados por Amparo Morales (1995, las oraciones codificadas se sometieron al programa estadistico VarbRul (Análisis de Regla Variable. De esta manera, se analizaron de forma simultánea las variables sociolingüisticas de bilingüismo (mapuche! alemán! inglés, edad, sexo, ocupación, ciudad (Valdivia / Santiago Y fecha de la entrevista (198812002. Los resultados del análisis cuantitativo revelan que las variables de bilingüismo y ocupación determinan el USO deuna forma impersonal especifica. En cuanto ala variable de ciudad elprograma mostró que esta variable notenia ningún efecto.

  3. Serafín Sánchez Valdivia y la defensa de la patria.

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    Pablo Osvaldo Morales Salabarría

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios acerca de la figura y el pensamiento del Mayor General Serafín Sánchez Valdivia, se ha ignorado durante largos años la posibilidad de que su pensamiento tuviera relieve militar. Esta ha sido, en sentido general, una de las facetas menos estudiadas en la personalidad del prócer espirituano. En trabajos anteriores se han abordado las fuentes de su pensamiento militar, sus ideas acerca de la guerra. Con esta publicación se pretende dar continuidad al estudio de su pensamiento militar. Ideas vinculando la defensa de la patria a la lucha contra la dominación española (Programa patriótico de 1879, la crítica abierta al patriotismo “nervioso y teatral”, ver el tema de la independencia como un problema nacional, los factores de peligros internos y externos y el convencimiento de que es necesario soportar con estoicismo y hacerse superior al sacrificio constituyen los hilos conductores de su pensamiento acerca de la defensa de la patria y su necesidad. El presente trabajo se convierte en punto de partida para otras investigaciones relacionadas con el paladín espirituano. Favorece la educación en valores fundamentales y la divulgación de lo mejor de nuestras tradiciones.

  4. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  5. Childhood Asthma and Allergies in Urban, Semiurban, and Rural Residential Sectors in Chile

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    Leonie Kausel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n=559 using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n=3105 by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.9 and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7 in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors.

  6. Childhood asthma and allergies in urban, semiurban, and rural residential sectors in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Leonie; Boneberger, Anja; Calvo, Mario; Radon, Katja

    2013-01-01

    While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n = 559) using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n = 3105) by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals) were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors.

  7. CONOCIMIENTOS Y ACTITUDES SOBRE VIH/SIDA DE ESTUDIANTES DE ENFERMERÍA DE LAS UNIVERSIDADES DE LA FRONTERA Y AUSTRAL DE CHILE. TEMUCO - VALDIVIA. CHILE, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas R,Edith; Rivas L,Angélica; Barría P,R Mauricio; Sepúlveda R,Catalina

    2009-01-01

    Los adolescentes constituyen la población más expuesta a contraer enfermedades de transmisión sexual, entre otros aspectos, porque muchos experimentan su primera relación sexual sin protección. El VIH/SIDA persiste como una enfermedad socialmente temida y causa de discriminación, evidenciándose déficit de conocimientos sobre formas de contagio, conduciendo a actitudes perjudiciales hacia quienes padecen este mal. El objetivo del estudio fue describir los conocimientos y actitudes de estudiant...

  8. Política, Educación y Territorio en Chile (1950 - 2010: De las acciones colectivas a las acciones del mercado Política, Educação e Território no Chile (1950 - 2010: Das ações coletivas às ações do mercado Policy, Education and Territory in Chile (1950 - 2010: From Collective Action to Market Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra Marcela Castro-Paredes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el trayecto de la política educativa territorial en Chile desde un enfoque sustentado en el Estado de Compromiso -anterior a la Dictadura- a un Estado Subsidiario que permanece inalterable en esta época. La primera parte expone la dinámica de la política educativa nacional desde la mitad del siglo pasado hasta la interrupción democrática en 1973; la segunda, la implantación de nuevas políticas educativas diseñadas esencialmente sobre la base de estructuras de /mandamiento que se vinculan a las reformas educativas acontecidas en el último cuarto del siglo XX. En ambas partes se analizan las políticas educacionales desarrolladas durante los periodos en comento y se caracteriza su implementación en el contexto subnacional. El texto finaliza con algunas consideraciones de la política educativa y sus posibilidades de apropiación y progresión en los gobiernos locales.Este artigo descreve o trajeto da política educativa territorial no Chile a partir de um enfoque sustentado no Estado de Compromisso - anterior à Ditadura - a um Estado Subsidiário, que permanece inalterável nesta época. A primeira parte expõe a dinâmica da política educativa nacional desde a metade do século passado até a interrupção democrática em 1973; a segunda, a implantação de novas políticas educativas desenhadas essencialmente sobre a base de estruturas de financiamento que se vinculam às reformas educativas realizadas no último quarto do século XX. Em ambas as partes, analisam-se as políticas educacionais desenvolvidas durante os períodos em comento e se caracteriza sua implementação no contexto subnacional. O texto finaliza com algumas considerações da política educativa e suas possibilidades de apropriação e progressão nos governos locais.The course of territorial policy on education in Chile is described in this article from a standpoint based on the State of Commitment - prior to the dictatorship - to a

  9. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Map of

  11. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  12. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  13. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the VALDIVIA and other PLATFORMS from a World-Wide Distribution in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 April 1991 to 30 April 1991 (NODC Accession 9100087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the VALDIVIA and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  14. Dictadura y facultades extraordinarias: un debate entre el republicanismo clásico y el liberalismo en el contexto de la guerra entre Chile y la Confederación Perú-Boliviana (1836-1839 = Ditadura e poderes extraordinários: um debate entre o republicanismo clássico e o liberalismo no contexto da guerra entre o Chile e a Confederação Peru-Boliviana (1836-1839 = Dictatorship and extraordinary powers: a debate between classical republicanism and liberalism in the context of the war between Chile and the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation (1836-1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arellano González, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os discursos políticos desdobrados em torno das implicações dos poderes extraordinários e os estados de sítio presentes na Constituição Chilena de 1833. A pesquisa procura iluminar a tensão que emerge entre o pensamento republicano clássico e o liberal a partir da justificação dos "poderes de emergência" na ordem constitucional. Com esse objetivo, será analisado o debate político-ideológico que surgiu na esfera pública chilena em 1839 pelas implicações dos "poderes extraordinários" implementados durante a guerra entre o Chile e a Confederação Peru-Boliviana. A hipótese é que a partir desse debate público é possível ver uma passagem da linguagem política republicana clássica para uma mais liberal, evidenciada na discussão sobre os mecanismos e âmbito constitucional das circunstâncias excepcionais. O material usado para reconstruir esses discursos políticos é a imprensa contemporânea e as moções parlamentares

  15. Incidence and survival of stomach cancer in a high-risk population of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Katy; Bertran, Enriqueta; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence and survival rate of stomach cancer (SC) and its associated factors in a high risk population in Chile. METHODS: The population-based cancer registry of Valdivia, included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer system, covers 356 396 residents of Valdivia Province, Southern Chile. We studied all SC cases entered in this Registry during 1998-2002 (529 cases). Population data came from the Chilean census (2002). Standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants (SIR) using the world population, cumulative risk of developing cancer before age 75, and rate ratios by sex, age, ethnicity and social factors were estimated. Relative survival (Ederer II method) and age-standardized estimates (Brenner method) were calculated. Specific survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were measured at 3 and 5 years and survival curves were analyzed with the Logrank and Breslow tests. Survival was studied in relation to demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory results and medical management of the cases. Those variables significantly associated with survival were later included in a Cox multivariate model. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 529 primary gastric cancers occurred in Valdivia (crude incidence rate 29.2 per 100 000 inhabitants). Most cases were male (69.0%), residents of urban areas (57.5%) and Hispanic (83.2%), with a low education level (84.5% Mapuche ethnicity only significant for women (RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.7). Of all cases, 76.4% were histologically confirmed, 11.5% had a death certificate only (DCO), 56.1% were TNM stage IV; 445 cases (84.1%) were eligible for survival analysis, all completed five years follow-up; 42 remained alive, 392 died of SC and 11 died from other causes. Specific 5-year survival, excluding cases with DCO, was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.7-13.5); 5-year relative survival rate was 12.3% (95% CI: 9.1-16.1), men 10.9% (95% CI: 7.4-15.2) and women 16.1% (95% CI: 9.5-24.5). Five-year specific survival was higher for patients

  16. Luis de Valdivia y Alonso Mejía: Una relación personal en los orígenes del pensamiento valdiviano (1602-1604

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Díaz Blanco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio indaga en la influencia que el P. Alonso Mejía pudo ejercer sobre el decisivo cambio intelectual experimentado por el P. Luis de Valdivia en Lima entre los años 1602 y 1604. Para resolver la cuestión, utiliza una metodología comparativa, con la que se entrecruzan las biografías de ambos jesuitas y se analizan individualmente sus escritos más relevantes para la cuestión, un memorial de Mejía de 1603 y una relación de Valdivia de 1604. Gracias a la información que tal análisis proporciona, se constatan las similitudes intelectuales entre los dos, así como las coincidencias biográficas que los unieron personalmente, permitiendo sustentar la conclusión de que, efectivamente, Mejía debió de ejercer una influencia importante en la definición del pensamiento político de Valdivia.

  17. Repercusiones económicas y sociales de los festivales culturales: el caso del Festival Internacional de Cine de Valdivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Devesa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hoy, y debido a sus repercusiones en los territorios, la cultura y los festivales culturales forman parte de las estrategias de desarrollo local y regional, y de las actuaciones de regeneración urbana. Tales repercusiones pueden ser de carácter social, cultural, turístico o económico, ya que la cultura genera impactos en términos de producción, rentas y empleos. En este marco, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la contribución económica del Festival Internacional de Cine de Valdivia a la ciudad y región donde se celebra. Para ello se utiliza la metodología de los Estudios de Impacto Económico, basada en la definición y medición de tres tipos de efectos (directos, indirectos e inducidos. Los resultados muestran que el festival genera una repercusión signiicativa sobre la economía de la zona, beneiciando especialmente al sector turístico de la ciudad, y a los servicios a empresas. El trabajo pone también de maniiesto la importancia que los espectadores dan a las repercusiones culturales del festival, que constituyen, en realidad, la esencia del mismo.Today, culture and cultural festivals are part of the strategies of local and regional development and urban regeneration actions as a result of the impact that these goods can generate on the territories. These repercussions could be social, cultural, touristic or economic, since cultural goods and cultural events generate impacts in terms of production, income and jobs. The aim of this paper is to analyze the economic contribution of the Valdivia International Film Festival to the city and region where it is held. The Economic Impact Study methodology is used for this purpose, based on the definition and valuation of three types of effects (direct, indirect and induced. The results show that thefestival generates a significant impact on the economy of the area, benefiting especially the tourism sector of the city and business services. The work also highlights the importance

  18. Los proyectos intercomunales y de escala local: el caso de Pedro de Valdivia Norte, ex polígono “La Contadora” junto al río Mapocho (1928-1978./ Intercommunal projects and local scale: the case of Pedro de Valdivia Norte, former polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pávez Reyes, M. Isabel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisando brevemente las principales proposiciones en proyectos intercomunales de Santiago para el barrio de Pedro de Valdivia Norte 1928-1978, y, además, un megaproyecto de campo deportivo en ese polígono, en los años 1940s, se observa el carácter de discontinuidad y ruptura, que suele estar presente en el modo de hacer la ciudad./Reviewing briefly the main proposals of inter-project for the Santiago neighborhood of Pedro de Valdivia Norte 1928-1978, and also a giant in the sports field site, in the 1940s, there was the nature of discontinuity and rupture, which often a factor in the way of making the city.

  19. Description of ten additional ossicles in the foregut of the freshwater crabs Sylviocarcinus pictus and Valdivia serrata (Decapoda: Trichodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Lima-Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The morphology of stomach ossicles of decapod crustaceans provides valuable information on their phylogeny and biology. We herein described ten new ossicles in the foreguts of two trichodactylid crabs, Sylviocarcinus pictus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and Valdivia serrata White, 1847, in addition to previously described 38 ossicles, which are also recognized and listed. Five specimens each of S. pictus and V. serrata were selected for morphological analysis of gastric ossicles. The stomachs were obtained after removing the carapace, and they were fixed in 10% formalin for 24 hours. After this procedure, the stomachs were immersed in a solution of 10% Potassium Hydroxide (KOH and heated to 100 °C during 60 minutes for tissue maceration. At this point, the clean skeletons were colored by adding 1% Alizarin Red to the KOH solution in order to facilitate visualization of the internal structures such as the setae and ossicles. The ten new ossicles are: dorsomedial cardiac plate; dorsolateral cardiac plate; suprapectineal lateral ossicle; inferior cardiac valve; lateral mesopyloric ossicle; ampullary roof-medium portion ossicle; process of the ampullary roof-upper portion; lateral-inferior post-ampullary plate; pleuro-pyloric valve’s ossicle; and lateral pleuro-pyloric plate. Some ossicles are thin plates that together with the main ossicles assist in the structure and support of the stomach, which are similar in the two species studied herein. The current knowledge on gastric ossicles will be useful in establishing taxonomic characters, which can evaluate phylogenetic relationships among brachyuran crabs.

  20. Cobre labrado, alambique y aguardiente. Chile y Argentina, 1586-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio examina el desarrollo de la producción, transporte y distribu- ción de cobres labrados y alambiques para elaborar aguardiente en Chile y el oeste de la actual Argentina, desde el primer alambique registrado (1586 hasta mediados del siglo XIX. Se detecta que el principal polo de manufactura de estos artefactos se encontraba en el Norte Chico de Chile, entre Huasco y La Serena. Desde allí, el uso de los alambiques se difundió por un amplio espacio. La ruta del alambique y el cobre labrado se extendió por 5.000 kilómetros, llegando a Guayaquil, Trujillo, Callao, Cinti, Jujuy y Salta por el norte; y a Valdivia y Chiloé por el sur, a ambos lados de la cordillera de los Andes. Floreció así un intenso proceso de integración socioeconómica regional, a la vez que se fortaleció el desa- rrollo agroindustrial con la posibilidad de destilar aguardientes. De esta manera se sentaron las bases para el surgimiento de varios productos típicos.

  1. Reduction of firewood consumption by households in south-central Chile associated with energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities in the central-southern area of Chile face serious environmental pollution due to extensive use of firewood for heating. Low energy efficiency of constructions and cold climate increase the problem, which also affects native forests. The aims of this study are to characterize energy consumption in dwellings of this region, investigate the reduction potential, and study social and environmental consequences of high consumption of firewood. Actual energy consumption is studied with information from surveys, potential for reduction is modeled with software and other consequences are analyzed from previous studies. Results for the city of Valdivia show high firewood consumption per household, with a media bulk volume near 12 m 3 /year. Thermal regulations are softer compared with other countries. Moreover, around 85% of buildings were built before enforcing codes in 2007, and has almost no thermal protection. The reduction potential due to thermal improvements is found to be very high (62%) if buildings are refurbished to comply with the present Chilean Norm of 2007, but it reaches a 77% reduction if refurbished according to stricter foreign regulations. Therefore, an energy efficiency program strongly addressing existing buildings has the largest potential for reducing firewood use, and therefore mitigate environmental and health impacts. - Highlights: • High firewood consumption and environmental pollution in cities of south-central Chile. • High use of firewood due to inefficient constructions and soft thermal regulations. • Potential reduction of energy consumption up to 77% with more demanding regulations. • Policies should address building stock before thermal regulation, corresponding to 85%

  2. [A tribute to Germán Schneider, MD, first editor of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Andresen, M

    1997-07-01

    Germán Schneider was born in 1820 in Magdeburg, Germany, and graduated as M.D. at the University of Bonn. In 1848, caught by the political and intellectual reformist movement in Europe, he was exiled in Paris. As part of a large group of German immigrants, he arrived in Valdivia, Chile, in 1851. Later on he moved to Santiago and in 1871 he was nominated Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of Chile school of Medicine. An active participant in the academic activities organized by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (a scientific society that evolved into the chilean Society of Internal Medicine) he was the leader of a six-men team who founded Revista Médica de Chile, in 1872. As first Editor of this medical journal, he established the basis for its continuous success and devotion to medical progress and education. Dr. Schneider died in 1884, leaving several distinguished pupils who followed his path, and a medical journal that now stands as one of the oldest in the world.

  3. A dichotomous species of Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta is colonizing northern Chile Una especie dicotómica de Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta está colonizando el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA GONZÁLEZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In late 2001 and early 2002, a dichotomous species of Codium appeared colonizing the low intertidal and shallow subtidal bottoms of Caldera Bay, northern Chile (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ W. Due to the ecological and economic impact the species is having in Caldera Bay and its potential spread along the Chilean coastline, we studied the taxonomic identity of the species and examined its relationships with other dichotomous species of Codium reported for temperate Pacific South America. Morphological analyses suggest that the seaweeds from Caldera Bay belong to Codium fragile (Suringar Hariot. Not only is there strong agreement in internal and external morphological characters, but among all the species reported for Peru and Chile, this is the only one exhibiting utricles with rounded, apiculate tip terminating in a mucron. This species has a broad geographic distribution in temperate waters. In Chile it was known only from the coasts of Valdivia to the Straits of Magellan (39° 48’ S, 73° 26’ W to 53° 10’ S, 73° 49’ W. This is the first record of C. fragile in northern Chile, and this study discusses several alternative hypotheses for the presence of the species into this area. The morphological characteristics of the material collected in Caldera partially agree with diagnostic characters known for C. fragile subspecies tasmanicum and C. fragile subspecies tomentosoides. However, the rapid population spread of the species in northern Chile, and recent molecular analysis support the identification of this form as the invasive C. fragile subspecies tomentosoidesA fines de 2001 y principio de 2002, apareció en el norte de Chile una especie del género Codium, de morfología dicotómica, colonizando los niveles intermareales y submareales de la Bahía de Caldera (27° 03’ S, 70° 51’ O. Debido al impacto ecológico y económico que ha provocado esta especie en la Bahía de Caldera y a su dispersión potencial a lo largo de la costa de

  4. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    occupied by Morocco). SENEGAL. GUINEA BISSAU. CHILE. Santiago. %. 0. 300 km. ARGENTINA. BOLIVIA. PERU. Arica. Punta Arenas . Puerto Montt . South. Pacific. Ocean. South. Atlantic. Ocean. Antofagasta. Coquimbo. Valparaiso. Concepcíon.

  5. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  6. Astro Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Astro Tourism in Chile Astro Tourism in

  7. Territorio, familia y héroe: un análisis de textos escolares chilenos Território, família e herói: uma análise de livros didáticos do Chile Country, Family and Hero: An Analysis of Chilean Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo León-Donoso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen los resultados de una investigación enfocada a identificar el imaginario sobre ciudadanía en los textos de estudio de Historia y Geografía, durante la transición a la democracia en Chile. El estudio abordó el análisis visual de cuatro ejemplares distintos, editados entre 1984 y 2000, destinados al octavo año de educación básica. El método empleado integró el modelo de socio-semiótica y análisis visual del discurso, expresado en la obra de Gunter Kress y Theo Van Leeuwen; el modelo de análisis critico del discurso, propuesto por Norman Fairclough, y, finalmente, la propuesta de análisis de los elementos visuales, de Justo Villafañe y Norberto Minguez. Las imágenes se clasificaron mediante un software de análisis cualitativo (Atlas-ti. Los datos arrojaron, en primera instancia, tres categorías de análisis: el territorio, la familia y el héroe. Se concluye que estos textos buscaron asegurar el proceso de institucionalidad democrática, sin descartar la fórmula nacionalista y patriótica iniciada durante la dictadura militar.Este artigo apresenta os resultados de pesquisas focadas na identificação das imagens sobre a cidadania nos livros didáticos de história e geografia durante a transição para a democracia no Chile. O estudo abordou a análise visual de quatro textos diferentes publicados entre 1984 e 2000 para o 8° ano do ensino básico. A metodologia incorporou o modelo sócio-semiótico e a análise visual do discurso expresso nas obras de Gunther Kress e Theo van Leeuwen; o modelo de Análise Critica do Discurso de Norman Fairclough, e a proposta de análise dos elementos visuais de Justo Villafañe e Norberto Minguez. As imagens foram classificadas utilizando um software de análise qualitativa (Atlas-ti. Os dados mostraram três categorias de análise: Território, Familia e Herói. Conclui-se que estes textos procuraram garantir o processo democrático institucional sem descartar a f

  8. Rio+20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Horn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This reflection on Rio+20 examines many of the major social institutions and how they fulfilled their functions during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at Rio. The institutions are: 1. Nation-states as a collective. 2. Individual nation-states. 3. Vanguard institutions (some NGOs. 4. Action and convening NGOs. 5. Global media. 6. Governments of nation-states acting domestically 7. Individual governments in bilateral and multilateral situations. 8. Similar institutions in different countries acting together. 9. Businesses. 10. Global science. Each is considered within the assumptions of what the society expects them to deliver (in general, what is possible for them to deliver, and what they did deliver at Rio. In approaching Rio+20, our account differs considerably from much of the reportage by the mainstream media.

  9. Streamflow responses in Chile to megathrust earthquakes in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Manga, Michael; Wang, Chi-yuen; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Both coseismic static stress and dynamic stresses associated with seismic waves may cause responses in hydrological systems. Such responses include changes in the water level, hydrochemistry and streamflow discharge. Earthquake effects on hydrological systems provide a means to study the interaction between stress changes and regional hydrology, which is otherwise rarely possible. Chile is a country of frequent and large earthquakes and thus provides abundant opportunities to study such interactions and processes. We analyze streamflow responses in Chile to several megathrust earthquakes, including the 1943 Mw 8.1 Coquimbo, 1950 Mw 8.2 Antofagasta, 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia, 1985 Mw 8.0 Valparaiso, 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquakes. We use data from 716 stream gauges distributed from the Altiplano in the North to Tierra del Fuego in the South. This network covers the Andes mountain ranges, the central valley, the Coastal Mountain ranges and (mainly in the more southern parts) the Coastal flats. We combine empirical magnitude-distance relationships, machine learning tools, and process-based modeling to characterize responses. We first assess the streamflow anomalies and relate these to topographical, hydro-climatic, geological and earthquake-related (volumetric and dynamic strain) factors using various classifiers. We then apply 1D-groundwater flow modeling to selected catchments in order to test competing hypotheses for the origin of streamflow changes. We show that the co-seismic responses of streamflow mostly involved increasing discharges. We conclude that enhanced vertical permeability can explain most streamflow responses at the regional scale. The total excess water released by a single earthquake, i.e. the Maule earthquake, yielded up to 1 km3. Against the background of megathrust earthquakes frequently hitting Chile, the amount of water released by earthquakes is substantial, particularly for the arid northern

  10. Satisfacción con la alimentación y la vida, un estudio exploratorio en estudiantes de la universidad de la frontera, Temuco-Chile Satisfação com a alimentação e a vida, um estudo exploratório em estudantes da universidade da fronteira, Temuco-Chile Satisfaction with food and life, an exploratory study among students in la frontera university, Temuco-Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler Morales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de explorar la relación entre la alimentación, como dominio de la vida, y el bienestar subjetivo en estudiantes universitarios, se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra no probabilística de 112 estudiantes universitarios. El cuestionario incluyó las escalas SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life y la frecuencia de consumo de distintos alimentos. Ambas escalas presentaron adecuados niveles de consistencia interna y la existencia de un solo factor para el total de los ítems. Se detectaron diferencias asociadas a los hábitos de consumo de carne, bebidas gaseosas, aceite, mantequilla y margarina. Al considerar sólo las categorías satisfecho y no satisfecho, se obtuvo asociación con la etnia, lugar de residencia y trabajo del principal ingreso del hogar. Es posible sugerir que los hábitos de alimentación de estudiantes universitarios se relacionan con la satisfacción con la vida y con la satisfacción en relación a su alimentación.Com o objetivo de explorar a relação entre a alimentação, como domínio da vida, e o bem estar subjetivo em estudantes universitários, se aplicou uma enquete a uma amostra não probabilística de 112 estudantes universitários. O questionário incluiu as escalas SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life e a freqüência de consumo de distintos alimentos. Ambas as escalas apresentaram adequados níveis de consistência interna e a existência de um só fator para o total dos itens. Detectaram-se diferenças associadas aos hábitos de consumo de carne, refrigerantes, óleo, manteiga e margarina. Ao considerar só as categorias satisfeito e não satisfeito, se obteve associação com a etnia, lugar de residência e trabalho do principal ingresso do lar. É possível sugerir que os hábitos de alimentação de estudantes universitários se relacionam com a satisfação, com a vida e com a satisfação em relação a sua

  11. El IDRC en Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    prácticas para promover la innovación ... Estudios para Latino américa sentaron las ... Argentina, Brasil, Canadá, Chile y Colombia. ... soluciones locales innovadoras y duraderas que apuntan a proporcionar opciones y cambios a aquellos ...

  12. A New, Continuous 5400 Yr-long Paleotsunami Record from Lake Huelde, Chiloe Island, South Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Vandoorne, W.; Van Daele, M. E.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    After the last decade of extreme tsunami events with catastrophic damage to infrastructure and a horrendous amount of casualties, it is clear that more and better paleotsunami records are needed to improve our understanding of the recurrence intervals and intensities of large-scale tsunamis. Coastal lakes (e.g. Bradley Lake, Cascadia; Kelsey et al., 2005) have the potential to contain long and continuous sedimentary records, which is an important asset in view of the centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence times of great tsunami-triggering earthquakes. Lake Huelde on Chiloé Island (42.5°S), Chile, is a coastal lake located in the middle of the Valdivia segment, which is known for having produced the strongest ever instrumentally recorded earthquake in 1960 AD (MW: 9.5), and other large earthquakes prior to that: i.e. 1837 AD, 1737 AD (no report of a tsunami) and 1575 AD (Lomnitz, 1970, 2004, Cisternas et al., 2005). We present a new 5400 yr-long paleotsunami record with a Bayesian age-depth model based on 23 radiocarbon dates that exceeds all previous paleotsunami records from the Valdivia segment, both in terms of length and of continuity. 18 events are described and a semi-quantitative measure of the event intensity at the study area is given, revealing at least two predecessors of the 1960 AD event in the mid to late Holocene that are equal in intensity. The resulting implications from the age-depth model and from the semi-quantitative intensity reconstruction are discussed in this contribution.

  13. A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    . Earthquake-induced static seabed vertical displacement is used as an input boundary condition to the model. The model is hierarchically set up with three nested domain levels; with 250 domains in total covering the entire Chilean coast. Spatial grid-cell resolution is equal to the native SRTM resolution of approximately 90m. In addition to the stochastic events, the 1960 (M9.5) Valdivia and 2010 (M8.8) Maule earthquakes are modelled. The modelled tsunami inundation map for the 2010 Maule event is validated through comparison with real observations. The vulnerability component consists of an extensive damage curves database, including curves for buildings, contents and business interruption for 21 occupancies, 24 structural types and two secondary modifies such as building height and period of construction. The building damage curves are developed by use of load-based method in which the building's capacity to resist tsunami loads is treated as equivalent to the design earthquake load capacity. The contents damage and business interruption curves are developed by use of deductive approach i.e. HAZUS flood vulnerability and business function restoration models are adapted for detailed occupancies and then assigned to the dominant structural types in Chile. The vulnerability component is validated through model overall back testing by use of observed aggregated earthquake and tsunami losses for client portfolios for 2010 Maule earthquake.

  14. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  15. Memoria histórica vivida y transmitida en torno a los terremotos de 1939-1960 en los habitantes del Gran Concepción – Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Andrés Concha Ramírez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo forma parte de una investigación mayor dirigida por Stefano Cavalli y Christian Lalive d`Epinay en el marco de la red internacional CEVI (Cambios y eventos en el transcurso de la vida. Una sección del estudio refiere a la importancia y selectividad otorgada a acontecimientos y procesos socio-históricos vividos y transmitidos. Se han encuestado 623 individuos de cinco grupos de edad pertenecientes a comunas del Gran Concepción (Chile. Desde los datos han surgido antecedentes relevantes en relación a los terremotos de 1939 en Chillán y 1960 en Valdivia y Concepción que serán analizados en este artículo. El tema resulta particularmente sensible en el tiempo presente, dadas las consecuencias vividas por una reciente catástrofe ocurrida el 27 de Febrero de 2010 en la región del Bio Bio. Palabras claves: Terremotos en Chile, Memoria Histórica, Memoria Colectiva___________________________Abstract:The article is part of a major research o survey lead by Stefano Cavalli y Christián Lalive d`Epinay in the framework of the international network CEVI (Changes and events life course. A section of the research refers to the importance and selectivity granted to events and processes socio-historical processes lived and transmitted. Were surveyed 623 individuals of five age groups belonging to the communes of the big Concepcion (Chile. From the data has been emerged relevant background in relation with earthquakes of 1939 in Chillán and 1960 Valdivia and Concepción that which will be to be analyzed in this article. The topic is particularly sensitive in the present tense, because the consequences experienced by a recent catastrophe occurred on February 27, 2010 in the region of Bio Bio.Keywords: Earthquake in Chile, historical memory, collective memory.

  16. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Bravo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have not been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12 and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14 were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022 and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070 indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  17. Proposals to enhance thermal efficiency programs and air pollution control in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2015-01-01

    Major cities in South-central Chile suffer high levels of particulate matter PM 10 and PM 2.5 due to combustion of solid fuels for heating. Exposure to these air pollutants is recognized as a major contribution to ill health in the region. Here we discuss new strategies to reduce air pollution. Regulations and subsidies focusing on improved combustion by providing drier wood fuel and better stoves have been in effect since 2007. However, air pollution due to combustion of wood fuel has been steadily rising, along with reports on health consequences. The paper analyzes a survey of 2025 households in the city of Valdivia, which found that wood fuel quality, stove renewal, and awareness of programs are strongly affected by income level, and that higher consumption of wood fuel is found in households already having better stoves and drier wood fuel. The analysis suggests that regulations intended to improve combustion are influenced by user's behavior and have limited potential for lowering pollution. We conclude that thermal refurbishment has a larger potential for improvement, not yet been implemented as an energy policy for the majority. Here we propose improvements and additions to current programs to enhance effectiveness and cover the whole social spectrum. - Highlights: • High levels of PM 2.5 from wood combustion affect cities of south-central Chile. • Current programs on dry wood fuel and stoves renewal have not reduced air pollution. • Real operation of wood stoves strongly depends on user's behavior. • Buildings' energy efficiency has greater potential for reducing emissions. • Retrofit prevents degradation of native forest and improves indoor temperature

  18. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  19. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  20. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  1. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  2. La Preparación Física Profesional en tabaqueros de la Fábrica Serafín Sánchez Valdivia en Arroyo Blanco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bécquer Quesada

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La preparación física profesional es un proceso especializado y dirigido al desarrollo de las capacidades físicas, psíquicas y de hábitos motores en los trabajadores, lo que resulta imprescindible para elevar la efectividad y la capacidad de trabajo. Para el presente trabajo se elaboró un sistema de ejercicios (contracción muscular, flexibilidad para contribuir al mejoramiento de la preparación física profesional en los tabaqueros, de la fábrica Serafín Sánchez Valdivia en Arroyo Blanco. En esta investigación se tomó una población integrada por los 39 tabaqueros de la entidad y como muestra 10 de ellos, lo que representa el (25.64%. El Objeto de estudio de esta investigación es el Proceso de Preparación para la Salud de los Tabaqueros y como métodos se utilizó el Teórico (análisis-síntesis, histórico-lógico, inductivo-deductivo y Enfoque de sistema, Empíricos: la observación, encuesta, entrevista y Validación mediante consulta a especialistas.

  3. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  5. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  6. La enfermería de la Orden de San Juan de Dios en el Chile colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Cristobalina Huaiquián-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las prácticas de enfermería en Chile durante la época colonial, prestando especial atención a la influencia de España en dicho proceso. Método: investigación cualitativa de abordaje socio-histórico; las fuentes primarias corresponden a textos históricos de Chile recuperados en la Biblioteca Virtual Memoria Chilena, y a 34 documentos recopilados en el Archivo Museo San Juan de Dios, Casa de los Pisa, en Granada, España, titulados “Listado de los hermanos de San Juan de Dios que vivían en Chile (207 años y un índice de documentos inéditos copiados de los archivos histórico nacional y del antiguo hospital, por Faustino Calvo”. La recolección de la información se efectuó con ficha documental confeccionada por la investigadora, complementada con fotografías. El análisis de los datos se realizó a través de análisis de contenido. Resultados: la Orden de San Juan de Dios llegó a Chile en el año 1617 a los hospitales de Santiago y Concepción y se expandió a las ciudades de La Serena, Valparaíso, San Juan de la Frontera, Talca, Chillan, Concepción y Valdivia. Por más de doscientos años la Orden permaneció en Chile brindando asistencia hospitalaria y de enfermería a través de los cuidados religiosos. Conclusión: con la llegada de la Orden al país mejoró indiscutiblemente la organización de los cuidados de salud al interior de los hospitales, que a partir de esa fecha se administraron de forma organizada, con altos estándares de higiene y limpieza, vigilando sigilosamente la alimentación de sus pacientes y con una gran preocupación por brindar asistencia espiritual a quienes necesitasen de sus servicios.

  7. El proceso emprendedor en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Benavente

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio analiza los factores que afectan en forma positiva y negativa el proceso de creación de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile. Se basa en una encuesta a 200 empresas jóvenes, la cual es parte de una muestra de casi 2000 empresas de América Latina. El presente estudio se enfoca básicamente en el segmento de nuevos emprendimientos existentes en Chile.

  8. Rio report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxe, D

    1992-08-01

    At the world-wide Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, two new legally binding documents were signed by over 140 countries: the Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. These conventions will come into force when ratified by 50 and 30 countries respectively. The objectives of these conventions, the steps to be taken toward their compliance, and their implications for Canada are discussed. Since climatic change could bring about adverse effects such as water shortages and loss of permafrost, Canada has committed itself to a quick start toward compliance with preparation of a detailed national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. The biodiversity convention could make it harder to develop hydropower in Canada at the same time that the climate change convention makes hydropower more attractive. Other documents from the Earth Summit included declarations on forestry management, sustainable development, and future conventions on desertification and fishing. Notable features of the summit included a refocusing of the environmental agenda to the priorities of the poorer countries, a recognition that environmental issues are linked to poverty and economic development, and an attack on the consumption patterns of the richer countries.

  9. Rio report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, D.

    1992-01-01

    At the world-wide Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, two new legally binding documents were signed by over 140 countries: the Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. These conventions will come into force when ratified by 50 and 30 countries respectively. The objectives of these conventions, the steps to be taken toward their compliance, and their implications for Canada are discussed. Since climatic change could bring about adverse effects such as water shortages and loss of permafrost, Canada has committed itself to a quick start toward compliance with preparation of a detailed national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. The biodiversity convention could make it harder to develop hydropower in Canada at the same time that the climate change convention makes hydropower more attractive. Other documents from the Earth Summit included declarations on forestry management, sustainable development, and future conventions on desertification and fishing. Notable features of the summit included a refocusing of the environmental agenda to the priorities of the poorer countries, a recognition that environmental issues are linked to poverty and economic development, and an attack on the consumption patterns of the richer countries

  10. Unpacking Resilience for Adaptation: Incorporating Practitioners’ Experiences through a Transdisciplinary Approach to the Case of Drought in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Aldunce

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current debate on the implementation of resilience in addressing climatic impacts calls for more pragmatic means of reducing losses. In this study we aimed to generate context-specific knowledge about resilience factors for addressing the impacts of drought, with the expectation that bringing forth experiential knowledge on how impacts were addressed in the past would shed light on what constitutes key resilience factors for practitioners working in urban contexts. The study was carried in three of the largest cities in Chile: Santiago, Concepción, and Valdivia. The analytical framework consists of urban and regional resilience incorporating transdisciplinary approaches applying the Resilience-Wheel tool, combined with participatory methods for the co-production of knowledge and qualitative content analysis of documents and workshops. Results show that key determinants of building resilience to drought were: improving education and access to information, enhancing preparedness, promoting technology transfer, reinforcing organizational linkages and collaboration, decentralizing governance, and encouraging citizen participation. The Resilience-Wheel was useful for navigating the conceptual complexity and diversity of perspectives inherent among social actors. The transdisciplinary approach allowed us to co-produce key knowledge that can be applied to build resilience in future, through a bottom-up approach that bridges the science–policy interface.

  11. [Protomedicato in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Olea, J

    1991-09-01

    In 1566 Alonso de Villadiego was nominated by the Chilean Cabildo as "Adviser and Examiner in Surgery". By means of this edict, the Spanish Crown paralleled its classical health organization, inspired in rules coming from XIIIth century. The Hospital del Socorro was the focal point of these activities. It turned to be prosperous under the administration of "San Juan de Dios" monks (1617), who rebaptized the Hospital with their name. During the administration of the "Universidad de San Felipe" (1738-1839), the Protomedicato followed the standards imposed by the Cahir of Prima Medicina. Domingo Nevin, Frenchman, and José Antonio Ríos, Chilean, were the first and the last doctors in charge of this task. Ríos conducted the antivariolic campaign, supervised the "Midwifery Law" and controlled the medical and paramedical practice. Afterwards, the Institution plunged into a profound crisis to reflourish in 1833 when it was incorporated within the structure of the School of Medicine. Blest, Cox, Bustillos and Moran were the architects of its splendour. With the foundation of the Universidad de Chile in 1842, its Faculty of Medicine took over the Protomedicato functions. The Institution came to an end in 1892.

  12. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  13. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  14. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  15. Internationalization of SMES: business opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, João Filipe Amado

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to identify the main business opportunities in Chile, legal advantages in the business perspective and entry strategies for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The methodology used was qualitative, by conducting several interviews with chamber of commerce representative from Portugal in Chile and Chile in Portugal, several young entrepreneurs from different nations operating in Chile, the CEO of a Spanish company that decided to not internationalize to...

  16. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  17. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  18. The Varve Record of Puyehue Lake (Meridional Chile), AD 1412-2002 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, X.; Arnaud, F.; Fagel, N.

    2004-12-01

    Puyehue Lake is located in the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile (Southern Lake District, 40°S). This monomictic lake is under the influence of the oceanic winter polar front (WPF) and constitutes a powerful sedimentary archive for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The underflow (PUI) and interflow (PUII) coring sites were selected by a high resolution seismic survey (RUG). The sedimentation is driven by the annual blooms of diatoms in association with thermal lake cycles. For each site, one short core (50-60 cm) is analyzed by continuous cover of thin sections for varve counting and chronology for the AD 1412-2002 time window. The varve chronology is constrained by 210Pb,137Cs sedimentation rate estimates, and by the AD 1960 Valdivia'seismite. The sediment laminations are especially emphasized by the continuous grey-scale measurements from thin sections. Detrital clayey material characterizes the dark levels, and biogenic diatom mud defines the light levels. Varve counting is derived from the occurrence of light layers, i.e. formed at the end of winter after nutrient turn-over. In both cores, the grey-scale is influenced by instantaneous tephra layers related to the regional volcanic activity (Puyehue and Cordon Caulle volcanoes). For instance, in PUII, we identify major historical eruptions (AD 1921, 1837, 1790, 1564, and 1544) in accordance with the varve age model. In addition, we measure the total varve thickness. Lower than 500 µm until AD 1780, the varve thickness gradually increases by a factor of four in PUII. The first period suggests a decrease of lake productivity, in agreement with a cooling. The age fits with the end of Little Ice Age in Southern America. Between AD 1780-2002, the thicker varves could be driven by a reinforcement of the WPF since the 19e century. Our local observations require further investigations to be extrapolated over regional or global scale.

  19. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Miranda, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  20. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  1. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  2. APRENDIZAJE MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS: IMPACTO DE ESTRATEGIAS PEDAGOGICAS APOYADAS POR LA WEB 2.0 EN ESTUDIANTES DE LA ESCUELA MEXICO VALDIVIA, REGION DE LOS LAGOS

    OpenAIRE

    FLORES AGUILAR, PAULA MARIA FRANCISCA

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio se enmarca en el proyecto Fondef "Kelluwen: Investigación, desarrollo y validación de diseños didácticos colaborativos apoyados en servicios de la Web 2.0. Estrategias para el desarrollo de competencias socio comunicativas en estudiantes de escuelas y liceos vulnerables de la Zona Sur Austral de Chile" dirigido por la Doctora y académica Eliana Scheihing. Se trata de un proyecto I+D+I (Investigación, desarrollo e innovación) que involucra desarrollo didáctico-i...

  3. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  4. POLÍTICAS CENTRALES, INMIGRACIÓN ALEMANA Y GENTE MENUDA EN LA FRONTERA DECIMONÓNICA. VALDIVIA, LA UNIÓN Y OSORNO (1840-1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Muñoz Sougarret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Para la historiografía la frontera sur de la Araucanía ha sufrido, durante la segunda mitad del Siglo XIX, un punto de inflexión notable y único, la llegada de inmigrantes germanos. De igual manera, el resto de la población local ha aparecido en un segundo plano, muchas veces tanto como obstaculizador o comparsa de los impulsos modernizadores de los colonos. Conociendo lo anterior, y sin esperar generar un cambio diametral, nos hemos centrado en este trabajo en tales poblaciones de nacionales, cómo fueron afectados por la inmigración y cómo se enfrentaron a los cambios coyunturales que remecieron los cimientos de su sociedad. Palabras claves: Inmigración germana; Chile austral; Delincuencia ABSTRACT For the historiography the south border of the Araucanía has suffered, during the second half of the 19th century, a point unique of notable inflexion, the arrival of German immigrants. Of equal way, the rest of the local population has appeared in a background, often so much as shackler or extra of the impulses developer of the colonists. Knowing the previous thing, and without expecting to generate a diametrical change, we have centred on this work on such populations of natives, how they were affected by the immigration and how they faced the relating to the moment changes that shook the foundations of his society. Key words: German immigration; Austral Chile; Delinquency

  5. A outra juventude radicalizada: o anticomunismo na Argentina e no Chile (1959-1973 = The other radicalised youth: anti-communism in Argentina and Chile (1959-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohoslavsky, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A imagem dominante sobre os anos sessenta no Cone Sul faz referência aos processos de insubordinação social desenvolvidos por setores da população rural, trabalhadores urbanos e jovens de ambos os sexos, desencantados com a política formal e desejosos de promover mudanças sociais profundas. Entretanto, é possível identificar outra série de atores que também recorreram a um repertório de ações políticas de forte impacto público, mas sediados em uma coordenada ideológica completamente diversa. Este artigo revisa algumas das práticas e discursos de grupos de jovens incorporados às organizações de direita radical na Argentina e no Chile entre 1959 e 1973. Concentra-se no Movimiento gremialista, na juventude do Partido Nacional, na Frente Nacionalista Patria y Libertad (do Chile, no Movimiento Nacionalista Tacuara e na juventude da Federación Argentina de Entidades Democráticas Anticomunistas (da Argentina. Esta pesquisa comparativa consultou distintas fontes: imprensa comercial, jornais partidários e relatórios de órgãos de inteligência policial

  6. Cerro Amarillo rhyolites, advanced AFC in the northern SVZ, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E; Hildreth, W

    2001-01-01

    Cerro Amarillo is a Quaternary medium size (500m high, 2 km 2 ) rhyolite dome complex located close to the Chile-Argentina border, reaching a height of 4162 m, between the headwaters of the Rio Colina and the Nieves Negras Pass. It overlies a broad anticline of thick Middle Jurassic pelites (Alvarez et al., 1997). Thiele (1980) includes this complex in his 'Unidad Volcanica Antigua', a Pleistocene composite map unit made up of andesites and trachyandesites. Ramos et al. (1997), while recognizing its rhyolitic character, assigned a Tertiary age to the lava domes, most likely based on the late Pliocene age of silicic dikes outcropping eastward, in Argentina. Both the lack of younger overlying units and freshness of its components, together with preservation of the unconsolidated, easily eroded pyroclastic deposits at its base, suggest, however, that it is not older than Pleistocene (au)

  7. Política de autogestión hospitalaria en Chile: percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones Hospital self-management policy in Chile: perceptions of decision-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Méndez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones respecto de la etapa de implementación de la política de autogestión hospitalaria en dos hospitales de alta complejidad del sur de Chile. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo descriptivo y exploratorio basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a tomadores de decisiones de los hospitales Regional de la ciudad de Valdivia y San José de la ciudad de Osorno, durante el período de agosto de 2010 a diciembre de 2011. Se seleccionó una muestra por conveniencia de 26 tomadores de decisiones. Las 26 entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas en forma literal. El análisis de la información se hizo utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido, en su aproximación inductiva. RESULTADOS: Para los entrevistados, la conceptualización de la autogestión está determinada por la autonomía para la toma de decisiones respecto de la asignación de recursos y el financiamiento de la provisión de servicios de salud en las instituciones hospitalarias. También manifestaron que para mejorar la etapa de implementación se deben incluir políticas de recursos humanos y de financiamiento de la función de provisión de servicios de salud. A las debilidades, por su parte, las relacionaron con la ausencia de capacidades organizacionales y competencias gerenciales de los equipos de salud para la implementación de los cambios. CONCLUSIONES: La política de autogestión hospitalaria es conceptualizada desde la autonomía financiera, y su implementación está determinada por las brechas de capacidad que persisten en el diseño de la política.OBJECTIVE: To learn the perceptions of decision-makers concerning the imple­men­t­ation stage of a hospital self-management policy in two highly complex hospitals in southern Chile. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study based on semi-structured in-depth interviews of decision-makers at the Regional Hospital of Valdivia

  8. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  10. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  11. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  12. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  13. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  14. The effects of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae on the arthropod fauna of wheat fields in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Carrillo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of carabid beetles in reducing populations of phytophagous insects has been an elusive subject. A field experiment was established on a commercial wheat crop (cv. Otto with an area of 4.5 ha in Valdivia, Chile, during the spring and summer of 1996-1997. The field had been under a prairie system for two years, before wheat sowing (fertilization and a pesticide had been applied during crop development. Samples were taken at approximately monthly intervals. Carabid beetles were sampled with a grid of pitfall traps and other insects were sampled with a vacuum insect net and soil cores. The genera of the carabids found are of neotropical origin. Exclusion by polythene barriers, together with removal of carabid beetles using traps, was an effective technique for controlling carabid populations in a commercial wheat crop. A reduction in the number of carabid beetles was associated with an increase in the number of springtails and arachnids, and a decrease of agromyzid adults. Phytophagous insects, such as homopterans and lepidopterous larvae, were not affected by carabid exclusion and removal. The action of carabid beetles on the arthropod fauna can be extremely complex, due to its predatory activity at multitrophic levels. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 101-111. Epub 2007 March. 31.El uso de barreras de polietileno, conjuntamente con la remoción de carábidos usando trampas de caída, demostró ser una técnica efectiva en la manipulación de las poblaciones de estos insectos en un trigal comercial. La reducción en el número de carábidos se asoció con un incremento en el número de colémbolos y arácnidos, y con una disminución en el número de agromízidos. Las especies fitófagas del orden Hemiptera y las larvas de nóctuidos no fueron afectadas en su cantidad por la exclusión y remoción de los carábidos. La acción de los carábidos sobre la fauna de artrópodos puede ser extremadamente compleja, debido a su actividad depredadora a

  15. Mujeres inmigrantes peruanas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stefoni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona en torno a la situación de la migración peruana en Chile, en particular sobre la situación de exclusión social y laboral que enfrentan las mujeres inmigrantes en Santiago. La migración peruana se caracteriza por ser eminentemente femenina y con una alta concentración laboral de este grupo en el trabajo doméstico. ¿Por qué se han vuelto las labores la fuente principal de trabajo para estas mujeres?, ¿basta con señalar que se debe a mano de obra más barata o existen otros argumentos de tipo cultural y social que explican por qué empleadores/as chilenos contratan y prefieren a mujeres peruanas?

  16. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ibarra Figueroa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE. The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and devices in the proper relationship of individuals, in order to establish criteria by biopsychosocial processes from the identity the Other and You as host in the plural diversity of human beings, with aim is to recommend  a public policy with an emphasis on multicultural values of each community, enriching the human condition and biopolitics regarding the integration from the educational training and the role that fits the state.

  17. Chile: perspectives in school health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L

    1990-09-01

    The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.

  18. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  19. Chile and Mercosur: One Strategic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oviedo, Humberto

    2000-01-01

    ... a big free trade area. Chile has been proactive to open its economy unilaterally and now is looking for creating the best conditions to participate in some important economic blocks, as a NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Asian-Pacific...

  20. A decade towards better health in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Irene

    2011-10-01

    In 1990, after 17 years of dictatorship, Chile started rebuilding its political system with a focus on improving social conditions and health. A recent study of the last 10 years shows some positive results. Irene Helmke reports.

  1. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  2. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, S.

    1997-01-01

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  3. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  4. Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt y Gomphoneis minuta (Stone) Kociolek & Stoermer (Bacillariophyta), especies presentes en ríos de la VIII Región, Chile, formadoras de proliferaciones con aspecto muy similar

    OpenAIRE

    BASUALTO, SILVIA; RIVERA, PATRICIO; CRUCES, FABIOLA; ECTOR, LUC; ASCENCIO, ENRIQUE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A light brown colored massive algal proliferation found in a large area of Rio Laja, Chile was studied. The bloom was produced by Gomphoneis minuta, a gomphonemoid diatom forming large branched stalks attached to submerged rocks. At first glance and on account the macroscopic appearance, this type of proliferation could be confused with that of Didymosphenia geminata. Considering its massive presence in Rio Laja and increased distribution in Chilean waters, as well is occurring in ma...

  5. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  6. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  7. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  8. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  9. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  10. Using indicators and models for an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture management: the anchovy fishery and Pacific oyster culture in Chile: case studies Aplicación de indicadores y modelos para un enfoque ecosistémico de la pesca y la acuicultura: pesquería de anchoveta y cultivo de ostra del Pacífico en Chile: casos de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrate the use of indicators and models to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture management using two case studies in Chile: prediction of environmental variability effects upon anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery of northern Chile and prediction of suitable sites and carrying capacity of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas culture using FARM and geographic information system (GIS models in the Valdivia estuary. A three stage approach was applied: Stage 1 considers spatiotemporal ecosystem indicators (fisheries, aquaculture, environmental, and regulatory, Stage 2 uses statistical relationships between indicators, GIS, and other simulation models (e.g., artificial neural networks and FARM of environment-resources interaction, and Stage 3 is the analysis and validation of models outputs. The methodology illustrates how indicators and models may be used to assist decision-makers in developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture. The application of these approaches provides an integrative methodology for abundance prediction of anchovy and site selection for shellfish aquaculture, despite limitations in the available data.Este trabajo muestra el uso de indicadores y modelos para apoyar la aplicación del enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión de la pesca y la acuicultura, mediante dos casos de estudios en Chile: predicción de los efectos de la variabilidad ambiental en la pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile y la predicción de sitios aptos y capacidad de carga para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico (Crassostrea gigas en el estuario de Valdivia. Se aplicó un enfoque metodológico de tres etapas: etapa 1 considera indicadores espacio-temporales del ecosistema (pesca, acuicultura, medio ambiente y legislación; etapa 2 utiliza relaciones estadísticas entre los indicadores, funciones de SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica, y otros modelos de simulación (Redes

  11. All projects related to chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthen the use of scientific evidence to inform climate policy, negotiations ... Evaluating the impact of digital tools to teach math and science in Chile ... Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, El Salvador, ...

  12. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  13. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  14. Zahraničně obchodní politika Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The Diploma thesis focuses on foreign trade policy of Chile. The first part is a brief summary of socio-economic characteristics of the country. The following section deals with the individual strategies in the approach to foreign trade policy applied in Chile since independence to the present. It exams the determinants of changes in foreign trade policy of Chile and monitors changes in territorial and commodity structure of the foreign trade of Chile. In the final section assesses the curren...

  15. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  16. Chile; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Chile has successfully resisted contagion from neighboring countries difficulties. Chile's inflation targeting framework has successfully anchored inflation expectations and increased the economy's resilience to external shocks while maintaining price stability. The floating exchange rate regime is an essential part of the macroeconomic policy framework and continues to serve Chile well. The interest in recapitalizing the central bank is welcomed. Executive Directors commend Chile for the tra...

  17. Retail Bank Interest Rate Pass-Through; Is Chile Atypical?

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Rebucci; Marco A Espinosa-Vega

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the pass-through of money market interest rates to retail banking interest rates in Chile, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and five European countries. Overall, Chile's pass-through does not appear atypical. Based on a standard error-correction model, we find that, as in most countries considered, Chile's measured pass-through is incomplete. But Chile's pass-through is also faster than in many other countries considered and is comparable ...

  18. Co-evolution of land use changes, water quality deterioration and social conflicts in arid Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Carina; Dame, Juliane

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity concerns not only the limited availability of water but also water of inadequate quality in terms of its designated purposes. Arid regions, such as found in Northern Chile, are especially vulnerable to water contamination, owing to missing dilution. Additionally, the national government of Chile's goal to make the country a globally important food exporter has led to the widespread expansion of agricultural surfaces over the last 20 years, thereby increasing pressure on limited water resources and water quality. Mining, being one of the most important economic sectors in Chile, threatens both surface and groundwater quality. This scenario increases the potential for water use conflicts, which is further compounded by the demand for potable water provided by rivers and groundwater. In order to better understand the role of both physical and human dimensions of water quality, this research uses a socio-hydrological conceptual framework. This approach is used in order to broaden the scope of hydrology to include the anthropogenic impact on the environment. It therefore focuses on human and natural interactions and two-sided feedback loops, instead of purely hydrological cycles. Using the case study of the Rio Huasco watershed changes in water quality, which originate at the nexus of physical parameters, social conflicts and changing land use regimes in Northern Chile, are discussed. This region was chosen as an exemplary case for the development of Chile's arid regions: the valley is located at the southern edge of the Atacama Desert, where water scarcity is a major problem. At present, the watershed is predominantly used for agriculture. Many small farmers still practise strip cultivation, but are pressured to shift towards an international export-orientated future with monocultures. International companies are planning to mine the Pascua Lama Mine, one of the world's biggest gold reserves located in the headwaters of the Rio Huasco. Meanwhile, the

  19. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  20. Normas percibidas por los estudiantes universitarios acerca de sus pares y uso de drogas en una universidad en Chile Normas percebidas pelos estudantes universitários sobre seus pares e uso de drogas de uma universidade Chilena Perceived norms among university students about their peers and drug use at a Chilean university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ramirez Castillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza la relación entre las normas percibidas del consumo de drogas en los pares y el uso actual de la misma, en estudiantes universitarios. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, multicéntrico aplicado a la población del 2 y 3 año de carreras de salud de una universidad chilena, la muestra fue constituida por 286(75,2% estudiantes de un total de 380. Se observó que más del 50%, perciben que sus pares consumen tabaco diariamente, alcohol tres veces a la semana, marihuana una vez a la semana, y cocaína al menos una vez al año. El campus es el lugar donde más se consume; sin embargo la cocaína se consume más en casa de amigos. Entre los estudiantes, el 68% fumó alguna una vez en la vida y el 57% todos los días; el 88% bebió alguna una vez en la vida; el 26% consumió marihuana alguna una vez en la vida y el 16% en los últimos 12 meses. Los estudiantes desconocen la existencia de políticas universitarias relacionadas con el consumo de drogas. Algunos resultados confirman la sobrestimación del consumo de drogas.Analisa-se a relação entre normas percebidas do consumo de drogas pelos pares e o uso da mesma entre estudantes universitários. Este é um estudo quantitativo, multicêntrico, aplicado aos alunos do 2 e 3 ano dos cursos da área da saúde de uma universidade chilena, constituída por 286 (75,2% de 380 estudantes. RESULTADOS: mais de 50%, percebem que seus pares consomem cigarro diariamente, álcool três vezes por semana, maconha uma vez por semana; cocaína ao menos uma vez no ano. O campus é o local onde mais se consome; o consumo de cocaína se dá na casa de amigos. Entre os estudantes, 68% já fumou uma vez em sua vida, 57% todos os dias; 88% já bebeu uma vez em sua vida; 26% consumiu maconha uma vez na vida, 16% nos últimos 12 meses. Estudantes desconhecem a existência de políticas universitárias relacionadas ao consumo de drogas. Alguns resultados confirmam a subestimação do consumo de

  1. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Medical specialization in Chile. A centralized vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouet-Huerta, Diego E; González, Bárbara; Correa, Katherine

    2017-11-01

    Medical graduates face different postgraduate training options, but their priority is to obtain a primary medical specialty, defined as a specialty that does not derive from other. There are different specialty training programs in Chile, which can be dependent or independent of the Ministry of Health. The information about these programs is available in different Internet sites. However a centralized information service that groups and synthetize these programs is lacking, hampering graduate choice decisions. This article aims to review all specialization program modalities, providing a general vision of the institutional structure and implications that govern the specialization process in Chile.

  3. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  4. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  5. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  6. A solar radiation database for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.

  7. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  8. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.

  9. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    critical stance to the USSR for much of the rest of the decade. Along with Castro’s efforts to establish the Cuban experience of a rural guerrilla-based...Neresidades de Financamento Externo parea el Desarrollo de Chile, January 28. 1974, p. V-9. 17. New aid loans from the United States declined to $S.5 million

  10. Temporal and spatial variability of structure dependent properties of a volcanic ash soil under pasture in southern Chile Variaciones temporales y espaciales en las propiedades que dependen de estructura de un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bajo pastoreo en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Dec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Prairies are a main source for livestock feeding in southern Chile. The aim of this research was to define how grazing events and natural wetting and drying cycles (WD affect the spatial and temporal variability of the soil’s structural properties. The investigation was conducted in a Duric Hapludand, Valdivia Series. Penetration resistance (PR and volumetric water content (WC, measured in situ, were used to prepare maps which show i temporal (1383 to 3047 kPa for 46 to 16% WC and spatial changes, and ii grazing events as an important factor influencing spatial changes in PR (differences of 3421 kPa between max and min values. Grazing and WD cycles induced changes in the soil’s mechanical stability and pore functions, which indicate that structure-dependent properties are dynamic. During the study, variations between 0.3 and 0.9 log µm² were detected for air permeability (k a, whereas air capacity (ACp ranged between 5 and 18%. Soil mechanical strength also varied over time and showed changes in PR. The same instrument, however, cannot be used to identify changes in soil pore functions. Generally, after grazing events, soil deformation induced a reduction of air capacity and permeability; however, after WD cycles, soil pores were able to recover their functional integrity.Las praderas son la principal fuente de alimentación del ganado en el sur de Chile. El objetivo de esta investigación fue definir cómo afectan los eventos de pastoreo y ciclos naturales de mojado y secado (WD, la variabilidad temporal y espacial de las propiedades estructurales del suelo. La investigación fue realizada en un Duric Hapludand, Serie Valdivia. La resistencia a la penetración (PR y el contenido volumétrico de agua (WC determinados in situ fueron usados para preparar mapas que muestran i que ellas cambian en el tiempo (PR: 1383-3047 kPa para WC: 46-16% y espacio, y ii que los eventos de pastoreo son un factor importante que influye sobre la variaci

  11. The passage from Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, M F

    1992-01-01

    The Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Environment and Development notes that after the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro discussions about the environment and development will differ from those prior to the Summit. These discussions must now incorporate problems of developing countries, poverty, inequalities, flow of resources to developing countries, and terms of trade. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development consists of important tenets, but it must evolve into an Earth Charter to be endorsed on the 50th anniversary of the UN in 1965. The Summit's Plan of Action, Agenda 21, must also continue to evolve and, despite its shortcomings, is the most extensive and, if implemented, most effective international action ever approved by the international community. Financing the Agenda 21 initiatives remains to be decided. New possible sources of funding must be based n the polluter pays principle and may include new taxes, user charges, emission permits, and citizen funding. Even though the most serious problem in the 1990s is stabilization of atmospheric gases, the Rio agreement does not include targets or timetables. Governments must take united action immediately to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 60%. 1 nation has not yet approved the convention on biological diversity. Governments also need to move forward on conventions on decertification and deforestation. They need to incorporate the global objectives of Agenda 21 into their own national policies and practices. This must also be done at the global, regional, organizational, local, and individual levels. The global community must also begin technology capacity building. The participatory process should also include nongovernmental organizations. Population growth must also slow dramatically to achieve sustainable development. The various participatory levels must consider elimination of poverty.

  12. Comparison of six green chile (capsicum annum) cultivars for efficiency of Etgar® machine harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    As U.S. demand for fresh market green chile rises green chile acreage in the U.S. is declining due to limited availability and high cost of hand labor to harvest it. Many farmers are opting to grow crops other than green chile. Green chile is a New Mexican pod-type chile that is harvested when the...

  13. Rio responses in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Three of the five agreements reached in Rio - the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21 and the Framework Convention on Climate Change - are briefly summarised from and energy perspective. The state of the art in the two national policy areas that are crucial for sustainable development, environmental policy and development cooperation, are then described. Some conclusions are drawn regarding the major bottlenecks and challenges for Dutch policies in the wake of Rio. 2 figs

  14. La negociación centro-región en Chile: realidad o mito - el caso de la región de Los Lagos Central-regional negotiation in Chile: reality or myth - the case of the Los Lagos region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aurelio Monje Reyes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la década de los 1990, la descentralización política-administrativa de Chile se ha profundizado en forma gradual. Ello se ha expresado, entre otros aspectos, en la creación de gobiernos regionales y en la disposición política del gobierno central de dejar en manos de estas instancias el manejo de recursos para la inversión regional. No obstante, la reconfiguración de la actual división de las regiones no se ha tomado como un tema prioritario dentro de la política descentralizadora en cuestión. Sin embargo, ello no ha implicado que se esté obviando el tema por completo; ya que a nivel extraoficial, y de parte tanto del gobierno central como regional, se plantea la necesidad de hacer una propuesta de reestructuración de la división política-administrativa del país. Este estudio de caso fija su atención en las demandas de reestructuración recién mencionadas, haciendo especial hincapié en la observación del fenómeno de demanda por la regionalización de la provincia de Valdivia, en la décima región de Los Lagos, Chile, durante los años 1995/96. Dicho trabajo se realizó bajo la óptica de la negociación centro-región, con los objetivos de describir los componentes del proceso y de reconocer las condicionantes de las acciones de los actores en el mismo. Los resultados del estudio están vinculados al rol que ejercen los actores en el conflicto y negociación centro-región. Se consiguió realizar una caracterización de ellos, además de constatar la relación de clientela política que se produce entre la elite nacional y regional, como factor determinante en el resultado de la negociación. De la misma manera, se comprobó que el diseño institucional del sistema político induce este tipo de vínculo entre las elites mencionadas. Finalmente, el estudio presenta una serie de recomendaciones para el fortalecimiento de la política pública de descentralización de Chile, que están en marco de aminorar los

  15. [Haiti, new immigrant community in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez P, Katherin; Valderas J, Jaime; Messenger C, Karen; Sánchez G, Carolina; Barrera Q, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon in Latin America influenced by several factors such as economic stability, employment, social welfare, education and health system. Currently Chile has a positive migration flow rate. Particularly, a significant number of Haitian immigrants has been observed du ring the last years, especially after earthquake of 2010. These immigrants present a different cultural background expressed in relevant aspects of living including parenting and healthcare. Knowing the Haitian culture and its health situation is relevant for a better understanding of their health needs. Haitian people come to Chile looking for a cordial reception and willing to find a place with better perspectives of wellbeing in every sense. Immigration represents a major challenge for Chilean health system that must be embraced. Integration efforts in jobs, health, education system and community living should be enhanced to ensure a prosper settlement in our country. A new immigration law is crucial to solving major problems derived from current law created in 1975.

  16. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  17. UPDATE: MAJOR EARTHQUAKE IN CHILE (II) | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light el acceso a ambas cumbres. Los tanques de agua sobre Tololo fueron dañados causando una fuga importante, y las líneas de control se cortaron poniendo fuera de operación las bombas de agua. Las

  18. The Neutral Interest Rate: Estimates for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Fuentes S; Fabián Gredig U.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the neutral real interest rate for Chile, we use a variety of methods that can be classified into three categories: those derived from economic theory, the neutral rate implicit in financial assets, and statistical procedures using macroeconomic data. We conclude that the neutral rate is not constant over time, but it is closely related with—though not equivalent to—the potential GDP growth rate. The application of the different methods yields fairly similar results. The neutral r...

  19. Chile's pipelines - who's out in the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.

    1998-01-01

    There is a battle on in Northern Chile to supply the region with gas and electricity. Two pipelines and a transmission line are being built, but there is insufficient demand to merit the construction of all of these projects. It is widely believed that the first pipeline to be finished will be the overall winner, but the situation is not that simple. A more sensible conclusion could be the merger of the two pipeline projects, rationalising supply of gas to the region. (Author)

  20. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.

  1. Chile: Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Publishers, 1992), 41. 26 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile The Great Transformation (Harrisonburg, Virginia: The Brookings Institution, 1996...the world economy, by means of technological advancements, makes it necessary to reduce 32 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile the Great...disapproves the executive’s budget. There is no 60 Alicia Frohman, "Chile: External Actors and the Transition to Democracy," in Beyond Sovereignty

  2. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Leyton, F.A.; Farias, E.; Silva, A.M.; Vano, E.; Oyarzun, C.; Gamarra, J.; Ortiz, P.

    2001-01-01

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  3. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  4. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  5. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID VÉLIZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is still doubt as to the number of species of the freshwater Chilean ichthyofauna, 64 % of which have conservation problems. One of the groups is that of the silversides of the genus Basilichthys. Three morphological species of this genus have been described in Chile with disjoint distributions: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus and B. australis; the latter two overlap in distribution only in the Aconcagua River and are not easily distinguishable by morphological and meristic characters. In order to evaluate the efficacy of identification of these species by molecular techniques, we analyzed the sequence of 9 % of the mitochondrial DNA (Control Region and COI of individuals from the Loa River (21°41' S to the Valdivia River (39°50' S, adding meristic features for B. microlepidotus and B. australis in order to study population variation to clarify the taxonomy of the native species of the genus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the individuals of Basilichthys semotilus form an haplogroup separated from the other species of the genus; however, B. australis and B. microlepidotus form a monophyletic group that shares the most common haplotypes. An analysis of meristic information showed no statistically significant differences in the number of lateral line scales or number of rays in the fins between B. microlepidotus and B. australis. These results do not support the current classification for the latter two species; there appears to be one group in the extreme north of the country (Basilichthys semotilus and a second group in central Chile which should be called B. microlepidotus. This information will be useful to review the conservation status of the Chilean fauna.Si bien aún existen dudas sobre el número de especies descritas en el país, se reconoce que el 64 % de la ictiofauna dulceacuícola chilena se encuentra en alguna categoría de peligro de conservación. Uno de los grupos categorizados como vulnerable y en

  6. Conexões transnacionais entre as mulheres de direita Brasil, Chile e Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Power

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a importância transnacional dos movimentos de mulheres contra João Goulart, no Brasil, e contra Salvador Allende, no Chile, e o impacto que tiveram sobre as mulheres conservadoras dos Estados Unidos. Para tanto, examina a ampla cobertura que a mídia, nos Estados Unidos, deu aos movimentos dessas mulheres, assim como as visitas que as mulheres anti-Goulart fizeram aos Estados Unidos após o golpe militar brasileiro de 1964. Ele explora vários casos em que mulheres conservadoras brasileiras e chilenas partilharam suas experiências e suas vitórias políticas com as mulheres da América do Norte, que, por sua vez, foram inspiradas por elas. O artigo desafia a literatura acerca das mulheres de direita nos Estados Unidos, que tem ignorado o impacto que as mulheres conservadoras do Brasil ou do Chile tiveram sobre os movimentos desse país.

  7. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  8. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  9. Nuclear public information activities in Chile; Programa de educacion publica de la energia nuclear en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Quintana, R [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper.

  10. Moving mountains in Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, D.

    1992-01-01

    The June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro has been planned more as a discussion of environment and development, rather than sustainable development as suggested by the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission). The Canadian agenda for UNCED is like that of most of the developed countries, and focuses mainly on climatic change, deforestation, loss of biodiversity in the tropics, and health of the oceans. The agenda of the developing countries is based on the knowledge that most of these global problems have been caused or aggravated by the industrialized countries. The developing countries fear that actions imposed to solve environmental problems will threaten their economic development. A key demand from the developing countries is a commitment by developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, leaving space for the developing countries to increase their emissions as they develop. There is little or no pressure on governments in the developed world to come to such a comprehensive deal. For Canada, much remains to be done in setting national priorities, and many of the issues to be discussed at UNCED are under provincial jurisdiction

  11. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  12. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de...epidesiologia de la fiebre tifoidea . Boletin de !a Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia universidad catolica de Chile. 30:113-119. 14. Reyes H, Olea M, Hernandez

  13. Primer registro de Heliotropium amplexicaule (Heliotropiaceae) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Sergio; Luebert, Federico; Gómez, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the commonly known weed Heliotropium amplexicaule (Heliotropiaceae) is reported for Chile first time, from a collection recently made in Santiago. Its potential as weed in Chile is discussed in the context of the experience of other countries where the species has become naturalised.

  14. Adapting to climate variability and change in Chile's Maipo basin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Given the region's role in Chile's national economy, a strategy for adapting to ... to Chile's economy, and may be threatened by future water stress. ... for the project, with the goal of bringing together government, business, and ...

  15. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...Chilean law, could not be invaded by the police. The MIR never became a formal political party. It completely rejected the electoral process

  16. All projects related to Chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. ... Region: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, India ... Enhancing Women's Economic Empowerment Through Better Policies in Latin America ... Program: Employment and Growth ... Understanding Think Tank-University Relationships in Latin America.

  17. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  18. [Health inequality gap in inmigrant versus local children in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Chepo, Macarena; Oyarte, Marcela; Markkula, Niina; Bustos, Patricia; Pedrero, Víctor; Delgado, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health. (I) Born in Chile: Im migrants more frequently have psychosocial risk (62.3% vs 50.1% in Chileans) and enter later into the program (63.1% vs 33.4% enter later than 14 weeks of pregnancy). All birth outcomes were better among immigrants (e.g. caesarean sections rates: 24.2% immigrants vs % Chileans). (ii) Growing up in Chile: A higher proportion of migrant children is outside the school system and lives in multidi mensional poverty (40% immigrants vs 23.2% Chileans). (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Injuries and other external causes were more frequent cause of hospitalisation among migrants (23.6%) than the local population (16.7%) aged between 7 and 14 years. Addressing the needs of the children in Chile, regardless of their immigration status, is an ethical, legal and moral imperative.

  19. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  20. Rio Chama Floodplain Management Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Village of Chama requested the Soil Conservation Service, through the Upper Chama Soil and Water Conservation District, to conduct a study of the Rio Chama and...

  1. A catalog of Acroceridae (Diptera) from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GonzÁlez, Christian R; Elgueta, Mario; Ramirez, Francisco

    2018-01-18

    A catalog of the Acroceridae from Chile is provided. All valid names and synonyms are presented, totaling 33 species and nine genera for the country. All references known to us from the taxonomic and biological literature, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type species, type locality and references are given. Type material of different authors was revised. The species Lasia cuprea is revalidated. The geographical distribution of the different species is recorded from the revised collections and bibliographic data. Holops cyaneus Philippi, 1865 is designated as type species of Holops Philippi, 1865.

  2. EFECTOS DEL EMBARAZO ADOLESCENTE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola Heufemann, AMANDA

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...

  3. FORESIGHT TEST CASE CHILE: UNIACC UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolás Vizcaya Carrillo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available it is true that all human activities today are capable of analysis and prospective projection, confirmed there are a number of areas of knowledge which are considered key to the development of mankind and therefore of each company in each country is to see the evolution of the relevant future. It is true that today there are hundreds of professional disciplines that are studied and are performed as day to day and that play important roles in the welfare and development of society and in particular if this trial will be analyzed in the development of techniques current looking for Chile.

  4. Pentecostalism and Politics in Neoliberal Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las relaciones históricas y contemporáneas entre el Pentecostalismo y la política en Chile. La primera parte del artículo provee un resumen histórico del crecimiento y consolidación de la religión Pentecostal en relación a diferentes ambientes políticos. En este artículo se esclarecen además las diferentes posturas Pentecostales hacia la esfera política. En particular hago hincapié, en cómo surge una cultura de desencanto político en el Chile post-dictatorial que crea un vacío simbólico, el cual trae como consecuencia el nacimiento de movimientos religiosos. En la segunda parte de este artículo se discute las posibles afinidades entre el Pentecostalismo, como una cultura religiosa, y los principios democráticos. El argumento es que a pesar de que el Pentecostalismo puede contener algunas cualidades democráticas, también existe una compatibilidad notable entre la visión teísta e individualista Pentecostal acerca de los cambios sociales, y un orden social neoliberal, en donde la indolencia política se expande y en donde predomina un sentido de progreso individual y no colectivo. English: This article explores historical and contemporary relationships between Pentecostalism and politics in Chile. The first part of the article provides an historical account of the growth and consolidation of Pentecostal religion within changing political environments and sheds light on Pentecostal stances to and involvements with the political sphere. In particular, it focuses on how a culture of political disenchantment has emerged in post-dictatorial neo-liberal Chile, creating a symbolic void that can be filled by religious movements. The second part of the article discusses possible affinities between Pentecostalism as a religious culture and democratic principles and values. It argues that although Pentecostalism may contain certain democratic qualities, there is also a striking compatibility between, on the one

  5. Monetary Policy in Chile: a black box?

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Cabrera; Luis Felipe Lagos

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies monetary policy in Chile during the 1986-1997 period. We concentrate in understanding the monetary transmission mechanism by which the Central Bank instrument—the real interest rate—affects total expenditure, output and the inflation rate. The methodology used is structural VARS. We find a weak effect of the interest rate on all the variables. The interest rate has a significant effect on the expenditure-output gap. Both the interest rate and the expenditure-output gap have...

  6. Center for oceanographic research opens in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Carina B.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    The Humboldt Current System, with its coastal upwelling ecosystem off Peru and Chile, is one of the most productive marine systems in the world. Here, significant exchange of heat and CO2 takes place between the ocean and the atmosphere due to upwelling of sub-surface, cold, nutrient-rich, CO2-saturated waters. In addition, the eastern South Pacific holds one of the three most important oxygen minimum zones of the global ocean. Through the biologically mediated process of denitrification, the oxygen minimum zone contributes to the global sink of nitrogen in the ocean and as a source of the greenhouse gas N2O to the atmosphere.

  7. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  8. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  9. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  10. Heróis e cultura histórica entre estudantes no Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián González Calderón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este texto divulga e analisa dados do projeto intercultural de pesquisa "Jovens e a História no Mercosul". Expõe dados sobre a cultura histórica do Chile, especificamente sobre as imagens que personificam a identidade nacional, por meio dos líderes da pátria, com base na visão de estudantes do Ensino Médio. O fundamento teórico do estudo está nos conceitos de cultura histórica, cultura política e representações sociais, especificamente a teoria do núcleo central. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário e tratados pelo programa EVOC 2000. Os resultados apontam, entre outras conclusões provisórias, um núcleo central que envolve O'Higgins, Prat e Carrera. Manuel Rodríguez e Salvador Allende são nomes do núcleo intermediário. O núcleo periférico é marcado por manifestações que modificam o significado de herói, apresentam irreverência ou destacam os nomes de Lautaro e Violeta Parra.

  11. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  12. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Analýza obchodných vzťahov medzi EU a Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Chabová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor thesis is to particularly charakterize Chile's economy and to analyze its position in international trade. The main part of my whole work is the analysis of business relationship between European Union and Chile, which I also describe in point of law. The work has five main chapters. The first chapter describes the economical situation of Chile. The second chapter is concerned with Chile's whole foreign trade. The third chapter analyze Chile's foreign trade legally thro...

  14. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  15. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Bol. Inst. Bacteriol. Chile 1976; 18:33-37. 30. Escaff, M, Urbina, A, Mary, J. Contaminacion de repollos regados con aguas servidas. Agricultura...Tecnica 1979; 39:59-62. - 31. Lobos, H, Greive, R, Quijada, M, Brandt, H. Pesquisa del genero Vibrio en aguas servidas. Bol. Inst. Bact. Chile 1974; 16:40...REPORT #2 0") STUDIES TO CONTROL ENDEMIC TYPHOID N FEVER IN CHILE 0) ANNUAL REPORT U’ Contract Period 1/1/82-12/31/82 • I REPORT PREPARED BY: L

  16. [Ecology and health in Chile: present and future development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M

    1997-09-01

    In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.

  17. Stochastic strong motion generation using slip model of 21 and 22 May 1960 mega-thrust earthquakes in the main cities of Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Ojeda, J.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Pasten, C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Silva, R., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    In May 1960 took place the most unusual seismic sequence registered instrumentally. The Mw 8.1, Concepción earthquake occurred May, 21, 1960. The aftershocks of this event apparently migrated to the south-east, and the Mw 9.5, Valdivia mega-earthquake occurred after 33 hours. The structural damage produced by both events is not larger than other earthquakes in Chile and lower than crustal earthquakes of smaller magnitude. The damage was located in the sites with shallow soil layers of low shear wave velocity (Vs). However, no seismological station recorded this sequence. For that reason, we generate synthetic acceleration times histories for strong motion in the main cities affected by these events. We use 155 points of vertical surface displacements recopiled by Plafker and Savage in 1968, and considering the observations of this authors and local residents we separated the uplift and subsidence information associated to the first earthquake Mw 8.1 and the second mega-earthquake Mw 9.5. We consider the elastic deformation propagation, assume realist lithosphere geometry, and compute a Bayesian method that maximizes the probability density a posteriori to obtain the slip distribution. Subsequently, we use a stochastic method of generation of strong motion considering the finite fault model obtained for both earthquakes. We considered the incidence angle of ray to the surface, free surface effect and energy partition for P, SV and SH waves, dynamic corner frequency and the influence of site effect. The results show that the earthquake Mw 8.1 occurred down-dip the slab, the strong motion records are similar to other Chilean earthquake like Tocopilla Mw 7.7 (2007). For the Mw 9.5 earthquake we obtain synthetic acceleration time histories with PGA values around 0.8 g in cities near to the maximum asperity or that have low velocity soil layers. This allows us to conclude that strong motion records have important influence of the shallow soil deposits. These records

  18. Quaternary Tectonic Tilting Governed by Rupture Segments Controls Surface Morphology and Drainage Evolution along the South-Central Coast of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtler, H. P.; Bookhagen, B.; Melnick, D.; Strecker, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Chilean coast represents one of the most active convergent margins in the Pacific rim, where major earthquakes (M>8) have repeatedly ruptured the surface, involving vertical offsets of several meters. Deformation along this coast takes place in large-scale, semi-independent seismotectonic segments with partially overlapping transient boundaries. They are possibly related to reactivated inherited crustal anisotropies; internal seismogenic deformation may be accommodated by structures that have developed during accretionary wedge evolution. Seismotectonic segmentation and the identification of large-scale rupture zones, however, are based on limited seismologic und geodetic observations over short timespans. In order to better define the long-term behavior and deformation rates of these segments and to survey the tectonic impact on the landscape on various temporal and spatial scales, we investigated the south-central coast of Chile (37-38S). There, two highly active, competing seismotectonic compartments influence the coastal and fluvial morphology. A rigorous analysis of the geomorphic features is a key for an assessment of the tectonic evolution during the Quaternary and beyond. We studied the N-S oriented Santa María Island (SMI), 20 km off the coast and only ~70km off the trench, in the transition between the two major Valdivia (46-37S) and Concepción (38-35S) rupture segments. The SMI has been tectonically deformed throughout the Quaternary and comprises two tilt domains with two topographic highs in the north and south that are being tilted eastward. The low-lying and flat eastern part of the island is characterized by a set of emergent Holocene strandlines related to coseismic uplift. We measured detailed surface morphology of these strandlines and E-W traversing ephemeral stream channels with a laser-total station and used these data to calibrate and validate high-resolution, digital imagery. In addition, crucial geomorphic markers were dated by the

  19. Los valores del urbanismo en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En el mes de junio de 2004 fue presentado al Senado de Chile un proyecto de ley destinado a modificar la Ley General de Urbanismo y Construcciones (LGUC, con el fin de adecuarla para permitir la formación y edificación de «áreas urbanas condicionadas» (AUC. Esto es, conjuntos residenciales urbanos, construidos fuera del límite urbano convencional. Unos, en áreas rurales ubicadas inmediatamente adyacentes al mismo, llamadas «áreas de extensión urbana condicionada» (AEUC, y otros, ubicados en áreas rurales segregadas, denominadas «áreas de desarrollo urbano condicionado» (ADUC.

  20. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  1. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or 4000

  2. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  3. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV from Peru and Chile Diversidade genética de vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV do Peru e Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ståhl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five BVDV strains, detected in serum from persistently infected cattle from Peru (n=15 and Chile (n=10 were genetically characterized. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 5' UTR showed that all 25 strains belonged to genotype 1. Twenty-three of the strains could further be subdivided into subtype 1b, and two out of ten Chilean strains into subtype 1a. In conclusion, in total 23 out of 25 strains analyzed were of genotype 1, subtype 1b. This is the predominant BVDV subtype in many countries all over the world, including USA. The close homology with previously described strains reflects the influence of livestock trade on the diversity of BVDV circulating within and between countries and continents. Peru and Chile have imported large numbers of cattle from USA and Europe, mostly with insufficient or lacking health documentation.Um total de 25 isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV, sendo 15 originarias do Peru e 10 do Chile foram sujeitas a caracterização genética. A árvore filogenética baseada na análise da região proximal não-codificante (5'UTR do genoma viral demonstrou que as 25 estirpes pertencem ao genótipo 1 do vírus BVD. Vinte e três destas estirpes puderam adicionalmente ser subdivididas no subtipo 1b, enquanto duas das 10 estirpes isolados provenientes do Chile foram identificadas como pertencentes ao subtipo 1a. Em conclusão, 23 de um total de 25 isolados analisados pertencem ao genótipo 1, subtipo 1b. Este é o subtipo de BVDV predominante em muitos países do mundo, incluindo os EUA. A elevada similaridade genética com isolados descritos anteriormente em outras regiões do mundo realça o papel do comércio internacional de gado no estabelecimento de diversidade genética do vírus BVD. Tanto o Peru como o Chile têm historia de importação de grandes quantidades de gado dos Estados Unidos e da Europa, no entanto sem suficiente documentação comprovativa do estado sanitário no que concerne a esta

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA DIABETES MELLITUS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP

    2016-03-01

    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  5. All projects related to Chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data ... Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, North and Central ... Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in Colombia ...

  6. Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile ... With this in mind, and following a conversation between Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  7. Discovering Chile's hidden water treasures – rock glaciers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... This means the research methods for investigating rock glaciers are ... group advising Chile's national environmental protection agency on ... Communities' perception of climate change risks in South America's Atlantic coasts.

  8. CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...

  9. Evictions and the Right to Housing: Experience from Canada, Chile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Experience from Canada, Chile, the Dominican Republic, South Africa, and South Korea ... all of whom are working to defend and advance the right to housing. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  10. All projects related to Chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Maipo River Basin in central Chile is home to six million people, most residing in the city of ... Program: Climate Change ... Program: Governance and Justice ... Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital Media.

  11. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  12. Bullfighting at Santiago de Chile during the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escardiel González Estévez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that in Chile there is no bullfighting and that people have forgotten it, bulls existed in this territory as in any other Spanish colony, with critical social implications. Although follow the Iberian trend, from ritual to a spectacle, some local factors made that bullfighting had special features in Chile, as is the case of the permanence of chivalrous bullfighting in the context of military training at the frontier with mapuche people.

  13. Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nanette Paz Liberona Concha; Miguel Angel Mansilla

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed ...

  14. Rio de Janeiro: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Students from Latin America were able to get hands-on experience in state-of-the-art physics instrumentation in this year's School on Instrumentation for High Energy Physics organized by the active Instrumentation Panel of ICFA (the International Committee for Future Accelerators) at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquicas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, in July

  15. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  16. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caris Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  17. Em foco: sustentabilidade Rio 2016, Agosto 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Neste endereço, é possível encontrar o primeiro relatório de sustentabilidade do Rio 2016, "Abraçando Mudanças", bem como o Plano de Gestão de Sustentabilidade, o Relatório de Gestão de Pegada de Carbono e o Relatório de Impacto dos Jogos.

  18. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos First "Training in Clinical Research Methodologies in Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Psychoeducational foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" is an academic project developed in Chile during 2008 to train health professionals in clinical research. The purpose of this initiative was to improve the quality of research projects that are submitted to apply for public funding. The aim of this article is to describe the psycho-educative theories that supported this training program, its structure, methods and evaluation. Firstly, the program is described in detail. Secondly, psycho-educative theories are described, with special emphasis of social learning theory and education for adults. Finally, implications of EMIC-Chile are stated, in order to improve future research training experiences in Chile. It is expected that this article enhance other research experts

  19. Carcinoma inflamatório mamário canino.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cristiano; Voll, Juliana; Ferreira, Kelly; Ferreira, Rafael Rodrigues; Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira de; Contesini, Emerson Antônio; Oliveira, Rosemari Teresinha de

    2006-01-01

    O carcinoma inflamatório mamário é um carcinoma anaplásico com características clínicas e histopatológicas como crescimento rápido, envolvimento difuso, eritema, calor e dor nas mamas, edema nos membros posteriores, extensa infiltração de células inflamatórias, células epiteliais malignas nos linfonodos regionais apresentando um péssimo prognóstico. O cão é a única espécie animal em que esta neoplasia ocorre espontaneamente, entretanto apresenta uma incidência bastante rara tanto em humanos q...

  20. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  1. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;; Montealegre Klenner, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban dev...

  2. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity; Chile detiene el aumento de la obesidad infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa [International Atomic Energy Agency, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure.

  3. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-01-01

    Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación d...

  4. Mortalidad por enfermedades respiratorias en Chile durante 1999 MORTALITY DUE TO RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CHILE-1999

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE SZOT M.

    2003-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio descriptivo que presenta características sobre la mortalidad por causas respiratorias (CR) en Chile durante 1999. Se muestra que las CR constituyen la tercera causa de muerte en el país. La "neumonía por agente no especificado" (NANE) es la primera causa aislada de muerte respiratoria en ambos sexos con un 64%, seguida de enfermedades respiratorias crónicas que originan un 30% de las defunciones. Por lo anterior se hace necesario prevenir la ocurrencia de la NANE, asegu...

  5. Perfil del paciente con tuberculosis que abandona el tratamiento en Chile: profile of patients in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES G, ZULEMA; HERRERA M, TANIA

    2015-01-01

    El abandono del tratamiento de la tuberculosis es uno de los factores más importantes que disminuyen la eficiencia de la terapia. Dentro de sus causas se observan factores relacionados con el paciente, con los fármacos y con el sistema de salud. En Chile, el porcentaje de abandono se ha mantenido en torno al 7%, a pesar de las distintas estrategias implementadas para su prevención. Este estudio corresponde al análisis de las auditorías que se realizan en los casos de abandono y busca definir ...

  6. CHILD MIGRATION: the rights to family reunification of peruvian children in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Pavez Soto

    2013-12-01

    certa forma, determinam a participação das crianças neste processo, pensando as crianças como sendo sujeitos de direitos e atores sociais. Além disso, este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para o debate que existe atualmente em torno do desenvolvimento de uma nova "política de imigração" no Chile. Recentemente, o governo do presidente Sebastian Piñera (2010-2014 apresentou um anteprojeto de Lei de Imigração e Nacionalidade ao Congresso para discussão e modificação. Vários instrumentos jurídicos internacionais ratificados pelo Estado chileno promovem e garantem o direito fundamental de crianças a viver com suas famílias. Tal é o caso da Convenção Internacional sobre a Proteção dos Direitos de Todos os Trabalhadores Migrantes e dos Membros de suas Famílias e da Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança. No entanto, dada a complexidade dos processos migratórios, ocasionalmente este direito é gravemente violado por políticas migratórias (seja por restrição ou omissão, por condições de emprego precárias e habitação de famílias de migrantes, e pelas decisões dos adultos dos grupos familiares, geralmente feitas sem a opinião das crianças. Famílias migrantes, inevitavelmente, passam por fragmentações, o que afeta as relações e laços geracionais. Muitas vezes as crianças não tem o controle dos acontecimentos e das decisões que vão mudar substancialmente suas vidas. palavras-chave: migração infantil, peru, chile, leis de proteção.

  7. Abiquiu Dam and Reservoir, Rio Grande Basin, Rio Chama, New Mexico. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    EMBANKMENT CRITERIA AND PERFORMANCE REPORT PERTINENT DATA 1. General Data. LOCATION: Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, on the Rio Chama at river mile 33. PURPOSE...is located across the Rio Chama, approximately 30 miles upstream from its confluence with the Rio Grande, in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. The dam is...6600- 4 i ’. 6600 65060- -60 6600- a + v6500s-go FA**v~w -6500 6300- 60 - ~ ~ ~ wo Ala filll------------------ EMBNKEN SECTION62 *LDN WOR SAFEL VAIE

  8. [Consumption of antidepressants in Chile from 1992 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirón, Marcela; Machado, Márcio; Ruiz, Inés

    2008-09-01

    Data from the Ministry of Health show that in Chile in 2004, 17% of the population had some form of depression, and mood disorders are the tenth cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) loss. To determine consumption of antidepressants (ADs) in Chile from 1992 to 2004. National sales data were obtained from the company IMS Health Chile and converted into defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Available ADs were classified in four pharmacological groups (i.e., serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, SNRLs; selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRLs; tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs; and others). Total economic burden of ADs utilization and cost per DDDs were also calculated. Trends over time were analyzed using Pearson-R2. Total ADs consumption in Chile measured by DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DHD) increased linearly (y =0.901x + 1.9129; R2 =0.9296; p economic burden of ADs in Chile (total cost of DDDs consumed) increased from US$65.4 million in 2001 to US$74.6 million in 2004 (14% increase). Average cost per DDD of all AD increased linearly, however not significantly from US$ 0.94 in 2001 to US$ 1.04 in 2004 (y =0.0362x + 0.8784; R2 =0.7382; p =0,262). DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day increased linearly over 470% from 1992-2004. SSRLs were the most commonly consumed drugs in Chile. Future research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in Chile, comparing the results with drug utilization, and determining if unnecessary expenditures have been paid out.

  9. A paisagem de rios urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Porath, Soraia Loechelt

    2004-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo Os rios têm sido uma presença constante na formação e crescimento das cidades. Desde os primórdios das civilizações, por uma questão de sobrevivência e utilidade, servem como fonte de recursos e meio de circulação. Porém, os rios urbanos são mal compreendidos. São entendidos como um limite ao crescimento das cidades, um obstáculo a ser transposto, e dest...

  10. Uma estimação Econométrica da taxa de câmbio do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Del Fiori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é modelar a taxa de câmbio do Chile, tendo por base dois modelos aplicados para a estimação da taxa de câmbio do Peru. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar qual dentre esses dois modelos aplicados para o caso do Peru é o mais adequado para o caso chileno, aplicando-se o critério de Akaike e o teste de Wald. Foi estimada uma relação de longo prazo (cointegração entre as variáveis do modelo. Assim, foi encontrada uma relação de longo prazo entre a taxa de câmbio e a taxa de juros e o risco-país para o caso chileno.

  11. Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.

  12. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  13. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  14. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  15. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  16. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  17. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  19. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  20. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. Virtual Borders Between Chile and Its Neighbors: Argentina, Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Estadísticas, “ Inmigrantes en Chile ”, Santiago Census, 2002 20 ...Studies and Research Center, 1998), 13 22 Military Studies and Research Center, Chile en la Region. CESIM. 2001; available from <http...Estatuto de Inversiones Extranjeras en Chile ”, ( Santiago: 1974), Capitulo I,19 35 The International Center for Adjustment of Disputes of Investment

  2. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  3. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  4. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient

  5. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  6. Chile y los Desafíos Globales de Seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Griffiths Spielman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende abordar el tema "Chile y los desafíos globales de seguridad", asumiendo a modo de propuesta una noción de seguridad relativa a todo fenómeno violento e intencional, que como producto de su actuación provoca mortalidad, y ello desde la perspectiva de un país pequeño, tal y como Chile, si bien notablemente interconectado a nivel global. En consecuencia, Chile debería asumir un efecto potencialmente mayor de las principales amenazas globales. En síntesis, se expresa que en el actual escenario de seguridad, la lejanía geográfica de los fenómenos ya no es necesariamente un factor que prevenga los efectos de dichas amenazas sobre la seguridad de un Estado.

  7. [Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Nanette Liberona; Mansilla, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services - particularly the public health system - at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.

  8. Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Paz Liberona Concha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.

  9. O RIO CAPITAL IMAGINADO PELA CRÍTICA CINEMATOGRÁFICA: os casos de Rio Fantasia e Rio, 40 graus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Altmann

    Full Text Available No artigo, busca-se verificar como o Rio de Janeiro, “cidade-capital”, foi imaginado por críticos cinematográficos brasileiros. Por meio de críticas aos filmes Rio fantasia (1957, de Watson Macedo, e Rio, 40 graus (1955, de Nelson Pereira dos Santos, pretende-se entender como a então Capital Federal foi descrita e legitimada por agentes que formam julgamentos, quiçá, para a posteridade.

  10. Las viviendas de la colonización alemana en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Tilleria González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La ocupación efectiva del territorio austral chileno se produjo en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Para su ejecución fueron claves las medidas dictadas por el Estado a través del denominado “proyecto de colonización”, que favoreció la llegada de inmigrantes procedentes de Europa durante un periodo de grandes flujos migratorios hacia el continente americano. La ciudad de Valdivia fue el punto de partida de este proyecto. En 1845 desembarcan los  pobladores procedentes de los territorios de la Confederación Alemana. En esta ciudad se producen los primeros intercambios culturales entre la población local y la extranjera, en un “laboratorio constructivo” que estableció las bases de la arquitectura de la colonización y determinó la formación de la vivienda tradicional del sur del país. Mediante un estudio histórico y constructivo hemos identificado los invariantes arquitectónicos generados en este periodo de la colonización. Hemos comprobado su permanencia en distintos ejemplos de viviendas tradicionales localizadas, entre las ciudades de Valdivia y Puerto Montt, a lo largo del territorio que fue ocupado entre 1845 y 1875 con esta población alemana.

  11. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  12. Capsaicinoides en chiles nativos de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Morán-Bañuelos, S. Hirán; Aguilar-Rincón, V. Heber; Corona-Torres, Tarsicio; Castillo-González, Fernando; Soto-Hernández, R. Marcos; San Miguel-Chávez, Rubén

    2008-01-01

    Los recursos genéticos del chile (Capsicum spp.) son importantes por ser la fuente natural de capsaicinoides que confieren el sabor picante a los frutos. Los reportes sobre la amplitud de esta característica en los chiles nativos cultivados por agricultores tradicionales en México son escasos. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y cuantificar los capsaicinoides predominantes en 22 poblaciones recolectadas en nueve municipios de Puebla, México, mediante la extracción de...

  13. Intelectuais e política no Chile: Apontamentos sobre a revista Aurora de Chile (1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia M.C. Melo

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é o de examinar a revista Aurora de Chile que circula em Santiago entre 1938-1940. Criada por Pablo Neruda esta publicação apresentou-se como um importante órgão de comunicação da Alianza de Intelectuales de Chile para la Defensa de la Cultura (AICH, entidade fundada em articulação com outras organizações internacionais de intelectuais e com orientação da Comintern. A revista situou-se nos debates políticos e culturais desses anos no Chile e atuou vigorosamente na defesa dos princípios da democracia, das liberdades públicas e contra o fascismo. Neste estudo busco demonstrar o papel desta revista como uma das vozes da perspectiva frentista que passou a orientar o Partido Comunista Chileno no período.

  14. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  15. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  16. As guerras frias do Cone Sul: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Uruguai (1945-1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Bohoslavsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra como alguns jornais e partidos políticos liberal- -progressistas (no governo ou na oposição processaram os eventos vinculados ao final da segunda guerra mundial e o começo da guerra fria na Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Uruguai. Tenta-se sinalar que esses atores aproveitaram alguns elementos ideológicos transnacionais (como o antifascismo ou o anticomunismo para interpretar a realidade política local, para consolidar certa autoimagem nacional e para descrever aos seus adversários políticos. A diversidade de representações do inimigo que tiveram os grupos liberais dos quatro países entre 1945 e 1952 foi gerada por, ao menos, três variáveis: a a posição do governo e os principais atores políticos frente à guerra (neutralidade x participação; proliados x pro-Eixo, b a natureza do regime político vigente (democracia x ditadura;c as tradições ideológicas presentes durante os anos do conflito bélico e seu poder político e eleitoral.

  17. Santiago de Chile de cara a la globalización: ?(spanishotra ciudad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Carlos A. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe-se a identificar e caracterizar a "outra cidade" resultante das transformações que afetaram a área metropolitana de Santiago do Chile em função da assunção, a partir de meados de 1975, de uma nova estratégia macroeconômica, onde tanto uma crescente liberalização econômica, como uma ampla abertura externa, favoreceram a progressiva globalização da economia nacional. Nesse contexto, observa-se como junto a importantes modificações na base econômica metropolitana começou a processar-se na grande Santiago uma radical reestruturação de seu mercado de trabalho e uma maior dispersão territorial das atividades produtivas e da população. Nesse novo cenário, analisa-se como as transformações que afetaram a cidade emergente incidiram na afirmação, de um lado, de uma morfologia social donde persiste a polarização social e a segregação residencial e, de outra, de uma morfologia territorial onde impera a periurbanização e a policentralidade, transformações essas que correspondem às tendências que atualmente se observam nas grandes áreas metropolitanas tanto dos países centrais como das economias emergentes.

  18. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  19. Evaluación de los efectos agudos en la función pulmonar por exposición a material particulado fino (MP 2.5) en niños que viven próximos a una playa contaminada con relaciones mineros, Chañaral, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres Lillo, Dante Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Producto de la gran actividad minera de la III Región de Atacama en el norte de Chile se vertieron al curso del rio El Salado millones de toneladas de relaves (con alto contenido de metales) sin tratamiento al curso del Rio Salado, los que fueron a dar a la bahía de la ciudad de Chañaral formando una extensa playa artificial. Estos relaves han producido un marcado efecto deletéreo sobre la flora y fauna marina del sector y en la calidad de vida de las poblaciones que...

  20. Evaluación de los efectos agudos en la función pulmonar por exposición a material particulado fino (MP 2.5) en niños que viven próximos a una playa masivamente contaminada con relaves mineros, Chañaral, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres Lillo, Dante Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Producto de la gran actividad minera de la III Región de Atacama en el norte de Chile se vertieron al curso del rio El Salado millones de toneladas de relaves (con alto contenido de metales) sin tratamiento al curso del Rio Salado, los que fueron a dar a la bahía de la ciudad de Chañaral formando una extensa playa artificial. Estos relaves han producido un marcado efecto deletéreo sobre la flora y fauna marina del sector y en la calidad de vida de las poblaciones que viven adyac...

  1. [Fertility Survey, Metropolitana region, Chile 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A fertility study was carried out by the Chilean Association for Protection of the Family (APROFA) in metropolitan Chile in 1989 to update data from the most recent fertility study in 1974. A random and self-weighted sample of 600 women aged 15-44 in 32 urban communes of the metropolitan region were interviewed in November 1989. 55% were married or in stable consensual unions, 39.1% were single, and 5.9% were separated, divorced, or widowed. 24.1% had primary educations, 15.5% had some form of higher education, and .2% were illiterate. 64.2% of the women had children, of whom 63.8% had 1 or 2. Only 2.1% had 6 or more children. 46.2% felt that the ideal family size was 1-2 children and 30.7% that it was 3 children. 40.4% of women with children wanted another child and 59.6% did not. 25.1% of the sample had never had sexual relations, 7.3% had not had sexual relations in the 12 months prior to the interview, and the remaining 67.6% were sexually active. At the time of the survey 6.1% were pregnant and 11.1% had had a birth in the preceding 12 months. 28.3% of these pregnancies were considered unwanted, usually for economic reasons or because the family was considered complete. 55.6% of the sample reported using contraceptives. 48.6% used IUDs, 26.0% used oral contraceptives, 6.9% periodic abstinence methods, and 1.8% barrier methods. Only 7.5% of women aged 15-19 used contraception. Rates of use stabilized after age 25 at about 72%. 80.9% of women married or in union used a method, as did 20.2% of single and 59.3% of separated or divorced women. The data for the survey are still under analysis and all statistics are provisional.

  2. 76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application December 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application under section 3(b)(2) and 45(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Rio Tinto plc (``RTP'') and Rio Tinto...

  3. O golpe no Chile e a política internacional (1973: ensaio de interpretação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Ávila

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo explora as repercussões internacionais do golpe de Estado no Chile, em 11 de setembro de 1973, que resultou na morte do Presidente Salvador Allende, na imposição de um regime burocrático-autoritário e no encerramento da democracia representativa naquele país. Metodologicamente, trata-se de pesquisa de história política. Na redação, adota-se o formato de ensaio de interpretação. Nesse sentido, foi realizada pesquisa em documentação primária consultada no Arquivo Histórico do Ministério das Relações Exteriores - doravante AHMRE. Também foi consultada literatura especializada no assunto, publicada recentemente no Brasil e no exterior. Concluiu-se que o golpe chileno foi um dos acontecimentos mais dramáticos na história das relações internacionais da América Latina.

  4. Evictions and the Right to Housing: Experience from Canada, Chile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book tells the story of evictions and planned evictions in the Canadian cities of Vancouver, Toronto, and Calgary. It explores the housing plight of Santiago de Chile's urban poor during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. It looks at how the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in America resulted in mass ...

  5. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  6. All projects related to chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is affecting the daily lives of millions. ... Impact of Prices and Taxes on Tobacco Product Use in Argentina,Bolivia,and Chile. Project.

  7. [Brucellosis in Chile: Description of a series of 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Roberto; Vidal, Pamela; Sotomayor, Camila; Norambuena, Mackarenna; Luppi, Mario; Silva, Francisco; Cifuentes, Marcela

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. It may be acquired by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis has a low incidence in Chile, thus, we have a scarce data. To report and to characterize the first series of clinical cases of adult patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Chile. We describe a series of 13 clinical cases in patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 in three different centers in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, laboratory, antibiotic treatment, morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50 years old. Eight cases had a record of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The most frequently reported complaints were fever. The most frequent focal point involved was the spine. Only one patient had a positive blood culture, while the diagnosis was made using serological techniques in the other part of the group. The most indicated antibiotic regimens were doxycycline-rifampicin and doxycycline-gentamicin. The hospital stay was 20 days approximately as an average. Clinical cure was achieved in all cases. Brucellosis is an infrequent zoonosis in Chile, and it produces a nonspecific clinical picture, so it is necessary to have high suspicion to make the diagnosis based in the antecedent of consumption of unpasteurized dairy or raw meat.

  8. Dynamics of Investment for Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Lensink, R.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data from a survey conducted in 2006 and 2008 of 177 market-oriented farmers in central Chile, we investigate investment under imperfect capital markets. Specifically we determine the impact of formal credit constraints on fixed investment. By controlling for endogeneity problems, we

  9. Integrated geophysical characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Nealy, Jennifer L.; Yeck, William L.; Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone offshore of Illapel, Chile, generating an aftershock sequence with 14 Mw 6.0–7.0 events. A double source W phase moment tensor inversion consists of a Mw 7.2 subevent and the main Mw 8.2 phase. We determine two slip models for

  10. La prensa satírica de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Refiere el autor sobre la revista más vendida de Chile y convertida en el referente obligado de la prensa alternativa en Latinoamérica. De humor descarnado, irreverente, de marcado rechazo a la Dictadura militar de Pinochet y en la búsqueda constante por revelar las contradicciones de la sociedad chilena.

  11. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  12. Chile : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional. Région: Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Programme: Initiative Think tank. Financement total : CA$ 250,000.00.

  13. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  14. The histories and destinies of Chile and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    In Strangers on Familiar Soil, Edward Dallam Melillo shows how Californians and Chileans each have one foot on their land and the other connecting them through the Pacific Ocean. Melillo reframes our understanding of US history in the west and links the histories and destinies of Chile and California from 1786 to the current day. Contrary to popular belief, Melillo...

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  16. All projects related to chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-11

    The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Project. Alcohol consumption in the Americas comes at a considerable cost. End Date: July 11, 2017. Topic: SURVEYS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, ...

  17. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique kn...

  18. Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

  19. El Caso del Dinero Desaparecido Chile 1984-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Larraín; Aníbal Larraín

    1988-01-01

    Between the third quarter of 1984 and the second one of 1986, Chile's real money balances (seasonally adjusted, real MI) decreased by 11%. In the same period, Gross Domestic Product grew by 12.3% and the effective short-term interest rate systematically d

  20. All projects related to chile | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Latin American Schoolnets (REDAL) network and the Latin American Education Portals Network (RELPE) have made a substantive contribution to ... The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, ...

  1. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  2. Cooperating to compete : associative peasant business firms in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdegué Sacristán, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990 the government of Chile has carried out a major effort to support the participation of small scale agriculture in one of the most liberalized and competitive economies of the developing world. In particular, the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), and agency of the Ministry of

  3. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave , SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Chileno por Crímenes de ‘Caravana de la Muerte ’,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, October 15, 2008. 64 “Chile Arrests 25 Ex-Military On Rights Abuse

  4. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  5. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli

    2010-01-01

    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  6. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  7. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  8. Evolution in Freedom? The Meanings of "Free School" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leihy, Peodair; Martini, Héctor Arancibia; Armijo, Pablo Castillo; Fernandez, José Saldaña

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the background in which enterprises called free schools, as well as complementary educational activities, have taken root in Chile. Two kinds of recently burgeoning free schools are identified; one supplementing regular schooling with a social justice focus, and another that is a fully fledged alternative to other schooling.…

  9. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  10. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  11. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  12. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Branqueamento dentário

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Liliana Raquel Rêgo

    2016-01-01

    A estética dentária tem recebido bastante enfoque nos últimos anos, particularmente devido à importância a que a população atribui à aparência estética do sorriso. É, assim, desejado um sorriso o mais branco possível e que de preferência seja fácil de obter, eficaz, rápido, económico e que seja o menos invasivo possível. No entanto, muitos pacientes apresentam frequentemente dentes com cor alterada, comprometendo desta forma a estética do sorriso. O branqueamento dentário é uma técnica não in...

  14. Rio sambas to research drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatern, R. von

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps the most published graphic in the oil industry is one that traces the price of oil through time. It is used as an overlay to correlate everything from the history of rig activity levels to predicting coming oil shortages and gluts. In Rio de Janeiro this month during the 17th World Petroleum Congress, Dr Don Paul of ChevronTexaco and Saudi Aramco's Abdulaziz Al-Kaabi used it to illustrate the role research and technology development must play within the oil industry. The author discusses the way the oil industry is spending money on research and development, he explains that in the past 20 years the biggest innovation in the industry has been 3D seismic. The critical strategy for oil business was the adaptation of 3D seismic from another industry which was then moulded for its own needs. The article goes on to describe the importance of the development of a portfolio of research and development

  15. Worthy Women of Chile: What Role Did They Play? Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1995 (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Ruth A.

    This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…

  16. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  17. Blog literário: alguns comentários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamir Aquino Corrêa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n1p420 Se o conceito de literatura é marcado por discussões e reformulações ao longo da história, parece-nos importante partir da ideia que “as escritas de si” presentes na pós-modernidade apontam para a revisão de algumas noções a respeito do ficcional e da literariedade presentes em textos que são veiculados na internet, especificamente o blog. A escrita de autoria feminina, tradicional espaço de expressão subjetiva recolhida muitas vezes apenas em diários íntimos, encontrou na internet um meio para fazer ecoar vozes antes silenciadas devido à condição da mulher na sociedade e, portanto, também terá destaque dentre os assuntos aqui discutidos, ao lado de reflexões sobre a canonicidade de textos e da configuração do blog como espaço de autorreferencialidade e de publicidade da escrita literária.

  18. Factores determinantes de la esperanza de vida en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planck Barahona-Urbina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En las últimas décadas, Chile ha experimentado un fuerte crecimiento económico, lo que ha permitido mejorar las condiciones de vida de los ciudadanos. Objetivos: Determinar los factores asociados a la esperanza de vida en Chile. Diseño: Análisis econométrico. Lugar: Chile. Intervenciones: Aplicación del modelo de regresión múltiple con series temporales para el análisis de la esperanza de vida en Chile. Se utilizó datos de naturaleza agregada del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE y el Banco Central de Chile para el período comprendido entre 1988 y 2008. Se utilizó como variable dependiente la esperanza de vida en años y, como variables explicativas, el PIB per cápita, número de médicos, número de enfermeras y gasto público en salud. Principales medidas de resultados: Factores asociados a la esperanza de vida. Resultados: Luego del análisis, los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que el ingreso per cápita, el número de médicos, número de enfermeras y el gasto en salud resultaron ser estadísticamente significativos, es decir, tienen un efecto positivo sobre la esperanza de vida de las personas. Conclusiones: A la luz de los resultados podría argumentarse lo beneficioso que puede resultar en términos cuantitativos un aumento del PIB per cápita a la hora de conseguir una mayor esperanza de vida de las personas. Igualmente, los resultados sugieren el efecto positivo que produce un incremento del número de personal médico en el país dado, pues esta variable ha permitido satisfacer la demanda sanitaria cada vez más creciente de la población. El aumento del presupuesto social en salud ha sido una variable que ha tenido un resultado positivo a la hora de valorar su efecto en la mejora de las condiciones de vida en Chile.

  19. Vnější ekonomické vztahy Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Práce se zabývá vnějšími ekonomickými vztahy Chile. V první části je charakterizována ekonomika Chile. V druhé části je zmapován vývoj obchodní politiky Chile a zapojování Chile do ekonomické integrace. Poslední kapitola nejprve analyzuje vývoj obchodu Chile, ilustruje problém jednostranného zaměření chilského exportu a analyzuje obchodní vztahy s EU, USA a Čínou. Následně jsou naznačeny nové ?role? Chile ve vztahu ke světovému obchodu.

  20. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Pena, H.; Grilli, A.; Pollastri, A.; Fuenzalida, H.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A three years isotope data on precipitation collected in northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with depleted δ 18 and -150/00 observed at high altitude stations, compared to δ 18 0 values ranging between - 10 and -6/00 measured at the lower altitude areas. The depleted δ 0 values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to different processes that affect the air masses as moved from the Atlantic, crossed the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated to air masses from the Pacific, explained the enriched isotopic values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic pattern, documented in springs and groundwater, indicates that the rain data presented in this paper is an accurate representation of the long term behavior of the isotopic composition of the rain in northern Chile

  1. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  2. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Gras, N.; Guzman, G.; Pereira, I.

    1999-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  3. Seeking a preferential option for the rural poor in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Dew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From colonial times well into the twentieth century (and, unfortunately, even beyond the man/land relationship in Latin America has been markedly unjust. Small numbers of families have owned large tracts of the best land, while large numbers of poor families have struggled with tiny plots of marginal land or labored on the estates of the rich. Chile was no exception to this pattern. Thus, its experiment with land reform in the 1960s and 1970s, the setback of reform under the military in the 1970s and 1980s, and the resumption of reform under democrats in the 1990s, may provide lessons for the rest of Latin America. Is a preferential option for the rural poor still possible in a neoliberal economic system? In Chile, the answer is a qualified “yes”

  4. [Breast feeding in Chile, past and present (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, F

    1979-08-01

    Breastfeeding practices have greatly diminished in all industrialized countries in the past 30 years; only now breastfeeding is enjoying a revival, especially among better educated people, as data gathered in Sweden and in the U.S. show. In Chile, as in most underdeveloped countries, the practice of breastfeeding began declining in urban, then in rural areas, reaching the largest decline in 1930. Modernization and all the factors connected with it, and especially urbanization, are accountable for this change. To encourage breastfeeding in Chile several recommendations are possible, among which is the education of parents on the advantages of breastfeeding. Mass media and all communication channels should be used; 2) better alimentation, when necessary at government expenses, for pregnant and nursing mothers; 3) legislation regulating the advertisement and distribution of infant formulas; 4) information on the possible effects of oral contraception on lactation; and 5) new social legislation protecting pregnant and nursing mothers.

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  6. niño lector en Chile (1860-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara-Maria Parra-Triana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone establecer las coordenadas para el estudio de la formación del niño lector en Chile a partir del análisis de las publicaciones periódicas comprendidas entre 1860 y 1960, periodo conocido como el del Estado Liberal hasta los tiempos de la Reforma y Revolución. Se revisan algunas fuentes bibliográficas básicas para la comprensión de la problemática lectora en el Chile moderno junto con la consideración de ciertas herramientas teórico-conceptuales que ayudarían al estudio de un corpus ejemplificado con tres publicaciones periódicas de tres diferentes momentos, que muestran el proceso de modernización de las prácticas lectoras que dan paso al ejercicio de la lectura como actividad de entretenimiento.

  7. Replantear los "aconteceres", replantear los espacios en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Onetto Pavez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar y profundizar sobre las perspectivas teóricas que se tuvieron en cuenta por el grupo de autores para crear el dossier “Memorias y circulaciones de un territorio. Chile, estudio de casos”. La primera parte del artículo abordará las diversas aristas que se intentaron considerar por el grupo de autores en relación al tema del espacio, la historia y la memoria. Con esto se pretende explicar de manera global lo relevante de esta corresponden-cia para los sujetos de estudio analizados en el dossier. En tanto, la segunda parte se centrará en presentar las inquietudes y preguntas que surgen al estudiar un caso como el de Chile.

  8. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M F

    1977-01-01

    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  9. Severe mortality impact of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city...... with high baseline mortality (R2=41.8%; P=0.02), but not with latitude (P>0.7). Excess mortality rates increased sharply with age. Transmissibility declined from R=1.4-2.1 to R=1.2-1.4 between the two pandemic waves. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated A/H2N2 mortality burden in Chile is the highest on record...... for this pandemic - about 3-5 times as severe as that experienced in wealthier nations. The global impact of this pandemic may be substantially underestimated from previous studies based on high-income countries....

  10. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.

  11. Simbolic boundaries and middle classes. Social mobility in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayarí Castillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than three decades of the implementation of the policies of structural adjustment in Chile, the middle classes increased their weight in the social structure and changed their economic sector, occupation and trajectories of social mobility. This article analyzes the perceptionof symbolic boundaries, which emerging of these macro-processes and shapes the subjectivity of middle class subjects into upward mobility processes and modifies their perceptions of inequality. Whit this objective the paper presents a qualitative analysis of cases in which discursive components like meritocracy, the effort and the idea of “barriers/obstacles” became a key discursive axis. This article is inscribed within the recent studies on middle classes for the Chilean case, which focus specially on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality in Chile.

  12. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Azevedo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la satisfación usuaria. Se analizan los principales dilemas del sistema de salud y las perspectivas de solución a la luz de las principales medidas tomadas en el presente. Hay buenas perpectivas de que el subsistema público mantenga su liderazgo histórico en la conducción y oferta de servicios en Chile debido a la rigurosa lógica geográfica y demográfica en la oferta de servicios, la disponibilidad estable de recursos financieros, una red de servicios suficiente y además, la considerable motivación de sus recursos humanos. Son mencionados aspectos innovadores que pueden ser útiles a otros sistemas, especialmente en América Latina, tales como: organización y gestión de servicios regionales de salud; metodologías innovadoras de pago de servicios; sistema de vigilancia sanitaria y la regulamentación estatal del financiamento privado en salud.Realiza-se breve análise histórica do sistema de saúde no Chile, a partir do Serviço Nacional de Saúde, com ênfase nas reformas ocorridas desde 1980,durante o regime militar, e as mudanças introduzidas a partir de 1990 pelos governos democráticos. Compara a oferta atual de serviços pelo sistema público com a do setor privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiários: a taxa de consultas, de exames de laboratório, de hospitalização, de altas e de cirurgias e a satisfação dos usuários. Analisa os principais dilemas do sistema de saúde e suas perspectivas à luz das medidas

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of Corral Bay, south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Fleming, Hernan; P, Adalberto J Asencio; Gutierrez, Elena

    2004-03-01

    PAHs were measured in sediments and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from Carboneros and Puerto Claro, located in Corral Bay, Valdivia. According to the ratio of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene concentrations, these sites are medium polluted with PAHs originating mainly from pyrolytic sources. Fluoranthene was the major component measured in mussels (3.1-390 ng g(-1) dry weight) and sediments (6.9-74.1 ng g(-1) dry weight). In general, mussels were mainly exposed to the dissolved fraction of the lower molecular weight PAHs (tri- and tetra-aromatics) while the higher molecular ring systems (penta- and hexa-aromatics) were more bioavailable to sediments. Mussel PAHs content was relatively constant, with the exception of the 1999 summer season (March), when higher concentration values were found in both sites; however, PAHs residues in sediments showed a temporal variation.

  14. La Medicina Mapuche en la cultura neoliberal de Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    La Medicina Mapuche en la cultura neoliberal de Chile La medicina mapuche juega, junto con la religion mapuche, un papel importante para muchos chilenos, tanto como una expresión de los raíces de la cultura chilena, y como símbolo de una visión del mundo mágico. Para los mapuches, los ‘machis’ son...

  15. Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena C, R; Pollastri J, A.; Suzuki S, O.

    1984-01-01

    One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

  16. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-29

    Es - cuelas del Area Norte respecto a sus, res,,onsabilidades en este programa: 1. Asegurar que lob escolares escri- ban en su libreta de comuiiic~cio...vaccination between May 3 and June 18, 1982. -25- REFERENCES 1. Departamento Planificacion Estadistica, Mjnisterio de Salud, Santiago Chile. 2. Ristori...nifios escolares en el ’area norte de Santiago. Como es de su conocimiento esta exp~eriencia debAi.ser postergada, porque este Ministerio esti-m6

  17. [The construction of life profiles by social class in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C

    1989-11-01

    The author develops a series of life profiles for men and women living in the Greater Santiago area of Chile over the past 25 years. These profiles, which are based on the concept of life expectancy at birth, illustrate the length of time individuals take to go through such life cycle stages as education, employment, unemployment, and retirement. The concept is used to analyze changes in the life profile over time and how these differ by class. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  18. The Political Economy of Productivity: The Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Navia; Nicolás Eyzaguirre; Jocelyn Olivari; Ignacio Briones; José Miguel Benavente; Cristóbal Aninat

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political economy of productivity-related policymaking in Chile following a political transaction cost model (Spiller and Tommasi, 2003; Murillo et al., 2008). The main findings indicate that i) the Chilean policymaking process (PMP) was successful in the 1990s in implementing productivityenhancing policies, but as the country moved to a higher stage of development, the PMP grew less adept at generating the more complex set of policies needed to increase productivity a...

  19. Unusual Bloom of Tetraselmis sp. in the Valparaiso Bay, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    de Valparaíso, Centro de Investigación y Gestión de los Recursos Naturales , Facultad de Ciencias , Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile. 2University...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 31-05-2013 Journal Article Unusual Bloom of Tetraselmis sp. in the Valparasiso Bay...Invited speaker Classification X U c (X I Journal article (refereed) ( I Oral Presentation, published Journal article (not refereed) Oral Presentation

  20. Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile présente les résultats de cette étude. Les lecteurs y trouveront une analyse détaillée des politiques sur les sciences et la technologie du Chili qui part du « système d'innovation national ». On y propose des moyens d'améliorer la coordination du secteur public, des réformes ...

  1. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1994-10-01

    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy.

  2. School Climate Coordinators in Chile: Understanding their Labor Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Jaime; Ahumada, Iván; Rubilar, Andrea; López, Verónica; Urbina, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Addressing school climate and violence in schools requires school management skills. The 2011 School Violence Act in Chile promulgated the mandatory creation of the school climate coordinator (SCC). However, the law did not establish a defined profile, specific functions, or working hours for the SCC, and only recently have school administrators given SCCs more time for this position. This has created a flexible operating framework for the position, which could have implications in terms of t...

  3. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-12

    American States, see: CRS Report RS22095, Organization of American States: A Primer, by Clare Ribando Seelke. 16 “Mantiene Piñera Liderazgo en ...terrorist organizations like the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Basque Homeland and Freedom (ETA) in Spain. The government insists...Chile: Country Report,” Economist Intelligence Unit, December 2008. 32 Eva Vergara, “Bachelet Crea Comisión para Enfrenter Desempleo por Crisis

  4. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  5. Current situation of women in the workplace in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cábová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis examines the problem of the situation of women in the workplace in Chile. The thesis is divided into three parts, while each parts gradually analyses the problem of gender inequalities. Firstly, the thesis presents the overall information about the general problem of gender inequalities. It introduces the basic fragments of the issue together with the basic terminology. Secondly, a major focus is put on the Chilean regions, as it analyses gender differences of the regions ...

  6. Asymbiotic germination in three Chloraea species (Orchidaceae) from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, GUILLERMO; ALBORNOZ, VERÓNICA; ROMERO, CHRISTIAN; LARA, SEBASTIÁN; SÁNCHEZ-OLATE, MANUEL; RÍOS, DARCY; ATALA, CRISTIAN

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Orchids require symbiotic fungi and/or specific conditions to germinate. Asymbiotic techniques have been shown successful for orchid germination. In Chile, Chloraea include many endemic, and potentially ornamental, terrestrial orchid species. In this study, individuals of Chloraea crispa, C. gavilu and C. virescens were manually autopollinated. The resulting capsules were sterilized and seeds were aseptically obtained. We evaluated asymbiotic germination in: Agar Water (AW), Knudson ...

  7. Overcoming Fear of Floating: Exchange Rate Policies in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jose De Gregorio; Andrea Tokman R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the exchange rate management experience in Chile, with particular emphasis on the floating exchange rate regime and its two forex intervention episodes. It presents evidence on Chile’s favorable conditions to face exchange rate shocks: a well-developed financial sector, that offers hedging opportunities taken up by the corporate sector to decrease its vulnerability through balance sheet effects; and a low and decreasing level of passthrough from the exchange rate to prices. ...

  8. Franchising of infrastructure concessions in Chile: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2000-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the present state of the Chilean infrastructure concessions program. This program is leading to a complete upgrade of Chile's highway system and has been recently extended to seaports. The main principles underlying the economics of franchising are examined and used to evaluate the programof privatizations of highways and seaports. Compared with experiences in other countries, theresults are fairly good. The infrastructure deficit has been greatly reduced, ...

  9. Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4.

  10. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Z??iga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world?s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ...

  11. Water Services in Chile : Comparing Private and Public Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bitrán, Gabriel A.; Valenzuela, Eduardo P.

    2003-01-01

    In 1988, Chile put in place a new regulatory regime for water and sanitation, allowing rates to reflect the actual cost of providing services. The government then reorganized the sector under 13 state-owned regional water companies and, in 1998, started to partially privatize some of them. Four years after the first sale, it is now possible to assess the early results of privatization. Thi...

  12. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    RN) and the rightist Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente , UDI). A third coalition, the “Broad Party of the Socialist Left...independents and members of the Regionalist Party of Independents (Partido Regionalista de los Independientes , PRI), who are unaffiliated with either of the...Wilde, “Piñera Won. Will he uphold Chile’s post -Pinochet moral legacy?” Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 2010. Chile: Political and Economic

  13. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nem sempre os temas candentes da investigação, numa determinada área do conhecimento, são colocados de maneira orgânica e organizada para o conjunto dos pesquisadores que sobre eles se debruçam. Quase nunca as edições cientí­cas, que se propõem a torná-los acessí­veis a seus leitores, conseguem harmonizá-los sem correr os riscos de aproximações indevidas. A única forma de não incorrer em equí­vocos perigosos é assumir a idiossincrasia do temário diversificado que constitui o campo em questão. O leitor que ora inicia seu diálogo com este sétimo número de Galáxia não deve tomar esse preâmbulo por alerta, mas sim como tentativa de a revista manter a coerência face a seu compromisso de ser porta-voz dos temas e problemas da comunicação e da cultura pelo prisma das teorias semióticas que orientam o olhar dos vários colaboradores que encontram neste espaço uma tribuna aberta ao trânsito das diferenças. Basta um relance pelo sumário desta edição para que tal armação possa ser confirmada. Os textos que constituem o Fórum, respeitadas as singularidades, tratam de temas que são caros para as abordagens da comunicação e da semiótica na cultura. Temos o privilégio de publicar o texto inédito em português de Jakob von Uexküll em que o autor apresenta sua teoria da Umwelt, caracterizando formulações da biossemiótica sobre o signi.cado do entorno ou do espaço circundante, que são valiosas para compreender a percepção, a interação, o contexto, a informação, os códigos em ambientes de semiose. De um outro lugar - aquele modulado pela lógica da linguagem - Lucrécia Ferrara perscruta o campo conceitual que entende o design não pelo viés da operatividade, mas como processo semiótico-cognitivo. A outra ponta deste que pode ser um triálogo nos é dado pela comunicologia de Vilém Flusser. Para Michael Hanke, Flusser foi um dos grandes teóricos a investigar a importância da mí­dia para os

  14. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-05-12

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile.

  15. Obchodní a kulturní zvláštnosti Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Štieglerová, Renata

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to analyse business and cultural particularities of Chile. The thesis is divided into three chapters. First chapter talks about general characteristics of Chile, which include economical, political and administrative facts, history of Chile and geographical conditions. Second chapter outlines cultural aspects such as structure of population, language and Chilean cuisine. Last chapter deals with business particularities of Chilean businessmen. A part of this ...

  16. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2014-01-01

    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  17. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.

  18. [Teenage fecundity rates in Chile: a serious public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra

    2007-01-01

    Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.

  19. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  20. Seroepidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Chile Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Contreras

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of already published and unpublished seroepidemiological surveys for toxoplasmosis, carried out in Chile in 1982-1994, is reviewed, expanded and analyzed. The surveys included 76,317 apparently healthy individuals of different ages (0.57% of the country's total population, from 309 urban and rural-periurban localities. Urban groups were integrated by blood donors, delivering mothers and middle grade schoolchildren, while rural-periurban individuals corresponded to unselected family groups. Blood samples were collected in filter paper. The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, titers > 16 were considered positive. The test resulted positive in 28,124 (36.9% of the surveyed people. Two hundred and six (0.3% individuals presented IHAT titers > 1000, probably corresponding to acute or reactivated infections. A progressive increase of positive IHAT from northern to southern regions of the country was noted, phenomenom probably related to geographical conditions and to a higher production and consumption of different types of meat in the latter regions. It is postulated that ingestion of T. gondii cysts by humans is epidemiologically as important as ingestion of oocysts. The results presented stress the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in humans, and warn about eventual implications in immunocompromised patients and in transplacental transmission, organ transplants and transfusions.En este trabajo se revisa, se amplía y se analiza en conjunto una serie de encuestas seroepidemiológicas sobre toxoplasmosis efectuadas en Chile entre 1982 y 1994, utilizando la reacción de hemaglutinación indirecta (RHAI. El estudio incluyó 76.317 personas aparentemente sanas de diferentes edades (0,57% de la problación total del país, procedentes de 309 localidades urbanas y rural-periurbanas. Los grupos urbanos estuvieron constituídos por donantes de sangre, parturientas y

  1. EKA urbanistika osakond / Lilia del Rio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rio, Lilia del

    2006-01-01

    Lilia del Rio magistritöö "Beyond the player's manual / Mänguõpetus edasijõudnutele. Experiencing the world (and the city) as a playground / Kogedes maailma (ja linna) mänguväljakuna". Juhendaja Andres Kurg

  2. Chile : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, North and Central ... Sujet: LABOUR MARKET, LABOUR POLICY, LABOUR LAW, LABOUR ... ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS.

  3. Assessing the Potential for Interstate Conflict Between Chile and Peru: A Political Economy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo,” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. 329 Chile/Peru: Tensions Flare on Maritime Border Change.” 330 “FF...Relaciones Militares Peru-Chile no Se Han Afectado por Diferendo.” El Comercio , April 6, 2008. “Relations Falter for Peru, Chile.” Chicago Tribune...América Latina y el Mediterráneo (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Militares: Santiago, 2000), 82. 129 “A. P. Bureau Chief in Peru is Ordered out of

  4. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  5. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  6. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  7. Hiperaldosteronismo Primário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guimarães Camargo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O hiperaldosteronismo primário (HAP é uma síndrome decorrente do aumento da secreção autônoma de aldosterona pela glândula adrenal, independente do controle da renina. O rastreamento do HAP está indicado em indivíduos com hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS e hipocalemia espontânea ou grave com doses moderadas de diuréticos ou HAS refratária ao tratamento (≥ 3 agentes anti-hipertensivos. No presente relato, paciente masculino apresentava diabete melito (DM de início recente e HAS, emagrecimento, poliúria, polidipsia, e cansaço aos médios esforços. Apresentava hipocalemia grave e investigação laboratorial confirmou a suspeita de HAP, com medida de aldosterona sérica e urinária elevadas com diminuição da atividade da renina plasmática e aumento da razão aldosterona sérica/renina. Tomografia computadorizada de adrenais mostrou adenoma na adrenal esquerda. Após cirurgia, o paciente evoluiu com melhora dos níveis tensionais e normalização do metabolismo da glicose. Embora a prevalência de HAP em pacientes com DM não seja diferente da população de hipertensos não-diabéticos, a sua presença deve ser investigada nos casos de HAS refratária ou quando há hipocalemia. Em pacientes com DM, o metabolismo do cortisol também deve ser investigado para afastar a concomitância de hipercortisolismo decorrente de adenoma misto.

  8. The GNSS Component of the Seismic Monitoring System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chile is amongst the most seismically active countries in the world. Since mid-XVI Century, a magnitude 8 or more earthquake has taken place every dozen of years, as an average. In the last 100 years, more than ten events with magnitudes around 8 or larger have taken place in this part of world. Three events with M>8 have taken place only in the last six years. The largest earthquake ever recorded took place in May, 1960, in southern Chile. Such extreme seismic activity is the result of the interaction of the Nazca, Antarctic, Scotia and South American plates in southwestern South America where Chile is located. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. At least eighteen of these earthquakes have generated local tsunamis with runups larger than 4 m -including events in 2010, 2014 and 2015- therefore it is mandatory to establish a system with capabilities to rapidly evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of these events. In 2013, the newly created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network by increasing the numbers of real-time monitoring stations. The most important change to previous practices is the establishment of a GNSS network composed by 130 devices, in addition to the incorporation of 65 new collocated broadband and strong motion instruments. Additional 297 strong motion instruments for engineering purposes complement the system. Forty units -of the 130 devices- present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz position stream at 4-cm level. First records of ground displacement -using this technology-were recorded at the time of the largest aftershock (Mw=7.6) of the sequence that affected northern Chile in 2014. The CSN is currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement from the

  9. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  10. Nas fronteiras da militância entre o Brasil e o Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Sousa Araújo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o golpe de estado que implantou uma ditadura civil-militar no Brasil, em 1964, as organizações de esquerda foram decretadas ilegais. Entretanto,seus militantes e simpatizantes enfrentaram os autoritarismos pelos movimentos de contestação, ou pela luta armada, quando se intensificou a repressão política contra os opositores do regime ditatorial. Na dinâmica das ações políticas se incluía a vida clandestina como forma de sobrevivência das lutas e dos militantes. Nessa perspectiva, este texto analisa a experiência de militância de esquerda da então estudante mato-grossense Jane Vanini que, como outros tantos militantes, acreditou ser possível construir o mundo das igualdades sociais. Boa parte de suas vivências ficou registrada em correspondências enviadas do Chile(1972-1974 à família que residia no Brasil, revelando valores e tradições vigentes na época. Os conteúdos noticiados dão relevo às escolhas e paixões políticas,utopias, vitórias e até fracassos, desencantos e derrotas de homens e mulheres que construíram vivências nas dimensões e teias dos projetos revolucionários. O sentido de escrever cartas dá visibilidade às circunstâncias que não foram ditas e nem foram escritas, porém a relação que elas estabeleciam entre a remetente e seus correspondentes revelam mundos plurais e vidas singulares que a militante construiu num tempo muito especial: a clandestinidade.

  11. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  12. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  13. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on the...

  14. Entrevista a Mónica Maldonado. Las condiciones carcelarias en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abogada, egresada de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Comenzó su carrera judicial en los Tribunales de Santiago en 1970 y a partir del año 2001 se desempeña como Fiscal Judicial de la Corte Suprema de Chile.

  15. Citizenship ‘from Above’? The Case of Chile, 1964-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ree, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    During the last fifty years, citizenship in Chile has been re-interpreted and reformulated in different ways. By combining top-down and bottom-up approaches towards citizenship, this article argues that the reformulation of citizenship in Chile has been brought about through both state-initiated

  16. Early Child Care Education: Evidence from the New Law in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Felipe Aravena; Lobos, Marta Quiroga

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, Chile has focused on early childhood education and care (ECEC) as a key opportunity to increase student-learning outcomes and decrease socio-economic inequalities. The creation of Chile's Under-Secretariat of ECEC in 2015 highlights the relevance of this educational stage. The purpose of this study is to analyse the new law…

  17. Ex-ante Study of a Possible Modernisation of the EU-Chile Association Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry de Frahan, Bruno; Hartwell, Christopher; Kuik, O.J.; Lirette, Paul; Mirecka, Katarzyna; Nolan Garcia, Kimberly; Pellandra, Andrea; Polanco, Rodrigo; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus; Shuvaieva, Iryna; Sidlo, Kataryna; Teresinski, Jan; Torrent, Ramon; Valdes, Albert

    This study provides an ex-ante impact assessment of the possible modernisation of the EU-Chile Association Agreement. Since the current agreement entered into force in 2003, Chilean exports of agricultural/food products and services to the EU have nearly tripled while EU exports to Chile have

  18. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt

  19. A dainty review of the business and economic history of Chile and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Bátiz-Lazo, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    This introductory piece provides some context to the special edition on business and economic history of Chile and Latin America. It also provides an introduction to better understanding research and method in business history while inviting for this field to be further developed in Chile.

  20. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  1. Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

  2. Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.

  3. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  4. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ..., based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the...] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly...

  5. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  6. chile : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTRAREGIONAL MIGRATION, WOMEN WORKERS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Région: ... Région: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, North and Central America, Panama ... Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, North and Central America, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay.

  7. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 8095] Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA... Commission pursuant to Chapter 19 (Environment) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA'') and...: Article 19.3 of the United States-Chile FTA establishes an Environment Affairs Council, which shall meet...

  8. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daher

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene que las crisis siguen siendo más regionales que globales, y que existe una verdadera geografía del contagio, el estudio muestra evidencia empírica que permite constatar: 1 la reproducción de un desbalance norte-sur al interior de Chile; 2 la doble paradoja de Santiago, cuya economía es la más diversificada y la más vulnerable, la más recesiva y la de mayor crecimiento; 3 la emergencia de Antofagasta como segunda economía regional de Chile, desplazando a Valparaíso y Concepción; 4 el paralelismo de Santiago y Antofagasta como regiones con el mayor producto, la mayor inversión extranjera y mayores exportaciones; y 5 la "mercosurización" de Santiago, capital subglobal, y la globalización de sus "regiones-commodities".The hypothesis of a new dualism between a sub-global capital city and its "commodities regions" underlies the study of the differential impact of the three last international crises on the regions of Chile. This impact is quantified through four indicators: product, employment, foreign investment and exports, and their variability allow the verification of the dissimilar vulnerability of each region and its dissimilar exposure to the risk of crisis contamination. The study is based on a conceptual frame that states that crisis continue to be more regional-like than global, and that there is a real geography of contamination. On the other hand, this study shows empirical evidence which makes it possible to verify: 1 the

  9. [The Revista Médica the Chile and medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro

    2002-07-01

    With this issue, Revista Médica de Chile will have been published uninterruptedly, for 130 years. Formal medical education had an early development since Chile became independent from Spain (1817). The first Medical Sciences Course was organized in 1833 by the Irish physician William C Blest. The Santiago Medical Society was founded in 1869 and its journal-Revista Médica de Chile--in 1872. Its first director was Dr. German Schneider. Revista Medica is the oldest serial publication in South America and the second oldest in the Spanish speaking world. This is a remarkable fact for a comparatively young country. With the creation of the Medical Society and Revista Medica, a process of continuous medical education was started and they became a real Graduate School. The Journal has adopted the main changes in knowledge and technology. Some important milestones of its development, during the second half of the 20th century, were the definition of its objectives and structure, the incorporation of peer review of manuscripts (even with foreign reviewers) the adoption of international guidelines for publication, its incorporation into the main biomedical journal indexes, the modernization of its printing process, the making of a computer generated index of all papers published since 1872, its incorporation into a digital library in INTERNET and the active participation of its editors in the World Association of Medical Journal Editors. The success of the journal is influenced by the independence that the Medical Society has conferred to the editors (all outstanding University Professors), as well as to the characteristics of an educational campus "invisible and without tumult" (Ingelfinger).

  10. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  11. [AIDS in Chile: a problem with multiple facets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormazabal, B

    1991-03-01

    Chile's 1st case of AIDS was diagnosed in 1984. Some 250 AIDS cases and 1600 HIV positive persons have since been reported, although the actual number by some estimates may reach 5000. Chile, although in the initial stages of the epidemic, already has a serious problem which at present can only be combatted through education. It will be necessary to convince the population that significant modifications of sexual behavior are needed to control the spread of the disease. Education for AIDS prevention is a priority of the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), which is basing its program on the premise that stable monogamy is the most natural form of expression of a couple. Manuals for prevention are under development, and the 1st, for health workers and the general population, is in process of publication. A series of pamphlets and educational videos for workers in sexually transmitted disease clinics are under development. Educational materials are also being created for specific groups such as university students and agricultural workers and for groups at high risk. A social communications campaign has been prepared and approved by the authorities, and is awaiting funding for dissemination. Education of the population is also a concern for the Catholic Church, which views reinforcement of the family and its mission of providing sex education as a primary means of preventing AIDS. CONASIDA is also responsible for epidemiological study of AIDS in Chile through surveillance of sentinel groups and in quality control of the blood supply. Condoms are to be distributed in sexually transmitted disease clinics for the purpose of AIDS prevention.

  12. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutllant, J.

    1994-07-01

    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A revista Galáxia surgiu no cenário intelectual nacional para atestar que a vitalidade das múltiplas confluências entre Comunicação e Semiótica delimitava um campo de conhecimento maduro capaz de produzir a sua própria revista cientí­fica. Fiel ao seu nome - homenagem a Haroldo de Campos, que, em poema homônimo, sinalizava para o conví­vio entre fronteiras -, a revista assumiu sua vocação transdisciplinar. O Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Comunicação e Semiótica da PUC/SP confiou o projeto inicial do periódico a Irene Machado, que respondeu, de forma notável, pela editoria cientí­fica dos sete primeiros números. A dedicação de Irene Machado contribuiu para consolidar a proposta dos trânsitos e fluxos de idéias como fatores de fomento da diversidade que marca a Comunicação como campo cientí­fico. Sem esse competente trabalho, a revista não teria alcançado o significativo patamar Nacional A na escala de avaliação do sistema Qualis/CAPES. Nessa esteira, feita em nome do Programa, os rigores de edição do presente volume ficaram a cargo de uma comissão composta por Lucrécia D'Aléssio Ferrara, Ana Claudia de Oliveira, Eugênio Trivinho e Helena Katz. Galáxia 8 apresenta uma dupla articulação na seção "Fórum". José Luiz Fiorin mostra as contribuições de uma teoria da significação para a compreensão dos fenômenos comunicacionais, que não se restringem ao âmbito da produção de massa. Eric Landowski, por sua vez, chama a atenção para um outro regime de interpretação das encenações do corpo numa detalhada análise ancorada em quatro dimensões especí­ficas do retrato (mimética, hermenêutica, cosmética e estética, na qual a fotografia dos homens polí­ticos na imprensa é tratada como componente de uma estratégia discursiva midiática global. A problematização dessas dimensões possibilita ao autor desenvolver uma teoria semiótica da visualidade midiática. Com essas duas

  14. Informality wears uniform: Beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Palacios Ruiz de Gamboa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how flexible work economy has been affecting a group of beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile. They do not have a work contract and receive their payment as if they were giving an independent service, but depend on the rules their bosses impose them. The kind of work described in the article appears to be a new arrangement within the context of urban informality, which has present and future implications regarding social security and uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic observation in four beauty salons, I describe how the embodied belief of being an independent worker helps to enact many skills required by the flexible work economy.

  15. Reflections on gender issues in work transitions in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Shawna

    2013-01-01

    To explore the work transitions of Chilean women. Observations and dialogue of Chilean women and their experiences in current and past work. A personal and historical reflection to understand the experiences of work for Chilean women. Exploring work transitions requires an understanding of the macro level historical impact on the participation of women in work in Chilean society. Macro level factors such as participation in the free labour market economy ultimately impacts on the individual choices of the women of Chile regarding their opportunities to transition into productive paid employment. The understanding of work transitions must consider the influences of the labour market economy.

  16. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  17. Calidad de vida y discapacidad auditiva en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Díaz, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    [ES] La pérdida auditiva es una discapacidad sensorial que genera diversas dificultades en el desarrollo biopsicosocial de las personas que la padecen, pudiendo afectar a su calidad de vida. La investigación que se presenta buscó describir y analizar la percepción de calidad de vida (CV) de las personas en situación de discapacidad auditiva de Chile. Para este efecto, se utilizó metodología mixta explicativa secuencial. En el abordaje cuantitativo participaron 102 personas con pérdidas de...

  18. Elasticidad precio de la demanda por autopistas interurbanas en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Sanes; German Lobos

    2013-01-01

    La efectividad de un esquema de tarificación vial para optimizar el uso de infraestructura de transporte depende de la información que se disponga respecto a la elasticidad precio de la demanda por el uso de puentes, túneles y carreteras. El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar la elasticidad precio de la demanda por el uso de autopistas interurbanas en Chile utilizando el método de regresiones aparentemente no relacionadas (SUR) y un panel de 48 datos mensuales obtenidos a partir de 21 plazas...

  19. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens; María Cintia Píccolo; Jorge Hernández González; Gustavo Navarrette

    2001-01-01

    Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45 S y 72º 40 W). Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m) y Conunhueno (360 m). Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ...

  20. Derived intervention levels for radionuclides in foods in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinones O, O.; Tomicic M, I.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper reports the methodology and Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) for radionuclides in foods in Chile for international trading, in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. The radionuclides of interest were classified in three groups, according to their radiotoxicity, and the DILs calculated for each category of food (Cereals, Roots, Vegetables, Fruits, Meat, Fish and Milk). Values of 1[mSv.y -1 ] [5] as a Dose Reference Level and 507 [Kg.a -1 ] [1] as a Total Annual Consumption, were considered. (author)

  1. Fundamentos del Tipo de Cambio Real en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cerda; Alvaro Donoso; Aldo Lema

    2003-01-01

    Un modelo basado en la relación gasto-producto (efecto Salter-Swan) y los términos de intercambio, habría predicho un incremento más pronunciado del tipo de cambio real (TCR) en Chile durante la segunda mitad de los '80, una caída menos acentuada entre 1990 y 1997, y un aumento más fuerte a partir de 1998 cuando irrumpió la crisis financiera internacional. Este trabajo incorpora en forma exhaustiva otros factores en la determinación de largo plazo del TCR, tanto de oferta como de demanda. Usa...

  2. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    under the Concertación’s free market economic policies and moderate social programs, which have produced notable economic growth and considerable...April 8, 2009. 21 “Supera Enríquez-Ominami a Candidato Presidencial Oficialista en Chile,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, June 2, 2009. 22 “People...Negociaría Estado Chileno Con Bancos Que Ocultaron Dinero de Pinochet,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, March 15, 2009. 34 Helen Hughes & Jack Chang, “Ex

  3. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  4. Chernobyl: one year after; radiological measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinones O, O.

    1987-01-01

    The results of environmental radionuclides activity measurements in 694 samples obtained from National Sampling Network and 152 samples from foods imported during april 1986 - april 1987 in order to evaluate the possible influence, in Chile, of the Chernobyl accident, is presented. The results showed that only long life radionuclides like strontium 90 and Cesium 137 were detected. However, Cesium 134 in some imported food was found in lowlevels. The higher value was 36.0% of Maximum Permissible level referring to radiocesium (370 Bq/Kg). (author)

  5. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Daher

    2003-01-01

    La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene...

  6. Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida) una especie silvestre promisoria de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín Acebedo, José; Doll, Ursula

    1998-01-01

    Se organiza y sintetiza la información relacionada con la botánica, ecología y el contenido químico de extraíbles de hojas, corteza y madera de Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida), árbol siempreverde, autóctono, endémico y termófilo de los bosques y matorrales esclerófilos naturales del área mediterránea de Chile. La popularidad y conocimiento de la especie tiene arraigo en la medicina popular empírica, dado el efecto farmacológico atribuible fundamentalmente, al alcaloide boldina, pre...

  7. Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    SKEWES, ÓSCAR; RODRÍGUEZ, ROBERTO; JAKSIC, FABIÁN M

    2007-01-01

    Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O) y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O). La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuant...

  8. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  9. Geografía de la "ll" en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Claudio; Rosas, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Este trabajo se propone precisar la magnitud y distribución real de la palatal lateral en Chile, ahora que se cuenta con datos obtenidos de primera mano por medio de encuestas sistemáticas in situ realizadas a lo largo de todo el territorio chileno. El análisis de los datos demuestra que la reducción de la palatal lateral a un número ínfimo de enclaves agrupados en torno a dos pequeñas áreas no hace sino corroborar las noticias que los estudiosos han dado desde fines del siglo XIX acerca del ...

  10. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  11. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  12. Segunda Guerra Mundial, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Souza Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the National Memorial to the World War II Dead (1956-60, a monument designed by Marcos Konder Netto and Hélio Ribas Marinho, and located in Flamengo Park, Rio de Janeiro. We start by commenting on the debates that were going on within the Modernist movement about the need for a new monumentality. Then, we examine the memorial against the urban landscape of Rio de Janeiro and its specific architectural language. Finally, we make an effort to explain the apparent paradox found in modern monuments.

  13. Malestar, prensa y ciudadanía en contexto de producción minera al norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Yáñez-Duamante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação aborda representações sociais provenientes de discursos jornalísticos e suas construções mediáticas, em relação a cidadãos organizados depois do mal-estar comum ao impacto da produção mineira em sua qualidade de vida. Nosso objetivo geral foi compreender os processos de construção noticiosa e as representações que os meios de comunicação produziram frente ao discurso verbovisual da “diferença” em relação ao movimento cidadão “Que seria do Chile sem Calama”. Assim, foi realizada uma análise crítica e complexa do discurso jornalístico sobre como os diários de maior tiragem – nacional e local – representam a realidade daqueles discursos os quais definem como “diferentes” por sua distância sociopolítica com os “discursos de autoridade”.

  14. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Galáxia: Revista Transdisciplinar de Comunicação, Semiótica, Cultura, editada pelo Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Comunicação e Semiótica (PUC-SP, amplia, com a publicação deste número 9, a sua consolidação como periódico de divulgação científica de pesquisas e, sobretudo, como espaço incentivador do trânsito de idéias e do diálogo teórico entre investigadores nacionais e internacionais da área de Comunicação e afins. Procura propor paradigmas para a definição dos objetos científicos da área desafiada pelo desenvolvimento tecnológico da informação e pela crescente expansão da economia globalizada e da mundialização da cultura. O presente número confirma o projeto em que se aliam comunicação, semiótica, cultura, tecnologia e informação. Nessa integração, e dentre os temas do volume, destaca-se o espaço, que, lido em sua organização e mediação sígnica, permite compreender as dinâmicas culturais que lhe dão suporte. Na seção "Fórum", Manar Hammad, pesquisador francês da Falculté d'Architecture de Versailles, apresenta uma leitura semiótica do Santuário de Bel, conjunto religioso monumental da antiga Síria, situado na cidade de Tadmor-Palmira. Atualmente, o templo não é senão um complexo em ruínas ou pouco conservado, mas ainda oferece à leitura os alicerces de sua construção e os pilares de crenças que nortearam a civilização modelada por valores gregos que atestam um sincretismo básico para a compreensão da cultura do antigo oriente. A leitura da construção semiótica desse conjunto de relações sígnicas permite flagrar os procedimentos de enunciação que superam o âmbito do verbal para atingir a complexidade dos signos não-verbais e, notadamente, do espaço. Utilizando sua formação arquitetônica, mas superando os limites perceptivos de um espaço simplesmente físico ou tecnicamente edificado, Manar Hammad procura apreender o processo

  15. DIREITO AGRÁRIO E O TRATAMENTO DOS CONTRATOS AGRÁRIOS ATÍPICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Pinto Weiblen; Marcelo Scherer da Silva; Tarso Wayhs Tech; José Fernando Lutz Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Aborda a necessidade de um tratamento adequado e diferenciado aos contratos agrários atípicos em face das complexas relações que se desenvolvem no meio rural atualmente. Apresenta ainda uma visão crítica a respeito das características e aplicabilidade da legislação agrária no cenário jurídico e propõe alternativas com o objetivo de uma prestação mais eficiente do Direito Agrário na área contratual.

  16. [Gender inequity in the access to health care in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jeanette; Bedregal, Paula; Jadue, Liliana; Delgado, Iris

    2003-06-01

    In the last two decades, Chile has experienced advances in economical development and global health indicators. However, gender inequities persist in particular related to access to health services and financing of health insurance. To examine gender inequities in the access to health care in Chile. An analysis of data obtained from a serial national survey applied to assess social policies (CASEN) carried out by the Ministry of Planning. During the survey 45,379 and 48,107 dwellings were interviewed in 1994 and in 1998, respectively. Women use health services 1.5 times more often, their salaries are 30% lower in all socioeconomic strata. Besides, in the private health sector, women pay higher insurance premiums than men. Men of less than two years of age have 2.5 times more preventive consultations than girls. This difference, although of lesser magnitude, is also observed in people over 60 years. Women of high income quintiles and users of private health insurance have a better access to preventive consultations but not to specialized care. An improvement in equitable access of women to health care and financing is recommended. Also, monitoring systems to survey these indicators for women should improve their efficiency.

  17. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Suzuki, O.; Pena, H.; Pollastri, A.; Fuenzalida, H.; Grilli, A.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with δ 18 O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to δ 18 O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The 18 O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the 18 O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. EL GÉNERO GLANDULARIA (VERBENACEAE EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly O\\u2019Leary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión taxonómica y nomenclatural del género Glandularia para Chile. El género está representado por 12 especies y una variedad, ocho de estos taxones son endémicos de Chile. Las especies se distribuyen desde la zona más septentrional del territorio, región de Arica y Parinacota, hasta la región de Los Lagos, al sur. Sin embargo la mayor diversidad específica se encuentra en las regiones centrales, de Coquimbo, Valparaíso y Metropolitana. Se describen e ilustran cada una de las 12 especies de Glandularia. A su vez, se proponen 14 nuevos sinónimos y tres nuevas combinaciones: Glandularia landbecki, G. multiglandulosa y G. ribifolia; se designan 15 lectotipos para: Erinus laciniatus, Verbena bella, V. berteroi, V. corymbosa, V. foetida, V. gynobasis, V. gynobasis var. strigosa, V. landbeckii, V. lipozygioides, V. multiglandulosa, V. porrigens, V. ribifolia, V. sulphurea var. fuscorubra, V. sulphurea var. pedunculata, y V. trachea; y se postula un neotipo para Verbena paulseni.

  19. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres

    2000-01-01

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  20. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Pantoja, S.; de Lange, G. J.; Lange, C. B.; Sánchez, G. E.; Acuña, V. R.; Muñoz, P.; Vargas, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper we analyze 10-166 year old sediments in two cores collected in Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for preservation of proxies. Based on a 166 year chronology we used indicators of bottom water oxygenation proxies (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane+n-C35)/n-C31) ratio) and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and chlorins) to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. We find that at decadal scales, and during the last two centuries, a shift in the coastal marine ecosystem off Northern Chile took place which was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity and large fluctuations in biological export productivity, in bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolic activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al). On top of this short-term variability, a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions has occurred being even more intensified since the early 1960s.

  2. [Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic zoonoses prevalent in Chile: count and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica, Francisco; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Torres, Marisa; Padilla, Oslando

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis, cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis often found in humans, is transmitted mainly by food and water, and is considered a significant risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, newborns and immunocompromised patients. To identify the information about this zoonosis and its first reports in Chile. Review of publications in Pubmed, Mesh search of systematic reviews, case studies, cross-sectional studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and specialty publications. In addition, other publications in parasitology journals were analyzed. There are reports of the presence of this disease in Chile for 60 years. During this time several differences in prevalence depending on geographic location, age and education level of the population have been detected. There is low epidemiological vigilance and lack of specific official preventive measures for this disease, despite the possible introduction of new parasite genotypes of an increased virulence and pathogenicity in the country through the importation of meat. New enigmas have arisen in relation to this disease associating it with Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, autism, learning disabilities, among others.

  3. Challenges for psychiatric recruitment and training in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamín; Rosel, Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims to describe the current challenges to recruitment of psychiatrists in Chile, and investigate factors related to interest in psychiatry from medical students of the Chilean Biobío Region. An online survey was completed by 39 medical students currently performing the internship. This survey included questions regarding socio-demographic aspects, probability of choosing a medical speciality, influencing factors on the choice of the medical speciality, and personal features. Students were separated in two groups for the analysis based on their likelihood of choosing psychiatry as a career. A total of 35.9% of the respondents showed some degree of interest in psychiatry. Factors considered important by the respondents were academic opportunities, training vacancies, and balance between job and personal life. The low participation in the study does not allow the extrapolation of data to the national situation, and may represent response bias to those already interested in psychiatry as a career. However, Chile has an average psychiatrist rate per number of inhabitants for the region, but an uneven distribution of this resource. National policies must be focused on this issue in order to reduce the gap in mental healthcare.

  4. Spatial phylogenetics of the vascular flora of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-07-01

    Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Configuración de la homosexualidad medicalizada en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rolando Cornejo

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un análisis histórico de la producción intelectual chilena en torno a la homosexualidad y constata una permanencia del paradigma medicalizador, verificable hasta la actualidad. Tal paradigma, su conceptualización y representación, además de influenciar imaginarios sociales, dan lugar a la homofobia y a las dificultades para introducir reformas pro derechos de la comunidad LGBT. Sus antecedentes inmediatos se encuentran en el higienismo y en intentos modernizadores acaecidos en Chile durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Dicho paradigma habría transitado en Chile por cuatro momentos: un período de instalación; otro de predominio de la interpretación psicoanalítica; un tercero de hegemonía del método fenomenológico; y finalmente un período de apologética medicalizadora, años, coincidente con la vuelta a la democracia, la irrupción de los movimientos LGBT organizados y las reivindicaciones de derechos para las personas LGBT.

  6. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. [Availability of physicians in Chile at the year 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Oscar; Acuña, Miguel; Señoret, Miriam

    2006-08-01

    The number of physicians available in a given country, their efficiency, quality and specialization is of utmost epidemiological importance. To evaluate the availability of physicians in Chile. The information about the number of physicians in Chile up to the year 2004, was obtained from the Ministry of Health, national universities and the register of immigrant physicians since 1950. The total number of physicians licensed to practice was 25,542, of whom 2,700 are immigrants. The physician/inhabitant ratio increased from 1/921 in 1998 to 1/612 in 2004. The greater impact in the increment of available physicians was given by the immigration of professionals and by the increase in the number of physicians graduated from national universities, mainly from the new private universities. Forty two percent of physicians work at public services and 61% of these are certified specialists. The regional distribution of general practitioners and basic specialists is adequate. Along the country, the mean physician/beneficiary ratio is 8.45/10,000, the specialist/beneficiary ratio is 4.9/10,000 and the general practitioner/beneficiary ratio is 2.3/10,000. The national information of available physicians, especially in the private sector, should be improved. Immigration of physicians should be regulated, maintaining validation examinations and a National Medical Test to assess medical proficiency should be instituted.

  8. Equity in out-of-pocket payment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca, Alicia Lorena Núñez; Chi, Chunhuei

    2017-05-04

    To assess the distribution of financial burden in Chile, with a focus on the burden and progressivity of out-of-pocket payment. Based on the principle of ability to pay, we explore factors that contribute to inequities in the health system finance and issues about the burden of out-of-pocket payment, as well as the progressivity and redistributive effect of out-of-pocket payment in Chile. Our analysis is based on data from the 2006 National Survey on Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payments. Results from this study indicate evidence of inequity, in spite of the progressivity of the healthcare system. Our analysis also identifies relevant policy variables such as education, insurance system, and method of payment that should be taken into consideration in the ongoing debates and research in improving the Chilean system. In order to reduce the detected disparities among income groups, healthcare priorities should target low-income groups. Furthermore, policies should explore changes in the access to education and its impact on equity.

  9. Learning Online at Rio Hondo Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, David E.; Patino, I. F.

    1999-01-01

    Recounts Rio Hondo Community College's decision to "go online" in anticipation of reduced funding, needed expansion, increased inservice training, changing student demographics, and the movement into computer technology. Summarizes the changes faced by the college and discusses how its Public Service Department involved administrators…

  10. The road from Rio - OPEC's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subroto

    1994-01-01

    The Secretary General of OPEC presents the views of OPEC on the environmental debate at the Rio Summit, the topic of environmental taxation. Recommendations are put forward on the financing of Agenda 21 programs and on the concept of technology transfer, to help achieve sustainable development

  11. Rio Branco, grand strategy and naval power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Alsina Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Baron of Rio Branco's grand strategy and the role played by the naval reorganization program (1904-1910 in this context. The ensuing case study determined the domestic and international constraints that affected the program, as well as the worldview of the patron of Brazilian diplomacy regarding military power's instrumentality to foreign policy.

  12. Middle Rio Grande Basin Research Report 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Catherine Dold

    2008-01-01

    An ecosystem is rarely static. A natural system composed of plants, animals, and microorganisms interacting with an area's physical factors, an ecosystem is always fluctuating and evolving. But sometimes, often at the hands of humans, ecosystems change too much. Such is the case with many of the ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico.

  13. Panel - Rio Grande restoration: Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Pete V. Domenici; Jeffrey. C. Whitney; Steve Harris; Brian Shields; Clifford S. Crawford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this panel was to discuss historical and current changes to the Rio Grande system, focusing on the middle Basin, and to present and review different individual, organizational, and political perspectives on the future of the system. Invitations were made to panelists based on their past and current interests and activities pertaining to restoration of...

  14. On Valdivia strong version of Nikodym boundedness property

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; López-Pellicer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 446, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : finitely additive scalar measure * Nikodym and strong Nikodym property * increasing tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X16304413

  15. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today's modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state.

  16. Um Visitante do Rio de Janeiro Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M. Carvalho França

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto que se segue é a tradução de um manuscrito francês, intitulado Relâche du Vaisseau L'Arc-en-ciel à Rio de Janeiro, 1748, que se encontra na Biblioteca da Ajuda, em Lisboa. Trata-se de um relato anônimo, que dá conta da passagem do navio francês L'Arc-en-ciel pelo porto carioca. Tal relato, um curioso documento para a história dos nossos costumes, contém uma descrição da baía da Guanabara e da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, uma pequena análise do caráter da gente portuguesa do Brasil, um perfil do Governador Dom Fernando Freire e algumas considerações gerais sobre a situação do porto local e sobre os víveres disponíveis na região.The following text is a translation of a French manuscript named Relachê du Vaisseau L'Arc-en-ciel à Rio de Janeiro, 1748, which is in Biblioteca da Ajuda (Ajuda Library in Lisbon. It is an anonymous report and relates the stay of the French ship L'Arc-en-ciel in Rio de Janeiro harbour. Such report, a curious document for the history of our customs, has a description of Guanabara bay and Rio de Janeiro city, a brief analysis of the character of the Portuguese people in Brazil, a prolife of Governor Dom Fernando Freire and some considerations of the situation of local harbour and on the provisions available in that region.

  17. Lead isotopic characterization of respirable urban aerosols and related sources, Santiago-Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M; Kawashita, K; Antinao, J.L

    2001-01-01

    Santiago de Chile is located in a poorly ventilated valley at 33 o 30' latitude south at an altitude of 550m. Local climate is semi-arid with mean annual rainfall below 350mm. The atmospheric particles constitute one of the main factors of urban air pollution in the city. Morphological characterization of airborne particles of Santiago done by Scanning Electron Microscopy showed the presence of three groups of particles: crystalline. spherical and agglomerate particles. The crystalline shapes originated in geologic sources have perfectly defined crystallographic parameters. The agglomerated shapes are formed by organic material and submicrometrical mineral particles derived from combustion of fossil fuel and the spherical shapes are products of metallurgical activities. Some of them could been associated with the wear of motorcars. Samples of aerosols. sediments and leaded petrol of different distributors were collected. Aerosols were sampled in two sites of Santiago: the Movil monitoring station, at east of the city, and Parque O'Higgins monitoring station in downtown. These two monitoring stations belong to the MACAM network. Sediments of Mapocho, Maipo, San Francisco and Zanjon de la Aguada rivers and two samples from Disputada and Merceditas ores were studied. All the samples have been measured for their 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios. The experimental chemical procedures of sample dissolution and Pb separation by anion exchange chromatography were developed in the Sernageomin clean laboratory of Santiago de Chile. The isotopic measurements were made using a VG-Sector isotope ratio mass spectrometer fitted with a thermal ion source, multi Faraday collector and Daly collector of the Isotopic Geology Laboratory in the Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The measurements were corrected using NBS 981 and 982 standards. Isotopic results plotted in a 208 Pb/ 204 Pb versus 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram and in a 207 Pb/ 204 Pb versus

  18. Record of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe Branchiopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Maria Monteiro-Ribas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the first occurrence of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe, 1889 (Branchiopoda, Onychopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is described. This marine cladoceran species occurred in zooplanktonic samples obtained on July, 2003 with mean density of 10 ind.m-3. Its presence may be related to two hypotheses, due to ballast water and through the Brazilian current, which gets closer to the coast Winter.

  19. ICLEI submission for Rio+20. Contribution to the Zero Draft of the Rio+20 outcome document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-31

    ICLEI is an association of over 1200 local government Members who are committed to sustainable development. This document is ICLEI's submission to the zero draft document being developed for RIO+20, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, scheduled for June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the paper, ICLEI calls for a UN Decade of Sustainable Urbanization to raise awareness, create synergies and to share solutions and good practices.

  20. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging ?Urban? South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) tech...

  1. Vinos, carnes, ferrocarriles y el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Argentina y Chile (1905-1910)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Entre 1905 y 1910 Chile y Argentina negociaron la firma de un Tratado de Comercio con vistas a suprimir los aranceles aduaneros y consagrar el principio de "Cordillera Libre". El centro de atracción eran las exportaciones de ganado argentino a Chile y de vino chileno a Argentina. Pero en ambos países se produjo una fuerte reacción de los intereses creados con vistas a frustrar las tratativas diplomáticas. Tanto la Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura (Chile) como el Centro Vitivinícola Nacional (...

  2. Actitudes lingüísticas en Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de Santiago, hacia al español de Chile y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes: El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando una muestra de 400 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Entre nuestros hallazgos, destacan los siguientes: 1 los santiaguinos muestran seguridad lingüística en comparación con variedades regionales del español de Chile, pero una gran inseguridad cuando se comparan con el habla de otros países; 2 sus actitudes se ven influenciadas tanto por características lingüísticas (modelo ideal de lengua, conservador y de raigambre colonial como por características extralingüísticas (estatus social; 3 el concepto de mayor peso dentro de la ideología lingüística de los santiaguinos es la corrección idiomática, que se articula con otros dos conceptos clave: el de unidad lingüística y el de entendimiento (o comprensión lingüística. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of Spanish speakers from Santiago, towards Spanish spoken in Chile and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 persons based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Our main findings are the following: 1 Santiaguinos show linguistic confidence when they compare their speech to regional varieties of Chilean Spanish, but they show great insecurity when they compare their speech to those of other

  3. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen

    2016-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  4. Análisis de eficiencia hospitalaria en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planck Barahona-Urbina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La importancia del análisis envolvente de datos (AED radica en poder determinar cuáles de los hospitales regionales presentan un mejor desempeño relativo y cuáles podrían mejorar el uso de los recursos. Objetivos: Analizar, haciendo uso de la técnica no paramétrica de análisis envolvente de datos, la eficiencia técnica hospitalaria en Chile. Diseño: Análisis de tipo no paramétrico. Lugar: Hospitales públicos regionales de Chile. Intervenciones: Aplicación del AED para la evaluación de la eficiencia de los establecimientos de la salud. Materiales: Se utilizó datos para el período comprendido entre 1997 y 2006 de las doce regiones del país más la región Metropolitana (RM, de 190 hospitales públicos de distintos grados de especialización. Se identificó datos de actividad hospitalaria y personal facultativo, esto es, como inputs a médicos, enfermeras, matronas, camas disponibles, y como variable output el egreso hospitalario. Principales medidas de resultados: Eficiencia hospitalaria. Resultados: En el año 1997, las regiones IV, VII, VIII, y IX fueron calificadas como técnicamente eficientes, lo que ha significado que han hecho un adecuado uso de sus recursos. Conclusiones: En diez años de estudio, 1997 a 2006, únicamente en el año 1997 cuatro regiones de Chile fueron eficientes. Los hospitales regionales deberían reducir sus inputs en promedio un 10% para situarse sobre la frontera eficiente. El análisis DEA es una buena herramienta para llevar a cabo mediciones de eficiencia y evaluar resultados de gestión, pues permite conocer aquellas unidades que realizan la mejor asignación de sus recursos en comparación al resto de la muestra.

  5. Aspects of Integration and Adaptation of Croatian Immigrants in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Perić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of Croats to Chile was a part of transoceanic migration that occurred at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Croatia at the time was within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The most important area of emigration was Dalmatia, especially the island of Brač. Emigration went on without organisation, with no emigration policy or legislative framework. The main routes of emigration to Chile were to its northern parts (Antofagasta and Tarapaca and southern parts (the province Magallanes. In the new social milieu, in the immigration country – i.e. Chile, Croatian immigrants passed through various processes of integration and adaptation. The openness of Chilean society and politics to cultural pluralism gave them the opportunity to freely express themselves and their ethnicity. On the other hand, Chilean laws did not permit dual citizenship, and thus the children of the immigrants automatically became Chileans. Croatian immigrants at first nurtured a mechanical type of solidarity, since their migration was a chain development and they lived in groups of relatives and friends. After they assured for themselves the material necessities of life, they began to establish societies and were recognized from the outside as an immigrant group, distinct from other such groups. With time social stratification developed among them. They lived in communion with many other immigrant groups. They were attracted to all Slavic immigrant groups and they also have good relations with Chileans. Mixed marriages, mostly with Chileans, quickened the process of assimilation and brought about the almost total disappearance of the Croatian language. This paper is based on research, until the present, made by Croatian and Chilean authors into the historical sources and newspaper articles analysing the process of integration of immigrants on three social levels: within Chilean society, within their own immigrant groups and in regard to

  6. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.

  7. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  8. Climatology of surface ultraviolet-radiation in Valparaiso, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Raul R.; Roth, Pedro; Georgiev, Aleksandar; Silva, Luis da

    2005-01-01

    Despite the lack of long-term records, it is possible to describe many of the short term characteristics, dependencies and climatology of surface UV irradiance. This paper describes the climatology of on ground UV irradiance at Valparaiso (33.05 deg. S, 71.63 deg. W, sea level), Chile. The dependence of UV-B irradiance on ozone and on other climate variables is discussed with reference to our observations conducted during the last four years. Special attention was paid to detect 'ozone events' by surface UV irradiance measurements. By analyzing time series of the UV-B/UV-A ratio, we suppressed the cloud variability effect and detected events that implied ozone column changes of about 15%. According to our measurements, during the last four years, the ozone column over Valparaiso was not affected negatively by the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon

  9. Soil erosion and its control in Chile - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellies, A.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerate erosion in Chile is a consequence from land use that degrade soil such as compaction, loss of organic matter and soil structure. The erosion is favored by the very hilly landscape of the country that increases erosivity index and the high erodibility given by an elevated annual rate of rainfall with irregular distribution. Several experiences have demonstrated that adequate crop management and crop rotations can minimize erosion. The most effective control is achieved conserving and improving soil structure with management systems that include regular use of soil-improving crops, return of crop residues and tillage practices, thus avoiding unnecessary breakdown soil or compacted soil structure. Conservation tillage increased organic matter levels improving stabile soil structure, aeration and infiltration. (author) [es

  10. Identidad y fronteras urbanas en Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza a través de un ejercicio etnográfico los procesos de construcción identitaria de los habitantes de barrios pobres y medios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Se plantea que las identidades que alli se construyen son expresión de los procesos de segregación urbana de la ciudad de Santiago y ellas dan cuenta del debilitamiento de un modelo urbano asentado en la heterogeneidad social, la noción de espacio público y valores como la ciudadanía política y la integración social. Paradojalmente, esta misma segregación urbana abre también paso a un imaginario y una práctica de vida comunitaria y tribal que refuerza y protege al nosotros de la peligrosidad de los otros.

  11. Distribución espacial de la pobreza en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Brown, Philip H.; Góngora, Diana Paola

    2008-01-01

    Chile ha sido particularmente exitoso en la reducción de la pobreza durante los últimos 20 años, disminuyendo el porcentaje de la población bajo la línea de pobreza de un 38,6% en 1990 a un 13,7% en 2006. Con tasas de pobreza más bajas, el esfuerzo de focalización necesario para el diseño de políticas públicas que permitan reducir aún más o erradicar la pobreza, es mucho mayor y se requiere información más desagregada a nivel geográfico. Los mapas de pobreza pueden cumplir este rol, ya que en...

  12. Las aguas en la estructura urbana de Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonás Figueroa Salas

    2009-07-01

    The water resources are necessary for development of production processes, human consumption and as a climate and landscape, among others. The last time the weather events have transformed the waters in dire terms of natural disasters, with a high impact on the people and the natural and built heritage in urban areas. This article presents some scope of an investigation about the role of river water and rainwater in the urban morphological structure of the nineteenth century city and the physical growth of the twentieth century. It concludes with the idea of turning water into instruments of sustainability in order to redevelop large parts of Santiago de Chile lacking quality elements, thereby surpassing the treatment of public works exclusively with which today is handled the issue.

  13. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Eduardo; Gras, Nuri; Andonie, Oscar; Sepulveda, Susana; Pereira, Iris

    2001-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities undertaken within the framework of this project. Sampling of different lichens species has been performed in clean areas (native forest), preparation of such samples has been done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analysed by neutron activation analysis. Participation in an intercomparison run organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples, has also been carried out. Transplant of lichens collected in clean areas has been done in Santiago. (author)

  14. Elasticidad precio de la demanda por autopistas interurbanas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sanes

    2013-01-01

    transporte depende de la información que se disponga respecto a la elasticidad precio de la demanda por el uso de puentes, túneles y carreteras. El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar la elasticidad precio de la demanda por el uso de autopistas interurbanas en Chile utilizando el método de regresiones aparentemente no relacionadas (SUR y un panel de 48 datos mensuales obtenidos a partir de 21 plazas de peajes (48 x 21. Nuestros resultados muestran que, aún controlando por el precio de la gasolina y el nivel de actividad económica, la demanda por el uso de carreteras resulta ser muy inelástica al precio del peaje, con valores que oscilan entre -0,17 para automóviles y -0,05 para camiones.

  15. Elasticidad precio de la demanda por autopistas interurbanas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Saens

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de un esquema de tarificación vial para optimizar el uso de infraestructura de transporte depende de la información que se disponga respecto a la elasticidad precio de la demanda por el uso de puentes, túneles y carreteras. El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar la elasticidad precio de la demanda por el uso de autopistas interurbanas en Chile utilizando el método de regresiones aparentemente no relacionadas (SUR y un panel de 48 datos mensuales obtenidos a partir de 21 plazas de peajes (48 x 21. Nuestros resultados muestran que, aún controlando por el precio de la gasolina y el nivel de actividad económica, la demanda por el uso de carreteras resulta ser muy inelástica al precio del peaje, con valores que oscilan entre -0,17 para automóviles y -0,05 para camiones.

  16. [Vaccines against hepatitis A and B in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M Teresa

    2009-06-01

    The mode of transmission and epidemiological approach for hepatitis A and B are different. However, both are preventable with vaccines whose efficacy and long lasting protection has been demonstrated. This review describes the secular tendency of both infections in Chile, their risk factors that have contributed to their persistence in the country and the interventions that have been carried out to reduce the disease burden. Although the vaccine for hepatitis B was incorporated to the immunization program in 2005, the vaccine for hepatitis A persists in the list of interventions that must be assumed with priority by the Ministry of Health. If Chilean health authorities pretend to reach the enteric disease indicators of developed countries, they must accelerate the epidemiological transition towards the elimination of hepatitis A.

  17. The energy sector in Chile: An introductory outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    After an introduction on Chilean energy policy, governmental structure in the energy sector, and foreign investment regulations, descriptions and analyses are provided of the main energy sectors in Chile: petroleum, electric power, natural gas, coal, and non-traditional energy sources. The descriptions include a general overview, government policies, current legislation, incentives and restrictions to energy production, organizations that have a bearing on policy design, and the role of the particular sector in the national economy. The analyses outline the current and possible future state of activity in each sector and provide an indication of areas of interest and business opportunities for Canadian investors. A directory is included of public organizations and other entities related to energy. 12 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  18. Investigation of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.

    2004-01-01

    A project has been undertaken to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. Samples of different species of lichens were collected in clean areas (native forest), analyzed and transplanted to the Santiago Metropolitan Area. In addition, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area for comparison purposes. The preparation of the samples was done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analyzed by neutron activation analysis and solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry. As part of the routine QA/QC procedures, the analytical laboratories, have participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. Activities carried out within the framework of this project are described. (author)

  19. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  20. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Cortes-Toro, E.

    1996-01-01

    Several studies on bone densitometry measurements in healthy individuals have been performed in Chile. However due to the fact that different techniques and no uniform protocols have been used to select patients, the results obtained are not suitable as reference values for a normal chilean population. Therefore, foreign reference values are used. This study will select healthy normal individuals, typical urban chilean residents, and measure bone density using the DEXA technique. The selection will be made according to a well defined protocol. Serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone remodeling, will be measured in all subjects as a means-a assessing bone metabolism. Bone trace element composition will be measured in selected subjects. Samples will be obtained by biopsy or through normal surgical procedures and will be analyzed by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  1. Costs of examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Germán Lobos; Palma, Carolina Salas

    2018-01-01

    To determine the total average costs related to laboratory examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile. Retrospective study with data from July 2014 to June 2015. 92 examinations classified in ten groups were selected according to the analysis methodology. The costs were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect laboratory costs and indirect institutional factors. The average values obtained for the costs according to examination group (in USD) were: 1.79 (clinical chemistry), 10.21 (immunoassay techniques), 13.27 (coagulation), 26.06 (high-performance liquid chromatography), 21.2 (immunological), 3.85 (gases and electrolytes), 156.48 (cytogenetic), 1.38 (urine), 4.02 (automated hematological), 4.93 (manual hematological). The value, or service fee, returned to public institutions who perform laboratory services does not adequately reflect the true total average production costs of examinations.

  2. Gerindo o neoextrativismo num conflito ambiental no sul do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Nicole Mancilla Ivaca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente proposta discute o modelo neoliberal e extrativo que foi implementado nos países latinoamericanos em decorrência do desenvolvimento mundial da economia de mercado, a partir do caso do capitalismo verde e o uso estratégico da Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC. Utiliza-se a técnica de análise de discursos argumentativos sobre a RSC da ENDESA, no contexto de um conflito hidroelétrico na cidade de Panguipulli no sul do Chile, onde foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com atores governamentais e locais. Finalmente, discutem-se as relações discursivas ao propor que as estratégias empresariais buscam introduzir e socializer um tipo específico de investimento, por meio da gestão do neoextrativismo e de uma determinada função estatal.

  3. Business Incubation in Chile: Development, Financing and Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 27 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to create the framework conditions for entrepreneurship by investing in business incubators, organizing risk capital for early stage ventures to fill capital market gaps and support for angel networks as well as incubator funding are discussed. Policy implications for the continued growth of the incubation industry are provided.

  4. The debate in Chile on organ donation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2016-08-29

    The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a “reciprocity principle”, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures.

  5. Telemedicine: Its Importance in Cardiology Practice. Experience in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Escobar, MD, FACC, FAHA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need worldwide to take medical care to distant locations far from the main urban centers, particularly to rural areas. Furthermore, there is the ethical imperative to provide equal access to medical care to all patients, regardless of their place of residence, so as to satisfy an increasingly demanding population. A widespread problem, from which cardiology is not excepted, is the insufficient number of specialists and their uneven distribution. The upsurge in information and communications technology has made available a large collection of tools, mainly computers, smartphones, e-mail, and the Internet, to name just a few, to meet the needs of communication between individuals and organizations. This article defines telemedicine and describes its application in the practice of cardiology and its impact in Chile.

  6. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2014-01-01

    to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

  7. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  8. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  9. Discovering the Complexity of Capable Faults in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, G.; del Río, I. A.; Rojas Orrego, C., Sr.; Astudillo, L. A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Great crustal earthquakes (Mw >7.0) in the upper plate of subduction zones are relatively uncommon and less well documented. We hypothesize that crustal earthquakes are poorly represented in the instrumental record because they have long recurrence intervals. In northern Chile, the extreme long-term aridity permits extraordinary preservation of landforms related to fault activity, making this region a primary target to understand how upper plate faults work at subduction zones. To understand how these faults relate to crustal seismicity in the long-term, we have conducted a detailed palaeoseismological study. We performed a palaeoseismological survey integrating trench logging and photogrammetry based on UAVs. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age determinations were practiced for dating deposits linked to faulting. In this contribution we present the study case of two primary faults located in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile between Iquique (21ºS) and Antofagasta (24ºS). We estimate the maximum moment magnitude of earthquakes generated in these upper plate faults, their recurrence interval and the fault-slip rate. We conclude that the studied upper plate faults show a complex kinematics on geological timescales. Faults seem to change their kinematics from normal (extension) to reverse (compression) or from normal to transcurrent (compression) according to the stage of subduction earthquake cycle. Normal displacement is related to coseismic stages and compression is linked to interseismic period. As result this complex interaction these faults are capable of generating Mw 7.0 earthquakes, with recurrence times on the order of thousands of years during every stage of the subduction earthquake cycle.

  10. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.

  11. When memory becomes heritage: Experiences from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bianchini, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships between memory politics and urban heritage in the construction of a twenty-first century democratic society. It focuses on the case of Chile and concentrates on three examples of public buildings in the capital city, Santiago. Given what can be considered a difficult heritage –linked to the recent experience of dictatorship and state sponsored violence– these buildings have been in recent years objects of heritage politics, directed to address a public memory related to those events. Based on these case studies, the article critically discusses the materialization of the dominant human rights discourse in the current memory politics affecting Santiago’s urban heritage.Este artículo aborda las relaciones entre políticas de memoria y patrimonio urbano en el proceso de construcción de una sociedad democrática del siglo XXI. El análisis se centra en el caso de Chile y presenta tres ejemplos de edificios públicos de la capital, Santiago. Los tres sitios representan lo que puede considerarse un patrimonio difícil –vinculado a una reciente experiencia de dictadura y violencia de Estado– y, por esta razón, han sido objeto, en años recientes, de políticas patrimoniales dirigidas a gestionar la memoria pública de esos eventos. A través de estos casos, el artículo analiza críticamente la materialización del discurso dominante de los derechos humanos en las actuales políticas de memoria que afectan al patrimonio urbano de Santiago.

  12. Assessing the environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete-Morales, Carlos; Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-09-15

    Around 40% of electricity in Chile is supplied by renewables and the rest by fossil fuels. Despite the growing electricity demand in the country, its environmental impacts are as yet unknown. To address this gap, the current study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the life cycle environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile. Both the individual sources and the electricity mix over the past 10 years are considered. The following sources present in the electricity mix are evaluated: coal, oil, natural gas, biogas, biomass, wind, solar photovoltaics (PV) and hydropower. In total, 10 electricity technologies and 174 power plants installed across the country have been considered. Eleven environmental impacts have been estimated, including global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicities, as well as resource and ozone layer depletion. The results reveal that hydropower is environmentally the most sustainable option across the impacts, followed by onshore wind and biogas. Electricity from natural gas has 10%-84% lower impacts than biomass for seven categories. It is also 13%-98% better than solar PV for six impacts and 17%-66% than wind for four categories. Solar PV has the highest abiotic depletion potential due to the use of scarce elements in the manufacture of panels. While electricity generation has grown by 44% in the past 10 years, all the impacts except ozone layer depletion have increased by 1.6-2.7 times. In the short term, environmental regulations should be tightened to improve the emissions control from coal and biomass plants. In the medium term, the contribution of renewables should be ramped up, primarily increasing the hydro, wind and biogas capacity. Coal and oil should be phased out, using natural gas as a transitional fuel to help the stability of the grid with the increasing contribution of intermittent renewables. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender relations and masculinity in northern Chile mining areas: ethnography in schoperías Relações de género e masculinidade em áreas de mineração do norte do Chile: etnografia em schoperías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Barrientos Delgado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an ethnography aimed at describing and understanding the gendered organization of schopería life and masculinity in northern Chile. Schoperías are characterized physically and socially and the effects these premises have on gender relations and masculinity assigned to them by waitresses and clients are studied. Schoperías are beer halls, mainly for men, served by women, located in cities near copper mines in Chile. They are strongly gendered and classed places. Schoperías are reference scenarios for men and their performance; they are premises that privilege masculine socialization and heterosexual hegemonic masculine performance. Paradoxically, they are at the same time unique places where male friendship and complicity take place, allowing homosociability and the expression of a certain type of affection and feelings among men.O artigo baseia-se numa etnografia com a qual se pretendeu descrever e compreender a organização das schoperías em função do género e a masculinidade no Norte do Chile. As schoperías são caraterizadas física e socialmente e são estudados os efeitos que estes locais produzem nas relações de género e na masculinidade que lhes é atribuída pelas empregadas e pelos clientes. As schoperías são cervejarias destinadas sobretudo aos homens, que são servidos por mulheres, localizadas em cidades próximas de minas de cobre no Chile. São lugares fortemente marcados pelo género e pela classe. As schoperías são cenários de referência para os homens e a sua performance; são locais que privilegiam a socialização masculina e a performance masculina heterossexual e hegemónica. Paradoxalmente, são ao mesmo tempo lugares singulares onde a amizade e a cumplicidade masculinas têm lugar, permitindo a homossociabilidade e a expressão de um certo tipo de afeto e sentimentos entre homens.

  14. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationship with physical activity in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165 women and 149 men were interviewed in Rio Gallegos in 2010, with healthy status in medical records (2000. Anthropometry, blood pressure control, blood test to measure glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was established by criteria of the NCEPATPIII.The metabolic syndrome had an overall prevalence of 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was larger in women (32.1% than in men (25.5%. The prevalence of its components were: abdominal obesity 56%, low levels of HDL cholesterol 48.3%, high levels of triglycerides 68.1%, hypertension 46.1% and high levels of glucose 72.5%. Inadequate physical activity was 66.2% (95%CI: 60.1 to 71.5. Immigrants had more likelihood of metabolic syndrome living in Río Gallegos for 15 years or more(β: 5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73, p=0.000 and with inadequate physical activity (β: 3.36, 95%CI: 1.57to7.21,p=0.002. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos is higher than that reported in Argentina and Chile

  15. Synthesis of national reports for Rio+20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    In the lead up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), which took place in Brazil in June 2012, there were numerous efforts in countries around the world to help governments, civil society organizations and individuals prepare for the event. One of the more significant efforts led by UNDP in collaboration with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) was a support programme to 72 countries across all regions to build a consensus on national views around the themes and objectives of the Rio+20 Conference. This report highlights significant advances in sustainable development from almost 60 country reports and underscores the challenges and bottlenecks to moving beyond the economic-led growth strategies of the past 20 years.

  16. Project Rio Blanco: site restoration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7,000 foot well in northwestern Colorado. Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975 and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. The activities throughout the restoration period are summarized and the final site status, including the disposition of all project facilities and the status of all project related wells after plug and abandonment and recompletion work are described

  17. Book Review Helm Field Guides — Birds of Chile including the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Helm Field Guides — Birds of Chile including the Antarctic Peninsula, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia by Albaro Jaramillo with illustrations by Peter Burke and David Beadle (2003)

  18. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  19. First parasitological study of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, Amphibia in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.

  20. International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science in Chile, first experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    I International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science took place in the Elqui Valley Chile January 15-29 2005 Eighty 12-17 year old students from Chile Russia Venezuela and Bulgaria obtained a valuable experience to work together with outstanding scientists from Chile and Russia and with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Balandine They also had opportunity to visit the main astronomical observatories and to participate in workshops dedicated to the telescope and satellite design and remote sensing This activity was supported by numerous institutions in Chile including the Ministry of Education the European Southern Observatory Chilean Space Agency Chilean Air Force Latin American Association of Space Geophysics the principal Chilean universities and the First Lady Mrs Luisa Duran

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organization of Chile (Servicio Agricola y Ganadero, referred to in this section as SAG) or a private export...) Responsibilities of Servicio Agricola y Ganadero. SAG will ensure that: (1) Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot...

  2. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  3. Sensory properties of chile pepper heat - and its importance to food quality and cultural preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Ivette; Bosland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Chile peppers are one of the most important vegetable and spice crops in the world. They contain capsaicinoids that are responsible for the characteristic burning (pungency) sensation. Currently, there are 22 known naturally occurring capsaicinoids that can cause the heat sensation when consumed. Each produces a different heat sensation effect in the mouth. A need exists for a standard and new terminology to describe the complex heat sensation one feels when eating a chile pepper. A comprehensive set of descriptors to describe the sensory characteristics of chile pepper heat was developed. It was validated with trained panelists tasting samples representing the five domesticated species and 14 pod-types within these species. Five key attributes that define and reference a lexicon for describing the heat sensation of chile peppers were determined to describe the heat sensation in any product, and importantly, can be used in the food industry worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Strontium isotope data for recent andesites in Ecuador and North Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Moorbath, S.

    1977-01-01

    New Sr isotope data are presented for andesite lavas from active volcanoes in Ecuador and North Chile. Twenty-three samples from five Ecuadorian volcanoes have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios most of which are essentially within analytical error, and average 0.7044. In contrast, 16 samples from the San Pedro-San Pablo volcano complex in North Chile have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios between 0.7058 and 0.7072. These samples show no correlation between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 87 Rb/ 86 Sr, nor between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and other elements or ratios. The major difference in setting between the two volcanic provinces lies in the thickness of the continental crust; 40-50 km beneath Ecuador, 70 km beneath North Chile. Andesites from both areas are derived primarily from the mantle, but those from North Chile show evidence of a significant Sr isotopic contribution from the continental crust. (Auth.)

  5. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  6. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Madureira Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Maia U.M., Jaffe R., Carvalho A.T. & Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. [Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte.] Meliponicultura no Rio Grande do Norte. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:327-333, 2015. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901, Brasil. E-mail: ummaia@usp.br This study aimed to assess the current status of stingless bee beekeeping (meliponiculture in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, with the aid of structured questionnaires made during visits to beekeepers. The results were compared with a previous census made in the state and with a similar study from Australia. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte is still informal and little standardized. The activity has grown in recent years considering the mean number of nests per beekeeper. Most apiaries are formed of up to 50 colonies, usually distributed in the backyards of homes. Twelve species of stingless bees were reared in the state, and the most common was the “Jandaíra” bee (Melipona subnitida, whose honey is considered medicinal. While many beekeepers already know the importance of bees as pollinators, stingless bees are still not used for crop pollination. Compared to a recent analysis of beekeeping in Australia, meliponiculture in Brazil is more traditional, honey is the main product and the number of colonies per beekeeper is much higher. Our results highlight the need to reinforce knowledge about bees and promote specific training aimed at improving and standardizing management practices.

  7. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  8. Heating effects in Rio Blanco rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.; Rossler, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of ''sandstone'' from near the site of the upper Rio Blanco nuclear explosion were heated in the laboratory at temperatures between 600 and 900 0 C. The composition and amount of noncondensable (dry) gas released were measured and compared to the amount and composition of gas found underground following the explosion. The gas released from the rock heated in the laboratory contained approximately 80 percent CO 2 and 10 percent H 2 ; the balance was CO and CH 4 . With increasing temperature, the amounts of CO 2 , CO, and H 2 released increased. The composition of gas released by heating Rio Blanco rock in the laboratory is similar to the composition of gas found after the nuclear explosion except that it contains less natural gas (CH 4 , C 2 H 6 . . .). The amount of noncondensable gas released by heating the rock increases from approximately 0.1 mole/kg of rock at 600 0 C to 0.9 mole/kg at 900 0 C. Over 90 percent of the volatile components of the rock are released in less than 10 h at 900 0 C. A comparison of the amount of gas released by heating rock in the laboratory to the amount of gas released by the heat of the Rio Blanco nuclear explosion suggests that the explosion released the volatile material from about 0.42 mg of rock per joule of explosive energy (1700 to 1800 tonnes per kt). (auth)

  9. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponton, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  10. Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

    2002-12-01

    The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

  11. A snapshot of cancer in Chile:Analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy

    OpenAIRE

    De Jimenez La Jara, Jorge; Bastias, Gabriel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Moscoso, Cristian; Sagues, Sofia; Cid, Camilo; Bronstein, Eduardo; Herrera, Cristian; Nervi, Bruno; Corvalan, Alejandro; Velasquez, Ethel V.; Gonzalez, Pamela; Castellon, Enrique; Bustamante, Eva; Oñate, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. Objectives: Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impa...

  12. Disponibilidad de médicos en Chile al año 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Román A, Oscar; Acuña F, Miguel; Señoret S, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Background: The number of physicians available in a given country, their efficiency, quality and specialization is of utmost epidemiological importance. Aim: To evaluate the availability of physicians in Chile. Material and methods: The information about the number of physicians in Chile up to the year 2004, was obtained from the Ministry of Health, national universities and the register of immigrant physicians since 1950. Results: The total number of physicians licensed to practice was 25,54...

  13. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.

  14. The Implementation of Monetary Policy in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A Johnson; Rodrigo Vergara

    2005-01-01

    Central bank authorities base implementation of monetary policy on an analysis of multiple variables known as monetary policy indicators. In a small open economy such as Chile, these indicators may include in-flation misalignments, unemployment, GDP growth, money growth, the current account balance, exchange rate volatility and international re-serves. A neural network approach is used to establish the correspond-ing weights considered by the Board of the Central Bank of Chile dur-ing the per...

  15. A Decade Lost and Found: Mexico and Chile in the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2001-01-01

    Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s. This paper analyzes four possible explanations for why Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Comparing data from the two countries allows us to rule out a monetarist explanation, an explanation based on falls in real wages and real exchange rates, and a debt overhang explanation. Using growth accounting, a calibrated growth model, and economic theory, we conclude that the crucial difference between the two countrie...

  16. The Mining Sectors in Chile and Norway, ca. 1870–1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranestad, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    in development. More knowledge was developed and accumulated in Norway than in Chile, which indicates that there was a knowledge gap between the two countries. Mining instructions were similar, but there were striking differences when it came to (1) number of graduates, (2) number of travel arrangements...... of education, scholarships and the National Geological Survey. In Chile, these key knowledge organizations were given lower priority by political decision-makers....

  17. Aerosols Observations with a new lidar station in Punta Arenas, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja, Boris; Zamorano, Felix; Ristori, Pablo; Otero, Lidia; Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Santana, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    A tropospheric lidar system was installed in Punta Arenas, Chile (53.13°S, 70.88°W) in September 2016 under the collaboration project SAVERNET (Chile, Japan and Argentina) to monitor the atmosphere. Statistical analyses of the clouds and aerosols behavior and some cases of dust detected with lidar, at these high southern latitude and cold environment regions during three months (austral spring) are discussed using information from satellite, modelling and solar radiation ground measurements.

  18. Indicator based sustainability analysis of future energy situation of Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzer, Volker; Quintero, Adriana; Vargas, Luis; Paredes, Gonzalo; Simon, Sonja; Nienhaus, Kristina; Kopfmüller, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, the Chilean Energy system has fulfilled the energy needs of Santiago de Chile considerably well. However, development trends of the current system impose significant future risks on the energy system. A detailed sustainability analysis of the energy sector of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile was conducted, using selected energy indicators and a distance-to-target approach. Risks for the sustainable development of the energy sector are detected, such...

  19. ¿Qué hacer con los impuestos que pagan las ganancias de capital en Chile?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Alexander Galetovic

    1998-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza cualitativamente las consecuencias económicas de los impuestos a las ganancias de capital actualmente vigentes en Chile. Se describen los tratamientos especiales que reciben los distintos tipos de ganancia de capital y se analizan sus consecuencias sobre la asignación de recursos. Las principales conclusiones y proposiciones del estudio son las siguientes. Primero, la regla general en Chile es que las ganancias de capital deben tributar como ingreso ordinario. Esto es una...

  20. Government Programs for the Insertion of Youth and Women in Chile's Labor Market: A Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Fernandez, Rodriguo; Clert, Carine; Wodon, Quentin

    2002-01-01

    In Chile, labor-based inclusion policies and training programs have been targeted at social groups seen as especially vulnerable. Using results from the 1990 CASEN household survey, the democratic governments identified youths and women heads of households as target groups in need of training. This led to the creation of two training programs: one for women (Capacitacion para Mujeres Jefes de Hogar), and one for youths (Chile J6ven). Do young workers and women need these special training prog...

  1. ["Revista Médica de Chile": 120 years (July 1872-July 1992)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1992-07-01

    The "Revista Medica de Chile" founded in 1872 is the second oldest medical journal in Latin America after the "Gaceta Medica de Mexico" (1864). Among medical journals in the world it is placed 24. It has been published monthly without interruption, except for the period January through December 1891, due to the revolution taking place at that time. The first Editor was German Schneider, a German physician from Bonn who came to Chile in 1850 with the immigrants that settled in the South.

  2. Solar cooking and wood in Chile, energetical alternatives; Cocina solares y manejo de lena en Chile, alternativas energeticas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    Firewood in Latin America is, after petroleum, the second primary source of energy. In Chile, the statistics have shown that the total use of energy produce by firewood fluctuates between 16 and 21% from which the residential sector represents 54%. There are great social and environmental impacts produced by the use of firewood. For the near future, it will be difficult to eradicate the firewood consumption in Latin America. In looking for sustainable use of firewood to produce energy, NGOs have developed efficient systems for production, management and consume of it. For this research we will focus on the efficient use of biomass and solar energy use for cooking, both to be applied in suitable places. The paper shows Chilean experiences on both, biomass and solar energy production, and how these programs have impacted the national statistics in energy consumption. (Author)

  3. Present knowledge on the fossil mammals record from Chile; Estado actual del conocimiento de los mamiferos fosiles de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J.; Yanez, J.; Rovira, J.

    2010-07-01

    An updated revision is presented regarding fossil mammals of aquatic and terrestrial environments. This update includes up to year 2008. Those registrations of doubtful assignation or that couldn't be confirmed were not considered in this review. These new registrations are classified in four groups of time that extend from the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to the Pleistocene-Recent. The evidence shows that the greatest quantity of fossils are concentrated from the Early Miocene to the Middle Miocene reaching 37 (41.5%) genus of a total of 77 and 54 (49.5%) fossil species of a total of 89. It is observed a significant increase in works devoted to paleontology of mammal fossils in Chile between 1981-2008. (Author)

  4. Rio+20 ou Rio-20?: crônica de um fracasso anunciado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pereira Guimarães

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Passadas quatro décadas da Conferência de Estocolmo sobre o Meio Ambiente Humano, e decorridos apenas alguns meses da Rio+20, parece apropriado analisar o caminho percorrido a partir de Rio-92 e os desafios, em grande parte frustrados, da conferência recém concluída no Rio de Janeiro. Para tais propósitos, são analisados os avanços e retrocessos da agenda global de desenvolvimento sustentável, do processo preparatório e dos resultados alcançados no Rio em Junho de 2012, como também das ameaças provocadas pela nova agenda de segurança estratégica após os eventos de 11 Setembro de 2001 e pela crise econômica e financeira que já dura praticamente uma década. O artigo conclui com as perspectivas da agenda internacional nos próximos anos.Pasadas cuatro décadas desde la Conferencia de Estocolmo sobre Medio Ambiente Humano, y transcorridos tan solo algunos meses de la Rio+20, pareciera apropiado analisar el camino percorrido a partir de la Rio-92 y los desafíos, en grande parte frustrados, de la conferencia recien concluída en Rio de Janeiro. Para tales propósitos, serán analisados los avances e retrocesos en la agenda global de desarrollo sustentable, en el proceso preparatorio y en los resultados alcanzados en Rio en Junho de 2012, como también de las amenazas provocadas por la nueva agenda de segurida estratégica luego de los eventos de 11 Setembro de 2001 y por la crisis económica y financiera que ya dura prácticamente una década. El artículo concluye con las perspectivas de la agenda internacional em los próximos anos.After four decades since the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment and after just a few months of Rio+20, it seems appropriate to assess the path followed since Rio+92 and the challenges, mostly frustrated, posed by Rio+20 . For this purpose, it is analyzed the advances and shortcomings of the global agenda of sustainable development, of the preparatory process and the results achieved in Rio

  5. Environmental impact assessment, from Rio-92 to Rio+20 and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1992 Rio Earth Summit was of paramount importance in the consolidation and international dissemination of environmental impact assessment, officially recognized as a tool for informed decision-making towards sustainable development (Principle 17, Rio Declaration and for protection of biodiversity (Article 14, Convention on Biological Diversity. A significant development afterwards was the strengthening of strategic environmental assessment in the design of policies, plans and programs. Both forms of impact assessment can establish the necessary connections between one goal of the Rio+20 Conference - reaching an agreement on the transition to a green economy - and the underpinning decision making processes. Although the Rio+20 Summit has faced challenges to acknowledge its potential, impact assessment should be strengthened in support of both government and business decisions.La Cumbre de la Tierra de 1992 fue de la más grande importancia en la consolidación y diseminación de la evaluación de impacto ambiental, oficialmente reconocida como una herramienta para la toma de decisiones informada hacia el desarrollo sostenible (Principio 17, Declaración de Rio y para la protección de la biodiversidad (Artículo 14, Convención de la Diversidad Biológica. Un avanzo posterior importante fue el fortalecimiento de la evaluación ambiental estratégica en la preparación de políticas, planos y programas. Ambas formas de evaluación de impacto son capaces de establecer los necesarios vínculos entre un objetivo declarado de la Conferencia Rio+2- - llegar a un acuerdo sobre la transición para una economía verde - y los procesos decisorios subyacentes. Aunque la Cumbre Rio+20 tenga encontrado dificultades en reconocer su potencial, la evaluación de impactos debería ser fortalecida en soporte de decisiones gubernamentales y privadas.A Cúpula da Terra de 1992, no Rio de Janeiro, teve a maior importância na consolidação e dissemina

  6. Volcano ecology at Chaiten, Chile: geophysical processes interact with forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.; Crisafulli, C.; Jones, J. A.; Lara, A.

    2010-12-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaiten Volcano (Chile) offers many insights into volcano ecology -ecological responses to volcanic and associated hydrologic processes and ecosystem development in post-eruption landscapes. Varied intensities of pyroclastic density currents (PDC) and thickness of tephra fall deposits (to 50+ cm) created strong gradients of disturbance in several hundred square kilometers of native forest in a sector north to southeast from the volcano. A gradient from tree removal to toppled forest to standing, scorched forest extends 1.5 km northward from the caldera rim along the trajectory of a PDC. Close to the vent (e.g., 2 km NE from rim) a rain of ca. 10 cm of gravel tephra stripped foliage and twigs from tree canopies; farther away (23 km SE) 10 cm of fine tephra loaded the canopy, causing extensive fall of limbs >8 cm diameter. Even in the severely disturbed, north-flank PDC zone, surviving bamboo, ferns, and other herbs sprouted from pre-eruption soil and other refugia; sprouts of new foliage appeared on the boles and major limbs of several species of toppled and scorched, standing trees; animals including vertebrates (rodents and amphibians) and terrestrial invertebrates (e.g., insects and arachnids) either survived or quickly recolonized; and a diverse fungal community began decomposing the vast dead wood resource. During the second growing season we documented the presence of some plant species that had colonized by seed. Within two years after the eruption secondary ecological disturbances resulting from channel change and overbank deposition of fluvially transported tephra created new patches of damaged forest in riparian zones of streams draining the north flank and along the Rio Rayas and Rio Chaiten. These features parallel observations in the intensively-studied, post-1980-eruption landscape of Mount St. Helens over a similar time period. However, several aspects of ecological response to the two eruptions differ because of differences

  7. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described.

  8. MAGISTÉRIO E CONSCIÊNCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sesboüé

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma breve reflexão sobre a relação histórica e atual entre o exercício do magistério e o necessário respeito da consciência dos crentes. Uma primeira parte retoma a evolução da consciência a partir dos tempos modernos e de suas consequências : uma nova figura da fé e da vida no seio da comunidade cristã. Uma segunda parte recapitula as diferentes formas de exercício do magistério eclesial no curso da história e as dificuldades postas por seu encontro com a modernidade. O autor apresenta então um sonho, propondo uma nova maneira de proceder: não mais a simples vigilância, mas a animação de um grande debate planetário sobre todas as dificuldades postas ao ato de crer, a fim de revivificar o sensus fidei do povo cristão. A terceira parte retoma o problema da verdade na qual magistério e consciência moderna devem encontrar um consenso autêntico. ABSTRACT: This article proposes a brief reflection on the historical and current relationship between the exercise of the Magisterium and the need to respect the conscience of believers. A first part follows the evolution of conscience from modern times and its consequences: a new figure of faith and of life within the Christian community. A second part recapitulates the different forms of exercise of the ecclesial Magisterium in the course of history and the difficulties posed by its encounter with modernity. The author proposes a dream by proposing a new way to proceed: no longer simply surveillance, but the animation of a large planetary debate about all difficulties made the act of believing, in order to give new life to the sensus fidei of Christian people. The third part takes up the problem of truth in which teaching and modern conscience must find a genuine consensus.

  9. BRIQUETAGEM DE FINOS DE CALCÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rezende Barros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aplicação da tecnologia na agricultura dentro do sistema de produção é realidade principalmente com a abertura de mercados através da globalização. Em diversas áreas da indústria moderna, o calcário é utilizado como corretor da acidez do solo. A calagem é uma prática barata, porém ainda é negligenciada quanto ao seu uso, na adoção da técnica, à definição das doses e às formas de aplicação. A briquetagem consiste na aglomeração de partículas finas através de pressão, auxiliada ou não por aglomerantes, permitindo obtenção de produtos compactados, com forma, tamanho e parâmetros mecânicos adequados. A redução de volume do material, além dos benefícios tecnológicos, permite que materiais finos possam ser transportados e armazenados de forma mais econômica. A recente preocupação ambiental, resultando em leis mais rígidas, além da necessidade de aproveitar economicamente os resíduos e as partículas finas geradas no beneficiamento de minérios fez com que a briquetagem voltasse a ser uma importante alternativa para aglomerar valor econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aglomerar finos de calcário através da briquetagem (92% abaixo de 500# ou 25 µm gerados no processamento do mesmo, variando as dosagens de água (utilizada como agente aglomerante de 0; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15%. O calcário, originário de Lagamar (MG, foi classificado quimicamente como dolomítico tipo D. Os briquetes foram submetidos a testes de queda a 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 cm de altura. Os melhores resultados encontrados para ensaios de queda foram obtidos com 7,5% de umidade, com médias de 21 quedas para 30 cm e 10 quedas para 60 cm de altura. Tais resultados apresentaram-se favoráveis quando comparados à literatura, a qual cita que para briquetes sem cura, considera-se 3 quedas a 0,3 m como valor razoável.

  10. Ovários policísticos: critérios hemodinâmicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila,Márcio Augusto Pinto de; Murta,Carlos Geraldo Viana

    2001-01-01

    O advento da ultra-sonografia endovaginal de alta resolução abriu novas áreas de pesquisa nos ovários policísticos. O conhecimento da hemodinâmica ovariana é fundamental para o entendimento do comportamento fisiopatológico dos ovários policísticos. Os autores tecem considerações sobre a possibilidade da utilização do Doppler colorido na melhor definição dos ovários policísticos. Os dados sugerem que o aumento da vascularidade e a diminuição da resistência dos vasos do estroma ovariano, assim ...

  11. Record of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe Branchiopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Maria Monteiro-Ribas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p201 The paper describes the first occurrence of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe, 1889 (Branchiopoda, Onychopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is described. This marine cladoceran species occurred in zooplanktonic samples obtained on July, 2003 with mean density of 10 ind.m-3. Its presence may be related to two hypotheses, due to ballast water and through the Brazilian current, which gets closer to the coast Winter.

  12. Isotope hydrology and geochemistry of northern Chile groundwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available HYDROLOGIE ISOTOPIQUE ET GEOCHIMIE DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES DU NORD CHILI. Cet article est un résumé des études de caractérisation d’aquifères situés dans la Pampa del Tamarugal et du Salar de Atacama au nord du Chili à l’aide d’isotopes. Les objectifs principaux de ces études étaient d’obtenir de l’information sur l’origine et le temps de résidence des eaux souterraines, la qualité des eaux, les taux d’évaporation des salars et la relation entre les inondations et la recharge des aquifères. Les principales conclusions de ces études sont les suivantes: a la majorité de l’eau souterraine est de bonne qualité à l’exception des zones situées près des salars b un système multi-aquifère a été identifié dans le bassin de la Pampa del Tamaragual en relation avec des zones de recharges situées à différentes altitudes et c une importante portion des eaux souterraines dans les aquifères de la Pampa devraient êtres considérées comme une ressource non renouvelable. HIDROLOGÍA ISOTÓPICA Y GEOQUÍMICA DE LAS AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS DEL NORTE DE CHILE. En este trabajo se presenta un resumen de estudios que se han realizado en el Norte de Chile, en acuíferos localizados en la Pampa del Tamarugal y en el Salar de Atacama. Los principales objetivos de esos estudios fueron obtener información sobre el origen y el tiempo de residencia del agua subterránea, calidad química del agua, tasas de evaporación desde los salares y evaluar la relación entre inundaciones y recarga a los acuíferos. Las principales conclusiones de estos estudios fueron las siguientes: a la mayoría del agua subterránea es de buena calidad, con la excepción de las áreas cercanas a los salares b se identificó en la cuenca de la Pampa del Tamarugal un sistema de multiacuífero relacionado a áreas de recargas localizadas en diferentes altitudes c una parte importante del agua subterránea en la Pampa del Tamarugal tiene que ser tratada como un recurso

  13. Biological soil crusts in Chile along the precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolov, Elena; Glaser, Karin; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Jung, Patrick; Büdel, Burkhard; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    Biological soil crusts in Chile along a precipitation gradient Elena Samolov* (1), Karin Glaser (1), Karen Baumann (2), Peter Leinweber (2), Patrick Jung (3), Burkhard Büdel (3), Tatiana Mikhailyuk (4) and Ulf Karsten (1) (1) Institute of Biological Sciences - Applied Ecology and Phycology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, (2) Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Soil Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany (3) University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany (4) M.H. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine * elena.samolov@uni-rostock.de Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions; together with their by-products they create a micro-ecosystem that performs important ecological functions, e.g. primary production, nitrogen fixation, mineralization and stabilization of soils. These top-soil assemblages are almost unstudied in South America (Büdel et al. 2016). Therefore, our aim is to investigate for the first time biodiversity of the key photosynthetic organisms, green algae and cyanobacteria following a precipitation gradient along the west coast of Chile. We are applying polyphasic approach - a combination of microscopy, culture dependent (16S and 18S rRNA, ITS) and culture independent molecular techniques (NGS). First results, based on culturing and light microscopy, showed high diversity of eukaryotic algae in biocrusts from humid regions, followed by semi-arid regions. Lichen dominated biocrusts from arid regions were characterized by a high diversity of green algae, while cyanobacteria were scarcely present. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorous (P) was evaluated using state of the art analytical methods including 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic

  14. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

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    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  15. Waiting list in a public health facility in Santiago, Chile

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    Alejandro Letelier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Waiting lists are a well-known problem in public healthcare systems worldwide. For instance, England had over one million people in waiting lists for elective surgical procedures in 2000. Spain had over 360 000 patients in surgical waiting lists in 2007. Chile has been trying to manage waiting times through the GES (Explicit Guarantees in Healthcare plan, which was established by the Chilean government in 2005. Waiting lists for the guaranteed-care diseases in the GES plan had 380 000 patients at the beginning of 2010, and that number was reduced to zero in 2011. Internationally, there are some descriptive studies about waiting lists that focus on variables such as waiting times and number of patients in the list. In Chile, however, this type of study is lacking. Purpose This study aims to describe the characteristics of waiting lists for medical specialties between April and October 2011. It also aims to identify the components of management models in public healthcare centers, and to identify and analyze waiting-time frames of patients referred to a secondary or tertiary healthcare public center from a public primary healthcare center. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of the waiting list for first-time consultations for medical specialties was carried out. Referred patients were described and grouped using indicators of access to healthcare and waiting time between April and October 2011. Each consultation request or referral of a new patient was included in the waiting list and analyzed. Results There were 15 935 requests for consultations; 5 717 requests were resolved, and 8 544 were not (54% of the total requests for consultation. There was a mean waiting time of 498 days for non-resolved requests for consultation, and a mean of 141 days for resolved requests. The specialties in highest demand were orthopedic surgery and ophthalmology. The main waiting-list management processes were referral and reception of requests

  16. Hacia un planteamiento de arquitectura docente, en Chile

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    Mac Clure Alamos, Oscar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available On this pages the author expound the different architectural Solutions adopted for school projects from his professional experience: 22 years (1959-1981 in the Construction Society of Educational Establishments in Santiago de Chile, as well as the execution -four years at the Santiago University (late State Technical University- of the modified project for the Planetarium which had been projected by the Construction Society. He also expound briefly a number of constructions of educational character carried out through the practicing of his profession. Taking as a base these experiences, he offers some suggestions and conclusions that will be useful for future programmes intended to solve the problems of the school buildings. From a critical and objective position he tries to show the actual situation on the educational architecture in this country.En estas páginas se pretende dar a conocer diferentes soluciones arquitectónicas adoptadas en los proyectos escolares, a través de mi experiencia profesional, durante 22 años (1959 - 1981 en la Sociedad Constructora de Establecimientos Educacionales en Santiago de Chile. También la ejecución, durante 4 años (1981 - 1985, en la Universidad de Santiago (ex Universidad Técnica del Estado del proyecto modificado y la construcción del edificio para el Planetario, que había realizado en la Sociedad Constructora. En forma breve expondré, además, algunas obras de carácter educacional, realizadas en el ejercicio privado de mi profesión. En base a estas experiencias procuraré entregar algunas sugerencias y conclusiones que podrían ser útiles en futuros programas destinados a resolver los problemas de las construcciones docentes. Desde una posición crítica y objetiva intentaré también dar a conocer la situación actual de la arquitectura educacional en el país.

  17. Pollution in coastal fog at Alto Patache, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, Ellen; Westbeld, Anna; Klemm, Otto

    2010-11-01

    The Atacama Desert in Northern Chile is one of the most arid places on earth. However, fog occurs regularly at the coastal mountain range and can be collected at different sites in Chile to supply settlements at the coast with freshwater. This is also planned in the fog oasis Alto Patache (20°49'S, 70°09'W). For this pilot study, we collected fog water samples in July and August 2008 for chemical analysis to find indications for its suitability for domestic use. Fog water samples were taken with a cylindrical scientific fog collector and from the net and the storage tank of a Large Fog Collector (LFC). The pHs of advective fog, originating from the stratus cloud deck over the Eastern Pacific, varied between 2.9 and 3.5. Orographic fog, which was formed locally, exhibited a pH of 2.5. About 50% of the total ionic concentration was due to sea salt. High percentages of sulfate and very high enrichment factors (versus sea salt) of heavy metals were found. Both backward trajectories and the enrichment factors indicate that the high concentrations of ions and heavy metals in fog were influenced by anthropogenic activities along the Chilean Pacific Coast such as power plants, mining, and steel industry. We found no direct indication for the importance of other sources such as the emission of dimethyl sulfide from the ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation for acidity and sulfate or soil erosion for heavy metal concentrations. When fog water was collected by the LFC, it apparently picked up large amounts of dry deposition which accumulated on the nets during fog-free periods. This material is rinsed off the collector shortly after the onset of a fog event with the water collected first. During the first flush, some concentrations of acidity, nitrate, As, and Se, largely exceeded the Chilean drinking water limits. Before any use of fog water for domestic purpose, its quality should be checked on a regular basis. Strategies to mitigate fog water pollution are given.

  18. Geomodels of coseismic landslides environments in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serey, A.; Sepulveda, S. A.; Murphy, W.; Petley, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides are a major source of fatalities and damage during strong earthquakes in mountain areas. Detailed geomodels of coseismic landslides environments are essential parts of seismic landslide hazard analyses. The development of a site specific geological model is required, based on consideration of the regional and local geological and geomorphological history and the current ground surface conditions. An engineering geological model is any approximation of the geological conditions, at varying scales, created for the purpose of solving an engineering problem. In our case, the objective is the development of a methodology for earthquake-induced landslide hazard assessment applicable to urban/territorial planning and disaster prevention strategies assessment at a regional scale adapted for the Chilean tectonic conditions. We have developed the only 2 complete inventories of landslides triggered by earthquakes in Chile. The first from the Mw 6.2, shallow crustal Aysén earthquake in 2007. Second one from the Mw 8.8, megathrust subduction Maule earthquake in 2010. From the comparison of these 2 inventories with others from abroad, as well as analysis of large, prehistoric landslide inventories proposed as likely induced by seismic activity we have determined topographic, geomorphological, geological and seismic controlling factors in the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides. With the information collected we have defined different environments for generation of coseismic landslides based on the construction of geomodels. As a result we have built several geomodels in the Santiago Cordillera in central Chile (33°S), based upon the San Ramón Fault, a west-vergent reverse fault that outcrops at the edge of Santiago basin recently found to be active and a likely source of seismic activity in the future, with potential of triggering landslides in the Santiago mountain front as well as inland into the Mapocho and Maipo Cordilleran valleys. In conclusion

  19. Educación ambiental para el desarrollo y consumo sustentable en Chile. Una revisión bibliográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse Salinas-Cabrera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 21 de julio de 2014 • Corregido 1 de noviembre de 2015 • Aceptado 3 de noviembre de 2015 El objetivo del siguiente artículo es realizar una revisión bibliográfica en textos académicos y documentos oficiales fruto de diversas conferencias internacionales que abordan temas en educación ambiental, desarrollo sustentable y consumo sustentable. Se realiza una selección de los hitos más importantes sobre la evolución de la educación ambiental, realizando un recorrido en la historia desde el año 1949 a partir de las primeras investigaciones de la Unesco, hasta la cumbre más reciente Rio+20 en 2012, posteriormente se realizará una descripción de las acciones para la educación ambiental que Chile está realizando en concordancia con la documentación revisada y la legislación nacional vigente, en ámbitos escolares (educación formal y formación de la ciudadanía (educación no formal. Se expone que la tarea de educación para el consumo en Chile es canalizada parcialmente solo por un organismo gubernamental, el cual entrega pautas para un consumo responsable. Se concluye con esta revisión que en Chile la educación ambiental para el desarrollo y consumo sustentable tiene una base formada que progresa lentamente y que, de acuerdo con toda la documentación revisada, debe materializarse en mayor medida, en proyectos y programas en beneficio del escenario natural y social del país. Así, también resultaría relevante que exista una incorporación curricular formal, en donde el énfasis se sitúe en contenidos obligatorios de educación ambiental y, a su vez, una especialización de docentes en esta disciplina.

  20. Perfil das atitudes de formandos em enfermagem frente aos transtornos mentais no Brasil, Chile e Peru Actitudes de alumnos de enfermería ante trastornos mentales en Brasil, Chile y Perú Attitudes of graduate nursing students towards mental disorders in Brazil, Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jorge Pedrão

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo traçar um perfil de atitudes de formandos em enfermagem frente aos transtornos mentais em três culturas diferentes: Brasil, Chile e Peru. Para isso foi utilizada a escala de opiniões sobre a doença mental. Os resultados mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes no nível de 5% nos fatores autoritarismo, ideologia de higiene mental, restrição serial e visão minoritária, favoráveis aos estudantes brasileiros. No fator etiologia interpessoal, os resultados foram favoráveis aos estudantes peruanos e no fator etiologia de esforço mental, favoráveis aos chilenos. No fator benevolência não houve evidência estatística que afirmasse diferença. Esses resultados permitem concluir que os formandos brasileiros apresentaram atitudes mais positivas frente aos transtornos mentais, mostrando-se menos autoritários, restritivos e discriminadores que os chilenos e peruanos, portanto, com maiores possibilidades de desenvolverem condutas mais terapêuticas com a pessoa portadora dos transtornos referidos.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo delinear un perfil de actitudes de alumnos en enfermería ante trastornos mentales en tres culturas diferentes: Brasil, Chile y Perú. Para esto, los autores utilizaron la escala de opiniones respecto a la enfermedad mental. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (5% en factores como autoritarismo, ideología de higiene mental, restricción social y visión minoritaria, favorables a los estudiantes brasileños. En el factor etiología interpersonal, los resultados fueron favorables a los estudiantes peruanos y, en el factor etiología de esfuerzo mental, a los estudiantes chilenos. En el factor benevolencia, no fueron encontradas diferencias estadísticamente comprobadas. Estos resultados permitieron concluir que los alumnos brasileños presentaron actitudes más positivas ante los trastornos mentales, mostrándose menos autoritarios