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Sample records for ringcore fluxgate sensor

  1. The Ringcore Fluxgate Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A model describing the fundamental working principle of the "ringcore fluxgate sensor" is derived. The model is solely based on geometrical and measurable magnetic properties of the sensor and from this a number of fluxgate phenomenon can be described and estimated. The sensitivity of ringcore...... fluxgate sensors is measured for a large variety of geometries and is for all measurements found to fall between two limits obtained by the fluxgate model. The model is used to explain the zero field odd harmonic output of the fluxgate sensor, called the "feedthrough". By assuming a non ideal sensor...... with spatially distributed magnetization, the model predicts feedthrough signals which exactly reflects the measured signals. The non-linearities in a feedback compensated ringcore fluxgate sensors, called the "transverse field effect", can also be explained by the model. Measurements on stress annealed...

  2. Transverse Field Effect in Fluxgate Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V

    1997-01-01

    A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non-linearity......A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non......-linearity are made with a spectrum analyser, measuring the higher harmonics of an applied sinusoidal field. For a sensor with a permalloy ringcore of 1" in diameter the deviation from linearity is measured to about 15 nTp-p in the earth's field and the measurements are shown to fit well the calculations. Further......, the measurements and the calculations are also compared with a calibration model of the fluxgate sensor onboard the "MAGSAT" satellite. The later has a deviation from linearity of about 50 nTp-p but shows basically the same form of non-linearity as the measurements....

  3. New directions in fluxgate sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Ripka, P

    2000-01-01

    Although fluxgates may have a resolution of 50 pT and an absolute precision of 1 nT, their accuracy is often degraded by crossfield response, non-linearities, hysteresis and perming effects. The trends are miniaturization, lower power consumption and production cost, non-linear tuning and digital processing. New core shapes and signal-processing methods have been suggested.

  4. New directions in fluxgate sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Pavel

    2000-01-01

    Although fluxgates may have a resolution of 50 pT and an absolute precision of 1 nT, their accuracy is often degraded by crossfield response, non-linearities, hysteresis and perming effects. The trends are miniaturization, lower power consumption and production cost, non-linear tuning and digital processing. New core shapes and signal-processing methods have been suggested

  5. Compact, Low-Noise Magnetic Sensor with Fluxgate (DC) and Induction (AC) Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    induction sensor and the fluxgate magnetometer . ......................................... 2 Figure 3.1 - Impulse response of a 4” long coil (#6...Block diagram of the Year 2, Task 2 fluxgate magnetometer . ................................... 6 Figure 3.3 - FIS-prototype magnetic-field...and demonstrated an innovative dual-mode, fluxgate -induction sensor (FIS) that combines a fluxgate magnetometer and an electromagnetic (EM) induction

  6. Fluxgate Magnetic Sensor and Its Application for Current Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra-Djamal

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally electric current can be measured by connecting the instrument serially on the circuit. This method has disadvantage because its disturb the measured current flow. By using a magnetic sensor, current can be measured without disturbing the current flow, because it just measures the magnetic field of the measured current. This paper shows the use of fluxgate magnetic sensor for current measurement. It is shown that the sensor can measure widely range of current with resolution ≤ 2 %. (author)

  7. Fluxgate sensor for the vector magnetometer onboard the ’Astrid-2’ satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter; Risbo, T.; Merayo, José M.G.

    2000-01-01

    satellite called 'Orsted'. To obtain good axial stability special attention is drawn to the mechanical construction of the tri-axial sensor configuration. Almost all parts of the sensor are machined from the glassy material MACOR(R) that has approximately the same thermal expansion coefficient as the core...... ribbon. The single axis compensated ringcore sensors are known to have some linearity problems with large uncompensated fields perpendicular to the measuring axis, This phenomenon is also seen for the Astrid-2 sensor, and from a coil-calibration of the flight-spare sensor we observe: non-linearities...

  8. Design, fabrication and characterization of a micro-fluxgate intended for parallel robot application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, M. R.; Bogdanski, G.; Büttgenbach, S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a micro-magnetometer based on the fluxgate principle. Fluxgates detect the magnitude and direction of DC and low-frequency AC magnetic fields. The detectable flux density typically ranges from several 10 nT to about 1 mT. The introduced fluxgate sensor is fabricated using MEMS-technologies, basically UV depth lithography and electroplating for manufacturing high aspect ratio structures. It consists of helical copper coils around a soft magnetic nickel-iron (NiFe) core. The core is designed in so-called racetrack geometry, whereby the directional sensitivity of the sensor is considerably higher compared to common ring-core fluxgates. The electrical operation is based on analyzing the 2nd harmonic of the AC output signal. Configuration, manufacturing and selected characteristics of the fluxgate magnetometer are discussed in this work. The fluxgate builds the basis of an innovative angular sensor system for a parallel robot with HEXA-structure. Integrated into the passive joints of the parallel robot, the fluxgates are combined with permanent magnets rotating on the joint shafts. The magnet transmits the angular information via its magnetic orientation. In this way, the angles between the kinematic elements are measured, which allows self-calibration of the robot and the fast analytical solution of direct kinematics for an advanced workspace monitoring.

  9. Highly integrated front-end electronics for spaceborne fluxgate sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnes, W; Valavanoglou, A; Hagen, C; Jernej, I; Baumjohann, W; Oberst, M; Hauer, H; Neubauer, H; Pierce, D; Means, J; Falkner, P

    2008-01-01

    Scientific instruments for challenging and cost-optimized space missions have to reduce their resource requirements while keeping the high performance levels of conventional instruments. In this context the development of an instrument front-end ASIC (0.35 µm CMOS from austriamicrosystems) for magnetic field sensors based on the fluxgate principle was undertaken. It is based on the combination of the conventional readout electronics of a fluxgate magnetometer with the control loop of a sigma-delta modulator for a direct digitization of the magnetic field. The analogue part is based on a modified 2–2 cascaded sigma-delta modulator. The digital part includes a primary (128 Hz output) and secondary decimation filter (2, 4, 8,..., 64 Hz output) as well as a serial synchronous interface. The chip area is 20 mm 2 and the total power consumption is 60 mW. It has been demonstrated that the overall functionality and performance of the magnetometer front-end ASIC (MFA) is sufficient for scientific applications in space. Noise performance (SNR of 89 dB with a bandwidth of 30 Hz) and offset stability ( −1 MFA temperature, −1 is acceptable. Only a cross-tone phenomenon must be avoided in future designs even though it is possible to mitigate the effect to a level that is tolerable. The MFA stays within its parameters up to 170 krad of total ionizing dose and it keeps full functionality up to more than 300 krad. The threshold for latch-ups is 14 MeV cm 2 mg −1

  10. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  11. A high-precision triaxial fluxgate sensor for space applications: Layout and choice of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The construction of a triaxial fluxgate sensor with very high axis stability and low temperature coefficients is described. The axis orthogonalities change less than 2.1 s of are in the whole testing temperature range +20 to -10 degrees C. The temperature coefficients for the sensitivities of the...

  12. A novel low-power fluxgate sensor using a macroscale optimisation technique for space physics instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, G.; Honary, F.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the design of a novel low-power single-axis fluxgate sensor. Several soft magnetic alloy materials have been considered and the choice was based on the balance between maximum permeability and minimum saturation flux density values. The sensor has been modelled using the Finite Integration Theory (FIT) method. The sensor was imposed to a custom macroscale optimisation technique that significantly reduced the power consumption by a factor of 16. The results of the sensor's optimisation technique will be used, subsequently, in the development of a cutting-edge ground based magnetometer for the study of the complex solar wind-magnetospheric-ionospheric system.

  13. Detection of mechanical instability in DI-fluxgate sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars W.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    ’ during the DI-measurement. We have found a way to glue the ferromagnetic cores within the new sensors to make them mechanically stable. All sensors are tested very carefully before being used. Since the observed erroneous sensor offset due to loose sensor usually is extremely high, we can use a fast...

  14. Autonomous Aeromagnetic Surveys Using a Fluxgate Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Macharet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the research of autonomous vehicles have showed a vast range of applications, such as exploration, surveillance and environmental monitoring. Considering the mining industry, it is possible to use such vehicles in the prospection of minerals of commercial interest beneath the ground. However, tasks such as geophysical surveys are highly dependent on specific sensors, which mostly are not designed to be used in these new range of autonomous vehicles. In this work, we propose a novel magnetic survey pipeline that aims to increase versatility, speed and robustness by using autonomous rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. We also discuss the development of a state-of-the-art three-axis fluxgate, where our goal in this work was to refine and adjust the sensor topology and coupled electronics specifically for this type of vehicle and application. The sensor was built with two ring-cores using a specially developed stress-annealed CoFeSiB amorphous ribbon, in order to get sufficient resolution to detect concentrations of small ferrous minerals. Finally, we report on the results of experiments performed with a real UAV in an outdoor environment, showing the efficacy of the methodology in detecting an artificial ferrous anomaly.

  15. Autonomous Aeromagnetic Surveys Using a Fluxgate Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharet, Douglas G; Perez-Imaz, Héctor I A; Rezeck, Paulo A F; Potje, Guilherme A; Benyosef, Luiz C C; Wiermann, André; Freitas, Gustavo M; Garcia, Luis G U; Campos, Mario F M

    2016-12-17

    Recent advances in the research of autonomous vehicles have showed a vast range of applications, such as exploration, surveillance and environmental monitoring. Considering the mining industry, it is possible to use such vehicles in the prospection of minerals of commercial interest beneath the ground. However, tasks such as geophysical surveys are highly dependent on specific sensors, which mostly are not designed to be used in these new range of autonomous vehicles. In this work, we propose a novel magnetic survey pipeline that aims to increase versatility, speed and robustness by using autonomous rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We also discuss the development of a state-of-the-art three-axis fluxgate, where our goal in this work was to refine and adjust the sensor topology and coupled electronics specifically for this type of vehicle and application. The sensor was built with two ring-cores using a specially developed stress-annealed CoFeSiB amorphous ribbon, in order to get sufficient resolution to detect concentrations of small ferrous minerals. Finally, we report on the results of experiments performed with a real UAV in an outdoor environment, showing the efficacy of the methodology in detecting an artificial ferrous anomaly.

  16. High Tc superconducting magnetic multivibrators for fluxgate magnetic-field sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, K.; Uchiyama, T.; Ozeki, A.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitive and quick-response nonlinear inductance characteristics are found for high Tc superconducting (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-chi ) disk cores at 77K in which soft magnetic BH hysteresis loops are observed. Various quick response magnetic devices such as modulators, amplifiers and sensors are built using these cores. The magnetizing frequency can be set to more than 20 MHz, which is difficult for conventional ferromagnetic bulk materials such as Permalloy amorphous alloys and ferrite. New quick-response fluxgate type magnetic-field sensors are made using ac and dc voltage sources. The former is used for second-harmonic type sensors, while the latter is for voltage-output multivibrator type sensors. Stable and quick-response sensor characteristics were obtained for two-core type multivibrators

  17. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  18. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-06-19

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  19. The effect of winding and core support material on the thermal gain dependence of a fluxgate magnetometer sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, David M.; Mann, Ian R.; Kale, Andy; Milling, David K.; Narod, Barry B.; Bennest, John R.; Barona, David; Unsworth, Martyn J.

    2017-10-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers are an important tool in geophysics and space physics but are typically sensitive to variations in sensor temperature. Changes in instrumental gain with temperature, thermal gain dependence, are thought to be predominantly due to changes in the geometry of the wire coils that sense the magnetic field and/or provide magnetic feedback. Scientific fluxgate magnetometers typically employ some form of temperature compensation and support and constrain wire sense coils with bobbins constructed from materials such as MACOR machinable ceramic (Corning Inc.) which are selected for their ultra-low thermal deformation rather than for robustness, cost, or ease of manufacturing. We present laboratory results comparing the performance of six geometrically and electrically matched fluxgate sensors in which the material used to support the windings and for the base of the sensor is varied. We use a novel, low-cost thermal calibration procedure based on a controlled sinusoidal magnetic source and quantitative spectral analysis to measure the thermal gain dependence of fluxgate magnetometer sensors at the ppm°C-1 level in a typical magnetically noisy university laboratory environment. We compare the thermal gain dependence of sensors built from MACOR, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) engineering plastic (virgin, 30 % glass filled and 30 % carbon filled), and acetal to examine the trade between the thermal properties of the material, the impact on the thermal gain dependence of the fluxgate, and the cost and ease of manufacture. We find that thermal gain dependence of the sensor varies as one half of the material properties of the bobbin supporting the wire sense coils rather than being directly related as has been historically thought. An experimental sensor constructed from 30 % glass-filled PEEK (21.6 ppm°C-1) had a thermal gain dependence within 5 ppm°C-1 of a traditional sensor constructed from MACOR ceramic (8.1 ppm°C-1). If a modest increase in thermal

  20. The effect of winding and core support material on the thermal gain dependence of a fluxgate magnetometer sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Miles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluxgate magnetometers are an important tool in geophysics and space physics but are typically sensitive to variations in sensor temperature. Changes in instrumental gain with temperature, thermal gain dependence, are thought to be predominantly due to changes in the geometry of the wire coils that sense the magnetic field and/or provide magnetic feedback. Scientific fluxgate magnetometers typically employ some form of temperature compensation and support and constrain wire sense coils with bobbins constructed from materials such as MACOR machinable ceramic (Corning Inc. which are selected for their ultra-low thermal deformation rather than for robustness, cost, or ease of manufacturing. We present laboratory results comparing the performance of six geometrically and electrically matched fluxgate sensors in which the material used to support the windings and for the base of the sensor is varied. We use a novel, low-cost thermal calibration procedure based on a controlled sinusoidal magnetic source and quantitative spectral analysis to measure the thermal gain dependence of fluxgate magnetometer sensors at the ppm°C−1 level in a typical magnetically noisy university laboratory environment. We compare the thermal gain dependence of sensors built from MACOR, polyetheretherketone (PEEK engineering plastic (virgin, 30 % glass filled and 30 % carbon filled, and acetal to examine the trade between the thermal properties of the material, the impact on the thermal gain dependence of the fluxgate, and the cost and ease of manufacture. We find that thermal gain dependence of the sensor varies as one half of the material properties of the bobbin supporting the wire sense coils rather than being directly related as has been historically thought. An experimental sensor constructed from 30 % glass-filled PEEK (21.6 ppm°C−1 had a thermal gain dependence within 5 ppm°C−1 of a traditional sensor constructed from MACOR ceramic (8.1

  1. Calibration of Helmholtz Coils for the characterization of MEMS magnetic sensor using fluxgate magnetometer with DAS1 magnetic range data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Dennis, John Ojur; Md Khir, Mohd Haris; Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the calibration of Helmholtz coils for the characterization of MEMS Magnetic sensor using Fluxgate magnetometer with DAS1 Magnetic Range Data Acquisition System. The Helmholtz coils arrangement is often used to generate a uniform magnetic field in space. In the past, standard magnets were used to calibrate the Helmholtz coils. A method is presented here for calibrating these coils using a Fluxgate magnetometer and known current source, which is easier and results in greater accuracy.

  2. Fluxgate vector magnetometers: Compensated multi-sensor devices for ground, UAV and airborne magnetic survey for various application in near surface geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Bruno; Le Maire, Pauline; Munschy, Marc; Dechamp, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Fluxgate 3-components magnetometer is the kind of magnetometer which offers the lightest weight and lowest power consumption for the measurement of the intensity of the magnetic field. Moreover, vector measurements make it the only kind of magnetometer allowing compensation of magnetic perturbations due to the equipment carried with it. Unfortunately, Fluxgate magnetometers are quite uncommon in near surface geophysics due to the difficulty to calibrate them precisely. The recent advances in calibration of the sensors and magnetic compensation of the devices from a simple process on the field led Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg to develop instruments for georeferenced magnetic measurements at different scales - from submetric measurements on the ground to aircraft-conducted acquisition through the wide range offered by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) - with a precision in the order of 1 nT. Such equipment is used for different kind of application: structural geology, pipes and UXO detection, archaeology.

  3. Digitalisation of Fluxgate Magnetometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bøje

    1999-01-01

    in digital signal Processors. The basic properties behind the instrument are described and it is shown that the instrument works equally well as the analogue version. The first fully working instrument, based on digital signal processing for the Swedish micro-satellite Astrid-2, is described. Finally...... instrument.However, some problems are still present in the analogue electronics.In this thesis an instrument, based on digital signal processing, is presented. The instrument uses an early digitalisation of the fluxgate sensor signal and derives the magnetic field with mathematical algorithms implemented...

  4. THOR Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Eastwood, Jonathan; Magnes, Werner; Carr, Christopher, M.; O'Brien, Helen, L.; Narita, Yasuhito; K, Chen, Christopher H.; Berghofer, Gerhard; Valavanoglou, Aris; Delva, Magda; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Cupido, Emanuele; Soucek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) measures the background to low frequency magnetic field. The high sensitivity measurements of MAG enable to characterize the nature of turbulent fluctuations as well as the large-scale context. MAG will provide the reference system for determining anisotropy of field fluctuations, pitch-angle and gyro-phase of particles. The design of the magnetometer consists of two tri-axial sensors and the related magnetometer electronics; the electronics are hosted on printed circuit boards in the common electronics box of the fields and wave processor (FWP). A fully redundant two- sensor system mounted on a common boom and the new miniaturized low noise design based on MMS and Solar Orbiter instruments enable accurate measurement throughout the region of interest for THOR science. The usage of the common electronics hosted by FWP guarantees to fulfill the required timing accuracy with other fields measurements. These improvements are important to obtain precise measurements of magnetic field, which is essential to estimate basic plasma parameters and correctly identify the spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence. Furthermore, THOR MAG provides high quality data with sufficient overlap with the Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) in frequency space to obtain full coverage of the wave forms over all the frequencies necessary to obtain the full solar wind turbulence spectrum from MHD to kinetic range with sufficient accuracy. We discuss the role of MAG in THOR key science questions and present the new developments during Phase A such as the finalised instrument design, MAG relevant requirement, and new calibraion schemes.

  5. Utilization Of Second Harmonisa Fluxgate For Two Dimension Direct Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limansyah, Ivan; Djamal, Mitra

    2003-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetic field sensor is a cheap, accurate and simple solution to measure DC external weak magnetic field. With adding some modification, this sensor can be used to measure amplitude and direction of the external magnetic field. By adding another pick up coils that orthogonal with ordinary pick up coils, two dimensions fluxgate magnetic field sensor can be build

  6. New type of fluxgate magnetometer for the heart’s magnetic fields detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybalko Ruslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application area of fluxgate sensors is limited by their sensitivity. Medical researches create high demand on the magnetometers with the characteristics of high accuracy and sensibility for measuring weak magnetic fields produced by the human body, such as the heart‘s magnetic field. Due to the insufficient sensitivity of fluxgate sensors, superconducting magnetometers (SQUID take the dominant position for the cardiomagnetic measurements. They have to be cooled by liquefied gases and it leads to high service costs. Therefore an idea of creating a high sensitive sensor based on fluxgate principles and known methods of measurement is attractive and up to date. This paper is dedicated to the modified flux-gate sensors based on Racetrack technology with a new approach of signal demodulation. The improved fluxgate sensor system provides detection of the heart‘s magnetic field without additional expenditures for use.

  7. Digitalization of highly precise fluxgate magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Ales; Kuna, A.; Ripka, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the theory behind all three known ways of digitalizing the fluxgate magnetometers: analogue magnetometers with digitalized output using high resolution ADC, application of the delta-sigma modulation to the sensor feedback loop and fully digital signal detection. At present time...... the Delta-Sigma ADCs are mostly used for the digitalization of the highly precise fluxgate magnetorneters. The relevant part of the paper demonstrates some pitfalls of their application studied during the design of the magnetometer for the new Czech scientific satellite MIMOSA. The part discussing...... the application of the A-E modulation to the sensor feedback loop theoretically derives the main advantage of this method-increasing of the modulation order and shows its real potential compared to the analog magnetometer with consequential digitalization. The comparison is realized on the modular magnetometer...

  8. Application of inertial sensors and flux-gate magnetometer to real-time human body motion capture

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, William.

    1996-01-01

    Human body tracking for synthetic environment interface has become a significant human- computer interface challenge. There are several different types of motion capture systems currently available. Inherent problems, most resulting from the use of artificially-generated source signals, plague these systems. A proposed motion capture system is being developed at the Naval Postgraduate School which utilizes a combination of inertial sensors to overcome these difficulties. However, the current ...

  9. The IRM fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, H.; Kloecker, N.; Oelschlaegel, W.; Haeusler, B.; Acuna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the three-axis fluxgate magnetometer instrument on board the AMPTE IRM spacecraft. Important features of the instrument are its wide dynamic range (0.1-60,000 nT), a high resolution (16-bit analog to digital conversion) and the capability to operate automatically or via telecommand in two gain states. In addition, the wave activity is monitored in all three components up to 50 Hz. Inflight checkout proved the nominal functioning of the instrument in all modes.

  10. Residual stresses measurement by using ring-core method and 3D digital image correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Huaixi; Lu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Ring-core method/three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) residual stresses measurement is proposed. Ring-core cutting is a mechanical stress relief method, and combining with 3D DIC system the deformation of the specimen surface can be measured. An optimization iteration method is proposed to obtain the residual stress and rigid-body motion. The method has the ability to cut an annular trench at a different location out of the field of view. A compression test is carried out to demonstrate how residual stress is determined by using 3D DIC system and outfield measurement. The results determined by the approach are in good agreement with the theoretical value. Ring-core/3D DIC has shown its robustness to determine residual stress and can be extended to application in the engineering field. (paper)

  11. 2-LP mode few-mode fiber amplifier employing ring-core erbium-doped fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hirotaka; Hosokawa, Tsukasa; Ichii, Kentaro; Matsuo, Shoichiro; Nasu, Hitoshi; Yamada, Makoto

    2015-10-19

    A fiber amplifier supporting 2 LP modes that employs a ring-core erbium-doped fiber (RC-EDF) is investigated to reduce differential modal gain (DMG). The inner and outer radii of the ring-core of the RC-EDF are clarified for 2-LP mode operation of the amplifier, and are optimized to reduce the DMG. It is shown that using the overlap integral between the erbium-doped core area and the signal power mode distribution is a good way to optimize the inner and outer radii of the ring-core of the RC-EDF and thus minimize the DMG. A fabricated RC-EDF and a constructed 2-LP mode EDFA are described and a small DMG of around 1 dB is realized for LP01, LP11 and LP21 pumping.

  12. Digital fluxgate magnetometer for the "Astrid-2" satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bøje; Primdahl, Fritz; Petersen, Jan Raagaard

    1999-01-01

    The design and performance of the Astrid-2 magnetometer are described. The magnetometer uses mathematical routines implemented by software for commercially available digital dignal processors to determine the magnetic field from the fluxgate sensor. The sensor is from the latest generation of amo...

  13. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  14. Vector magnetometer design study: Analysis of a triaxial fluxgate sensor design demonstrates that all MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer specifications can be met

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. F.; Hartmann, U. G.; Lazarow, L. L.; Maloy, J. O.; Mohler, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The design of the vector magnetometer selected for analysis is capable of exceeding the required accuracy of 5 gamma per vector field component. The principal elements that assure this performance level are very low power dissipation triaxial feedback coils surrounding ring core flux-gates and temperature control of the critical components of two-loop feedback electronics. An analysis of the calibration problem points to the need for improved test facilities.

  15. Feasibility study on measurement of magnetocardiography (MCG) using fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengottuvel, S.; Sharma, Akash; Biswal, Deepak; Khan, Pathan Fayaz; Swain, Pragyna Parimita; Patel, Rajesh; Gireesan, K.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the feasibility of measuring weak magnetic fields generated by the electrical activity of the heart using a portable tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer inside a magnetically shielded room. Measurement of Magnetocardiogram (MCG) signals could be successfully demonstrated from a healthy subject using a novel set-up involving a reference fluxgate sensor which simultaneously measures the magnetic fields associated with the ECG waveform measured on the same subject. The timing information provided by R wave peaks of ECG recorded by the reference sensor is utilized to generate trigger locked average of the sensor output of the measurement fluxgate, and extract MCG signals in all the three orthogonal directions (X, Y and Z) on the anterior thorax. It is expected that such portable room temperature measurements using fluxgate sensor could assist in validating the direction of the equivalent current dipole associated with the electrical activity of the human heart. This is somewhat difficult in conventional MCG measurements using SQUID sensors, which usually furnish only the z component of the magnetic field and its spatial derivatives.

  16. A.c. magnetic-field measurements using the fluxgate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripka, Pavel; Primdahl, Fritz; Nielsen, Otto V

    1995-01-01

    Fluxgate sensors are mostly used in closed-loop d.c. magnetometer systems; they can also measure alternating fields up to severalkilohertz, either in open-loop mode or from an error signal in the slow-feedback loop as in the Thunderstorm rocket magnetometer, which has 0.1 nT resolution up to 3 k...

  17. Digital Fluxgate Magnetometer for Detection of Microvibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghui Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice, instruments, such as accelerometer and laser interferometer, are widely used in vibration measurement of structural parts. A method for using a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer as a microvibration sensor to measure low-frequency pendulum microvibration (not translational vibration is proposed in this paper, so as to detect vibration from low-frequency vibration sources, such as large rotating machine, large engineering structure, earthquake, and microtremor. This method provides vibration detection based on the environmental magnetic field signal to avoid increased measurement difficulty and error due to different relative positions of permanent magnet and magnetometer on the device under test (DUT when using the original magnetic measurement method. After fixedly connecting the fluxgate probe with the DUT during the test, the angular displacement due to vibration can be deduced by measuring the geomagnetic field’s magnetic induction intensity change on the orthogonal three components during the vibration. The test shows that the microvibration sensor has angular resolution of over 0.05° and maximum measuring frequency of 64 Hz. As an exploring test aimed to detect the microvibration of earth-orbiting satellite in the in-orbit process, the simulation experiment successfully provides the real-time microvibration information for attitude and orbit control subsystem.

  18. Generating broadband vortex modes in ring-core fiber by using a plasmonic q-plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingfu; Li, Yan; Han, Yanhua; Deng, Duo; Su, Xiaoya; Song, He; Gao, Jianmin; Qu, Shiliang

    2017-08-15

    A mode convertor was proposed and investigated for generating vortex modes in a ring-core fiber based on a plasmonic q-plate (PQP), which is composed of specially organized L-shaped resonator (LSR) arrays. A multicore fiber was used to transmit fundamental modes, and the LSR arrays were used to modulate phases of these fundamental modes. Behind the PQP, the transmitted fundamental modes with gradient phase distribution can be considered as the incident lights for generating broadband vortex modes in the ring-core fiber filter. The topological charges of generated vortex modes can be various by using an optical PQP with different q, and the chirality of the generated vortex mode can be controlled by the sign of q and handedness of the incident circularly polarized light. The operation bandwidth is 800 nm in the range of 1200-2000 nm, which covers six communication bands from the O band to the U band. The separation of vortex modes also was addressed by using a dual ring-core fiber. The mode convertor is of potential interest for connecting a traditional network and vortex communication network.

  19. Possibilities of further improvement of 1 s fluxgate variometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2017-08-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of improving temperature and noise characteristics of fluxgate variometers. The new fluxgate sensor with a Co-based amorphous ring core is described. This sensor is capable of improving the signal-to-noise ratio at the recording short-period geomagnetic variations. Besides the sensor performance, it is very important to create the high-stability compensation field that cancels the main Earth magnetic field inside the magnetic cores. For this purpose the new digitally controlled current source with low noise level and high temperature stability is developed.

  20. Vector Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2010-1056 Vector Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX Mark B. Moldwin UCLA Institute of Geophysics... Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark B. Moldwin 5d. PROJECT...axis fluxgate magnetometer for the AFRL-mission. The instrument is designed to measure the medium-Earth orbit geomagnetic field with precision of 0.1

  1. Mathematical model of a fluxgate magnetometer

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov Pavel F.; Baranova Vitalia E.; Nesterenko Tamara G.

    2018-01-01

    In paper analytical equations for calculate the electromotive force in the measuring coil of the fluxgate magnetometer independent of the drive signal frequency content are presented. Also, the equations for es-timation of the fluxgate sensitivity at any harmonic and for study fluxgates operation with a glance to the waveform and the polynomial approximation of the mean magnetization curve of the core are provided.

  2. Mathematical model of a fluxgate magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Pavel F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper analytical equations for calculate the electromotive force in the measuring coil of the fluxgate magnetometer independent of the drive signal frequency content are presented. Also, the equations for es-timation of the fluxgate sensitivity at any harmonic and for study fluxgates operation with a glance to the waveform and the polynomial approximation of the mean magnetization curve of the core are provided.

  3. Magnetic Test Facility - Sensor and Coil Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    amplitude of signals induced into the sensor. 2.1.1.2 Fluxgate magnetometers Fluxgate sensors consist of a ferromagnetic core, around which drive and sense...kHz range to be measured. Fluxgate magnetometers do not have a lower limit to their fre- quency response, and hence can be used to measure...placed within a larger triaxial coil which is used in conjunction with a fluxgate magnetometer to cancel earth’s field at the cen- tre of the coil. A

  4. Calibration of triaxial fluxgate gradiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vcelak, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The description of simple and fast calibration procedures used for double-probe triaxial fluxgate gradiometer is provided in this paper. The calibration procedure consists of three basic steps. In the first step both probes are calibrated independently in order to reach constant total field reading in every position. Both probes are numerically aligned in the second step in order that the gradient reading is zero in homogenous magnetic field. The third step consists of periodic drift calibration during measurement. The results and detailed description of each calibration step are presented and discussed in the paper. The gradiometer is finally verified during the detection of the metal object in the measuring grid

  5. Digital fluxgate magnetometer: design notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-01-01

    We presented an approach to understanding the performance of a fully digital fluxgate magnetometer. All elements of the design are important for the performance of the instrument, and the presence of the digital feed-back loop introduces certain peculiarities affecting the noise and dynamic performance of the instrument. Ultimately, the quantisation noise of the digital to analogue converter is found to dominate the noise of the current design, although noise shaping alleviates its effect to some extent. An example of magnetometer measurements on board a sounding rocket is presented, and ways to further improve the performance of the instrument are discussed. (paper)

  6. Digital fluxgate magnetometer: design notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-12-01

    We presented an approach to understanding the performance of a fully digital fluxgate magnetometer. All elements of the design are important for the performance of the instrument, and the presence of the digital feed-back loop introduces certain peculiarities affecting the noise and dynamic performance of the instrument. Ultimately, the quantisation noise of the digital to analogue converter is found to dominate the noise of the current design, although noise shaping alleviates its effect to some extent. An example of magnetometer measurements on board a sounding rocket is presented, and ways to further improve the performance of the instrument are discussed.

  7. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or “responsivity” for magnetometers and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market.

  8. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or “responsivity” for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market. PMID:25196107

  9. High-sensitivity low-noise miniature fluxgate magnetometers using a flip chip conceptual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-07-30

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current "flip chip" concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or "responsivity" for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market.

  10. Inductance analyzer based on auto-balanced circuit for precision measurement of fluxgate impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, Rahmondia N.; Schilling, Meinhard

    2018-05-01

    An instrument for fluxgate sensor impedance measurement based on an auto-balanced circuit has been designed and characterized. The circuit design is adjusted to comply with the fluxgate sensor characteristics which are low impedance and highly saturable core with very high permeability. The system utilizes a NI-DAQ card and LabVIEW to process the signal acquisition and evaluation. Some fixed reference resistances are employed for system calibration using linear regression. A multimeter HP 34401A and impedance analyzer Agilent 4294A are used as calibrator and validator for the resistance and inductance measurements. Here, we realized a fluxgate analyzer instrument based on auto-balanced circuit, which measures the resistance and inductance of the device under test with a small error and much lower excitation current to avoid core saturation compared to the used calibrator.

  11. Symmetry Induced Heteroclinic Cycles in Coupled Sensor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of an array of magnetic sensors. In particular, we consider arrays made up of fluxgate magnetometers inductively coupled through electronic circuits. c...cycle can significantly enhance the sensitivity of an array of magnetic sensors. In particular, we consider arrays made up of fluxgate magnetometers ...IUTAM 5 ( 2012 ) 144 – 150 4. A Cycle in A Coupled-Core Fluxgate Magnetometer 4.1. Modeling In its most basic form, a fluxgate magnetometer

  12. Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrefai, Ahmed L., E-mail: a.lotfyelrefai@gmail.com; Sasada, Ichiro [Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    A new detection system for magnetic particles, which can operate in an unshielded environment, is developed using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer. The proposed detection system offers the advantages of cost, size, and weight reduction as compared to contamination detection systems using superconducting quantum interference device sensor. The detection system can be used to detect metallic contamination in foods or lithium ion battery production lines. The system has been investigated numerically to optimize various design parameters of the system. Experimental setup has been developed to evaluate some of the numerically predicted results. Steel balls were successfully detected down to the diameter of 50 μm.

  13. The Fluxgate Magnetometer Simulation in Comsol Multiphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomeytsev Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fluxgate magnetometer simulation in Comsol Multiphysics software package. The simulation results coincide with the experiment described earlier. Decomposition of the output signal by the Fourier coefficients shows a frequency doubling.

  14. The Fluxgate Magnetometer Simulation in Comsol Multiphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomeytsev Andrey; Baranov Pavel; Zatonov Ivan

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the fluxgate magnetometer simulation in Comsol Multiphysics software package. The simulation results coincide with the experiment described earlier. Decomposition of the output signal by the Fourier coefficients shows a frequency doubling.

  15. The DMSP Space Weather Sensors Data Archive Listing (1982-2013) and File Formats Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    environment sensors including the auroral particle spectrometer (SSJ), the fluxgate magnetometer (SSM), the topside thermal plasma monitor (SSIES... Fluxgate Magnetometer (SSM) for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D-2, Flight 7, Instrument Papers, AFGL-TR-84-0225; ADA155229...Flux) SSM The fluxgate magnetometer . (Special Sensor, Magnetometer ) SSULI The ultraviolet limb imager SSUSI The ultraviolet spectrographic imager

  16. ATS-6 - UCLA fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpherron, R. L.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Snare, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the design of the University of California at Los Angeles' fluxgate magnetometer is presented. Instrument noise in the bandwidth 0.001 to 1.0 Hz is of order 85 m gamma. The DC field of the spacecraft transverse to the earth-pointing axis is 1.0 + or - 21 gamma in the X direction and -2.4 + or - 1.3 gamma in the Y direction. The spacecraft field parallel to this axis is less than 5 gamma. The small spacecraft field has made possible studies of the macroscopic field not previously possible at synchronous orbit. At the 96 W longitude of Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6), the earth's field is typically inclined 30 deg to the dipole axis at local noon. Most perturbations of the field are due to substorms. These consist of a rotation in the meridian to a more radial field followed by a subsequent rotation back. The rotation back is normally accompanied by transient variations in the azimuthal field. The exact timing of these perturbations is a function of satellite location and the details of substorm development.

  17. Simulation and measurement of ferromagnetic impurities in non-magnetic aeroengine turbine disks using fluxgate magnetometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Hantscher; Ruixin Zhou; Albert Seidl; Johann Hinken; Christian Ziep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ferromagnetic impurities in paramagnetic aeroengine turbine disks are investigated. Because such inclusions represent a significant threat in aviation, a detailed analysis is required for impured turbine disks. For this purpose, sensitive fluxgate magnetometers are used. After a premagnetisation, this sensor is able to detect small ferromagnetic particles by recording the variation of the magnetic flux density while the disk rotates below the sensor head. This trajectory create...

  18. Exploiting nonlinear dynamics in a coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulsara, Adi R; In, Visarath; Kho, Andy; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joe; Anderson, Gregory; Obra, Christopher; Palacios, Antonio; Baglio, Salvatore; Ando, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Unforced bistable dynamical systems having dynamics of the general form τ F x-dot (t)=-∇ x U(x) cannot oscillate (i.e. switch between their stable attractors). However, a number of such systems subject to carefully crafted coupling schemes have been shown to exhibit oscillatory behavior under carefully chosen operating conditions. This behavior, in turn, affords a new mechanism for the detection and quantification of target signals having magnitude far smaller than the energy barrier height in the potential energy function U(x) for a single (uncoupled) element. The coupling-induced oscillations are a feature that appears to be universal in systems described by bi- or multi-stable potential energy functions U(x), and are being exploited in a new class of dynamical sensors being developed by us. In this work we describe one of these devices, a coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer (CCFM), whose operation is underpinned by this dynamic behavior. We provide an overview of the underlying dynamics and, also, quantify the performance of our test device; in particular, we provide a quantitative performance comparison to a conventional (single-core) fluxgate magnetometer via a 'resolution' parameter that embodies the device sensitivity (the slope of its input–output transfer characteristic) as well as the noise floor

  19. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  20. A radiation hardened digital fluxgate magnetometer for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Bennest, J. R.; Mann, I. R.; Millling, D. K.

    2013-09-01

    Space-based measurements of Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes responsible for energising particles in the Van Allen radiation belts and influencing space weather. This paper describes a prototype fluxgate magnetometer instrument developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission and which has applications in other space and suborbital applications. The magnetometer is designed to survive and operate in the harsh environment of Earth's radiation belts and measure low-frequency magnetic waves, the magnetic signatures of current systems, and the static background magnetic field. The new instrument offers improved science data compared to its predecessors through two key design changes: direct digitisation of the sensor and digital feedback from two cascaded pulse-width modulators combined with analog temperature compensation. These provide an increase in measurement bandwidth up to 450 Hz with the potential to extend to at least 1500 Hz. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65 000 nT field with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz. This performance is comparable with other recent digital fluxgates for space applications, most of which use some form of sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulation for feedback and omit analog temperature compensation. The prototype instrument was successfully tested and calibrated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory.

  1. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2015-12-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and Digital Fluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since the successful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the ground calibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluate twelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers using algorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF, UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tones and harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA. IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolute gains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS and give examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  2. Munitions Detection Using Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Equipped with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    buried target. The RTG is a small passive magnetic sensor using fluxgate magnetometers measuring 3- orthogonal magnetic-field vector components at 3...surveys. Figure 6 shows the RTG magnetic sensor in both an open (showing the fluxgate magnetometers ) and enclosed state (mode for integration onto...7.6 Real-time Tracking Gradiometer (RTG) System The RTG is a small passive magnetic sensor using fluxgate magnetometers measuring 3- orthogonal

  3. Magnetic measurements with fluxgate 3-components magnetometers in archaeology. Multi-sensor device and associated potential field operators for large scale to centimetre investigations on the 1st millennium BC site of Qasr ʿAllam in the western desert of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Bruno; Alkhatib-Alkontar, Rozan; Munschy, Marc; Colin, Frédéric; Duvette, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Fluxgate 3-components magnetometers allow vector measurements of the magnetic field. Moreover, they are the magnetometers measuring the intensity of the magnetic field with the lightest weight and the lowest power consumption. Vector measurements make them the only kind of magnetometer allowing compensation of magnetic perturbations due to the equipment carried with the magnetometer. Fluxgate 3-components magnetometers are common in space magnetometry and in aero-geophysics but are never used in archaeology due to the difficulty to calibrate them. This problem is overcome by the use of a simple calibration and compensation procedure on the field developed initially for space research (after calibration and compensation, rms noise is less than 1 nT). It is therefore possible to build a multi-sensor (up to 8) and georeferenced device for investigations at different scales down to the centimetre: because the locus of magnetic measurements is less than a cubic centimetre, magnetic profiling or mapping can be performed a few centimetres outside magnetized bodies. Such an equipment is used in a context of heavy sediment coverage and uneven topography on the 1st millennium BC site of Qasr ʿAllam in the western desert of Egypt. Magnetic measurements with a line spacing of 0.5 m allow to compute a magnetic grid. Interpretation using potential field operators such as double reduction to the pole and fractional vertical derivatives reveals a widespread irrigation system and a vast cultic facility. In some areas, magnetic profiling with a 0.1 m line spacing and at 0.1 m above the ground is performed. Results of interpretations give enough proof to the local authorities to enlarge the protection of the site against the threatening progression of agricultural fields.

  4. Miniature Inertial and Augmentation Sensors for Integrated Inertial/GPS Based Navigation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Magnetometer (Ref [23]) Until miniature atomic magnetometers transition from laboratory demonstration units to a mass produced product, fluxgate ...and/or magnetoresistive designs are a better suited magnetometer technology for a miniature navigation system. Figure 8 below shows the basic fluxgate ...is required to resolve magnetic field orientation. Fig 8. Fluxgate Magnetometer Schematic The PNI Sensor Corporation (Santa Rosa, CA

  5. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. P...

  6. Digital Detection and feedback Fluxgate Magnetometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil-Henriksen, J.; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V

    1996-01-01

    A new full Earth's field dynamic feedback fluxgate magnetometer is described. It is based entirely on digital signal processing and digital feedback control, thereby replacing the classical second harmonic tuned analogue electronics by processor algorithms. Discrete mathematical cross......-correlation routines and substantial oversampling reduce the noise to 71 pT root-mean-square in a 0.25-10 Hz bandwidth for a full Earth's field range instrument....

  7. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  8. Design of a Low-Cost 2-Axes Fluxgate Magnetometer for Small Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jeoung Kim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design and analysis results of a 2-axes magnetometer for attitude determination of small satellite. A low-cost and efficient 2-axes fluxgate magnetometer was selected as the most suitable attitude sensor for LEO microsatellites which require a low-to-medium level pointing accuracy. An optimization trade-off study has been performed for the development of 2-axes fluxgate magnetometer. All the relevant parameters such as permeability, demagnetization factor, coil diameter, core thickness, and number of coil turns were considered for the sizing of a small satellite magnetometer. The magnetometer which is designed, manufactured, and tested in-house as described in this paper satisfies linearity requirement for determining attitude position of small satellites. On the basis of magnetometer which is designed in Space System Research Lab. (SSRL, commercial magnetometer will be developed.

  9. A simple fluxgate magnetometer using amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, S.K.; Mitra, A.

    1992-01-01

    A simple fluxgate magnetometer is developed using low magnetostrictive ferromagnetic amorphous alloy acting as a sensing element. It uses the fact that the magnetization of sensing element symmetrically magnetized by a sinusoidal field contains even harmonic components in presence of dc signal field H and the amplitude of the second harmonic component of magnetization is proportional to H. The sensitivity and linearity of the magnetometer with signal field are studied for parallel configuration and the field ranging from 10 nT to 10 μT can be measured. The functioning of the magnetometer is demonstrated by studying the shielding and flux-trapping phenomena in high-Tc superconductor. (orig.)

  10. A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer was developed to obtain high sensitivity in magnetotelluric measurements. In magnetotelluric sounding, natural low frequency electromagnetic fields are used to estimate the conductivity of the Earth's interior. Because variations in the natural magnetic field have small amplitude(10-100 pT in the frequency range 1 Hz to 100 Hz, highly sensitive magnetic sensors are required. In magnetotelluric measurements two long and heavy solenoids, which must be installed, in the field station, perpendicular to each other (north-south and east-west and levelled in the horizontal plane are used. The coil is a critical component in magnetotelluric measurements because very slight motions create noise voltages, particularly troublesome in wooded areas; generally the installation takes place in a shallow trench. Moreover the coil records the derivative of the variations rather than the magnetic field variations, consequently the transfer function (amplitude and phase of this sensor is not constant throughout the frequency range 0.001-100 Hz. The instrument, developed at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory, has a flat response in both amplitude and phase in the frequency band DC-100 Hz, in addition it has low weight, low power, small volume and it is easier to install in the field than induction magnetometers. The sensivity of this magnetometer is 10 pT rms.

  11. Miniaturized digital fluxgate magnetometer for small spacecraft applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forslund, Åke; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Olsson, Göran; Edberg, Terry; Belyayev, Serhiy; Marusenkov, Andriy

    2008-01-01

    A novel design of an Earth field digital fluxgate magnetometer is presented, the small magnetometer in low-mass experiment (SMILE). The combination of a number of new techniques results in significant miniaturization of both sensor and electronics. The design uses a sensor with volume compensation, combining three dual rod cores in a Macor® cube with the side dimension of 20 mm. Use of volume compensation provides high geometrical stability of the axes and improved performance compared to component compensated sensors. The sensor is operated at an excitation frequency of 8 kHz. Most of the instrument functionality is combined in a digital signal processing core, implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The pick-up signal is digitized after amplification and filtering, and values of compensation currents for each of the axes are determined by a digital correlation algorithm, equivalent to a matched filter, and are fed to a hybrid pulse-width modulation/delta-sigma digital-to-analogue converter driving the currents through the compensation coils. Using digital design makes the instrument very flexible, reduces power consumption and opens possibilities for the customization of the operation modes. The current implementation of the design is based on commercial off-the-shelf components. A calibration of the SMILE instrument was carried out at the Nurmijärvi Geophysical Observatory, showing high linearity (within 6 nT on the whole ±50 µT scale), good orthogonality (22 arcmin) and very good temperature stability of the axes

  12. Optimizing the sensing performance of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Hava; Tanrıseven, Sercan; Birlikseven, Cengiz; Sözeri, Hüseyin; Topal, Uğur; Svec, Peter Jr; Svec, Peter Sr; Bydzovsky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal conditions for the design of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using Co-based amorphous magnetic wires with reduced geometrical dimensions of 100 μm in diameter. In order to enhance the performance of the current sensor (i.e. the noise level, the sensitivity, the dynamical range, the scaling factor, etc), the core materials were subjected to annealing at different annealing temperatures in a longitudinal magnetic field ranging from 0 to 0.5 T. The B–H measurements have shown that the heat treatments significantly change the magnetic parameters of the cores (the saturation field, the initial and apparent permeabilities). For instance, the initial permeability μ i attains values of between 3500 and 4700 depending on the treatment conditions. These magnetic parameters were subsequently correlated with the sensor performance by using the principles of the fluxgate physics. Consequently, the enhanced fluxgate effect with improved sensing characteristics has been obtained by annealing the wire core at 250 °C (B  =  0 T). It is shown that this magnetic wire with a sensing area of 0.00785 mm 2 is suitable as a sensor core for the nondestructive testing of metallic objects and the surfaces of magnetic cards. The sensor signal shows perfect linear dependence to dc or low frequency fields up to ∼1 Oe. The fitting parameters R 2 of 0.9998 could be achieved in a dc field interval of  −1.0 Oe and 1.0 Oe (when R 2   =1.0, all points lie exactly on the curve with no scatter). Such linearity has not been seen in such a large dynamical range until now in the rod-type single-core fluxgates. It is also shown that there is no hysteresis on the V 2f –H dc graphs (the V 2f is the sensor signal) even after applying fields as high as 100 Oe. Besides, the cross-field effect is almost zero due to the geometry of the long-thin wire. (paper)

  13. Optimizing the sensing performance of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using thin magnetic wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hava; Svec, Peter, Jr.; Tanrıseven, Sercan; Bydzovsky, Jan; Birlikseven, Cengiz; Sözeri, Hüseyin; Svec, Peter, Sr.; Topal, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the optimal conditions for the design of a single-rod fluxgate magnetometer using Co-based amorphous magnetic wires with reduced geometrical dimensions of 100 μm in diameter. In order to enhance the performance of the current sensor (i.e. the noise level, the sensitivity, the dynamical range, the scaling factor, etc), the core materials were subjected to annealing at different annealing temperatures in a longitudinal magnetic field ranging from 0 to 0.5 T. The B-H measurements have shown that the heat treatments significantly change the magnetic parameters of the cores (the saturation field, the initial and apparent permeabilities). For instance, the initial permeability μ i attains values of between 3500 and 4700 depending on the treatment conditions. These magnetic parameters were subsequently correlated with the sensor performance by using the principles of the fluxgate physics. Consequently, the enhanced fluxgate effect with improved sensing characteristics has been obtained by annealing the wire core at 250 °C (B  =  0 T). It is shown that this magnetic wire with a sensing area of 0.00785 mm2 is suitable as a sensor core for the nondestructive testing of metallic objects and the surfaces of magnetic cards. The sensor signal shows perfect linear dependence to dc or low frequency fields up to ~1 Oe. The fitting parameters R 2 of 0.9998 could be achieved in a dc field interval of  -1.0 Oe and 1.0 Oe (when R 2  =1.0, all points lie exactly on the curve with no scatter). Such linearity has not been seen in such a large dynamical range until now in the rod-type single-core fluxgates. It is also shown that there is no hysteresis on the V 2f -H dc graphs (the V 2f is the sensor signal) even after applying fields as high as 100 Oe. Besides, the cross-field effect is almost zero due to the geometry of the long-thin wire.

  14. Underwater (UW) Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Multi-Sensor Data Base (MSDB) Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    11 FIGURE 6 RTG SENSOR. FOUR SENSOR TRIADS ARE SHOWN, EACH WITH A 3-AXIS FLUXGATE MAGNETOMETER ...used by RTG to measure the gradients. Each triad includes a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer and a set of feedback coils. The outputs of three triad...each with a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer (internal, not clearly visible) and a set of 3 feedback coils. The upper triad 3-axis magnetometer

  15. Development, construction and analysis of the "Ørsted" fluxgate magnetometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto V; Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Primdahl, Fritz

    1995-01-01

    glass ribbons as core materials. It is shown that very simple physical models can be used to explain the fluxgate mode of operation, thereby making it easy to calculate the overall sensor performance from first principles. Special attention is drawn to the core excitation current which is analysed...... in the instrument (±65 536 nT with 0.5 nT resolution). The maximum attainablebandwidth is half the sensor excitation frequency (½ x 15 kHz) but the Ørsted magnetometer bandwidth is limited to 250 Hz. The thermal stability of the sensor has been measured to be better than 1 nT in the temperature range -20 to +60°C....

  16. Development of a 3-dimensional calculation model of the Danish research reactor DR3 to analyse a proposal to a new core design called ring-core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonboel, E

    1985-07-01

    A 3-dimensional calculation model of the Danish research reactor DR3 has been developed. Demands of a more effective utilization of the reactor and its facilities has required a more detailed calculation tool than applied so far. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the treatment of the coarse control arms. The model has been tested against measurements with satisfying results. Furthermore the model has been used to analyse a proposal to a new core design called ring-core where 4 central fuel elements are replaced by 4 dummy elements to increase the thermal flux in the center of the reactor. (author)

  17. The simple procedure for the fluxgate magnetometers calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2014-05-01

    The fluxgate magnetometers are widely used in geophysics investigations including the geomagnetic field monitoring at the global network of geomagnetic observatories as well as for electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust conductivity. For solving these tasks the magnetometers have to be calibrated with an appropriate level of accuracy. As a particular case, the ways to satisfy the recent requirements to the scaling and orientation errors of 1-second INTERNAGNET magnetometers are considered in the work. The goal of the present study was to choose a simple and reliable calibration method for estimation of scale factors and angular errors of the three-axis magnetometers in the field. There are a large number of the scalar calibration methods, which use a free rotation of the sensor in the calibration field followed by complicated data processing procedures for numerical solution of the high-order equations set. The chosen approach also exploits the Earth's magnetic field as a calibrating signal, but, in contrast to other methods, the sensor has to be oriented in some particular positions in respect to the total field vector, instead of the sensor free rotation. This allows to use very simple and straightforward linear computation formulas and, as a result, to achieve more reliable estimations of the calibrated parameters. The estimation of the scale factors is performed by the sequential aligning of each component of the sensor in two positions: parallel and anti-parallel to the Earth's magnetic field vector. The estimation of non-orthogonality angles between each pair of components is performed after sequential aligning of the components at the angles +/- 45 and +/- 135 degrees of arc in respect to the total field vector. Due to such four positions approach the estimations of the non-orthogonality angles are invariant to the zero offsets and non-linearity of transfer functions of the components. The experimental justifying of the proposed method by means of the

  18. A Low Frequency Electromagnetic Sensor for Underwater Geo-Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    used a set of commercially available fluxgate magnetometers to measure the magnetic field gradients associated with a magnetic dipole transmitter...insight into the operational capabilities of commercial fluxgate sensors. Figure 42. Applied Physics Systems 1540 magnetometer ...a magnetic field gradient receiver array. Highest quality gradient estimates were achieved with three vector magnetometers equally spaced and

  19. In-Flight Calibration of the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of the approach to in-flight calibration, which is a coordinated effort between the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF) and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). We present details of the calibration effort at GSFC. During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen for the period of any given week to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  20. Hunting Sea Mines with UUV-Based Magnetic and Electro-Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    assembly of four 3-axis fluxgate magnetometers and (c) magnetometer package for underwater deployment in flooded body section. data are automatically...features the Real-time Tracking Gradiometer (RTG), which is a multi-channel tensor gradiometer using conventional fluxgate technology. Also in this...integrated together into a Bluefin12 AUV [5]. A. RTG Sensor Technology The RTG is a multi-channel tensor gradiometer using conventional fluxgate

  1. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  2. Coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer: Novel configuration scheme and the effects of a noise-contaminated external signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Antonio; Aven, John; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Bulsara, Adi

    2007-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that unidirectional coupling can induce oscillations in overdamped and undriven nonlinear dynamical systems that are non-oscillatory when uncoupled; in turn, this has been shown to lead to new mechanisms for weak (compared to the energy barrier height) signal detection and amplification. The potential applications include fluxgate magnetometers, electric field sensors, and arrays of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) rings. In the particular case of the fluxgate magnetometer, we have developed a ''coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer'' (CCFM); this device has been realized in the laboratory and its dynamics used to quantify many properties that are generic to this class of systems and coupling. The CCFM operation is underpinned by the emergent oscillatory behavior in a unidirectionally coupled ring of wound ferromagnetic cores, each of which can be treated as an overdamped bistable dynamic system when uncoupled. In particular, one can determine the regimes of existence and stability of the (coupling-induced) oscillations, and the scaling behavior of the oscillation frequency. More recently, we studied the effects of a (Gaussian) magnetic noise floor on a CCFM system realized with N=3 coupled ferromagnetic cores. In this Letter, we first introduce a variation on the basic CCFM configuration that affords a path to enhanced device sensitivity, particularly for N>=3 coupled elements. We then analyze the response of the basic CCFM configuration as well as the new setup to a dc target signal that has a small noisy component (or ''contamination'')

  3. The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

  4. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  5. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  6. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Pérez; Claudio Aroca; Marina Díaz-Michelena; David Ciudad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  7. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  8. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of the new self-compensating excitation circuitry to the new generation of high-precise space vector magnetometers. The application starts with complex study including design of new robust model of the non-linear inductor leading to investigation...... of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...

  9. Calibration of the fluxgate CSC vector magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Risbo, Torben; Primdahl, Fritz

    1995-01-01

    sensor giving an error corresponding to 5 to 10 nT in full scale field. It rotates as well the CSC sensor axes. In principle this is due to the presence of soft magnetic material. No remanent magnetization has been observed. Hermann Luehr has ratified this fact and recommended a final calibration...... thermal run of the flight unit. The residuals show some outliers due to the mechanical perturbation while removing the dry ice. Due to the speed of temperature change the thermodynamic equilibrium is not well achieved in the cooling phase, and that gives a little bit dispersion of the parameters....

  10. Fluxgate Magnetometer Array for Geomagnetic Abnormal Phenomena Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to develop a flexible observation mode for a geomagnetic abnormal phenomena tracking system. The instrument, based on ring core fluxgate magnetometer technology, improves the field environment performance. Using wireless technology provides on-the-spot mobile networking for the observational data, with efficient access to the earthquake precursor observation network. It provides a powerful detection method for earthquake short-term prediction through installation of a low-noise fluxgate magnetometer array, intensely observing the phenomenon of geomagnetic disturbances and abnormal low-frequency electromagnetic signals in different latitudes, then carrying out observational data processing and exploring the relationship between earthquake activity and geomagnetic field changes.

  11. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  12. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle detection system by using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate (FM-OFG gradiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Karo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new magnetic nanoparticle detection system by using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate (FM-OFG gradiometer and ac magnetizing coil has been developed. The FM-OFG gradiometer has an active canceling coil on each of its sensor heads against the common magnetic field input to avoid the saturation of the amorphous wire core by a strong ac magnetic field. In addition, the ac magnetizing coil has an adjusting capability to make ac magnetic field strength affecting each of the gradiometer heads equal, which allows us to use a high gain amplifier at the latter stage. Two types of the gradiometer are tested: one is parallel configuration in which two sensor heads are placed in parallel side by side, the other is axial configuration in which two sensor heads are placed axially. Detectable distance was investigated using a 5μL (≈100μg in Fe atomic amount magnetic nanoparticle sample. The maximum detectable distance for the parallel gradiometer is 17 mm, and that for the axial one is 18 mm.

  13. Coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer: Novel configuration scheme and the effects of a noise-contaminated external signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Antonio [San Diego State University, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States)]. E-mail: palacios@euler.sdsu.edu; Aven, John [San Diego State University, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States); In, Visarath [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)]. E-mail: visarath@spawar.navy.mil; Longhini, Patrick [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Kho, Andy [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Neff, Joseph D. [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Bulsara, Adi [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)]. E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil

    2007-07-16

    Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that unidirectional coupling can induce oscillations in overdamped and undriven nonlinear dynamical systems that are non-oscillatory when uncoupled; in turn, this has been shown to lead to new mechanisms for weak (compared to the energy barrier height) signal detection and amplification. The potential applications include fluxgate magnetometers, electric field sensors, and arrays of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) rings. In the particular case of the fluxgate magnetometer, we have developed a ''coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer'' (CCFM); this device has been realized in the laboratory and its dynamics used to quantify many properties that are generic to this class of systems and coupling. The CCFM operation is underpinned by the emergent oscillatory behavior in a unidirectionally coupled ring of wound ferromagnetic cores, each of which can be treated as an overdamped bistable dynamic system when uncoupled. In particular, one can determine the regimes of existence and stability of the (coupling-induced) oscillations, and the scaling behavior of the oscillation frequency. More recently, we studied the effects of a (Gaussian) magnetic noise floor on a CCFM system realized with N=3 coupled ferromagnetic cores. In this Letter, we first introduce a variation on the basic CCFM configuration that affords a path to enhanced device sensitivity, particularly for N>=3 coupled elements. We then analyze the response of the basic CCFM configuration as well as the new setup to a dc target signal that has a small noisy component (or ''contamination'')

  14. Magnetorelaxometry of magnetic nanoparticles with fluxgate magnetometers for the analysis of biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Frank; Heim, Erik; Maeuselein, Sascha; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Schilling, Meinhard

    2005-01-01

    A magnetorelaxometry system based on sensitive fluxgate magnetometers for the analysis of the relaxation behavior of magnetic nanoparticles is presented. The system is tested with a dilution series of magnetite. The results are directly compared with data obtained with a SQUID magnetorelaxometry system measured on the same samples. Advantages of using fluxgates rather than SQUIDs for magnetorelaxometry are discussed

  15. Multilayer Based Technology to Build RTD Fluxgate Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ANDO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the main features of the Residence Times Difference Fluxgate Magnetometer. A low-cost technology, negligible onboard power requirements and the intrinsic digital form of the readout signal are the main advantages of the proposed strategy. Results obtained show the possibility to realise low-cost devices exploiting Printed Circuit Board (PCB technology for applications requiring resolution in the nanotesla range as the ferrous object (or particles detection, being the performance obtained suitable to detect the presence or the transit of ferrous materials via their interaction with the geomagnetic field.

  16. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are −0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions. (paper)

  17. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-07-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are -0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions.

  18. The fluxgate magnetometer of the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Heyner, D.; Okrafka, K.; Carr, C.; Berghofer, G.; Anderson, B. J.; Balogh, A.; Baumjohann, W.; Cargill, P.; Christensen, U.; Delva, M.; Dougherty, M.; Fornaçon, K.-H.; Horbury, T. S.; Lucek, E. A.; Magnes, W.; Mandea, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Matsushima, M.; Motschmann, U.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; O'Brien, H.; Richter, I.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Shibuya, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Sotin, C.; Stoll, B.; Tsunakawa, H.; Vennerstrom, S.; Vogt, J.; Zhang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetometer (MAG) on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the joint European-Japanese BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury is a low-noise, tri-axial, dual-sensor, digital fluxgate instrument with its sensors mounted on a 2.8-m-long boom. The primary MPO/MAG science objectives are to determine the spatial and temporal structure of the magnetic field in the Hermean system, in particular the structure and origin of the intrinsic magnetic field of Mercury. MPO/MAG has a dynamic measurement range of ±2000nT with a resolution of 2 pT during operation along the near-polar orbit of the MPO spacecraft around Mercury. MPO/MAG is designed to provide measurements with rates between 0.5 and 128 vectors/s. In cooperation with its sister magnetometer instrument, MMO/MGF on board the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), MPO/MAG will be able to distinguish between temporal and spatial magnetic field variations in the magnetically closely coupled Hermean system.

  19. Design and characterization of 16-mode PANDA polarization-maintaining few-mode ring-core fiber for spatial division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Yongli; Yu, Xiaosong; Han, Jiawei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    A PANDA polarization-maintaining few-mode ring-core fiber (PM-FM-RCF) structure with two air holes around the ring core is proposed. The relative mode multiplicity factor (RMMF) is defined to evaluate the spatial efficiency of the designed PM-FM-RCF. The performance analysis and comparison of the proposed PANDA PM-FM-RCFs considering three different types of step-index profiles are detailed. Through modal characteristic analysis and numerical simulation, the PM-FM-RCF with a lower refractive index difference (Δnoi=1.5%) between the ring core and the inner central circle can support up to 16 polarization modes with large RMMF at C-band, which shows the optimum modal properties compared with the PM-FM-RCF with higher Δnoi. All the supported polarization modes are effectively separated from their adjacent polarization modes with effective refractive index differences (Δn) larger than 10-4, which also show relatively small chromatic dispersion (-20 to 25 ps/nm/km), low attenuation (<1.4 dB/km), and small bending radius (˜8 mm) over the C-band. The designed PM-FM-RCF can be compatible with standard single-mode fibers and applied in multiple-input multiple-output-free spatial division multiplexing optical networks for short-reach optical interconnection.

  20. Development of High Resolution Eddy Current Imaging Using an Electro-Mechanical Sensor (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Fluxgate Magnetometer ,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 12: 241-253. 13. A. Abedi, J. J. Fellenstein, A. J. Lucas, and J. P. Wikswo, Jr., “A...206 (2006). 11. Ripka, P., 1992, Review of Fluxgate Sensors, Sensors and Actuators, A. 33, Elsevier Sequoia: 129-141. 12. Primdahl, F., 1979...superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for quantitative analysis and imaging of hidden corrosion activity in aircraft aluminum

  1. Development of High Resolution Eddy Current Imaging Using an Electro-Mechanical Sensor (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Primdahl, F., 1979, “The Fluxgate Magnetometer ,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 12: 241-253. 13. A. Abedi, J. J. Fellenstein, A. J. Lucas, and J. P...Issues 1-2, Pages 203-206 (2006). 11. Ripka, P., 1992, Review of Fluxgate Sensors, Sensors and Actuators, A. 33, Elsevier Sequoia: 129-141. 12...Wikswo, Jr., “A superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for quantitative analysis and imaging of hidden corrosion activity in

  2. Fluxgate Magnetometry on the Experimental Albertan Satellite #1 (Ex-Alta-1) CubeSat Mission: Steps Toward a Magnetospheric Constellation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Miles, D.; Nokes, C.; Cupido, C.; Elliott, D.; Ciurzynski, M.; Barona, D.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J.; Pakhotin, I.; Kale, A.; Bruner, B.; Haluza-DeLay, T.; Forsyth, C.; Rae, J.; Lange, C.; Sameoto, D.; Milling, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Making low noise magnetic measurements is a significant challenge to the use of cube-satellite (CubeSat) platforms for scientific constellation class missions for studies of geospace. We describe the design, validation, and test, and initial on-orbit results from a miniature, low-mass, low-power, and low-magnetic noise boom-mounted fluxgate magnetometer flown on the University of Alberta Experimental Albertan Satellite #1 (Ex-Alta-1) Cube Satellite, launched in 2017 from the International Space Station as part of the QB50 constellation mission. The miniature instrument achieves a magnetic noise floor of 150-200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, consumes 400 mW of power, has a mass of 121 g (sensor and boom), stows on the hull, and deploys on a 60 cm boom from a three-unit CubeSat reducing the noise from the onboard reaction wheel to less than 1.5 nT at the sensor. The instrument's capabilities are being demonstrated and validated in space with flight on Ex-Alta-1. We present on-orbit data from the boom-deployment and initial operations of the fluxgate sensor and illustrate the potential scientific returns and utility of using CubeSats carrying such fluxgate magnetometers to constitute a magnetospheric constellation mission. We further illustrate the value of scientific constellations using example data from the low-Earth orbit European Space Agency Swarm mission. Swarm data reveal significant changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the magnetic fields in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, even when the spacecraft are separated by only approximately 10 s along track and approximately 1.4° in longitude. This indicates the likely energetic significance of Alfven wave dynamics, and we use Swarm measurements to illustrate the value of satellite constellations for diagnosing magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling even in low-Earth orbit.

  3. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  4. Developement of a Fluxgate Magnetometer for the KITSAT-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hwang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetometer is one of the most important payloads of scientific satellites to monitor the near-earth space environment. The electromagnetic variations of the space environment can be observed with the electric and magnetic field measurements. In practice, it is well known that the measurement of magnetic fields needs less technical complexities than that of electric fields in space. Therefore the magnetometer has long been recognized as one of the basic payloads for the scientific satellites. In this paper, we discuss the scientific fluxgate magnetometer which will be on board the KITSAT-3. The main circuit design of the present magnetometer is based on that of KISAT-1 and -2 but its facilities have been re-designed to improve the resolution to about 5nT for scientific purpose. The calibration and noise level test of this circuit have been performed at the laboratory of the Tierra Tecnica company in Japan.

  5. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen for the period of any given week to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  6. Analysis of digital fluxgate magnetometer and radon data of MPGO network in Kachchh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.S.B.S.; Gupta, Arun; Pradhan, Rashmi; Rastogi, B.K.; Rawat, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) has established a network of four Multi-parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGO) at Bhachau, Vamka, Desalpar and Badargadh in Kachchh which fall in the aftershock zone of 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) for earthquake prediction research. Two Magson digital fluxgate magnetometers (DFM) have been installed on February 07, 2009 to observe magnetic precursors, if any, at Desalpar and Vamka in Kachchh. The daily variations of geomagnetic horizontal and vertical components are being continuously observed at a sampling interval of 1 Hz. Variations of about 2-9 nT in vertical component have been observed during earthquakes of Mw = 4 occurring within a radius of 65 km from Vamka and 80 km from Desalpar. Conventional polarization analysis of DFM data is implemented to check lithospheric origin of electromagnetic signals. Geomagnetic transfer function is calculated to observe any subsurface conductivity variation beneath the measuring sites. Further a strong radon anomaly at Vamka and Chobari sites has been observed 7 days before Mw 4.1 earthquake of 12 April 2009 which is at a distance of 29 km W from Vamka and 23 Km SW from Chobari. DFM and Radon sensors were installed as a part of MPGO instruments and these data will be supplemented by several other parameters. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed in the meetings. (author)

  7. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependendent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen — for the period of any given week — to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  8. Effect of second harmonic in pulse-width-modulation-based DAC for feedback of digital fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2018-04-01

    Digital fluxgate magnetometers employ processing of the measured pickup signal to produce the value of the compensation current. Using pulse-width modulation with filtering for digital to analog conversion is a convenient approach, but it can introduce an intrinsic source of nonlinearity, which we discuss in this design note. A code shift of one least significant bit changes the second harmonic content of the pulse train, which feeds into the pick-up signal chain despite the heavy filtering. This effect produces a code-dependent nonlinearity. This nonlinearity can be overcome by the specific design of the timing of the pulse train signal. The second harmonic is suppressed if the first and third quarters of the excitation period pulse train are repeated in the second and fourth quarters. We demonstrate this principle on a digital magnetometer, achieving a magnetometer noise level corresponding to that of the sensor itself.

  9. Rad-Hard Sigma-Delta 3-Channel ADC for Fluxgate Magnetometers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of the magnetic field vector is of fundamental importance to space physics missions. The fluxgate magnetometer is a device developed for precise...

  10. Rad-Hard Sigma-Delta 3-channel ADC for Fluxgate Magnetometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project aims to develop a multi-channel analog to digital converter (ADC) required for a fluxgate magnetometer (EPD) employed on NASA's planetary...

  11. A miniature, low-power scientific fluxgate magnetometer: A stepping-stone to cube-satellite constellation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Mann, I. R.; Ciurzynski, M.; Barona, D.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J. R.; Pakhotin, I. P.; Kale, A.; Bruner, B.; Nokes, C. D. A.; Cupido, C.; Haluza-DeLay, T.; Elliott, D. G.; Milling, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Difficulty in making low noise magnetic measurements is a significant challenge to the use of cube-satellite (CubeSat) platforms for scientific constellation class missions to study the magnetosphere. Sufficient resolution is required to resolve three-dimensional spatiotemporal structures of the magnetic field variations accompanying both waves and current systems of the nonuniform plasmas controlling dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This paper describes the design, validation, and test of a flight-ready, miniature, low-mass, low-power, and low-magnetic noise boom-mounted fluxgate magnetometer for CubeSat applications. The miniature instrument achieves a magnetic noise floor of 150-200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, consumes 400 mW of power, has a mass of 121 g (sensor and boom), stows on the hull, and deploys on a 60 cm boom from a three-unit CubeSat reducing the noise from the onboard reaction wheel to less than 1.5 nT at the sensor. The instrument's capabilities will be demonstrated and validated in space in late 2016 following the launch of the University of Alberta Ex-Alta 1 CubeSat, part of the QB50 constellation mission. We illustrate the potential scientific returns and utility of using a CubeSats carrying such fluxgate magnetometers to constitute a magnetospheric constellation using example data from the low-Earth orbit European Space Agency Swarm mission. Swarm data reveal significant changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the magnetic fields in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, even when the spacecraft are separated by only approximately 10 s along track and approximately 1.4° in longitude.

  12. Design Principles of A Sigma-delta Flux-gate Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Pierce, D.; Frank, A.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    A state-of-the-art flux-gate magnetometer is characterised by magnetic field resolution of several pT in a wide frequency range, low power consumption, low weight and high robustness. Therefore, flux-gate magnetometers are frequently used for ground-based Earth's field observation as well as for measurements aboard scientific space missions. But both traditional analogue and recently developed digital flux-gate magnetometers need low power and high-resolution analogue-to-digital converters for signal quan- tization. The disadvantage of such converters is the low radiation hardness. This fact has led to the idea of combining a traditional analogue flux-gate regulation circuit with that of a discretely realized sigma-delta converter in order to get a radiation hard and further miniaturized magnetometer. The name sigma-delta converter is derived from putting an integrator in front of a 1-bit delta modulator which forms the sigma-delta loop. It is followed by a digital decimation filter realized in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The flux-gate regulation and the sigma-delta loop are quite similar in the way of realizing the integrator and feedback circuit, which makes it easy to com- bine these two systems. The presented talk deals with the design principles and the results of a first bread board model.

  13. Field-Programmable Gate Array-based fluxgate magnetometer with digital integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butta, Mattia; Janosek, Michal; Ripka, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a digital magnetometer based on printed circuit board fluxgate is presented. The fluxgate is pulse excited and the signal is extracted by gate integration. We investigate the possibility to perform integration on very narrow gates (typically 500 ns) by using digital techniques. The magnetometer is based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) card: we will show all the advantages and disadvantages, given by digitalization of fluxgate output voltage by means of analog-to-digital converter on FPGA card, as well as digitalization performed by external digitizer. Due to very narrow gate, it is shown that a magnetometer entirely based on a FPGA card is preferable, because it avoids noise due to trigger instability. Both open loop and feedback operative mode are described and achieved results are presented.

  14. Binding assays with streptavidin-functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles and biotinylated analytes using fluxgate magnetorelaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Erik; Ludwig, Frank; Schilling, Meinhard

    2009-01-01

    Binding assays based on the magnetorelaxation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles as markers are presented utilizing a differential fluxgate system. As ligand and receptor, streptavidin and biotin, respectively, are used. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with streptavidin and bound to two types of biotinylated analytes: agarose beads and bovine serum (BSA) proteins. The size difference of the two analytes causes a different progress of the reaction. As a consequence, the analysis of the relaxation signal is carried out dissimilarly for the two analytes. In addition, we studied the reaction kinetics of the two kinds of analytes with the fluxgate system.

  15. Modernisation of the Narod fluxgate electronics at Budkov Geomagnetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, Michal

    2013-04-01

    From the signal point of view, fluxgate unit is a low-frequency parametric up-convertor where the output signal is picked up in bands near second harmonic of the pump frequency fp (sometimes called idler for historic reasons) and purity of idler is augmented by orthogonal construction of the pump and pick-up coil. In our concept, the pump source uses Heegner quartz oscillator near 8 MHz, synchronous divider to 16 kHz (fp) and switched current booster. Rectangular pulse is used for feeding the original ferroresonant pump source with neutralizing transformer in the case of symmetric shielded cabling. Input transformer has split primary winding for using symmetrical shielded input cabling and secondary winding tuned by polystyrol capacitor and loaded by inverting integrator bridged by capacitor. This structure behaves like resistor cooled to low temperature. Next stage is bandpass filter (derivator) with a gain tuned to 2 fp with leaky FDNRs followed by current booster. Another part of the system is low-noise peak elimination and bias circuit. Heart of the system is a 120-V precision source which uses 3.3-V Zener diode chain - thermistor bridge in the feedback. Peak elimination circuit logics consists of the envelope detector, comparators, asynchronous counter in hardwired logics, set of weighted resistor chains and discrete MOS switches in current-mode. All HV components use airy montage to prevent the ground-leak. After 200 m long coaxial line, the signal is galvanically separated by transformer and fed into A/D converter, which is ordinary HD audio (96 kHz) soundcard. Real sample rate is constructed by a-posteriori data processing when statistic properties of the incoming sample are known. The sampled signal is band-pass filtered with a 200-Hz filter centered at 2 fp. The signal is then fed through a first-order allpass centered at 2 fp. The result approximates Hilbert transform sufficiently good for detecting the envelope via square sum-root rule. The signal is

  16. Nonlinear temperature compensation of fluxgate magnetometers with a least-squares support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Feilu

    2012-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers are widely used for magnetic field measurement. However, their accuracy is influenced by temperature. In this paper, a new method was proposed to compensate the temperature drift of fluxgate magnetometers, in which a least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is utilized. The compensation performance was analyzed by simulation, which shows that the LSSVM has better performance and less training time than backpropagation and radical basis function neural networks. The temperature characteristics of a DM fluxgate magnetometer were measured with a temperature experiment box. Forty-five measured data under different magnetic fields and temperatures were obtained and divided into 36 training data and nine test data. The training data were used to obtain the parameters of the LSSVM model, and the compensation performance of the LSSVM model was verified by the test data. Experimental results show that the temperature drift of magnetometer is reduced from 109.3 to 3.3 nT after compensation, which suggests that this compensation method is effective for the accuracy improvement of fluxgate magnetometers. (paper)

  17. Nonlinear temperature compensation of fluxgate magnetometers with a least-squares support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Feilu

    2012-02-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers are widely used for magnetic field measurement. However, their accuracy is influenced by temperature. In this paper, a new method was proposed to compensate the temperature drift of fluxgate magnetometers, in which a least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is utilized. The compensation performance was analyzed by simulation, which shows that the LSSVM has better performance and less training time than backpropagation and radical basis function neural networks. The temperature characteristics of a DM fluxgate magnetometer were measured with a temperature experiment box. Forty-five measured data under different magnetic fields and temperatures were obtained and divided into 36 training data and nine test data. The training data were used to obtain the parameters of the LSSVM model, and the compensation performance of the LSSVM model was verified by the test data. Experimental results show that the temperature drift of magnetometer is reduced from 109.3 to 3.3 nT after compensation, which suggests that this compensation method is effective for the accuracy improvement of fluxgate magnetometers.

  18. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  19. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  20. An initial investigation of the long-term trends in the fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) calibration parameters on the four Cluster spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alconcel, L. N. S.; Fox, P.; Brown, P.; Oddy, T. M.; Lucek, E. L.; Carr, C. M.

    2014-07-01

    Over the course of more than 10 years in operation, the calibration parameters of the outboard fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensors on the four Cluster spacecraft are shown to be remarkably stable. The parameters are refined on the ground during the rigorous FGM calibration process performed for the Cluster Active Archive (CAA). Fluctuations in some parameters show some correlation with trends in the sensor temperature (orbit position). The parameters, particularly the offsets, of the spacecraft 1 (C1) sensor have undergone more long-term drift than those of the other spacecraft (C2, C3 and C4) sensors. Some potentially anomalous calibration parameters have been identified and will require further investigation in future. However, the observed long-term stability demonstrated in this initial study gives confidence in the accuracy of the Cluster magnetic field data. For the most sensitive ranges of the FGM instrument, the offset drift is typically 0.2 nT per year in each sensor on C1 and negligible on C2, C3 and C4.

  1. Comparison of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and Toftness sensometer for body surface EMF measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John; Toftness, Dave; Snyder, Brian; Nosco, Dennis; Balcavage, Walter; Nindl, Gabi

    2004-12-01

    The use of magnetic fields to treat disease has intrigued mankind since the time of the ancient Greeks. More recently it has been shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) treatment aids bone healing, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be beneficial in treating schizophrenia and depression. Since external EMFs influence internal body processes, we hypothesized that measurement of body surface EMFs might be used to detect disease states and direct the course of subsequent therapy. However, measurement of minute body surface EMFs requires use of a sensitive and well documented magnetometer. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and frequency response of a fluxgate magnetometer with a triaxial probe for use in detecting body surface EMF and we compared the magnetometer readings with a signal from a Toftness Sensometer, operated by an experienced clinician, in the laboratory and in a clinical setting. A Peavy Audio Amplifier and variable power output Telulex signal generator were used to develop 50 microT EMFs in a three coil Merritt coil system. A calibrated magnetometer was used to set a 60 Hz 50 microT field in the coil and an ammeter was used to measure the current required to develop the 50 microT field. At frequencies other than 60 Hz, the field strength was maintained at 50 microT by adjusting the Telulex signal output to keep the current constant. The field generated was monitored using a 10 turn coil connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope reading indicated that the field strength was the same at all frequencies tested. To determine if there was a correspondence between the signals detected by a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM1) and the Toftness Sensometer both devices were placed in the Merritt coil and readings were recorded from the FGM1 and compared with the ability of a highly experienced Toftness operator to detect the 50 microT field. Subsequently, in a clinical setting, FGM1 readings made by an FGM1 technician and

  2. Correlation between fluxgate and SQUID magnetometer data sets for geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matladi Thabang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to monitor the near Earth's magnetic field, as this monitoring provides understanding and possible predictions of Space Weather events such as geomagnetic storms. Conventional magnetometers such as fluxgates have been used for decades for Space Weather research. The use of highly sensitive magnetometers such as Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs, promise to give more insight into Space Weather. SQUIDs are relatively recent types of magnetometers that exploit the superconductive effects of flux quantization and Josephson tunneling to measure magnetic flux. SQUIDs have a very broad bandwidth compared to most conventional magnetometers and can measure magnetic flux as low as a few femtotesla. Since SQUIDs have never been used in Space Weather research, unshielded, it is necessary to investigate if they can be reliable Space Weather instruments. The validation is performed by comparing the frequency content of the SQUID and fluxgate magnetometers, as reported by Phiri.

  3. Class H power amplifier for power saving in fluxgate current transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Pérez Delgado, Raul; Conesa Roca, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new improvement in the design of a fluxgate-based current transducer in order to reduce the power consumption of control electronics. The proposed improvement involves the replacement of the output linear amplifier of the transducer by a class H amplifier. The output amplifier is devoted to the magnetic flux compensation and generates the transducer output current, which is proportional to the current to be measured. In this way, it is possible to reduce significantly th...

  4. Fluxgate vector magnetometers: A multisensor device for ground, UAV, and airborne magnetic surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Gavazzi , Bruno; Le Maire , Pauline; Munschy , Marc; Dechamp , Aline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Fluxgate magnetometers are quite uncommon in geophysics. Recent advances in calibration of the devices and their magnetic compensation ability led Institut de Physique du Globe de Stras-bourg to develop instruments for magnetic measurements at different scales for a wide range of applications — from submetric measurements on the ground to aircraft-conducted acquisition by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A case study on the aerial military base BA112 shows the usefulne...

  5. Mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system with robot arm and active shielding using fluxgate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukade, Y. [Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)], E-mail: hatukade@eco.tut.ac.jp; Yotsugi, K.; Tanaka, S. [Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    A robot-arm-based mobile HTS-SQUID NDE system was developed for inspection of advanced structures such as hydrogen fuel cell tanks. In order to realize stable operation of HTS-SQUID exposed in Earth's field and robot arm's noise without flux trapping, flux jumping and unlocking during motion, a new active magnetic shielding (AMS) technique using fluxgate was introduced. The high sensitive fluxgate, which could measure magnetic field of up to several 10 {mu}T, was mounted near an HTS-SQUID gradiometer on the robot arm to measure the ambient noise and feed back its output to a compensation coil, which surrounded both SQUID and fluxgate to cancel the ambient noise around them. The AMS technique successfully enabled the HTS-SQUID gradiometer to be moved at 10 mm/s by the robot arm in unshielded environment without flux trapping, jumping and unlocking. Detection of hidden slots in multi-layer composite-metal structures imitating the fuel cell tank was demonstrated.

  6. Fluxgate magnetometry for precise mapping of the Earth's field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The requirements for precise global mapping of the Earth's vector magnetic field from a high inclination LEO satellite needs a stable and precise vector magnetometer. Equally important are the measurement of the stellar attitude of the vector sensor and establishment of the calibration by onboard...... comparison to an absolute scalar magnetometer. In addition, the position in orbit and the precise timing relative to the UTC is needed. Finally, the end-to-end system precision also depends on a known and controlled local satellite magnetic field.......The requirements for precise global mapping of the Earth's vector magnetic field from a high inclination LEO satellite needs a stable and precise vector magnetometer. Equally important are the measurement of the stellar attitude of the vector sensor and establishment of the calibration by onboard...

  7. An Improved Version of the Fluxgate Compass Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petrucha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite based navigation systems (GPS are widely used for ground, air and marine navigation. In the case of a malfunction or satellite signal inaccessibility, some back-up navigation system is needed. An electronic compass can provide this function. The compass module described in this paper is designed for precise navigation purposes. The compass module is equipped with electronic tilt error compensation, and includes everything in one package – electronics with digital output, sensors. A typical application of this compass is in underground drilling. A critical parameter in this application is heading accuracy. A reading error of 1 degree can cause a displacement of 1.8 metres in the target area (length of tunnel 100 m. This is not acceptable in an urban conglomeration, and therefore a more accurate heading sensing device must be used. An improved version of this electronic compass is being finished. 

  8. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  9. A summary of the results from the UCLA OGO-5 fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The OGO-5 fluxgate magnetometer experiment (E-14) was designed to measure the vector magnetic field over the full range of the OGO-5 orbit. Thus, it had a dynamic range of + or - 64,000 gamma yet it maintained a precision of + or - 1/16 gamma at all times. This enabled a broad spectrum of problems to be attached. Studies of the magnetospheric waves, currents, waves-particle interactions, pitch angle distributions and wave normal directions were made. The structure of the magnetopause, the magnetotail, and bow shock were probed, waves and discontinuities in the solar wind were examined and the various phases of substorms were examined in depth.

  10. The MAGSAT vector magnetometer: A precision fluxgate magnetometer for the measurement of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Scearce, C. S.; Seek, J.; Scheifele, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the precision triaxial fluxgate magnetometer to be flown aboard the MAGSAT spacecraft is presented. The instrument covers the range of + or - 64,000 nT with a resolution of + or - 0.5 nT, an intrinsic accuracy of + or - 0.001% of full scale and an angular alignment stability of the order of 2 seconds of arc. It was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and represents the state-of-the-art in precision vector magnetometers developed for spaceflight use.

  11. Integrated induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers for EM analysis and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanstein, T.; Strack, K.; Jiang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of a full field array electromagnetic system is an ideal tool to support hydrocarbon and geothermal E & P as well as various engineering monitoring applications. Some of the key questions are defining the reservoir, mapping of the fractures and reservoir depletion monitoring. The reservoirs are all too often relative thin and give an anomalous electromagnetic (EM) response, which is often small in amplitude and challenging for the EM measuring system. A digital fluxgate magnetometer (32-bit) is connected to the KMS magnetotelluric acquisition system with analogue induction coils and electrodes to extend the range of application of a single recording site. Since the noise level is above that of the induction coil for periods shorter than 20 s, the apparent resistivity is biased. For longer periods the apparent resistivity is consistent and eventually better than the induction coil. However, phase and tipper are not biased and agree well with the induction data even for shorter periods. This allows us to develop algorithms that significantly extend the range of application of the fluxgate beyond what was done in the past. The highest frequency of the fluxgate magnetometer is about 180 Hz and the hightest sampling of the FG-board is 4 kHz.The different induction coils and fluxgate magnetometer have intensively been tested in the magnetic chamber and at the field test site near Houston for noise performance by parallel recordings. They show that even in an environment with high cultural noise, the specification can be met. In Northeast China, a 30-day monitoring test with MT was carried out for seismologic applications. Acquisitition schedule included different recordings times and sampling rates. Daily, the data was collected and processed via the internet from either Europe or the US. Even with long recording, we still had to select the time windows for data averaging and coherences are not a good threshhold criteria in this case. During another MT

  12. Symmetry-Breaking as a Paradigm to Design Highly-Sensitive Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palacios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large class of dynamic sensors have nonlinear input-output characteristics, often corresponding to a bistable potential energy function that controls the evolution of the sensor dynamics. These sensors include magnetic field sensors, e.g., the simple fluxgate magnetometer and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, ferroelectric sensors and mechanical sensors, e.g., acoustic transducers, made with piezoelectric materials. Recently, the possibilities offered by new technologies and materials in realizing miniaturized devices with improved performance have led to renewed interest in a new generation of inexpensive, compact and low-power fluxgate magnetometers and electric-field sensors. In this article, we review the analysis of an alternative approach: a symmetry-based design for highly-sensitive sensor systems. The design incorporates a network architecture that produces collective oscillations induced by the coupling topology, i.e., which sensors are coupled to each other. Under certain symmetry groups, the oscillations in the network emerge via an infinite-period bifurcation, so that at birth, they exhibit a very large period of oscillation. This characteristic renders the oscillatory wave highly sensitive to symmetry-breaking effects, thus leading to a new detection mechanism. Model equations and bifurcation analysis are discussed in great detail. Results from experimental works on networks of fluxgate magnetometers are also included.

  13. Probabilistic resident space object detection using archival THEMIS fluxgate magnetometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Julian; Holzinger, Marcus J.

    2018-05-01

    Recent progress in the detection of small space objects, at geosynchronous altitudes, through ground-based optical and radar measurements is demonstrated as a viable method. However, in general, these methods are limited to detection of objects greater than 10 cm. This paper examines the use of magnetometers to detect plausible flyby encounters with charged space objects using a matched filter signal existence binary hypothesis test approach. Relevant data-set processing and reduction of archival fluxgate magnetometer data from the NASA THEMIS mission is discussed in detail. Using the proposed methodology and a false alarm rate of 10%, 285 plausible detections with probability of detection greater than 80% are claimed and several are reviewed in detail.

  14. Triaxial digital fluxgate magnetometer for NASA applications explorer mission: Results of tests of critical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Means, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Tests performed to prove the critical elements of the triaxial digital fluxgate magnetometer design were described. A method for improving the linearity of the analog to digital converter portion of the instrument was studied in detail. A sawtooth waveform was added to the signal being measured before the A/D conversion, and averaging the digital readings over one cycle of the sawtooth. It was intended to reduce bit error nonlinearities present in the A/D converter which could be expected to be as much as 16 gamma if not reduced. No such nonlinearities were detected in the output of the instrument which included the feature designed to reduce these nonlinearities. However, a small scale nonlinearity of plus or minus 2 gamma with a 64 gamma repetition rate was observed in the unit tested. A design improvement intended to eliminate this small scale nonlinearity was examined.

  15. Summary of initial results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The main magnetic field of Jupiter was measured by the Fluxgate Magnetometer on Pioneer 11 and analysis reveals it to be relatively more complex than expected. In a centered spherical harmonic representation with a maximum order of n = 3 (designated GSFC model 04), the dipole term (with opposite polarity to the Earth's) has a moment of 4.28 Gauss x (Jupiter radius cubed), tilted by 9.6 deg towards a system 111 longitude of 232. The quadrupole and octupole moments are significant, 24% and 21% of the dipole moment respectively, and this leads to deviations of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset tilted dipole for distances smaller than three Jupiter radii. The GSFC model shows a north polar field strength of 14 Gauss and a south polar field strength of 10.4 Gauss. Enhanced absorption effects in the radiation belts may be predicted as a result of field distortion.

  16. Induced electric currents in the Alaska oil pipeline measured by gradient, fluxgate, and SQUID magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. H.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The field gradient method for observing the electric currents in the Alaska pipeline provided consistent values for both the fluxgate and SQUID method of observation. These currents were linearly related to the regularly measured electric and magnetic field changes. Determinations of pipeline current were consistent with values obtained by a direct connection, current shunt technique at a pipeline site about 9.6 km away. The gradient method has the distinct advantage of portability and buried- pipe capability. Field gradients due to the pipe magnetization, geological features, or ionospheric source currents do not seem to contribute a measurable error to such pipe current determination. The SQUID gradiometer is inherently sensitive enough to detect very small currents in a linear conductor at 10 meters, or conversely, to detect small currents of one amphere or more at relatively great distances. It is fairly straightforward to achieve imbalance less than one part in ten thousand, and with extreme care, one part in one million or better.

  17. Fluxgate Magnetometer system mounted on UAS system: First field test at Dominga IOCG deposit, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, G. A.; Banchero, L.; Marco, A.; Figueroa, R.

    2016-12-01

    With the support of Fundacion Chile (FCH) grant, we developed an airborne magnetic system (GeoMagDrone GFDAS) mounted on a UAS octodrone platform (DJI, S1000), based on a low cost/light-weight fluxgate magnetometer (FGM-301) and a robust/light-weight data logger for position, temperature, radar altimeter and 3 magnetic components at 16 Hz recording. Fluxgate magnetometer is hanging from the UAS platform at a distance of 2.5m where the EM noise is reduced to less than 2 nT. The whole geophysical system, including batteries, weights 650 gr., with an autonomy of 2 hours. Magnetometer calibration includes the 9 coefficients of amplitude, offset, and orthogonality, and temperature correction. We test the system over the IOCG deposit of Dominga-Chile, a magnetite ore (40%) (a block of 2x3 km with NS lines separated every 50m and a clearance of 40m, the mineral deposit buried 50-100m from the surface, where a ground magnetic survey was conducted previously. Ground conditions includes relatively rough topography with slopes of 10-20%, and some windy days. We use the digital terrain model SRTM30 to define the drape flight shape Average flight performance includes a mean speed of 35-40 km/hour, and an UAS battery consumption of 18-12 minutes depending on the wind conditions. A good correspondence was found between plan deployment and survey results in terms of line direction/separation/clearance. Line path were flown with errors less than 5 meters, whereas clearance of 40m was kept depending on the amount of control points used. The comparison between ground survey and GeoMagDrone results show a perfect match (anomaly amplitude/shape and noise envelope), validating in this way the system developed. Main concern for the productive application of this technology in unmanned geophysical platforms is the battery performance and the quality of digital terrain models to follow the topography.

  18. In-flight calibration of the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer with an electron drift instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Torkar, K.

    2012-10-01

    We show that the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer can be calibrated with an electron drift instrument (EDI) and that the required input time interval is relatively short. For missions such as Cluster or the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer could be determined on an orbital basis. An improvement of existing methods for finding spin axis offsets via comparison of accurate measurements of the field magnitude is presented, that additionally matches the gains of the two instruments that are being compared. The technique has been applied to EDI data from the Cluster Active Archive and fluxgate magnetometer data processed with calibration files also from the Cluster Active Archive. The method could prove to be valuable for the MMS mission because the four MMS spacecraft will only be inside the interplanetary field (where spin axis offsets can be calculated from Alfvénic fluctuations) for short periods of time and during unusual solar wind conditions.

  19. In-flight calibration of the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer with an electron drift instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, H K; Russell, C T; Torkar, K

    2012-01-01

    We show that the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer can be calibrated with an electron drift instrument (EDI) and that the required input time interval is relatively short. For missions such as Cluster or the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer could be determined on an orbital basis. An improvement of existing methods for finding spin axis offsets via comparison of accurate measurements of the field magnitude is presented, that additionally matches the gains of the two instruments that are being compared. The technique has been applied to EDI data from the Cluster Active Archive and fluxgate magnetometer data processed with calibration files also from the Cluster Active Archive. The method could prove to be valuable for the MMS mission because the four MMS spacecraft will only be inside the interplanetary field (where spin axis offsets can be calculated from Alfvénic fluctuations) for short periods of time and during unusual solar wind conditions. (paper)

  20. The Detection and Discrimination of Small Munitions using Giant Magnetoresistive (OMR) Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Suffield, Canada. McGlone, D.T., 1998, Magnetometer Comparison Smoke Creek Instruments’ GMR SCIMAG- 01 & Bartington Fluxgate MAG-03MC70, A...a magnetometer and frequency domain or time domain electromagnetic induction sensor. Both the Honeywell and NVE GlvlR sensors studied have si.m ilar...field sensor. In p0ssive mode, the GMR sensor, which has a resolution of Jess than l 0 nT, perfom1ed similarly to a cesium vapor magnetometer . When

  1. Fluxgate magnetometer offset vector determination by the 3D mirror mode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Goetz, C.; Volwerk, M.; Richter, I.; Frühauff, D.; Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers on-board spacecraft need to be regularly calibrated in flight. In low fields, the most important calibration parameters are the three offset vector components, which represent the magnetometer measurements in vanishing ambient magnetic fields. In case of three-axis stabilized spacecraft, a few methods exist to determine offsets: (I) by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations present in the pristine interplanetary magnetic field, (II) by rolling the spacecraft around at least two axes, (III) by cross-calibration against measurements from electron drift instruments or absolute magnetometers, and (IV) by taking measurements in regions of well-known magnetic fields, e.g. cometary diamagnetic cavities. In this paper, we introduce a fifth option, the 3-dimensional (3D) mirror mode method, by which 3D offset vectors can be determined using magnetic field measurements of highly compressional waves, e.g. mirror modes in the Earth's magnetosheath. We test the method by applying it to magnetic field data measured by the following: the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-C spacecraft in the terrestrial magnetosheath, the Cassini spacecraft in the Jovian magnetosheath and the Rosetta spacecraft in the vicinity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The tests reveal that the achievable offset accuracies depend on the ambient magnetic field strength (lower strength meaning higher accuracy), on the length of the underlying data interval (more data meaning higher accuracy) and on the stability of the offset that is to be determined.

  2. On determining fluxgate magnetometer spin axis offsets from mirror mode observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-09-01

    In-flight calibration of fluxgate magnetometers that are mounted on spacecraft involves finding their outputs in vanishing ambient fields, the so-called magnetometer offsets. If the spacecraft is spin-stabilized, then the spin plane components of these offsets can be relatively easily determined, as they modify the spin tone content in the de-spun magnetic field data. The spin axis offset, however, is more difficult to determine. Therefore, usually Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are used. We propose a novel method to determine the spin axis offset: the mirror mode method. The method is based on the assumption that mirror mode fluctuations are nearly compressible such that the maximum variance direction is aligned to the mean magnetic field. Mirror mode fluctuations are typically found in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We introduce the method and provide a first estimate of its accuracy based on magnetosheath observations by the THEMIS-C spacecraft. We find that 20 h of magnetosheath measurements may already be sufficient to obtain high-accuracy spin axis offsets with uncertainties on the order of a few tenths of a nanotesla, if offset stability can be assumed.

  3. On determining fluxgate magnetometer spin axis offsets from mirror mode observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Plaschke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of fluxgate magnetometers that are mounted on spacecraft involves finding their outputs in vanishing ambient fields, the so-called magnetometer offsets. If the spacecraft is spin-stabilized, then the spin plane components of these offsets can be relatively easily determined, as they modify the spin tone content in the de-spun magnetic field data. The spin axis offset, however, is more difficult to determine. Therefore, usually Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are used. We propose a novel method to determine the spin axis offset: the mirror mode method. The method is based on the assumption that mirror mode fluctuations are nearly compressible such that the maximum variance direction is aligned to the mean magnetic field. Mirror mode fluctuations are typically found in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We introduce the method and provide a first estimate of its accuracy based on magnetosheath observations by the THEMIS-C spacecraft. We find that 20 h of magnetosheath measurements may already be sufficient to obtain high-accuracy spin axis offsets with uncertainties on the order of a few tenths of a nanotesla, if offset stability can be assumed.

  4. Development of fluxgate magnetometers and applications to the space science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Shinohara, M.; Tanaka, Y.-M.; Fujimoto, A.; Iguchi, K.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic field is one of the essential physical parameters to study the space physics and evolution of the solar system. There are several methods to measure the magnetic field in the space by spacecraft and rockets. Fluxgate magnetometer has been most generally used out of them because it measures the vector field accurately and does not need much weight and power budgets. When we try more difficult missions such as multi-satellite observation, landing on the celestial body and exploration in the area of severe environment, we have to modify the magnetometer or develop new techniques to make the instrument adequate for those projects. For example, we developed a 20-bit delta-sigma analogue-to-digital converter for MGF-I on the BepiColombo MMO satellite, to achieve the wide-range (±2000 nT) measurement with good resolution in the high radiation environment. For further future missions, we have examined the digitalizing of the circuit, which has much potential to drastically reduce the instrument weight, power consumption and performance dependence on the temperature.

  5. Flux-gate magnetometer spin axis offset calibration using the electron drift instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Nakamura, Rumi; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Steller, Manfred; Magnes, Werner; Leinweber, Hannes K; Chutter, Mark; Vaith, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Spin-stabilization of spacecraft immensely supports the in-flight calibration of on-board flux-gate magnetometers (FGMs). From 12 calibration parameters in total, 8 can be easily obtained by spectral analysis. From the remaining 4, the spin axis offset is known to be particularly variable. It is usually determined by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations that are embedded in the solar wind. In the absence of solar wind observations, the spin axis offset may be obtained by comparison of FGM and electron drift instrument (EDI) measurements. The aim of our study is to develop methods that are readily usable for routine FGM spin axis offset calibration with EDI. This paper represents a major step forward in this direction. We improve an existing method to determine FGM spin axis offsets from EDI time-of-flight measurements by providing it with a comprehensive error analysis. In addition, we introduce a new, complementary method that uses EDI beam direction data instead of time-of-flight data. Using Cluster data, we show that both methods yield similarly accurate results, which are comparable yet more stable than those from a commonly used solar wind-based method. (paper)

  6. A Portable Single Axis Magnetic Gradiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Nielsen, Otto V

    2001-01-01

    not provide vector information about the magnetic field. Secondly, one of the sensors measures the ambient magnetic field and is used to compensate for the main field at both sensors. Several methods have been developed for characterization of the 2 gradiometer, and the calibration of the gradient......The single axis magnetic gradiometer based on two compact detector compensation (CDC) fluxgate ringcore sensors separated 20 cm is described. Despite its high stability and precision better than 1 nT, the calibration procedures are not straightforward. Firstly, the mono-axial measurement does...... measurements is achieved by using a magnetic dipole of strength 2 mAm(2). In a coil facility, the gradient can be determined with an accuracy of 0.3 nT/m(RMS)....

  7. Downhole Applications of Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Li, Bodong; Moellendick, Timothy E

    2017-10-19

    In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors-fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors-in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications. Therefore, this paper aims to serve as an opportunity for researchers to truly understand how magnetic sensors can be used in a downhole environment and to provide fertile ground for research and development in this area. A look ahead, discussing other magnetic sensor technologies that can potentially be used in the oil/gas industry is presented, and what is still needed in order deploy them in the field is also addressed.

  8. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry: a new approach to study the release properties of hydrogel cylinders and microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhl-Bruhn, S; Heim, E; Schwoerer, A; Bertz, A; Harling, S; Menzel, H; Schilling, M; Ludwig, F; Bunjes, H

    2012-10-15

    Hydrogels are under investigation as long term delivery systems for biomacromolecules as active pharmaceutical ingredients. The release behavior of hydrogels can be tailored during the fabrication process. This study investigates the applicability of fluxgate magnetorelaxometry (MRX) as a tool to characterize the release properties of such long term drug delivery depots. MRX is based on the use of superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles as model substances. The feasibility of using superparamagnetic nanoparticles to study the degradation of and the associated release from hydrogel cylinders and hydrogel microspheres was a major point of interest. Gels prepared from two types of photo crosslinkable polymers based on modified hydroxyethylstarch, specifically hydroxyethyl starch-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HES-HEMA) and hydroxyethyl starch-polyethylene glycol methacrylate (HES-P(EG)(6)MA), were analyzed. MRX analysis of the incorporated nanoparticles allowed to evaluate the influence of different crosslinking conditions during hydrogel production as well as to follow the increase in nanoparticle mobility as a result of hydrogel degradation during release studies. Conventional release studies with fluorescent markers (half-change method) were performed for comparison. MRX with superparamagnetic nanoparticles as model substances is a promising method to analyze pharmaceutically relevant processes such as the degradation of hydrogel drug carrier systems. In contrast to conventional release experiments MRX allows measurements in closed vials (reducing loss of sample and sampling errors), in opaque media and at low magnetic nanoparticle concentrations. Magnetic markers possess a better long-term stability than fluorescent ones and are thus also promising for the use in in vivo studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Merging fluxgate and induction coil data to produce low-noise geomagnetic observatory data meeting the INTERMAGNET definitive 1 s data standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Heinz-Peter; Widmer-Schnidrig, Rudolf; Korte, Monika

    2017-11-01

    For frequencies above 30 mHz the instrument intrinsic noise level of typical fluxgate magnetometers used at geomagnetic observatories usually masks ambient magnetic field variations on magnetically quiet days. This is especially true for stations located at middle and low latitudes, where variations are generally smaller than at high latitudes. INTERMAGNET has set a minimum quality standard for definitive 1 s data. Natural field variations referred to as pulsations (Pc-1, Pc-2, Pi-1) fall in this band. Usually their intensity is so small that they rarely surpass the instrumental noise of fluxgate magnetometers. Moreover, high-quality magnetic field observations in the band 30 mHz-0.5 Hz contain interesting information, e.g., for the study of ionospheric electron interactions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron plasma waves. We propose a method to improve 1 Hz observatory data by merging data from the proven and tested fluxgate magnetometers currently in use with induction coil magnetometers into a single data stream. We show how measurements of both instruments can be combined without information loss or phase distortion. The result is a time series of the magnetic field vector components, combining the benefits of both instruments: long-term stability (fluxgate) and low noise at high frequencies (induction coil). This new data stream fits perfectly into the data management procedures of INTERMAGNET and meets the requirements defined in the definitive 1 s data standard. We describe the applied algorithm and validate the result by comparing power spectra of the fluxgate magnetometer output with the merged signal. Daily spectrograms from the Niemegk observatory show that the resulting data series reveal information at frequencies above 30 mHz that cannot be seen in raw fluxgate data.

  10. Merging fluxgate and induction coil data to produce low-noise geomagnetic observatory data meeting the INTERMAGNET definitive 1 s data standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Brunke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For frequencies above 30 mHz the instrument intrinsic noise level of typical fluxgate magnetometers used at geomagnetic observatories usually masks ambient magnetic field variations on magnetically quiet days. This is especially true for stations located at middle and low latitudes, where variations are generally smaller than at high latitudes. INTERMAGNET has set a minimum quality standard for definitive 1 s data. Natural field variations referred to as pulsations (Pc-1, Pc-2, Pi-1 fall in this band. Usually their intensity is so small that they rarely surpass the instrumental noise of fluxgate magnetometers. Moreover, high-quality magnetic field observations in the band 30 mHz–0.5 Hz contain interesting information, e.g., for the study of ionospheric electron interactions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron plasma waves. We propose a method to improve 1 Hz observatory data by merging data from the proven and tested fluxgate magnetometers currently in use with induction coil magnetometers into a single data stream. We show how measurements of both instruments can be combined without information loss or phase distortion. The result is a time series of the magnetic field vector components, combining the benefits of both instruments: long-term stability (fluxgate and low noise at high frequencies (induction coil. This new data stream fits perfectly into the data management procedures of INTERMAGNET and meets the requirements defined in the definitive 1 s data standard. We describe the applied algorithm and validate the result by comparing power spectra of the fluxgate magnetometer output with the merged signal. Daily spectrograms from the Niemegk observatory show that the resulting data series reveal information at frequencies above 30 mHz that cannot be seen in raw fluxgate data.

  11. Downhole Applications of Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka P. Gooneratne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors—fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR sensors—in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications. Therefore, this paper aims to serve as an opportunity for researchers to truly understand how magnetic sensors can be used in a downhole environment and to provide fertile ground for research and development in this area. A look ahead, discussing other magnetic sensor technologies that can potentially be used in the oil/gas industry is presented, and what is still needed in order deploy them in the field is also addressed.

  12. Temperature dependence of the magnetostriction and the induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB alloys, and their fluxgate properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto V; Petersen, Jan Raagaard

    1994-01-01

    Making use of the stress induced magnetic anisotropy in some iron-rich FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline materials we studied the thermal dependence of their magnetostriction which becomes zero below the Curie temperature. The choice of a suitable composition and annealing temperature results in materials...... with zero magnetostriction at room temperature. Due to the low magnetostriction these materials have very promising fluxgate properties which were studied as well...

  13. A method for combining search coil and fluxgate magnetometer data to reveal finer structures in reconnection physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argall, M. R.; Caide, A.; Chen, L.; Torbert, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetometers have been used to measure terrestrial and extraterrestrial magnetic fields in space exploration ever since Sputnik 3. Modern space missions, such as Cluster, RBSP, and MMS incorporate both search coil magnetometers (SCMs) and fluxgate magnetometers (FGMs) in their instrument suites: FGMs work well at low frequencies while SCMs perform better at high frequencies. In analyzing the noise floor of these instruments, a cross-over region is apparent around 0.3-1.5Hz. The satellite separation of MMS and average speeds of field convection and plasma flows at the subsolar magnetopause make this a crucial range for the upcoming MMS mission. The method presented here combines the signals from SCM and FGM by taking a weighted average of both in this frequency range in order to draw out key features, such as narrow current sheet structures, that would otherwise not be visible. The technique is applied to burst mode Cluster data for reported magnetopause and magnetotail reconnection events to demonstrate the power of the combined data. This technique is also applied to data from the the EMFISIS instrument on the RBSP mission. The authors acknowledge and thank the FGM and STAFF team for the use of their data from the CLUSTER Active Archive.

  14. Interinstrument calibration using magnetic field data from the flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) and electron drift instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Teubenbacher, R.; Giner, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Magnes, W.; Steller, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Chutter, M.; Fornaçon, K.-H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Carr, C.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the magnetic field data obtained from the flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) and the magnetic field data deduced from the gyration time of electrons measured by the electron drift instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster to determine the spin-axis offset of the FGM measurements. Data are used from orbits with their apogees in the magnetotail, when the magnetic field magnitude was between about 20 and 500 nT. Offset determination with the EDI-FGM comparison method is of particular interest for these orbits, because no data from solar wind are available in such orbits to apply the usual calibration methods using the Alfvén waves. In this paper, we examine the effects of the different measurement conditions, such as direction of the magnetic field relative to the spin plane and field magnitude in determining the FGM spin-axis offset, and also take into account the time-of-flight offset of the EDI measurements. It is shown that the method works best when the magnetic field magnitude is less than about 128 nT and when the magnetic field is aligned near the spin-axis direction. A remaining spin-axis offset of about 0.4 ∼ 0.6 nT was observed for Cluster 1 between July and October 2003. Using multipoint multi-instrument measurements by Cluster we further demonstrate the importance of the accurate determination of the spin-axis offset when estimating the magnetic field gradient.

  15. Low-noise magnetic observatory variometer with race-track sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janošek, M; Petrucha, V; Vlk, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a low-noise, high-stability observatory magnetometer with race-track sensors, as developed by the Czech Technical University in Prague for National Observatory of Athens. As opposed to the standard instruments, we used our novel race-track fluxgate sensors with planar oval core which were cut by state-of-the art pico-second UV-laser. The noise performance of the complete electronics and sensor chain is below 6 pT/√Hz @ 1 Hz. The electronics uses 24-bit 200-Hz A/D converter with simultaneous sampling and all digital processing is done in FPGA. The variometer with the sensors mounted on a MACOR cube has been successfully calibrated by scalar method. (paper)

  16. Amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe-Ni-Zr-B ribbons as sensing elements in magnetic field sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertesy, G.; Idzikowski, B.

    2006-01-01

    Fe 81-x Ni x Zr 7 B 12 (x=20, 30, 40) melt-spun alloys were investigated as potential new material applied as a sensing element of a fluxgate-type high-sensitivity magnetic field sensor. The sensitivity of the magnetometer was increased by about 60% by using the amorphous or nanocrystalline Fe 41 Ni 40 Zr 7 B 12 alloy, compared with a standard reference sensing material. Application of this material can also extend the temperature range of the operation of the device

  17. Amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe-Ni-Zr-B ribbons as sensing elements in magnetic field sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertesy, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)]. E-mail: vertesyg@mfa.kfki.hu; Idzikowski, B. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, PL 60-179 Poznan (Poland)

    2006-04-15

    Fe{sub 81-x}Ni{sub x}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 12} (x=20, 30, 40) melt-spun alloys were investigated as potential new material applied as a sensing element of a fluxgate-type high-sensitivity magnetic field sensor. The sensitivity of the magnetometer was increased by about 60% by using the amorphous or nanocrystalline Fe{sub 41}Ni{sub 40}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 12} alloy, compared with a standard reference sensing material. Application of this material can also extend the temperature range of the operation of the device.

  18. A Measuring System for Well Logging Attitude and a Method of Sensor Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°.

  19. A measuring system for well logging attitude and a method of sensor calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yangdong; Wang, Mijian; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Biao

    2014-05-23

    This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°.

  20. Numerical investigation of micro-macro coupling in magneto-impedance sensors for weak field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Kwaku

    There is strong interest in the use of small low-cost highly sensitive magnetic field sensors for applications (e.g. biomedical devices) requiring weak field measurements. Among weak-field sensors, the magneto-impedance (MI) sensor has demonstrated an absolute resolution of 10-11 T. The MI effect is a sensitive realignment of a periodic magnetization in response to an external field in small ferromagnets. However, design of MI sensors has relied primarily on trial and error experimental methods along with decoupled models describing the MI effect. To offer a basis for more cost-effective designs, this thesis research begins with a general formulation describing MI sensors, which relaxes assumptions commonly made for decoupling. The coupled set of nonlinear equations is solved numerically using an efficient meshless method in a point collocation formulation. For the problem considered, the chosen method is shown to offer advantages over alternative methods including the finite element method. Projection methods are used to stabilize the time discretization while quasi-Newton methods (nonlinear solver) are shown to be more computationally efficient, as well. Specifically, solutions for two MI sensor element geometries are presented, which were validated against published experimental data. While the examples illustrated here are for MI sensors, the approach presented can also be extended to other weak-field sensors like fluxgate and Hall effect sensors.

  1. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  2. Characterization of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles by fluxgate magnetorelaxometry, ac susceptibility, transmission electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy-A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Frank; Heim, Erik; Schilling, Meinhard

    2009-01-01

    We have compared the structure parameters of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles determined from fluxgate magnetorelaxometry measurements applying the moment superposition model with the results from other methods. For the characterization of the magnetic cores, the nanoparticles are immobilized by freeze-drying. The core size distribution estimated for superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyacrylic acid shell agrees well with that from transmission electron microscopy measurements. The distribution of hydrodynamic diameters of nanoparticle suspensions estimated from magnetorelaxometry measurements is in good agreement with that obtained from ac susceptibility and photon correlation spectroscopy measurements. Advantages of magnetorelaxometry compared to the other two integral techniques are that it is fast and the signal is less dominated by larger particles.

  3. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  5. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  6. Tunneling magnetoresistance sensor with pT level 1/f magnetic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, James G.; Zhou, Zhimin; Shen, Weifeng

    2017-05-01

    Magnetoresistive devices are important components in a large number of commercial electronic products in a wide range of applications including industrial position sensors, automotive sensors, hard disk read heads, cell phone compasses, and solid state memories. These devices are commonly based on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), but over the past few years tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) has been emerging in more applications. Here we focus on recent work that has enabled the development of TMR magnetic field sensors with 1/f noise of less than 100 pT/rtHz at 1 Hz. Of the commercially available sensors, the lowest noise devices have typically been AMR, but they generally have the largest die size. Based on this observation and modeling of experimental data size and geometry dependence, we find that there is an optimal design rule that produces minimum 1/f noise. This design rule requires maximizing the areal coverage of an on-chip flux concentrator, providing it with a minimum possible total gap width, and tightly packing the gaps with MTJ elements, which increases the effective volume and decreases the saturation field of the MTJ freelayers. When properly optimized using this rule, these sensors have noise below 60 pT/rtHz, and could possibly replace fluxgate magnetometers in some applications.

  7. A digital-type fluxgate magnetometer using a sigma-delta digital-to-analog converter for a sounding rocket experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Kyosuke; Matsuoka, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    One of the design challenges for future magnetospheric satellite missions is optimizing the mass, size, and power consumption of the instruments to meet the mission requirements. We have developed a digital-type fluxgate (DFG) magnetometer that is anticipated to have significantly less mass and volume than the conventional analog-type. Hitherto, the lack of a space-grade digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with good accuracy has prevented the development of a high-performance DFG. To solve this problem, we developed a high-resolution DAC using parts whose performance was equivalent to existing space-grade parts. The developed DAC consists of a 1-bit second-order sigma-delta modulator and a fourth-order analog low-pass filter. We tested the performance of the DAC experimentally and found that it had better than 17-bits resolution in 80% of the measurement range, and the linearity error was 2 −13.3  of the measurement range. We built a DFG flight model (in which this DAC was embedded) for a sounding rocket experiment as an interim step in the development of a future satellite mission. The noise of this DFG was 0.79 nT rms  at 0.1–10 Hz, which corresponds to a roughly 17-bit resolution. The results show that the sigma-delta DAC and the DFG had a performance that is consistent with our optimized design, and the noise was as expected from the noise simulation. Finally, we have confirmed that the DFG worked successfully during the flight of the sounding rocket. (paper)

  8. A digital-type fluxgate magnetometer using a sigma-delta digital-to-analog converter for a sounding rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Kyosuke; Matsuoka, Ayako

    2014-07-01

    One of the design challenges for future magnetospheric satellite missions is optimizing the mass, size, and power consumption of the instruments to meet the mission requirements. We have developed a digital-type fluxgate (DFG) magnetometer that is anticipated to have significantly less mass and volume than the conventional analog-type. Hitherto, the lack of a space-grade digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with good accuracy has prevented the development of a high-performance DFG. To solve this problem, we developed a high-resolution DAC using parts whose performance was equivalent to existing space-grade parts. The developed DAC consists of a 1-bit second-order sigma-delta modulator and a fourth-order analog low-pass filter. We tested the performance of the DAC experimentally and found that it had better than 17-bits resolution in 80% of the measurement range, and the linearity error was 2-13.3 of the measurement range. We built a DFG flight model (in which this DAC was embedded) for a sounding rocket experiment as an interim step in the development of a future satellite mission. The noise of this DFG was 0.79 nTrms at 0.1-10 Hz, which corresponds to a roughly 17-bit resolution. The results show that the sigma-delta DAC and the DFG had a performance that is consistent with our optimized design, and the noise was as expected from the noise simulation. Finally, we have confirmed that the DFG worked successfully during the flight of the sounding rocket.

  9. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  10. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  11. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  12. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  13. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  14. Evaluating Detection and Estimation Capabilities of Magnetometer-Based Vehicle Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    fluxgate magnetometers whose operating characteristics are well documented [1, 2]. Such magnetometers measure two perpendicular magnetic components of...of surveillance scenarios. As part of that work, this analysis focuses on UGS utilizing of two-axis fluxgate magnetometers . Two MOPs are 12 -60 -40 -20...Proceedings of the IEEE, 78(6):973–989, June 1990. [2] E. M. Billingsley and S. W. Billingsley. Fluxgate magnetometers . Proceedings of the IEEE, 5090(194

  15. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  16. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  17. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Hutter, F.; Edelhaeuser, R.

    1992-01-01

    WO 2010040565 A1 UPAB: 20100506 NOVELTY - The integrated optical sensor comprises a first waveguide (4), a second waveguide (5) optically coupled to the first waveguide via a directional coupler, a substrate, which carries the first and the second waveguides, a single waveguide coupled with a light source, and an output waveguide coupled with a light-sensitive element. The sensor has a functional surface in the region of the directional coupler for depositing or deposition of the substance to...

  18. Wireless sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  19. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  20. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  1. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  2. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  3. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  4. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  5. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  6. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  7. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  8. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  9. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Fischer, A.

    1995-01-01

    An optical sensor (1) comprising an integrated optical arrangement has a waveguide (4) and at least one defraction grating (5) arranged in this waveguide. Light can launched into the waveguide via the defraction grating. In the reflection area of defraction grating, part of the light is dispersed through the waveguide at the beam angle for which the launch conditions and thus the defraction in the waveguide are fulfilled, so that, at this angle, a dark line (14) occurs whose position is evalu...

  10. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  11. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  12. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  13. Precision Geolocation of Active Electromagnetic Sensors Using Stationary Magnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    generated by digital-to-analogue converters were subtracted from the fluxgate input signals using a differential input operational amplifiers . The...of the e¤ective area vector of the pick-up loop. This current is sensed using the SQUID, which in these devices, operates as a transimpedance ampli�er...input noise of the �rst stage analogue preampli�er used to amplify the coil signal. The best low-noise preampli�ers have noise spectral densities

  14. Sensors for Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  15. Sensors for Entertainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Lamberti; Andrea Sanna; Jon Rokne

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on ?Sensors for Entertainment?, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  16. Wireless sensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  17. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also

  18. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Superconducting Quantum Interference Device-Based Magnetic Gradiometer Tensor System for Detection, Characterization and Mapping of Unexploded Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Figure 17: USGS Helmholtz coils with SQUID and fluxgate magnetometers installed. 22 Figure 18: Plot of SQUID and fluxgate data from a rotating... fluxgate magnetometer , each sensor measures flux in only one direction. Combinations of SQUID sensor elements are arranged in various configurations...than the absolute field value the way that a fluxgate magnetometer would do. If the SQUID is shut down or loses lock, it has no way to relate the new

  19. Integrated cryogenic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanarena, D.B.; Rao, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated cryogenic pressure-temperature, level-temperature, and flow-temperature sensors have several advantages over the conventional single parameter sensors. Such integrated sensors were not available until recently. Pressure Systems, Inc. (PSI) of Hampton, Virginia, has introduced precalibrated precision cryogenic pressure sensors at the Los Angeles Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1989. Recently, PSI has successfully completed the development of integrated pressure-temperature and level-temperature sensors for use in the temperature range 1.5-375K. In this paper, performance characteristics of these integrated sensors are presented. Further, the effects of irradiation and magnetic fields on these integrated sensors are also reviewed

  20. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  1. Application Of FA Sensor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Ho

    1993-03-01

    This book introduces FA sensor from basic to making system, which includes light sensor like photo diode and photo transistor, photo electricity sensor, CCD type image sensor, MOS type image sensor, color sensor, cds cell, and optical fiber scope. It also deals with direct election position sensor such as proximity switch, differential motion, linear scale of photo electricity type, and magnet scale, rotary sensor with summary of rotary encoder, rotary encoder types and applications, flow sensor, and sensing technology.

  2. Sensors an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Sensors: An Introductory Course provides an essential reference on the fundamentals of sensors. The book is designed to help readers in developing skills and the understanding required in order to implement a wide range of sensors that are commonly used in our daily lives. This book covers the basic concepts in the sensors field, including definitions and terminologies. The physical sensing effects are described, and devices which utilize these effects are presented. The most frequently used organic and inorganic sensors are introduced and the techniques for implementing them are discussed. This book: Provides a comprehensive representation of the most common sensors and can be used as a reference in relevant fields Presents learning materials in a concise and easy to understand manner Includes examples of how sensors are incorporated in real life measurements Contains detailed figures and schematics to assist in understanding the sensor performance Sensors: An Introductory Course is ideal for university stu...

  3. Coupled wave sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Buried line guided radar sensors have been used successfully for a number of years to provide perimeter security for high value resources. This paper introduces a new complementary sensor advancement at Computing Devices termed 'coupled wave device technology' (CWD). It provides many of the inherent advantages of leakey cable sensors, such as terrain-following and the ability to discriminate between humans and small animals. It also is able to provide a high or wide detection zone, and allows the sensor to be mounted aerially and adjacent to a wall or fence. Several alternative sensors have been developed which include a single-line sensor, a dual-line hybrid sensor that combines the elements of ported coax and CWD technology, and a rapid-deployment portable sensor for temporary or mobile applications. A description of the technology, the sensors, and their characteristics is provided

  4. Smart Optoelectronic Sensors and Intelligent Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. YURISH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Light-to-frequency converters are widely used in various optoelectronic sensor systems. However, a further frequency-to-digital conversion is a bottleneck in such systems due to a broad frequency range of light-to-frequency converters’ outputs. This paper describes an effective OEM design approach, which can be used for smart and intelligent sensor systems design. The design is based on novel, multifunctional integrated circuit of Universal Sensors & Transducers Interface especially designed for such sensor applications. Experimental results have confirmed an efficiency of this approach and high metrological performances.

  5. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    . These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...... also describe the design and implementation of the COUGAR sensor database system....

  6. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency

  7. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  8. Invisible magnetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach-Batlle, Rosa; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2018-04-01

    Sensing magnetic fields is essential in many applications in biomedicine, transportation, or smart cities. The distortion magnetic sensors create in response to the field they are detecting may hinder their use, for example, in applications requiring dense packaging of sensors or accurately shaped field distributions. For sensing electromagnetic waves, cloaking shells that reduce the scattering of sensors have been introduced. However, the problem of making a magnetic sensor undetectable remains unsolved. Here, we present a general strategy on how to make a sensor magnetically invisible while keeping its ability to sense. The sensor is rendered undetectable by surrounding it with a spherical shell having a tailored magnetic permeability. Our method can be applied to arbitrary shaped magnetic sensors in arbitrary magnetic fields. The invisibility can be made exact when the sensor is spherical and the probed field is uniform. A metasurface composed of superconducting pieces is presented as a practical realization of the ideal invisibility shell.

  9. Embedded sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dharma Prakash

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring textbook provides an introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design. It discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, inter-relation between given coverage and connectivity to number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine location of the base station for data collection and explore use of anchor nodes for relative position determination of sensors. The book explores energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting. It covers key topics of sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and possible applications. The book defines routing methods and do performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology an...

  10. Sensor Substrate Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Novel substrates, such as aerogels and porous, low density ceramics may increase the sensitivities of chemical reaction-based sensors for toxic vapors. These sensors...

  11. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  12. Focus on image sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jos Gunsing; Daniël Telgen; Johan van Althuis; Jaap van de Loosdrecht; Mark Stappers; Peter Klijn

    2013-01-01

    Robots need sensors to operate properly. Using a single image sensor, various aspects of a robot operating in its environment can be measured or monitored. Over the past few years, image sensors have improved a lot: frame rate and resolution have increased, while prices have fallen. As a result,

  13. Multi-Sensor Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki; Khan, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple sensors typically requires the fusion of data from different type of sensors. The combined use of such a data has the potential to give an efficient, high quality and reliable estimation. Input data from different sensors allows the introduction of target attributes (target ty...

  14. Thermal flow micro sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow

  15. Sensors for Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lamberti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on “Sensors for Entertainment”, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  16. Electric field sensor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.D.; Parks, S.

    1977-01-01

    Above-ground intrusion sensors are reviewed briefly. Buried wire sensors are next considered; feasibility studies were conducted. A triangular system of an overhead transmitter wire exciting two buried sensor wires was developed and tested. It failed sometimes to detect a man making a broad jump. A differential receiver was developed to solve this problem

  17. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  18. Hydrostatic force sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.; Stoughton, R.S.; Kazerooni, H.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of a new kind of force sensor which detects forces by measuring an induced pressure change in a material of large Poisson's ratio. In this investigation we develop mathematical expressions for the sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth, and show that its sensitivity can be much larger and its bandwidth is usually smaller than those of existing strain-gage-type sensors. This force sensor is well-suited for measuring large but slowly varying forces. It can be installed in a space smaller than that required by existing sensors

  19. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homeijer, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roozeboom, Clifton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  20. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  1. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 908

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    demonstration at Aberdeen Proving Ground, a system with eight fluxgate magnetometers (Foerster CON650 gradiometers) and RTK-DGPS georeferencing will...be used. The spacing between the individual fluxgate sensors will be 25 cm (ca. 10 inches), totaling to a swath width of 2 m. c. The MAGNETO...MX system consists of: the MX-compact hardware multiplexer electronic module, up to 32 fluxgate gradiometers (for the APG demonstration: 8 fluxgate

  2. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record Number 891

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    magnetometers (Foerster CON650 gradiometers) and RTK-DGPS georeferencing will be used. The spacing between the individual fluxgate sensors will be 25 cm...used for data acquisition usually ranges from 8 to 32. b. For the demonstration at Aberdeen Proving Ground, a system with eight fluxgate ...up to 32 fluxgate gradiometers (for the APG demonstration: eight fluxgate gradiometers), a robust, all-terrain trailer, the MonMX data acquisition

  3. Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Data Analysis System (DAS). Environmental Quality Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    is comprised of an EMI sensor, cesium (Cs) vapor magnetometer , fluxgate magnetometer , hand-held data acquisition computer, integrated power supply...Geometrics model 823A Cs vapor magnetometer . The fluxgate magnetometer is a Bartington model Mag-3MRN60, three- axis fluxgate magnetometer . The system...9. The ERDC hand-held Dual TFM/EMI with ArcSecond positioning system. During standard usage, the fluxgate magnetometer is used to provide the

  4. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  5. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... at least one multimode light source, one or more optical sensors comprising a multimode sensor optical waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector, at least one transmitting optical waveguide for guiding light from said at least one light source to said one or more multimode sensor optical...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  6. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, Edward L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Mauck, Jerry L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Bockhorst, Richard M. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  7. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limb, Scott J. [Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  8. Compliant Tactile Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Tactile sensors are currently being designed to sense interactions with human hands or pen-like interfaces. They are generally embedded in screens, keyboards, mousepads, and pushbuttons. However, they are not well fitted to sense interactions with all kinds of objects. A novel sensor was originally designed to investigate robotics manipulation where not only the contact with an object needs to be detected, but also where the object needs to be held and manipulated. This tactile sensor has been designed with features that allow it to sense a large variety of objects in human environments. The sensor is capable of detecting forces coming from any direction. As a result, this sensor delivers a force vector with three components. In contrast to most of the tactile sensors that are flat, this one sticks out from the surface so that it is likely to come in contact with objects. The sensor conforms to the object with which it interacts. This augments the contact's surface, consequently reducing the stress applied to the object. This feature makes the sensor ideal for grabbing objects and other applications that require compliance with objects. The operational range of the sensor allows it to operate well with objects found in peoples' daily life. The fabrication of this sensor is simple and inexpensive because of its compact mechanical configuration and reduced electronics. These features are convenient for mass production of individual sensors as well as dense arrays. The biologically inspired tactile sensor is sensitive to both normal and lateral forces, providing better feedback to the host robot about the object to be grabbed. It has a high sensitivity, enabling its use in manipulation fingers, which typically have low mechanical impedance in order to be very compliant. The construction of the sensor is simple, using inexpensive technologies like silicon rubber molding and standard stock electronics.

  9. Sensor for metal detection

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-06-26

    NOVELTY - The sensor has a microfluidic flow channel that is provided with an inlet port, an outlet port, and a detection chamber. The detection chamber is provided with a group of sensing electrodes (4) having a working electrode (8), a counter electrode (9), and a reference electrode (10). A flow sensor is configured to measure flow in the channel. A temperature sensor (6) is configured to measure temperature in the channel (3). An electrical connection is configured to connect the sensor to a sensing device. USE - Sensor for detecting metal such as toxic metal in sample such as clinical sample such as stool, saliva, sputum, bronchial lavage, urine, vaginal swab, nasal swab, biopsy, tissue, tears, breath, blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, joint fluid, and amniotic fluid, water sample, food sample, air sample, and soil sample (all claimed). ADVANTAGE - The sensor for use with the portable analytical instrument is configured for detection of metalsin samples. The sensor can provide the excellent solution for on-site metal detection, including heavy metal detection. The sensors can provide significant advantages in higher throughput, lower cost, at the same time being less labor intensive and less dependent on individual skills. The disposable design of the sensor, the enhanced reliability and repeatability of measurements can be obtained. The sensors can be widely applied in various industries. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - INDEPENDENT CLAIMS are included for the following: (1) a system for detecting metal in sample; and (2) a method for using sensor for detecting metal in sample. DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING(S) - The drawing shows a schematic view of the sensor prototype. Channel (3) Sensing electrodes (4) Temperature sensor (6) Working electrode (8) Counter electrode (9) Reference electrode (10)

  10. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  11. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  12. Cryogenic microsize Hall sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitkovic, J.; Polak, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hall sensors have a variety of applications in magnetic field measurements. The active area of the Hall sensor does not play an important role in measuring of homogeneous magnetic field. Actually Hall sensors are widely used to measure profiles of magnetic fields produced by magnetization currents in samples of HTC superconductors, as well as of LTC ones. Similar techniques are used to measure magnetization of both HTC and LTC superconductors. In these cases Hall sensor operates in highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Because of that, Hall sensors with very small active area are required. We developed and tested Hall sensors with active area 100 μm x 100 μm - type M and 50 μm x 50 μm - type V. Here we report on the most imporant parameters of these units, as well as on their properties as differential magnetometer. (orig.)

  13. Clementine sensor suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  14. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  15. Working Group Report: Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  16. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  17. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  18. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  19. Bioinspired Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial summarizes and classifies the contributions presented by different authors to the special issue of the journal Sensors dedicated to Bioinspired Sensor Systems. From the coupling of sensor arrays or networks, plus computer processing abilities, new applications to mimic or to complement human senses are arising in the context of ambient intelligence. Principles used, and illustrative study cases have been presented permitting readers to grasp the current status of the field.

  20. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  1. Perimeter intrusion sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  2. Tri-axial square Helmholtz coil system at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory: upgraded to a magnetic sensor calibration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, Prasanna; John, Jacob; Dhapre, Vijay; Dongre, Varun; Labde, Sachin

    2018-04-01

    A tri-axial square Helmholtz coil system for the study of palaeomagnetic studies, manufactured by GEOFYZIKA (former Czechoslovakia), was successfully commissioned at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory (IAGA code: ABG) in the year 1985. This system was used for a few years, after which the system encountered technical problems with the control unit. Rectification of the unit could not be undertaken, as the information document related to this system was not available, and as a result the system had been lying in an unused state for a long time, until 2015, when the system was recommissioned and upgraded to a test facility for calibrating the magnetometer sensors. We have upgraded the system with a constant current source and a data-logging unit. Both of these units have been designed and developed in the institute laboratory. Also, re-measurements of the existing system have been made thoroughly. The upgraded system is semi-automatic, enabling non-specialists to operate it after a brief period of instruction. This facility is now widely used at the parent institute and external institutions to calibrate magnetometers and it also serves as a national facility. Here the design of this system with the calibration results for the space-borne fluxgate magnetometers is presented.

  3. Tri-axial square Helmholtz coil system at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory: upgraded to a magnetic sensor calibration facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mahavarkar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A tri-axial square Helmholtz coil system for the study of palaeomagnetic studies, manufactured by GEOFYZIKA (former Czechoslovakia, was successfully commissioned at the Alibag Magnetic Observatory (IAGA code: ABG in the year 1985. This system was used for a few years, after which the system encountered technical problems with the control unit. Rectification of the unit could not be undertaken, as the information document related to this system was not available, and as a result the system had been lying in an unused state for a long time, until 2015, when the system was recommissioned and upgraded to a test facility for calibrating the magnetometer sensors. We have upgraded the system with a constant current source and a data-logging unit. Both of these units have been designed and developed in the institute laboratory. Also, re-measurements of the existing system have been made thoroughly. The upgraded system is semi-automatic, enabling non-specialists to operate it after a brief period of instruction. This facility is now widely used at the parent institute and external institutions to calibrate magnetometers and it also serves as a national facility. Here the design of this system with the calibration results for the space-borne fluxgate magnetometers is presented.

  4. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  5. Dynamic Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    ...: Declarative Languages and Execution Environment includes topographical soldier interface and a sensor network simulation environment for algorithm development, deployment planning, and operational support. Finally, Task 3...

  6. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  7. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  8. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Cheung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation.

  9. Microelectronic temperature sensor; silicon temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitner, M.; Kanert, W.; Reichert, H.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a silicon temperature sensor with a sensitivity and a reliability as high and a tolerance as small as possible, for use in measurement and control. By employing the principle of spreading-resistance, using silicon doped by neutron transmutation, and trimming of the single wafer tolerances of resistance less than +- 5% can be obtained; overstress tests yielded a long-term stability better than 0.2%. Some applications show the advantageous use of this sensor. (orig.) [de

  10. Demonstration of Helicopter Multi-Sensor Towed Array Detection System (MTADS) Magnetometry Technology at Victorville Precision Bombing Range, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-12

    measurement Fluxgate magnetometer 10 RS232- ASCII SerialDevice.fluxgate Provides redundant aircraft attitude measurement Acoustic altimeters 10 Analog...primarily by terrain, vegetation, and structural inhibitions to safe low-altitude flight. The magnetometer data can be analyzed to extract either...to validate the results of the magnetometer survey. ESTCP Victorville PBR WAA Final Report December 2008 Sky Research, Inc. 2 1.2. Objectives of

  11. Medical Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    researchers have been developing power-efficient security mechanisms for sensor networks. However, most of this work ignores the special usability demands from the clinical use-scenarios: set-up must be fast, and key pre-distribution is problematic if disposable sensors are discarded after being used for only...

  12. Sensors in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Sensors rapidly become available both for personal as well as scientific use. A wide range of applications exists for personal use e.g. safety in and around the house, sport, fitness and health. In this workshop we will explore how sensors are (can be) used in education. We start with an

  13. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Sensor technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Jørgensen, Birte Holst; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2001-01-01

    heavily impacted by new sensor technology. It also appears that new sensor technology will affect food processing and the environment sector. Some impact is made on sectors such as agriculture, chemical engineering, domestic and otherappliances, security and defence, transport, and energy. Less impact...

  15. ALC Rooftop Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an... Interior view of the new sensor box ...................................................... 3 Fig. 4 Interior of original sensor box...7 Fig. 10 Interior of fiber patch panel .................................................................. 7 Fig. 11

  16. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  17. Magnetic sensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a sensor device and a method for detg. the presence and/or amt. of target moieties in a sample fluid, the target moieties being labeled with magnetic or magnetizable objects. The sensor device comprises a magnetic field generating means adapted for applying a retention

  18. Aggregating Linked Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasch, Christoph; Schade, Sven; Llaves, Alejandro; Janowicz, K.; Bröring, Arne; Taylor, Kerry; Ayyagari, Arun; De Roure, David

    2011-01-01

    Sensor observations are usually oered in relation to a specific purpose, e.g., for reporting fine dust emissions, following strict procedures, and spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, the huge amount of data gathered by today's public and private sensor networks is most often not reused outside of

  19. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  20. Multifunctional optical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a multifunctional optical sensor, having at least 2 areas which independently react to different input parameters, the sensor comprising a substrate and a polymeric layer comprising polymerized liquid crystal monomers having an ordered morphology, wherein the color, the

  1. Sensor Alerting Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Jakob; Bermudez, Luis; Satapathy, Goutam

    2013-04-01

    There is a large amount of sensor data generated today by various sensors, from in-situ buoys to mobile underwater gliders. Providing sensor data to the users through standardized services, language and data model is the promise of OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. As the amount of data grows it is becoming difficult for data providers, planners and managers to ensure reliability of data and services and to monitor critical data changes. Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) is developing a net-centric alerting capability to address these issues. The capability is built on Sensor Observation Services (SOSs), which is used to collect and monitor sensor data. The alerts can be configured at the service level and at the sensor data level. For example it can alert for irregular data delivery events or a geo-temporal statistic of sensor data crossing a preset threshold. The capability provides multiple delivery mechanisms and protocols, including traditional techniques such as email and RSS. With this capability decision makers can monitor their assets and data streams, correct failures or be alerted about a coming phenomena.

  2. Electrocatalytic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U; Luft, G; Mund, K; Preidel, W; Richter, G J

    1983-01-01

    An artificial pancreas consists of an insulin depot, a dosage unit and a glucose sensor. The measurement of the actual glucose concentration in blood is still an unsolved problem. Two methods are described for an electrocatalytic glucose sensor. Under the interfering action of amino acids and urea in-vitro measurements show an error of between 10% and 20%.

  3. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Networks of ground-based magnetometers now provide the basis for the diagnosis of magnetic disturbances associated with solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on a truly global scale. Advances in sensor and digitisation technologies offer increases in sensitivity in fluxgate, induction coil, and new micro-sensor technologies - including the promise of hybrid sensors. Similarly, advances in remote connectivity provide the capacity for truly real-time monitoring of global dynamics at cadences sufficient for monitoring and in many cases resolving system level spatio-temporal ambiguities especially in combination with conjugate satellite measurements. A wide variety of the plasmaphysical processes active in driving geospace dynamics can be monitored based on the response of the electrical current system, including those associated with changes in global convection, magnetospheric substorms and nightside tail flows, as well as due to solar wind changes in both dynamic pressure and in response to rotations of the direction of the IMF. Significantly, any changes to the dynamical system must be communicated by the propagation of long-period Alfven and/or compressional waves. These wave populations hence provide diagnostics for not only the energy transport by the wave fields themselves, but also provide a mechanism for diagnosing the structure of the background plasma medium through which the waves propagate. Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are especially significant in offering a monitor for mass density profiles, often invisible to particle detectors because of their very low energy, through the application of a variety of magneto-seismology and cross-phase techniques. Renewed scientific interest in the plasma waves associated with near-Earth substorm dynamics, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at substorm onset and their relation to magnetotail flows, as well the importance of global scale ultra-low frequency waves for the energisation, transport

  4. Pressure Measurement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    FFPI Industries Inc. is the manufacturer of fiber-optic sensors that furnish accurate pressure measurements in internal combustion chambers. Such an assessment can help reduce pollution emitted by these engines. A chief component in the sensor owes its seven year- long development to Lewis Research Center funding to embed optical fibers and sensors in metal parts. NASA support to Texas A&M University played a critical role in developing this fiber optic technology and led to the formation of FFPI Industries and the production of fiber sensor products. The simple, rugged design of the sensor offers the potential for mass production at low cost. Widespread application of the new technology is forseen, from natural gas transmission, oil refining and electrical power generation to rail transport and the petrochemical paper product industry.

  5. An electrokinetic pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Duckjong

    2008-01-01

    A new concept for a micro pressure sensor is demonstrated. The pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of glass nanochannels is obtained by measuring the electrokinetically generated electric potential. To demonstrate the proposed concept, experimental investigations are performed for 100 nm wide nanochannels with sodium chloride solutions having various concentrations. The proposed pressure sensor is able to measure the pressure difference within a 10% deviation from linearity. The sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor with 10 −5 M sodium chloride solution is 18.5 µV Pa −1 , which is one order of magnitude higher than that of typical diaphragm-based pressure sensors. A numerical model is presented for investigating the effects of the concentration and the channel width on the sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor. Numerical results show that the sensitivity increases as the concentration decreases and the channel width increases

  6. 2-Sensor Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Segal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ad-hoc networks of sensor nodes are in general semi-permanently deployed. However, the topology of such networks continuously changes over time, due to the power of some sensors wearing out to new sensors being inserted into the network, or even due to designers moving sensors around during a network re-design phase (for example, in response to a change in the requirements of the network. In this paper, we address the problem of covering a given path by a limited number of sensors — in our case to two, and show its relation to the well-studied matrix multiplication problem.

  7. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  8. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  9. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  10. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Homer, Margie (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  11. Handheld Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; San Filipo, William A; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Andrews, Anne; Robitaille, George; Fairbanks, Jeffrey; Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  12. Roadmap on optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F S; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M; Pellegrino, Paul M; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    Sensors are devices or systems able to detect, measure and convert magnitudes from any domain to an electrical one. Using light as a probe for optical sensing is one of the most efficient approaches for this purpose. The history of optical sensing using some methods based on absorbance, emissive and florescence properties date back to the 16th century. The field of optical sensors evolved during the following centuries, but it did not achieve maturity until the demonstration of the first laser in 1960. The unique properties of laser light become particularly important in the case of laser-based sensors, whose operation is entirely based upon the direct detection of laser light itself, without relying on any additional mediating device. However, compared with freely propagating light beams, artificially engineered optical fields are in increasing demand for probing samples with very small sizes and/or weak light-matter interaction. Optical fiber sensors constitute a subarea of optical sensors in which fiber technologies are employed. Different types of specialty and photonic crystal fibers provide improved performance and novel sensing concepts. Actually, structurization with wavelength or subwavelength feature size appears as the most efficient way to enhance sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. This leads to the area of micro- and nano-engineered optical sensors. It is expected that the combination of better fabrication techniques and new physical effects may open new and fascinating opportunities in this area. This roadmap on optical sensors addresses different technologies and application areas of the field. Fourteen contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide insights into the current state-of-the-art and the challenges faced by researchers currently. Two sections of this paper provide an overview of laser-based and frequency comb-based sensors. Three sections address the area of optical fiber sensors, encompassing both

  13. Roadmap on optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F. S.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J.; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    Sensors are devices or systems able to detect, measure and convert magnitudes from any domain to an electrical one. Using light as a probe for optical sensing is one of the most efficient approaches for this purpose. The history of optical sensing using some methods based on absorbance, emissive and florescence properties date back to the 16th century. The field of optical sensors evolved during the following centuries, but it did not achieve maturity until the demonstration of the first laser in 1960. The unique properties of laser light become particularly important in the case of laser-based sensors, whose operation is entirely based upon the direct detection of laser light itself, without relying on any additional mediating device. However, compared with freely propagating light beams, artificially engineered optical fields are in increasing demand for probing samples with very small sizes and/or weak light-matter interaction. Optical fiber sensors constitute a subarea of optical sensors in which fiber technologies are employed. Different types of specialty and photonic crystal fibers provide improved performance and novel sensing concepts. Actually, structurization with wavelength or subwavelength feature size appears as the most efficient way to enhance sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. This leads to the area of micro- and nano-engineered optical sensors. It is expected that the combination of better fabrication techniques and new physical effects may open new and fascinating opportunities in this area. This roadmap on optical sensors addresses different technologies and application areas of the field. Fourteen contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide insights into the current state-of-the-art and the challenges faced by researchers currently. Two sections of this paper provide an overview of laser-based and frequency comb-based sensors. Three sections address the area of optical fiber sensors, encompassing both

  14. Semiconductor acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyanagi, Katsumichi; Kobayashi, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomoaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a practical semiconductor acceleration sensor especially suited for automotive air bag systems. The acceleration sensor includes four beams arranged in a swastika structure. Two piezoresistors are formed on each beam. These eight piezoresistors constitute a Wheatstone bridge. The swastika structure of the sensing elements, an upper glass plate and a lower glass plate exhibit the squeeze film effect which enhances air dumping, by which the constituent silicon is prevented from breakdown. The present acceleration sensor has the following features. The acceleration force component perpendicular to the sensing direction can be cancelled. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3 percent. And, the erroneous offset caused by the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials can be canceled. The high aspect ratio configuration realized by plasma etching facilitates reducing the dimensions and improving the sensitivity of the acceleration sensor. The present acceleration sensor is 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm in area and 1.2 mm in thickness. The present acceleration sensor can measure from -50 to +50 G with sensitivity of 0.275 mV/G and with non-linearity of less than 1 percent. The acceleration sensor withstands shock of 3000 G.

  15. Advanced Magnetoimpedance Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-02-01

    This thesis is concerned with the advanced topics of thin film magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors. The author proposes and develops novel MI sensors that target on the challenges arising from emerging applications such as flexible electronics, passive wireless sensing, etc. In the study of flexible MI sensor, the investigated sensors of NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layersare fabricated on three flexible substrates having different surface roughness: Kapton, standard and premiumphotopaper. Sensitivity versus substrate roughness analysis is carried out for the selection of optimal substrate material. The high magnetic sensing performance is achieved by using Kapton substrate. Stress simulation, incorporated with the theory of magnetostriction effect, reveals the material composition of Ni/Fe being as a key factor of the stress dependent MI effect for the flexible MI sensors. In the development of MI-SAW device for passive wireless magnetic field sensing, NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layersand interdigital transducers(IDT) are designed and fabricated on a single piece of LiNbO3substrate, providing a high degree of integration and the advantage of standard microfabrication. The double-electrodeIDT has been utilized and proven to have an optimal sensing performance in comparison to the bi-directional IDT design. The optimized high frequency performance of the thin film MI sensor results in a MI-SAW passive wireless magnetic sensor with high magnetic sensitivity comparing to the MI microwire approach. Benefiting from the high degree of integration of the MI thin film element, in the following study, two additional sensing elements are integrated to the SAW device to have a multifunctional passive wireless sensor with extended temperature and humidity sensing capabilities. Analytical models havebeen developed to eliminate the crossovers of different sensing signals through additional reference IDTs, resulting in a multifunctional passive wireless sensor with the capability of detecting all three

  16. Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor with integrated resistive pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Schut, Thomas; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    We report on novel resistive pressure sensors, integrated on-chip at the inlet- and outlet-channels of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. The pressure sensors can be used to measure the pressure drop over the Coriolis sensor which can be used to compensate pressure-dependent behaviour that might

  17. Resistive pressure sensors integrated with a Coriolis mass flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alveringh, Dennis; Schut, Thomas; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    We report on a novel resistive pressure sensor that is completely integrated with a Coriolis mass flow sensor on one chip, without the need for extra fabrication steps or different materials. Two pressure sensors are placed in-line with the Coriolis sensor without requiring any changes to the fluid

  18. Consistent sensor, relay, and link selection in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo Valles, M.D.R.; Simonetto, A.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, where energy is scarce, it is inefficient to have all nodes active because they consume a non-negligible amount of battery. In this paper we consider the problem of jointly selecting sensors, relays and links in a wireless sensor network where the active sensors need

  19. Urodynamic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A transducer system was developed for measuring the closing pressure profile along the female urethra, which provides up to five sensors within the functional length of the urethra. This new development is an improvement over an earlier measurement method that has a smaller sensor area and was unable to respond to transient events. Three sensors were constructed; one of them was subjected to approximately eight hours of use in a clinical setting during which 576 data points were obtained. The complete instrument system, including the signal conditioning electronics, data acquisition unit, and the computer with its display and printer is described and illustrated.

  20. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Erika L.; Vogt, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor for O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2 gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer.

  1. Sensors in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Sensors rapidly become available both for personal as well as scientific use. A wide range of applications exists for personal use e.g. safety in and around the house, sport, fitness and health. In this workshop we will explore how sensors are (can be) used in education. We start with an introduction on sensors and their use, discuss the FP7 project METALOGUE (www.metalogue.eu), a Multi-perspective Multi-modal Dialogue system, and close with a hands-on and a discussion of the design of the Pr...

  2. Characterization of Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    It was commissioned at CERN ATLAS pixel group a fluorescence setup for characterization of pixel sensors. The idea is to measure the energies of different targets to calibrate your sensor. It was measured four matrices (80, 95, 98 and 106) of the Investigator1 sensor with different deep PW using copper, iron and titanium as target materials. The matrix 80 has a higher gain (0.065 ± 0.002) and matrix 106 has a better energy resolution (0.05 ± 0.04). The noise of the setup is around 3.6 mV .

  3. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  4. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  5. Professional Android Sensor Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Milette, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Learn to build human-interactive Android apps, starting with device sensors This book shows Android developers how to exploit the rich set of device sensors—locational, physical (temperature, pressure, light, acceleration, etc.), cameras, microphones, and speech recognition—in order to build fully human-interactive Android applications. Whether providing hands-free directions or checking your blood pressure, Professional Android Sensor Programming shows how to turn possibility into reality. The authors provide techniques that bridge the gap between accessing sensors and putting the

  6. Surfactant Sensors in Biotechnology; Part 1 – Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sak-Bosnar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on electrochemical surfactant sensors is given with special attention to papers published since 1993. The importance of surfactants in modern biotechnology is stressed out. Electrochemical sensors are usually divided according to the measured physical quantity to potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric and impedimetric surfactant sensors. The last ones are very few. Potentiometric surfactant sensors are the most numerous due to their simplicity and versatility. They can be used either as end-point titration sensors or as direct EMF measurement sensors, in batch or flow-through mode. Some amperometric surfactant sensors are true biosensors that use microorganisms or living cells.

  7. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  8. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Tactile Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2015-10-21

    A multifunctional biomimetic nanocomposite tactile sensor is developed that can detect shear and vertical forces, feel texture, and measure flow with extremely low power consumption. The sensor\\'s high performance is maintained within a wide operating range that can be easily adjusted. The concept works on rigid and flexible substrates and the sensors can be used in air or water without any modifications.

  9. Downhole pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Sensor remains accurate in spite of varying temperatures. Very accurate, sensitive, and stable downhole pressure measurements are needed for vaiety of reservoir engineering applications, such as deep petroleum reservoirs, especially gas reservoirs, and in areas of high geothermal gradient.

  10. Reconfigurable Sensor Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A reconfigurable sensor monitoring system includes software tunable filters, each of which is programmable to condition one type of analog signal. A processor coupled to the software tunable filters receives each type of analog signal so-conditioned.

  11. Sensor for metal detection

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Zhao, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, joint fluid, and amniotic fluid, water sample, food sample, air sample, and soil sample (all claimed). ADVANTAGE - The sensor for use with the portable analytical instrument is configured

  12. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of artificial skin concepts is a result of the increased demand for providing environment perception such as touch and flow sensing to robots, prosthetics and surgical tools. Tactile sensors are the essential

  13. Parachute Cord Tension Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To design and fabricate a light weight (few oz), very small (~2 inch length) parachute cord tension sensor demonstrator device.A major challenge for the CPAS (The...

  14. Modular sensor network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring [Berkeley, CA; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick [Hayward, CA; Kyker, Ronald Dean [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  15. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  16. Graphene Chemical Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop graphene based miniaturized chemical sensors that will be able to detect gaseous and volatile molecules with high sensitivity, good reproducibility and wide...

  17. Graphene Chemical Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop graphene based miniaturized chemical sensors that will be able to detect gaseous and volatile molecules with high sensitivity, good reproducibility and wide...

  18. Wearable Optical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    The market for wearable sensors is predicted to grow to $5.5 billion by 2025, impacting global health in unprecedented ways. Optics and photonics will play a key role in the future of these wearable technologies, enabling highly sensitive

  19. Microsoft Kinect Sensor Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billie, Glennoah

    2011-01-01

    My summer project evaluates the Kinect game sensor input/output and its suitability to perform as part of a human interface for a spacecraft application. The primary objective is to evaluate, understand, and communicate the Kinect system's ability to sense and track fine (human) position and motion. The project will analyze the performance characteristics and capabilities of this game system hardware and its applicability for gross and fine motion tracking. The software development kit for the Kinect was also investigated and some experimentation has begun to understand its development environment. To better understand the software development of the Kinect game sensor, research in hacking communities has brought a better understanding of the potential for a wide range of personal computer (PC) application development. The project also entails the disassembly of the Kinect game sensor. This analysis would involve disassembling a sensor, photographing it, and identifying components and describing its operation.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Morris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance finds countless applications, from spectroscopy to imaging, routinely in almost all research and medical institutions across the globe. It is also becoming more frequently used for specific applications in which the whole instrument and system is designed for a dedicated application. With beginnings in borehole logging for the petro-chemical industry Magnetic Resonance sensors have been applied to fields as varied as online process monitoring for food manufacture and medical point of care diagnostics. This great diversity is seeing exciting developments in magnetic resonance sensing technology published in application specific journals where they are often not seen by the wider sensor community. It is clear that there is enormous interest in magnetic resonance sensors which represents a significant growth area. The aim of this special edition of Sensors was to address the wide distribution of relevant articles by providing a forum to disseminate cutting edge research in this field in a single open source publication.[...

  1. GAINT magnetoimpedance sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauser, H.; Kraus, Luděk; Ripka, P.

    xx, - (2001), s. 28-32 ISSN 1094-6969 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : wireless sensor * distant measurement of magnetic fields Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Shaw, Michael J [Tijeras, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM; Lentine, Anthony L [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  3. Sensor for ionizable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkey, E.; Reed, W.A. III; Hickam, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sensor to detect thermally ionizable elements or molucules in air, water vapour or oxygen or to be used as alkali leak detector in vacuum systems, e.g. in the pipe system of a liquid-metal cooled FBR. The sensor consists of an filament made of thorium-containing iridium as cathode with a temperature upto 1000 0 C and an anode sheet of molybdenum, nickel or stainless steal. (ORU) [de

  4. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  5. Novel PET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.R.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis describes the design, synthesis and evaluation of novel molecular sensors that utilize the phenomena of Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET). PET design can be incorporated into molecules to allow them to selectively bind certain guest molecules. PET works by the modulation of electron potentials within a molecule. Binding events between a host and guest can, if designed suitably, change these potentials enough to cause a transfer of electronic charge within the molecular sensor. This event can be accurately and sensitively monitored by the use of ultra violet or fluorescence spectroscopy. A sensor molecule can be constructed by matching the guest to a suitable receptor site and incorporating this into a molecule containing a fluorophore with the correct electron potential characteristics. By using existing synthetic routes as well as exploiting new pathways these sensor molecules C n be constructed to contain a fluorophore separated from a guest receptor(s) by suitable spacers units. When put together these facets go to creating molecules that by design are sensitive and selective for certain guest molecules or functional groups. This methodology allows the synthetic chemist to rationally design and synthesise PET sensors, tailored to the needs of the guest. In this thesis the synthesis and evaluation of a novel PET sensors for D-glucosamine, disaccharides and fluoride is presented. It is believed that the novel sensors using the PET phenomenon presented in this thesis are a worthwhile extension of previous works undertaken by other groups around the world and shows new pathways to increasingly complex and sophisticated sensor molecular design. (author)

  6. Wireless radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Kress, Reid L.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  7. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  8. Geographically distributed environmental sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Patrick; Veatch, Brad; O'Connor, Mike

    2006-10-03

    The present invention is directed to a sensor network that includes a number of sensor units and a base unit. The base station operates in a network discovery mode (in which network topology information is collected) in a data polling mode (in which sensed information is collected from selected sensory units). Each of the sensor units can include a number of features, including an anemometer, a rain gauge, a compass, a GPS receiver, a barometric pressure sensor, an air temperature sensor, a humidity sensor, a level, and a radiant temperature sensor.

  9. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications. - Highlights: • A flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor is developed. • Studies are carried out using a flexible microstrip transmission line. • An MI ratio of up to 90% is obtained. • The effect of magnetostriction is studied

  10. Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. PMID:22164033

  11. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  12. Engineering workstation: Sensor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, M; Sweet, B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the engineering workstation is to provide an environment for rapid prototyping and evaluation of fusion and image processing algorithms. Ideally, the algorithms are designed to optimize the extraction of information that is useful to a pilot for all phases of flight operations. Successful design of effective fusion algorithms depends on the ability to characterize both the information available from the sensors and the information useful to a pilot. The workstation is comprised of subsystems for simulation of sensor-generated images, image processing, image enhancement, and fusion algorithms. As such, the workstation can be used to implement and evaluate both short-term solutions and long-term solutions. The short-term solutions are being developed to enhance a pilot's situational awareness by providing information in addition to his direct vision. The long term solutions are aimed at the development of complete synthetic vision systems. One of the important functions of the engineering workstation is to simulate the images that would be generated by the sensors. The simulation system is designed to use the graphics modeling and rendering capabilities of various workstations manufactured by Silicon Graphics Inc. The workstation simulates various aspects of the sensor-generated images arising from phenomenology of the sensors. In addition, the workstation can be used to simulate a variety of impairments due to mechanical limitations of the sensor placement and due to the motion of the airplane. Although the simulation is currently not performed in real-time, sequences of individual frames can be processed, stored, and recorded in a video format. In that way, it is possible to examine the appearance of different dynamic sensor-generated and fused images.

  13. A Novel Optical Sensor Platform Designed for Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuo; Zhou, Bochao; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T V

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design of an optical sensor platform, enabling effective integration of a number of optical fibre ('wired') sensors with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this work, a fibre Bragg grating-based temperature sensor with low power consumption is specially designed as a sensing module and integrated successfully into a WSN, making full use of the advantages arising from both the advanced optical sensor designs and the powerful network functionalities resident in WSNs. The platform is expected to make an important impact on many applications, where either the conventional optical sensor designs or WSNs alone cannot meet the requirements.

  14. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  15. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  16. Water quality sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1994-01-01

    The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in reactor water under radiation irradiation condition, and it has a long life time. Namely, an oxygen sensor comprises electrodes attached on both sides of high temperature/radiation resistant ion conductive material in which ions are sufficiently diffused within a temperature range of from a room temperature to 300degC. It has a performance for measuring electromotive force caused by the difference of a partial pressure between a reference gas and a gas to be measured contained in the high temperature/radiation resistant material. A hydrogen peroxide sensor has the oxygen sensor described above, to which a filter for causing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is attached. The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in a reactor water of a BWR type reactor under high temperature/radiation irradiation condition. Accordingly, accurate water quality environment in the reactor water can be recognized. As a result, determination of incore corrosion environment is established thereby enabling to attain reactor integrity, safety and long life. (I.S.)

  17. Human Infrastructure Detection and Exploitation (HIDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    7  Figure 4. Picture of the fluxgate magnetometer and the coil-type magnetic sensor...may also be used to detect the usage of computer monitors. We used two different B-field sensors (figure 4), namely, (1) a fluxgate magnetometer ...collected at 256 samples per second. The three-axis fluxgate magnetometer used was an Applied Physics Systems Model 1540. It has the sensitivity

  18. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  19. Introduction to optical fiber sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukdad, S.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have many advantages over other types of sensors, for example: Low weight, immunity from EMI, electrical isolation, chemical passivity, and high sensitivity. In this seminar, a brief explanation of the optical fiber sensors, their use, and their advantages will be given. After, a description of the main optical fiber sensor components will be presented. Principles of some kinds of optical fiber sensors will be presented, and the principle of the fiber-optic rotation sensor and its realization will be discussed in some details, as well as its main applications. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Modular chemiresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul M.; Sampathkumaran, Uma

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to a modular chemiresistive sensor. In particular, a modular chemiresistive sensor for hypergolic fuel and oxidizer leak detection, carbon dioxide monitoring and detection of disease biomarkers. The sensor preferably has two gold or platinum electrodes mounted on a silicon substrate where the electrodes are connected to a power source and are separated by a gap of 0.5 to 4.0 .mu.M. A polymer nanowire or carbon nanotube spans the gap between the electrodes and connects the electrodes electrically. The electrodes are further connected to a circuit board having a processor and data storage, where the processor can measure current and voltage values between the electrodes and compare the current and voltage values with current and voltage values stored in the data storage and assigned to particular concentrations of a pre-determined substance such as those listed above or a variety of other substances.

  1. Wireless sensor communications and internet connectivity for sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, M. [Crossbow Technology, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    A wireless sensor network architecture is an integrated hardware/software solution that has the potential to change the way sensors are used in a virtually unlimited range of industries and applications. By leveraging Bluetooth wireless technology for low-cost, short-range radio links, wireless sensor networks such as CrossNet{sup TM} enable users to create wireless sensor networks. These wireless networks can link dozens or hundreds of sensors of disparate types and brands with data acquisition/analysis systems, such as handheld devices, internet-enabled laptop or desktop PCs. The overwhelming majority of sensor applications are hard-wired at present, and since wiring is often the most time-consuming, tedious, trouble-prone and expensive aspect of sensor applications, users in many fields will find compelling reasons to adopt the wireless sensor network solution. (orig.)

  2. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  3. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future (CARs&FOF 2011) 26-28 July 2-11, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Mining Robotics Sensors Perception Sensors on a Mine Safety Platform Green JJ1, Hlophe K2, Dickens J3, Teleka R4, Mathew Price5...-28 July 2-11, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia visualization in confined, lightless environments, and thermography for assessing the safety and stability of hanging walls. Over the last decade approximately 200 miners have lost their lives per year in South...

  4. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  5. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  6. Self Calibrating Interferometric Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Schiøtt

    mask. The fabricated micro structures have been electroplated for later injection molding, showing the potential of the MIBD sensor to be mass produced with high reproducibility and sensitivity. In part three MIBD experiments on vital biological systems are described. Label–free binding studies of bio......This thesis deals with the development of an optical sensor based on micro interferometric backscatter detection (MIBD). A price effective, highly sensitive and ready for mass production platform is the goal of this project. The thesis covers three areas. The first part of the thesis deals...

  7. Heme Sensor Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Hazel M.; Munro, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is a prosthetic group best known for roles in oxygen transport, oxidative catalysis, and respiratory electron transport. Recent years have seen the roles of heme extended to sensors of gases such as O2 and NO and cell redox state, and as mediators of cellular responses to changes in intracellular levels of these gases. The importance of heme is further evident from identification of proteins that bind heme reversibly, using it as a signal, e.g. to regulate gene expression in circadian rhythm pathways and control heme synthesis itself. In this minireview, we explore the current knowledge of the diverse roles of heme sensor proteins. PMID:23539616

  8. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  9. Sensor Webs to Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced technology plays a key role in enabling future Earth-observing missions needed for global monitoring and climate research. Rapid progress over the past decade and anticipated for the coming decades have diminished the size of some satellites while increasing the amount of data and required pace of integration and analysis. Sensor web developments provide correlations to constellations of smallsats. Reviewing current advances in sensor webs and requirements for constellations will improve planning, operations, and data management for future architectures of multiple satellites with a common mission goal.

  10. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  11. SENSOR.awi.de: Management of heterogeneous platforms and sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Koppe, Roland; Gerchow, Peter; Macario, Ana; Haas, Antonie; Schäfer-Neth, Christian; Rehmcke, Steven; Walter, Andreas; Düde, Tobias; Weidinger, Philipp; Schäfer, Angela; Pfeiffenberger, Hans

    2018-01-01

    SENSOR.awi.de is a component of our data flow framework designed to enable a semi-automated flow of sensor observations to archives (acronym O2A). The dramatic increase in the number and type of platforms and respective sensors operated by Alfred Wegener Institute along with complex project-driven requirements in terms of satellite communication, sensor monitoring, quality control and validation, processing pipelines, visualization, and archival under FAIR principles, led us to build a g...

  12. Sensor Fusion-based Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) community has witnessed an application focus shift. Although, monitoring was the initial application of wireless sensor networks, in-network data processing and (near) real-time actuation capability have made wireless sensor networks suitable candidate for

  13. Semantic interoperability in sensor applications - making sense of sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, Paul; Basten, Twan; Stuijk, Sander; Bui, Vinh; de Clercq, Paul; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Much effort has been spent on the optimization of sensor networks, mainly concerning their performance and power efficiency. Furthermore, open communication protocols for the exchange of sensor data have been developed and widely adopted, making sensor data widely available for software

  14. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  15. Bragg gratings: Optical microchip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sam

    2010-07-01

    A direct UV writing technique that can create multiple Bragg gratings and waveguides in a planar silica-on-silicon chip is enabling sensing applications ranging from individual disposable sensors for biotechnology through to multiplexed sensor networks in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

  16. Sensor Validation using Bayesian Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of NASA’s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in...

  17. Electric current sensors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The review makes a brief overview of traditional methods of measurement of electric current and shows in more detail relatively new types of current sensors. These include Hall sensors with field concentrators, AMR current sensors, magneto-optical and superconducting current sensors. The influence of the magnetic core properties on the error of the current transformer shows why nanocrystalline materials are so advantageous for this application. Built-in CMOS current sensors are important tools for monitoring the health of integrated circuits. Of special industrial value are current clamps which can be installed without breaking the measured conductor. Parameters of current sensors are also discussed, including geometrical selectivity. This parameter specific for current sensors means the ability to suppress the influence of currents external to the sensor (including the position of the return conductor) and also suppress the influence on the position of the measured conductor with respect to the current. (topical review)

  18. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutian Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  19. Polymer laser bio-sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Vannahme, Christoph; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Organic dye based distributed feed-back lasers, featuring narrow linewidth and thus high quality spectral resolution, are used as highly sensitive refractive index sensors. The design, fabrication and application of the laser intra-cavity sensors are discussed....

  20. Wireless smart shipboard sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Nozik, Andrew B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the feasibility of developing a smart shipboard sensor network. The objective of the thesis is to prove that sensors can be made smart by keeping calibration constants and other relevant data such as network information stored on the sensor and a server computer. Study will focus on the design and implementation of an Ipsil IP(micro)8930 microcontroller, which is then connected, by the standard TCP/IP implementation, to a network where the sensor information can be see...

  1. Security For Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Singh,; Dr. Harsh Kumar Verma

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is highly vulnerable to attacks because it consists of various resourceconstrained devices with their low battery power, less memory, and associated low energy. Sensor nodescommunicate among themselves via wireless links. However, there are still a lot of unresolved issues in wireless sensor networks of which security is one of the hottest research issues. Sensor networks aredeployed in hostile environments. Environmental conditions along with resource-constraints give...

  2. Wearable bio and chemical sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Shirley; Curto, Vincenzo F.; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Florea, Larisa; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical sensors have experienced tremendous growth in the past decade due to advances in material chemistry combined with the emergence of digital communication technologies and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [1]. The emergence of wearable chemical and biochemical sensors is a relatively new concept that poses unique challenges to the field of wearable sensing. This is because chemical sensors have a more complex mode of operation, compared to physical transducers, in that t...

  3. Biomimetic Flow Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, J.; Liu, Chang; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic flow sensors are biologically inspired devices that measure the speed and direction of fluids. This survey starts by describing the role and functioning of airflow-sensing hairs in arthropods and in fishes, carries on with the biomimetic MEMS implementations, both for air and water flow

  4. Miniaturized wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Lecointre , Aubin; Dragomirescu , Daniela; Dubuc , David; Grenier , Katia; Pons , Patrick; Aubert , Hervé; Müller , A.; Berthou , Pascal; Gayraud , Thierry; Plana , Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses an overview of the wireless sensor networks. It is shown that MEMS/NEMS technologies and SIP concept are well suited for advanced architectures. It is also shown analog architectures have to be compatible with digital signal techniques to develop smart network of microsystem.

  5. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  6. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available of threedimensional cameras (SR 4000 and XBOX Kinect) and a thermal imaging sensor (FLIR A300) in order to create 3d thermal models of narrow mining stopes. This information can be used in determining the risk of rockfall in an underground mine, which is a major...

  7. Distributed sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Donald B; Carlin, John B; Iyengar, S Sitharama; Brooks, Richard R; University, Clemson

    2014-01-01

    An Overview, S.S. Iyengar, Ankit Tandon, and R.R. BrooksMicrosensor Applications, David ShepherdA Taxonomy of Distributed Sensor Networks, Shivakumar Sastry and S.S. IyengarContrast with Traditional Systems, R.R. BrooksDigital Signal Processing Background, Yu Hen HuImage-Processing Background Lynne Grewe and Ben ShahshahaniObject Detection and Classification, Akbar M. SayeedParameter Estimation David FriedlanderTarget Tracking with Self-Organizing Distributed Sensors R.R. Brooks, C. Griffin, D.S. Friedlander, and J.D. KochCollaborative Signal and Information Processing: AnInformation-Directed Approach Feng Zhao, Jie Liu, Juan Liu, Leonidas Guibas, and James ReichEnvironmental Effects, David C. SwansonDetecting and Counteracting Atmospheric Effects Lynne L. GreweSignal Processing and Propagation for Aeroacoustic Sensor Networks, Richard J. Kozick, Brian M. Sadler, and D. Keith WilsonDistributed Multi-Target Detection in Sensor Networks Xiaoling Wang, Hairong Qi, and Steve BeckFoundations of Data Fusion f...

  8. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  9. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Lee, Inhee [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh A [Hilliard, OH

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  10. Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    31, 1980. Koyama, Masao and Sato , Yuichi, "Improved Enzyme Sensor for Glucose with an Ultra-Filtration Membrane and Immobilized Glucose Oxidase...ion Process," American Laboratory, AVO, AIS, 54-59, 1989. Kaihara, Mikio ; Mametsuka, Hiroaki; Gunji, Naoki; Iwata, Hideo and Gohshi,, "New Dilution

  11. Virtual Sensor Web Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, P.; Zimdars, A.; Hurlburt, N.; Doug, S.

    2006-12-01

    NASA envisions the development of smart sensor webs, intelligent and integrated observation network that harness distributed sensing assets, their associated continuous and complex data sets, and predictive observation processing mechanisms for timely, collaborative hazard mitigation and enhanced science productivity and reliability. This paper presents Virtual Sensor Web Infrastructure for Collaborative Science (VSICS) Architecture for sustained coordination of (numerical and distributed) model-based processing, closed-loop resource allocation, and observation planning. VSICS's key ideas include i) rich descriptions of sensors as services based on semantic markup languages like OWL and SensorML; ii) service-oriented workflow composition and repair for simple and ensemble models; event-driven workflow execution based on event-based and distributed workflow management mechanisms; and iii) development of autonomous model interaction management capabilities providing closed-loop control of collection resources driven by competing targeted observation needs. We present results from initial work on collaborative science processing involving distributed services (COSEC framework) that is being extended to create VSICS.

  12. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  13. Wearable Optical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.

    2017-07-12

    The market for wearable sensors is predicted to grow to $5.5 billion by 2025, impacting global health in unprecedented ways. Optics and photonics will play a key role in the future of these wearable technologies, enabling highly sensitive measurements of otherwise invisible information and parameters about our health and surrounding environment. Through the implementation of optical wearable technologies, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose monitors, among others, individuals are becoming more empowered to generate a wealth of rich, multifaceted physiological and environmental data, making personalized medicine a reality. Furthermore, these technologies can also be implemented in hospitals, clinics, point-of-care offices, assisted living facilities or even in patients’ homes for real-time, remote patient monitoring, creating more expeditious as well as resource-efficient systems. Several key optical technologies make such sensors possible, including e.g., optical fiber textiles, colorimetric, plasmonic, and fluorometric sensors, as well as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) and Organic Photo-Diode (OPD) technologies. These emerging technologies and platforms show great promise as basic sensing elements in future wearable devices and will be reviewed in this chapter along-side currently existing fully integrated wearable optical sensors.

  14. ISFET based enzyme sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, Bart H.; Bergveld, Piet

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the results that have been reported on ISFET based enzyme sensors. The most important improvement that results from the application of ISFETs instead of glass membrane electrodes is in the method of fabrication. Problems with regard to the pH dependence of the response and the

  15. Wireless Sensor Networks Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on hardware and software configurations for a network architecture for sensors. The hardware configuration uses a central station and remote stations. The software configuration uses the 'lost station' software algorithm. The presentation profiles a couple current examples of this network architecture in use.

  16. Conversion of the magnetic field measured in three components on the magnetic sensor body's random coordinate system into three components on geographical coordinate system through quaternion rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, M.; PARK, Y.; Jung, H.; SHIN, Y.; Rim, H.; PARK, C.

    2017-12-01

    To measure all components of a physical property, for example the magnetic field, is more useful than to measure its magnitude only in interpretation and application thereafter. To convert the physical property measured in 3 components on a random coordinate system, for example on moving magnetic sensor body's coordinate system, into 3 components on a fixed coordinate system, for example on geographical coordinate system, by the rotations of coordinate system around Euler angles for example, we should have the attitude values of the sensor body in time series, which could be acquired by an INS-GNSS system of which the axes are installed coincident with those of the sensor body. But if we want to install some magnetic sensors in array at sea floor but without attitude acquisition facility of the magnetic sensors and to monitor the variation of magnetic fields in time, we should have also some way to estimate the relation between the geographical coordinate system and each sensor body's coordinate system by comparison of the vectors only measured on both coordinate systems on the assumption that the directions of the measured magnetic field on both coordinate systems are the same. For that estimation, we have at least 3 ways. The first one is to calculate 3 Euler angles phi, theta, psi from the equation Vgeograph = Rx(phi) Ry(theta) Rz(psi) Vrandom, where Vgeograph is the vector on geographical coordinate system etc. and Rx(phi) is the rotation matrix around the x axis by the angle phi etc. The second one is to calculate the difference of inclination and declination between the 2 vectors on spherical coordinate system. The third one, used by us for this study, is to calculate the angle of rotation along a great circle around the rotation axis, and the direction of the rotation axis. We installed no. 1 and no. 2 FVM-400 fluxgate magnetometers in array near Cheongyang Geomagnetic Observatory (IAGA code CYG) and acquired time series of magnetic fields for CYG and for

  17. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-07-19

    Recent progress in the development of artificial skin concepts is a result of the increased demand for providing environment perception such as touch and flow sensing to robots, prosthetics and surgical tools. Tactile sensors are the essential components of artificial skins and attracted considerable attention that led to the development of different technologies for mimicking the complex sense of touch in humans. This dissertation work is devoted to the development of a bioinspired tactile sensing technology that imitates the extremely sensitive hair-like cilia receptors found in nature. The artificial cilia are fabricated from permanent magnetic, biocompatible and highly elastic nanocomposite material, and integrated on a giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor to measure the stray field. A force that bends the cilia changes the stray field and is therefore detected with the magnetic sensor, providing high performance in terms of sensitivity, power consumption and versatility. The nanocomposite is made of Fe nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fe NWs have a high remanent magnetization, due the shape anisotropy; thus, they are acting as permanent nano-magnets. This allows remote device operation and avoids the need for a magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, benefiting miniaturization and the possible range of applications. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposite can be easily tuned by modifying the NWs concentration or by aligning the NWs to define a magnetic anisotropy. Tactile sensors are realized on flexible and rigid substrates that can detect flow, vertical and shear forces statically and dynamically, with a high resolution and wide operating range. The advantage to operate the sensors in liquids and air has been utilized to measure flows in different fluids in a microfluidic channel. Various dynamic studies were conducted with the tactile sensor demonstrating the detection of moving objects or the texture of objects. Overall

  18. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  19. Sensor system for web inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleefe, Gerard E.; Rudnick, Thomas J.; Novak, James L.

    2002-01-01

    A system for electrically measuring variations over a flexible web has a capacitive sensor including spaced electrically conductive, transmit and receive electrodes mounted on a flexible substrate. The sensor is held against a flexible web with sufficient force to deflect the path of the web, which moves relative to the sensor.

  20. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  1. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-15

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  2. Micromachined pressure/flow-sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, R.E.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The micromechanical equivalent of a differential pressure flow-sensor, well known in macro mechanics, is discussed. Two separate pressure sensors are used for the device, enabling to measure both, pressure as well as volume flow-rate. An integrated sensor with capacitive read-out as well as a

  3. USGS VDP Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slad, George William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two infrasound sensors, the model VDP100 and VDP250, built in-house at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, self-noise, dynamic range and nominal transfer function. Notable features of the VDP sensors include novel and durable construction and compact size.

  4. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  5. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Tactile Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A multifunctional biomimetic nanocomposite tactile sensor is developed that can detect shear and vertical forces, feel texture, and measure flow with extremely low power consumption. The sensor's high performance is maintained within a wide operating range that can be easily adjusted. The concept works on rigid and flexible substrates and the sensors can be used in air or water without any modifications.

  6. Micro Coriolis Gas Density Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; Ratering, Gijs; Kruijswijk, Wim; van der Wouden, E.J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report on gas density measurements using a micro Coriolis sensor. The technology to fabricate the sensor is based on surface channel technology. The measurement tube is freely suspended and has a wall thickness of only 1 micron. This renders the sensor extremely sensitive to changes

  7. Time-domain fiber loop ringdown sensor and sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Malik

    Optical fibers have been mostly used in fiber optic communications, imaging optics, sensing technology, etc. Fiber optic sensors have gained increasing attention for scientific and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. In this study, fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensors were fabricated for scientific, SHM, and sensor networking applications. FLRD biosensors were fabricated for both bulk refractive index (RI)- and surface RI-based DNA sensing and one type of bacteria sensing. Furthermore, the effect of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilization at the sensor head on sensor performance was evaluated for both glucose and synthetic urine solutions with glucose concentration between 0.1% and 10%. Detection sensitivities of the glucose sensors were achieved as low as 0.05%. For chemical sensing, heavy water, ranging from 97% to 10%, and several elemental solutions were monitored by using the FLRD chemical sensors. Bulk index-based FLRD sensing showed that trace elements can be detected in deionized water. For physical sensing, water and cracking sensors were fabricated and embedded into concrete. A partially-etched single-mode fiber (SMF) was embedded into a concrete bar for water monitoring while a bare SMF without any treatment was directly embedded into another concrete bar for monitoring cracks. Furthermore, detection sensitivities of water and crack sensors were investigated as 10 ml water and 0.5 mm surface crack width, respectively. Additionally fiber loop ringdown-fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors were developed in the laboratory; two sensor units for water, crack, and temperature sensing were deployed into a concrete cube in a US Department of Energy test bed (Miami, FL). Multi-sensor applications in a real concrete structure were accomplished by testing the six FLRD sensors. As a final stage, a sensor network was assembled by multiplexing two or three FLRD sensors in series and parallel. Additionally, two FLRD sensors were combined in series and

  8. Wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

    2006-05-01

    Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

  9. Eddy current testing system with integrated fluxgate magnetometer; Wirbelstrompruefsystem mit integriertem Fluxgate-Magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzbruck, M. v.; Allweins, K.; Heiden, C. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The eddy current testing system described uses Foerster probes for low-frequency magnetic field detection. The major objective is to detect deep flaws in specimens/materials with good conductivity, such as aluminum. Deep flaws could be reliably detected using low excitation frequencies of a few 100 Hz and an evaluation software and data acquisition hardware matching the high dynamics of the Foerster probe. (orig./CB) [German] Es wurde ein Wirbelstromsystem auf der Basis von Foerstersonden zur niederfrequenten Magnetfelddetektion aufgebaut. Das Hauptaugenmerk hierbei lag auf der Detektion von tiefliegenden Fehlerstrukturen in gut leitfaehigen Pruefteilen, wie Aluminiumstrukturen. In Kombination mit einer an den hohen Dynamik bereich einer Foerstersonde angepassten Auswerteelektronik und Datenaufnahme konnten mittels niedrigen Anregungsfrequenzen von wenigen 100 Hz tiefliegende Fehlerstrukturen zuverlaessig detektiert werden. (orig.)

  10. Activity Recognition Invariant to Sensor Orientation with Wearable Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtman, Aras; Barshan, Billur

    2017-08-09

    Most activity recognition studies that employ wearable sensors assume that the sensors are attached at pre-determined positions and orientations that do not change over time. Since this is not the case in practice, it is of interest to develop wearable systems that operate invariantly to sensor position and orientation. We focus on invariance to sensor orientation and develop two alternative transformations to remove the effect of absolute sensor orientation from the raw sensor data. We test the proposed methodology in activity recognition with four state-of-the-art classifiers using five publicly available datasets containing various types of human activities acquired by different sensor configurations. While the ordinary activity recognition system cannot handle incorrectly oriented sensors, the proposed transformations allow the sensors to be worn at any orientation at a given position on the body, and achieve nearly the same activity recognition performance as the ordinary system for which the sensor units are not rotatable. The proposed techniques can be applied to existing wearable systems without much effort, by simply transforming the time-domain sensor data at the pre-processing stage.

  11. Open Standards for Sensor Information Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Lothian, Josh [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    This document explores sensor standards, sensor data models, and computer sensor software in order to determine the specifications and data representation best suited for analyzing and monitoring computer system health using embedded sensor data. We review IEEE 1451, OGC Sensor Model Language and Transducer Model Language (TML), lm-sensors and Intelligent Platform Management Inititative (IPMI).

  12. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  13. Characteristic evaluation of acoustic emission sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, N. H

    2000-12-01

    This report introduces the various kinds of Acoustic Emission(AE) sensors as well as the basic principle of AE sensors in order to select AE sensor suitably. The described sensors include : high sensitivity sensor, broadband sensor, underwater sensor, miniature sensor, directional sensor, integral pre-amplifier sensor. Sensor has two critical aspects of reliability and repeatability. For the high reliability, sensor has to be calibrated in accordance with ASTM standard E 1106 which explains to measure the characteristics of AE sensor accurately. For investigating the degradation of AE sensor under the severe environment for example the high radiation condition, It is important to perform the repeatability test which is described in detail in according to the ASTM standard E 976. Two kinds of AE sensor applications are also summarized.

  14. Advanced Wireless Sensor Nodes - MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Richeson, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    NASA field center Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, AL), has invested in advanced wireless sensor technology development. Developments for a wireless microcontroller back-end were primarily focused on the commercial Synapse Wireless family of devices. These devices have many useful features for NASA applications, good characteristics and the ability to be programmed Over-The-Air (OTA). The effort has focused on two widely used sensor types, mechanical strain gauges and thermal sensors. Mechanical strain gauges are used extensively in NASA structural testing and even on vehicle instrumentation systems. Additionally, thermal monitoring with many types of sensors is extensively used. These thermal sensors include thermocouples of all types, resistive temperature devices (RTDs), diodes and other thermal sensor types. The wireless thermal board will accommodate all of these types of sensor inputs to an analog front end. The analog front end on each of the sensors interfaces to the Synapse wireless microcontroller, based on the Atmel Atmega128 device. Once the analog sensor output data is digitized by the onboard analog to digital converter (A/D), the data is available for analysis, computation or transmission. Various hardware features allow custom embedded software to manage battery power to enhance battery life. This technology development fits nicely into using numerous additional sensor front ends, including some of the low-cost printed circuit board capacitive moisture content sensors currently being developed at Auburn University.

  15. Communications for unattended sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Jay L.; Angelini, Paul; Orpilla, Mont; Garcia, Luis; DiPierro, Stefano

    2004-07-01

    The future model of the US Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Future Force reflects a combat force that utilizes lighter armor protection than the current standard. Survival on the future battlefield will be increased by the use of advanced situational awareness provided by unattended tactical and urban sensors that detect, identify, and track enemy targets and threats. Successful implementation of these critical sensor fields requires the development of advanced sensors, sensor and data-fusion processors, and a specialized communications network. To ensure warfighter and asset survivability, the communications must be capable of near real-time dissemination of the sensor data using robust, secure, stealthy, and jam resistant links so that the proper and decisive action can be taken. Communications will be provided to a wide-array of mission-specific sensors that are capable of processing data from acoustic, magnetic, seismic, and/or Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) sensors. Other, more powerful, sensor node configurations will be capable of fusing sensor data and intelligently collect and process data images from infrared or visual imaging cameras. The radio waveform and networking protocols being developed under the Soldier Level Integrated Communications Environment (SLICE) Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW) and the Networked Sensors for the Future Force Advanced Technology Demonstration are part of an effort to develop a common waveform family which will operate across multiple tactical domains including dismounted soldiers, ground sensor, munitions, missiles and robotics. These waveform technologies will ultimately be transitioned to the JTRS library, specifically the Cluster 5 requirement.

  16. SERS sensors for DVD platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line

    This Ph.D. thesis explores the engineering of a portable sensor system for detection of rare and small molecules. The Ph.D. project is part of the research project 'Multi-Sensor DVD platform' (MUSE), aiming to integrate different sensors on a rotating disc. The sensors are chosen to complement each...... other, creating more reliable and stable results for the end user. The rotating disc comprises microfluidic channels, which can be utilized for handling and manipulating liquid samples such as blood or water. The focus of this Ph.D. thesis, is on the integration of one specific sensor on a rotating disc....... The sensor is based upon surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which detects molecular vibrations. The aim of this thesis is to cover the different aspects of the sensor system. SERS substrates, consisting of nanopillars with gold or silver caps on top, have been fabricated by standard micro and nano...

  17. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  18. Reputation-based secure sensor localization in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments.

  19. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  20. Sub-Audio Magnetics: Miniature Sensor Technology for Simultaneous Magnetic and Electromagnetic Detection of UXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    inputs such as laser altimeters and fluxgate magnetometers to determine heading errors etc. 2.2 Technology Development Introduction The technology...hardware and software development, testing and performance evaluation. Initial funding saw the development of a fast sampling magnetometer (called the...Electromagnetic Induction TMI Total Magnetic Intensity TM-6 Magnetometer system developed for SAM applications Tx Transmitter UXO Unexploded

  1. MetalMapper: A Multi-Sensor TEM System for UXO Detection and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    fluxgate magnetometer that provides reference heading to magnetic north. DeploymentCThe MM can be deployed either as a man-powered cart or as a...is a live site. Preliminary investigations included a magnetometer transect survey and an EMI survey over a larger area to assist in selecting a

  2. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Bakhtiar I.; Mehrdadi, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant increase in utilisation of embedded-microcontrollers in broad range of applications extending from commercial products to industrial process system monitoring. Furthermore, improvements in speed, size and power consumption of microcontrollers with added wireless capabilities has provided new generation of applications. These include versatile and\\ud low cost solutions in wireless sensor networking applications such as wireless system monitoring and ...

  3. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  4. Wearable wireless photoplethysmography sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Nikiforovs, Vladimirs; Kviesis-Kipge, Edgars

    2008-04-01

    Wearable health monitoring sensors may support early detection of abnormal conditions and prevention of their consequences. Recent designs of three wireless photoplethysmography monitoring devices embedded in hat, glove and sock, and connected to PC or mobile phone by means of the Bluetooth technology, are described. First results of distant monitoring of heart rate and pulse wave transit time using the newly developed devices are presented.

  5. Microparticle Flow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    The microparticle flow sensor (MFS) is a system for identifying and counting microscopic particles entrained in a flowing liquid. The MFS includes a transparent, optoelectronically instrumented laminar-flow chamber (see figure) and a computer for processing instrument-readout data. The MFS could be used to count microparticles (including micro-organisms) in diverse applications -- for example, production of microcapsules, treatment of wastewater, pumping of industrial chemicals, and identification of ownership of liquid products.

  6. Permalloy GMI sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ripka, P.; Platil, A.; Kaspar, P.; Tipek, A.; Malatek, M.; Kraus, Luděk

    254-255, - (2003), s. 633-635 ISSN 0304-8853. [Soft Magnetic Material Conference ( SMM 15). Bilbao, 05.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 355 Grant - others:HPMF-CT-2000(XE) 00695 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetic sensors * GMI effect * magnetometer Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2003

  7. Piezoelectric cantilever sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wan Y. (Inventor); Shih, Wei-Heng (Inventor); Shen, Zuyan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric cantilever with a non-piezoelectric, or piezoelectric tip useful as mass and viscosity sensors. The change in the cantilever mass can be accurately quantified by monitoring a resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. For bio-detection, antibodies or other specific receptors of target antigens may be immobilized on the cantilever surface, preferably on the non-piezoelectric tip. For chemical detection, high surface-area selective absorbent materials are coated on the cantilever tip. Binding of the target antigens or analytes to the cantilever surface increases the cantilever mass. Detection of target antigens or analytes is achieved by monitoring the cantilever's resonance frequency and determining the resonance frequency shift that is due to the mass of the adsorbed target antigens on the cantilever surface. The use of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever allows both electrical actuation and electrical sensing. Incorporating a non-piezoelectric tip (14) enhances the sensitivity of the sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric cantilever can withstand damping in highly viscous liquids and can be used as a viscosity sensor in wide viscosity range.

  8. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  9. Thermosensitive gas flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlicki, T.; Osadnik, S.; Prociow, E.

    1997-01-01

    Results of investigations on thermal gas flow sensor have been presented. The sensor consists of three thin film resistors Si+Ta. The circuit was designed in the form of two bridges; one of them serves for measurement of the heater temperature, the second one for the measurement of temperature difference of peripheral resistors. The measurement of output voltage versus the rate of nitrogen flow at various power levels dissipated at the heater and various temperatures have been made. The measurements were carried out in three versions; (a) at constant temperature of the heater, (b) at constant power dissipated in the heater, controlled by the power of the heater, (c) at constant temperature of the heater controlled by the power dissipated in the peripheral resistors of the sensor. Due to measurement range it is advantageous to stabilize the temperature of the heater, especially by means of the power supplied to the peripheral resistors. In this case the wider measurement range can be obtained. (author)

  10. Porous Silicon Sensors- Elusive and Erudite

    OpenAIRE

    H. Saha, Prof.

    2017-01-01

    Porous Silicon Sensors have been fabricated and tested successfully over the last few years as humidity sensors, vapour sensors, gas sensors, piezoresistive pressure sensors and bio- sensors. In each case it has displayed remarkably sensitivity, relatively low temperature operation and ease of fabrication. Brief description of fabrication and properties of all these types of different sensors is reported in this paper. The barriers of porous silicon like contact, non- uniformity, instability ...

  11. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  12. Low-noise Magnetic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic sensors are disclosed, as well as methods for fabricating and using the same. In some embodiments, an EMR effect sensor includes a semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a conductive layer substantially coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a voltage lead coupled to the conductive layer. In some embodiments, the voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a second voltage lead coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the second voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. Embodiments of a Hall effect sensor having the same or similar structure are also disclosed.

  13. Low-noise Magnetic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-03-27

    Magnetic sensors are disclosed, as well as methods for fabricating and using the same. In some embodiments, an EMR effect sensor includes a semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a conductive layer substantially coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a voltage lead coupled to the conductive layer. In some embodiments, the voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a second voltage lead coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the second voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. Embodiments of a Hall effect sensor having the same or similar structure are also disclosed.

  14. OGC® Sensor Web Enablement Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Percivall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a high-level overview of and architecture for the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards activities that focus on sensors, sensor networks, and a concept called the “Sensor Web”. This OGC work area is known as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE. This article has been condensed from "OGC® Sensor Web Enablement: Overview And High Level Architecture," an OGC White Paper by Mike Botts, PhD, George Percivall, Carl Reed, PhD, and John Davidson which can be downloaded from http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/15540. Readers interested in greater technical and architecture detail can download and read the OGC SWE Architecture Discussion Paper titled “The OGC Sensor Web Enablement Architecture” (OGC document 06-021r1, http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/14140.

  15. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  16. Airborne Sensor Thermal Management Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    The customer wants to outfit aircraft (de Havilland Twin Otter) with optical sensors. In previous product generations the sensor line-of-sight direction was fixed – the sensor’s direction relied on the orientation of the aircraft. The next generation sensor will be packaged in a rotatable turret so that the line-of-sight is reasonably independent of the aircraft’s orientation. This turret will be mounted on a boom protruding from the side of the aircraft. The customer wants to outfit aircraft (de Havilland Twin Otter) with optical sensors. In previous product generations the sensor line-of-sight direction was fixed – the sensor’s direction relied on the orientation of the aircraft. The next generation sensor will be packaged in a rotatable turret so that the line-of-sight is reasonably independent of the aircraft’s orientation. This turret will be mounted on a boom protruding from the side of the aircraft.

  17. Micro-Mechanical Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tom

    Temperature is the most frequently measured physical quantity in the world. The field of thermometry is therefore constantly evolving towards better temperature sensors and better temperature measurements. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to improve an existing type of micro-mechanical temperature...... sensor or to develop a new one. Two types of micro-mechanical temperature sensors have been studied: Bilayer cantilevers and string-like beam resonators. Both sensor types utilize thermally generated stress. Bilayer cantilevers are frequently used as temperature sensors at the micro-scale, and the goal....... The reduced sensitivity was due to initial bending of the cantilevers and poor adhesion between the two cantilever materials. No further attempts were made to improve the sensitivity of bilayer cantilevers. The concept of using string-like resonators as temperature sensors has, for the first time, been...

  18. Wearable sensors for health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, George; Butca, Cristina; Ochian, Adelina; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe several wearable sensors, designed for monitoring the health condition of the patients, based on an experimental model. Wearable sensors enable long-term continuous physiological monitoring, which is important for the treatment and management of many chronic illnesses, neurological disorders, and mental health issues. The system is based on a wearable sensors network, which is connected to a computer or smartphone. The wearable sensor network integrates several wearable sensors that can measure different parameters such as body temperature, heart rate and carbon monoxide quantity from the air. After the portable sensors measuring parameter values, they are transmitted by microprocessor through the Bluetooth to the application developed on computer or smartphone, to be interpreted.

  19. Metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina

    This work concerns planar optical waveguide sensors for biosensing applications, with the focus on deep-probe sensing for micron-scale biological objects like bacteria and whole cells. In the last two decades planar metal-clad waveguides have been brieflyintroduced in the literature applied...... for various biosensing applications, however a thorough study of the sensor configurations has not been presented, but is the main subject of this thesis. Optical sensors are generally well suited for bio-sensing asthey show high sensitivity and give an immediate response for minute changes in the refractive...... index of a sample, due to the high sensitivity of optical bio-sensors detection of non-labeled biological objects can be performed. The majority of opticalsensors presented in the literature and commercially available optical sensors are based on evanescent wave sensing, however most of these sensors...

  20. Sensor Compendium - A Snowmass Whitepaper-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Battaglia, M. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Caberera, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Carlstrom, J E [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, C. L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cooper, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Da Via, C. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Demarteau, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fast, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frisch, H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States), et al.

    2013-10-01

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  1. Fiber-optic seismic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G. W.; Udd, E.

    1985-01-01

    A vibration sensor is constructed by providing two preferably matched coils of fiber-optic material. When the sensor experiences vibration, a differential pressure is exerted on the two fiber coils. The differential pressure results in a variation in the relative optical path lengths between the two fibers so that light beams transmitted through the two fibers are differently delayed, the phase difference therebetween being a detectable indication of the vibration applied to the sensor

  2. Generating three-parameter sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filinyuk M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating sensors provide the possibility of getting remote information and its easy conversion into digital form. Typically, these are one-parameter sensors formed by combination of a primary transmitter (PT and a sine wave generator. Two-parameter sensors are not widely used as their implementation causes a problem with ambiguity output when measuring the PT. Nevertheless, the problem of creating miniature, thrifty multi-parameter RF sensors for different branches of science and industry remains relevant. Considering ways of designing RF sensors, we study the possibility of constructing a three-parameter microwave radio frequency range sensor, which is based on a two-stage three-parameter generalized immitance convertor (GIC. Resistive, inductive and capacitive PT are used as sensing elements. A mathematical model of the sensor, which describes the relation of the sensor parameters to the parameters of GIC and PT was developed. The basic parameters of the sensor, its transfer function and sensitivity were studied. It is shown that the maximum value of the power generated signal will be observed at a frequency of 175 MHz, and the frequency ranges depending on the parameters of the PT will be different. Research results and adequacy of the mathematical model were verified by the experiment. Error of the calculated dependences of the lasing frequency on PT parameters change, compared with the experimental data does not exceed 2 %. The relative sensitivity of the sensor based on two-stage GIC showed that for the resistive channel it is about 1.88, for the capacitive channel –1,54 and for the inductive channel –11,5. Thus, it becomes possible to increase the sensor sensitivity compared with the sensitivity of the PT almost 1,2—2 times, and by using the two stage GIC a multifunctional sensor is provided.

  3. Wireless Sensor Network Security Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hemanta Kumar Kalita; Avijit Kar

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of sensor networks as one of the dominant technology trends in the coming decades hasposed numerous unique challenges to researchers. These networks are likely to be composed of hundreds,and potentially thousands of tiny sensor nodes, functioning autonomously, and in many cases, withoutaccess to renewable energy resources. Cost constraints and the need for ubiquitous, invisibledeployments will result in small sized, resource-constrained sensor nodes. While the set of challenges ...

  4. Wireless Sensor Network Safety Study

    OpenAIRE

    M.Shankar; Dr.M.Sridar; Dr.M.Rajani

    2012-01-01

    Few security mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been implemented, and even fewer have been applied in real deployments. The limited resources of each sensor node makes security in WSNs hard, as the tradeoff between security and practicality must be carefully considered. These complex systems include in their design different types of information and communication technology systems, such as wireless (mesh) sensor networks, to carry out control processes in real time. This fact...

  5. Irradiance sensors for solar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, A.; Schindl, J. [Oesterreichisches Forschungs- und Pruefzentrum Arsenal GesmbH, Vienna (Austria). Business Unit Renewable Energy

    2004-07-01

    The presented project surveyed the quality of irradiance sensors used for applications in solar systems. By analysing an outdoor measurement, the accuracies of ten commercially available irradiance sensors were evaluated, comparing their results to those of a calibrated Kipp and Zonen pyranometer CM21. Furthermore, as a simple method for improving the quality of the results, for each sensor an irradiance-calibration was carried out and examined for its effectiveness. (orig.)

  6. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  7. An Introduction to LANL Mixed Potential Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric Lanich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kreller, Cortney [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-26

    These are slides for a webinar given on the topics of an introduction to LANL mixed potential sensors. Topics include the history of LANL electrochemical sensor work, an introduction to mixed potential sensors, LANL uniqueness, and an application of LANL mixed potential sensors. The summary is as follows: Improved understanding of the mixed-potential sensor mechanism (factors controlling the sensor response identified), sensor design optimized to maximize sensor sensitivity and durability (porous electrolyte/dense electrodes), electrodes selected for various specific applications (CO, HC, H2), sensor operating parameters optimized for improved gas selectivity (NOx, NH3).

  8. High Resolution Flexible Tactile Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2011-01-01

    both spatial distribution of pressure and dynamic events such as contact, release of contact and slip. Data acquisition and object recognition applications are described and it is proposed that such a sensor could be used in robotic grippers to improve object recognition, manipulation of objects......This paper describes the development of a tactile sensor for robotics inspired by the human sense of touch. It consists of two parts: a static tactile array sensor based on piezoresistive rubber and a dynamic sensor based on piezoelectric PVDF film. The combination of these two layers addresses...

  9. JSC Wireless Sensor Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Sensor nodes composed of three basic components... radio module: COTS radio module implementing standardized WSN protocol; treated as WSN modem by main board main board: contains application processor (TI MSP430 microcontroller), memory, power supply; responsible for sensor data acquisition, pre-processing, and task scheduling; re-used in every application with growing library of embedded C code sensor card: contains application-specific sensors, data conditioning hardware, and any advanced hardware not built into main board (DSPs, faster A/D, etc.); requires (re-) development for each application.

  10. Sensor Applications and Data Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, John

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical configuration of automobiles have changed marginally while improvements in sensors and control have dramatically improved engine efficiency, reliability and useful life. The aviation industry has also taken advantage of sensors and control systems to reduce operational costs. Sensors and high fidelity control systems fly planes at levels of performance beyond human capability. Sophisticated environmental controls allow a greater level of comfort and efficiency in our homes. Sensors have given the medical field a better understanding of the human body and the environment in which we live.

  11. Fiber-Optic Sensor Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Constructs and evaluates fiber-optic sensors for a variety of measurands. These measurands include acoustic, pressure, magnetic, and electric field as well...

  12. Photon-counting image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Teranishi, Nobukazu; Theuwissen, Albert; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    The field of photon-counting image sensors is advancing rapidly with the development of various solid-state image sensor technologies including single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) and deep-sub-electron read noise CMOS image sensor pixels. This foundational platform technology will enable opportunities for new imaging modalities and instrumentation for science and industry, as well as new consumer applications. Papers discussing various photon-counting image sensor technologies and selected new applications are presented in this all-invited Special Issue.

  13. Network compensation for missing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    A network learning translation invariance algorithm to compute interpolation functions is presented. This algorithm with one fixed receptive field can construct a linear transformation compensating for gain changes, sensor position jitter, and sensor loss when there are enough remaining sensors to adequately sample the input images. However, when the images are undersampled and complete compensation is not possible, the algorithm need to be modified. For moderate sensor losses, the algorithm works if the transformation weight adjustment is restricted to the weights to output units affected by the loss.

  14. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  15. Archaeological Geophysics for DoD Field Use: A Guide for New and Novice Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    magnetometers are commonly used in archaeology: proton precession, optically pumped, and fluxgate . Proton precession magnetometers were the first to... Fluxgate magnetometers use a metal rod around which a coil of copper wire is wound (Clark 1996). An external magnetic field, such as the Earth’s...means that fluxgate sensors are direction sensitive, and much more so than precession magnetometers . They are usually configured to measure the

  16. Sensor Network Motes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Martin

    requirements on price and performance, and shows great potential for using sensor networks. Throughout the project we let the application requirements guide our design choices, leading us to push the technologies further to meet the specific goal of the application. In this dissertation, we attack two key...... areas related to the design of this solution. We found the current state of the art within performance evaluation to be inadequate and that the moving to the next generation platforms is being held back by practical issues in porting existing software. We have taken a pragmatic, experimental approach...

  17. Bolt Shear Force Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    0030] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of a deformable ring of the bolt shear force sensor of the present invention with an optical Attorney Docket No...102587 9 of 19 fiber having Bragg gratings wound around the ring; [0031] FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the deformable ring with wire strain... strength . [0047] Once the joint is subjected to an external load (see force arrows “F” and “F/2”); any frictional resistance to slip is overcome and

  18. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  19. Chemoresistive gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1987-06-23

    A chemoresistive gas sensor is provided which has improved sensitivity. A layer of organic semiconductor is disposed between two electrodes which, in turn, are connected to a voltage source. High conductivity material is dispersed within the layer of organic semiconductor in the form of very small particles, or islands. The average interisland spacing is selected so that the predominant mode of current flow is by way of electron funneling. Adsorption of gaseous contaminant onto the layer of organic semiconductor modulates the tunneling current in a quantitative manner. 2 figs.

  20. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  1. Fixture For Mounting A Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M.

    1995-01-01

    Fixture for mounting pressure sensor in aerodynamic model simplifies task of removal and replacement of sensor in event sensor becomes damaged. Makes it unnecessary to dismantle model. Also minimizes any change in aerodynamic characteristics of model in event of replacement. Removable pressure sensor installed in fixture in wall of model. Wires from sensor pass through channel under surface.

  2. Dynamic Sensor Network Reprogramming using SensorScheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Kuper, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Building wireless sensor network applications is a challenging task, and it has become apparent that it is crucial for many sensor networks to be able to load or update the application after deployment. Since communication is a scarce resource and costly in terms of energy, it is important to

  3. Extending lifetime of wireless sensor networks using multi-sensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SOUMITRA DAS

    In this paper a multi-sensor data fusion approach for wireless sensor network based on bayesian methods and ant colony ... niques for efficiently routing the data from source to the BS ... Literature review ... efficient scheduling and lot more to increase the lifetime of ... Nature-inspired algorithms such as ACO algorithms have.

  4. Temperature Sensors Integrated into a CMOS Image Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Prouza, A.N.; Xie, S.; Markenhof, Jules; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a novel approach is presented for measuring relative temperature variations inside the pixel array of a CMOS image sensor itself. This approach can give important information when compensation for dark (current) fixed pattern noise (FPN) is needed. The test image sensor consists of

  5. Graphene Electronic Tattoo Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri Ameri, Shideh; Ho, Rebecca; Jang, Hongwoo; Tao, Li; Wang, Youhua; Wang, Liu; Schnyer, David M; Akinwande, Deji; Lu, Nanshu

    2017-08-22

    Tattoo-like epidermal sensors are an emerging class of truly wearable electronics, owing to their thinness and softness. While most of them are based on thin metal films, a silicon membrane, or nanoparticle-based printable inks, we report sub-micrometer thick, multimodal electronic tattoo sensors that are made of graphene. The graphene electronic tattoo (GET) is designed as filamentary serpentines and fabricated by a cost- and time-effective "wet transfer, dry patterning" method. It has a total thickness of 463 ± 30 nm, an optical transparency of ∼85%, and a stretchability of more than 40%. The GET can be directly laminated on human skin just like a temporary tattoo and can fully conform to the microscopic morphology of the surface of skin via just van der Waals forces. The open-mesh structure of the GET makes it breathable and its stiffness negligible. A bare GET is able to stay attached to skin for several hours without fracture or delamination. With liquid bandage coverage, a GET may stay functional on the skin for up to several days. As a dry electrode, GET-skin interface impedance is on par with medically used silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) gel electrodes, while offering superior comfort, mobility, and reliability. GET has been successfully applied to measure electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), skin temperature, and skin hydration.

  6. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  7. Fiber Sensor Technology Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotate, Kazuo

    2006-08-01

    Fiber sensor technologies are overviewed. Since the early 1970s, this field has been developed, on the basis of the same devices and photonic principles as fiber communication technologies. Besides simple configurations, in which the fiber acts only as a data transmission line, sophisticated configurations have also been developed, in which the fiber is used as a device to realize unique sensing mechanisms. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a good example, and has been developed as an absolute rotation sensor used, for example, for navigation and/or attitude control applications. Compared with traditional spinning-mass gyroscopes, the FOG has advantages, such as a short warming-up time, a light weight, and easy handling. A Japanese satellite, which was launched in August 2005 with a mission to observe the aurora, is controlled with a FOG. The FOG has also been used in consumer applications, such as the camera stabilizer, radio-controlled (RC) helicopter navigation, and the control of humanoid robots. Recently, distributed and multiplexed sensing schemes, in particular, have been studied and developed, in which a long fiber acts like a “nerve” for feeling the strain and/or the temperature distribution along the fiber. Performances of artificial nerve systems have markedly improved within the last couple of years, in spatial resolution and measurement speed. By embedding the “fiber-optic nerve system” in aircraft wings, bridges and tall buildings, these materials and structures can sense damage to prevent disasters.

  8. SQUID position sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Rodney

    1996-11-01

    I describe the development of an inductance position sensor for the STEP (satellite test of the equivalence principle) accelerometer. I have measured the inductance (with an experimental error of 0.5%) of a single-turn thin-film niobium pick-up coil as a function of the distance from a thin-film niobium disc (both at 4.2 K and superconducting). The circular pick-up coil had a diameter of 4 cm with a track width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img1. The disc (mock test mass) had a diameter of 4 cm. The distance range between the coil and disc was set by the range of a low-temperature differential capacitance sensor: 0 - 2 mm with a resolution of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img2. The full range of the low-temperature translation stage was 0 - 4 mm. The inductance was measured using an LCR meter in a four-wire configuration. The measured inductance was compared to the inductance of a circular loop above a superconducting plane. Due to the fact that the thin-film disc is of finite size, the calculation differed from experiment by as much as 12%. I have also calculated the inductance by segmenting the thin-film niobium disc into 500 concentric rings (each with a width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img3). A discrepancy between calculation and experiment of approximately 3% was found.

  9. The magnetic field experiment onboard Equator-S and its scientific possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Fornacon

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The special feature of the ringcore fluxgate magnetometer on Equator-S is the high time and field resolution. The scientific aim of the experiment is the investigation of waves in the 10–100 picotesla range with a time resolution up to 64 Hz. The instrument characteristics and the influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field measurement will be discussed. The work shows that the applied pre- and inflight calibration techniques are sufficient to suppress spacecraft interferences. The offset in spin axis direction was determined for the first time with an independent field measurement by the Equator-S Electron Drift Instrument. The data presented gives an impression of the accuracy of the measurement.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (instruments and techniques · Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  10. The magnetic field experiment onboard Equator-S and its scientific possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Fornacon

    Full Text Available The special feature of the ringcore fluxgate magnetometer on Equator-S is the high time and field resolution. The scientific aim of the experiment is the investigation of waves in the 10–100 picotesla range with a time resolution up to 64 Hz. The instrument characteristics and the influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field measurement will be discussed. The work shows that the applied pre- and inflight calibration techniques are sufficient to suppress spacecraft interferences. The offset in spin axis direction was determined for the first time with an independent field measurement by the Equator-S Electron Drift Instrument. The data presented gives an impression of the accuracy of the measurement.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (instruments and techniques · Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  11. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  12. Fusion of Images from Dissimilar Sensor Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chow, Khin

    2004-01-01

    Different sensors exploit different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; therefore a multi-sensor image fusion system can take full advantage of the complementary capabilities of individual sensors in the suit...

  13. Optical fiber powered pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Ostrowsky, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the system described, a pressure sensor and its associated electronics are optically powered by a 20 mw laser and a photovoltaic cell via an optical fiber. The sensor is periodically interrogated and sends the measures obtained back to the central unit using an LED and a second fiber. The results obtained as well as the expected evolution will be described

  14. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  15. Sensor Integration Using State Estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Means for including very different types of sensors using one single unit are described. Accumulated data are represented using an updatable dynamic model, a Kalman filter. The scheme handles common phenomena such as skewed sampling, finite resolution measurements and information delays. Included is an example where 3D motion information is collected by one or more vision sensors.

  16. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  17. Low frequency electromagnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Zhou Yan; He Yicheng; Zheng Zhenxing; Liu Sunkun

    2000-01-01

    The measurement technique of low frequency electromagnetic field is reported. According to this principle, the authors have designed a sensor, which is used to measure the natural electromagnetic field, SLEMP and electromagnetic signals generated by some explosions. The frequency band of this sensor is from 0.08 Hz to 2 MHz

  18. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  19. Chemical sensors for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Development of chemical sensors for detection of gases at trace levels for applications in nuclear industry will be highlighted. The sensors have to be highly sensitive, reliable and rugged with long term stability to operate in harsh industrial environment. Semiconductor and solid electrolyte based electrochemical sensors satisfy the requirements. Physico-chemical aspects underlying the development of H 2 sensors in sodium and in cover gas circuit of the Fast breeder reactors for its smooth functioning, NH 3 and H 2 S sensors for use in Heavy water production industries and NO x sensors for spent fuel reprocessing plants will be presented. Development of oxygen sensors to monitor the oxygen level in the reactor containments and sodium sensors for detection of sodium leakages will also be discussed. The talk will focus the general aspects of identification of the sensing material for the respective analyte species, development of suitable chemical route for preparing them as fine powders, the need for configuring them in thick film or thin film geometries and their performance. Pulsed laser deposition method, an elegant technique to prepare the high quality thin films of multicomponent oxides is demonstrated for preparation of nanostructured thin films of complex oxides and its use in tailoring the morphology of the complex sensing material in the desired form by optimizing the in-situ growth conditions. (author)

  20. Common bus multinode sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.F.; Naviasky, E.H.; Evans, W.P.; Jefferies, D.W.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant including a common bus multinode sensor system for sensors in the nuclear power plant, each sensor producing a sensor signal. The system consists of: a power supply providing power; a communication cable coupled to the power supply; plural remote sensor units coupled between the cable and one or more sensors, and comprising: a direct current power supply, connected to the cable and converting the power on the cable into direct current; an analog-to-digital converter connected to the direct current power supply; an oscillator reference; a filter; and an integrated circuit sensor interface connected to the direct current power supply, the analog-to-digital converter, the oscillator crystal and the filter, the interface comprising: a counter receiving a frequency designation word from external to the interface; a phase-frequency comparator connected to the counter; an oscillator connected to the oscillator reference; a timing counter connected to the oscillator, the phase/frequency comparator and the analog-to-digital converter; an analog multiplexer connectable to the sensors and the analog-to-digital converter, and connected to the timing counter; a shift register operatively connected to the timing counter and the analog-to-digital converter; an encoder connected to the shift register and connectable to the filter; and a voltage controlled oscillator connected to the filter and the cable

  1. Large area CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchetta, R; Guerrini, N; Sedgwick, I

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  2. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground

  3. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  4. MFTF sensor verification computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The design, requirements document and implementation of the MFE Sensor Verification System were accomplished by the Measurement Engineering Section (MES), a group which provides instrumentation for the MFTF magnet diagnostics. The sensors, installed on and around the magnets and solenoids, housed in a vacuum chamber, will supply information about the temperature, strain, pressure, liquid helium level and magnet voltage to the facility operator for evaluation. As the sensors are installed, records must be maintained as to their initial resistance values. Also, as the work progresses, monthly checks will be made to insure continued sensor health. Finally, after the MFTF-B demonstration, yearly checks will be performed as well as checks of sensors as problem develops. The software to acquire and store the data was written by Harry Chow, Computations Department. The acquired data will be transferred to the MFE data base computer system

  5. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sloma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes.

  6. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-04-30

    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  7. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    various payloads and platforms. The conventional and commercial actuators and attitude sensors are in most cases not suited for these satellites, which again lead to new design considerations. Another important property is the launch cost, which can be kept relatively low as a result of the concept....... This fact enables students to get hands-on experience with satellite systems design and project management. This paper describes the attitude control and determination system of a Danish student satellite (DTUsat), with main focus on the two-axis MOEMS sun sensor developed. On the magnetotorquer controlled...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  8. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  9. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  10. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  11. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  12. Authenticated sensor interface device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Poland, Richard W.

    2018-05-01

    A system and method for the secure storage and transmission of data is provided. A data aggregate device can be configured to receive secure data from a data source, such as a sensor, and encrypt the secure data using a suitable encryption technique, such as a shared private key technique, a public key encryption technique, a Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique, or other suitable encryption technique. The encrypted secure data can be provided from the data aggregate device to different remote devices over a plurality of segregated or isolated data paths. Each of the isolated data paths can include an optoisolator that is configured to provide one-way transmission of the encrypted secure data from the data aggregate device over the isolated data path. External data can be received through a secure data filter which, by validating the external data, allows for key exchange and other various adjustments from an external source.

  13. Miniature Biometric Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Hanson, Andrea; Cooper, Tommy; Downs, Meghan; Flint, Stephanie; Reyna, Baraquiel; Simon, Cory; Wilt, Grier

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring (HRM) is a critical need during exploration missions. Unlike the four separate systems used on ISS today, the single HRM system should perform as a diagnostic tool, perform well during exercise or high level activity, and be suitable for use during EVA. Currently available HRM technologies are dependent on uninterrupted contact with the skin and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact when worn in the spacesuit or during exercise. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a single, high performance, robust biosensor with focused efforts on improved heart rate data quality collection during high intensity activity such as exercise or EVA.

  14. Handheld Universal Diagnostic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The rHEALTH technology is designed to shrink an entire hospital testing laboratory onto a handheld device. A physician or healthcare provider performs the test by collecting a fingerstick of blood from a patient. The tiny volume of blood is inserted into the rHEALTH device. Inside the device is a microfluidic chip that contains small channels about the width of a human hair. These channels help move the blood and analyze the blood sample. The rHEALTH sensor uses proprietary reagents called nanostrips, which are nanoscale test strips that enable the clinical assays. The readout is performed by laser-induced fluorescence. Overall, the time from blood collection through analysis is less than a minute.

  15. Radiation-activated sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirschl, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A sensing system is described for use in a remote location which detects electromagnetic radiation energy, the system being self-activating, turning itself automatically on and off, as a function of radiation intensity across the detector. In essence, when no radiation is present across the detector, the system will consume no power, the switches and MOSFET discriminator being essentially in an ''off'' position. Radiation across the detector provides a current to an input capacitance which when charged turns on the switch and the MOSFET discriminator. A switch driver produces an output pulse showing the presence of radiation; the system then shuts off awaiting the next radiation input. Since the sensor system uses virtually no power unless radiation is present, it is ideally suited for use in remote environments where battery power and size is a predominant consideration. 2 claims, 3 drawing figures

  16. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  17. Resource aware sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G V; Al-Hashimi, B M; White, N M; Harris, N R

    2005-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are continuing to receive considerable research interest due, in part, to the range of possible applications. One of the greatest challenges facing researchers is in overcoming the limited network lifetime inherent in the small locally powered sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose IDEALS, a system to manage a wireless sensor network using a combination of information management, energy harvesting and energy monitoring, which we label resource awareness. Through this, IDEALS is able to extend the network lifetime for important messages, by controlling the degradation of the network to maximise information throughput

  18. Applying Sensor Web Technology to Marine Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirka, Simon; del Rio, Joaquin; Mihai Toma, Daniel; Nüst, Daniel; Stasch, Christoph; Delory, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we present two activities illustrating how Sensor Web technology helps to enable a flexible and interoperable sharing of marine observation data based on standards. An important foundation is the Sensor Web Architecture developed by the European FP7 project NeXOS (Next generation Low-Cost Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management). This architecture relies on the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework. It is an exemplary solution for facilitating the interoperable exchange of marine observation data within and between (research) organisations. The architecture addresses a series of functional and non-functional requirements which are fulfilled through different types of OGC SWE components. The diverse functionalities offered by the NeXOS Sensor Web architecture are shown in the following overview: - Pull-based observation data download: This is achieved through the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS) 2.0 interface standard. - Push-based delivery of observation data to allow users the subscription to new measurements that are relevant for them: For this purpose there are currently several specification activities under evaluation (e.g. OGC Sensor Event Service, OGC Publish/Subscribe Standards Working Group). - (Web-based) visualisation of marine observation data: Implemented through SOS client applications. - Configuration and controlling of sensor devices: This is ensured through the OGC Sensor Planning Service 2.0 interface. - Bridging between sensors/data loggers and Sensor Web components: For this purpose several components such as the "Smart Electronic Interface for Sensor Interoperability" (SEISI) concept are developed; this is complemented by a more lightweight SOS extension (e.g. based on the W3C Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) format). To further advance this architecture, there is on-going work to develop dedicated profiles of selected OGC

  19. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kugel, H.W.; Goranson, P.; Kaita, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed

  20. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  1. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  2. Organic semiconductors in sensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malliaras, George; Owens, Róisín

    2008-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics such as tunability of electronic properties via chemical synthesis, compatibility with mechanically flexible substrates, low-cost manufacturing, and facile integration with chemical and biological functionalities. These characteristics have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this rapidly emerging field by discussing both optical and electrical sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques to enhance specificity are outlined, and models for the sensor response are described.

  3. Next generation sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Written by experts in their area of research, this book has outlined the current status of the fundamentals and analytical concepts, modelling and design issues, technical details and practical applications of different types of sensors and discussed about the trends of next generation of sensors and systems happening in the area of Sensing technology. This book will be useful as a reference book for engineers and scientist especially the post-graduate students find will this book as reference book for their research on wearable sensors, devices and technologies.  .

  4. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  5. Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future.

  6. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  7. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  8. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  9. New sensors and processing chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yaakoubi, Nourdin

    2014-01-01

    A vital tool for researchers, engineers, and students, New Sensors and Processing Chain focuses on the processing chain to set up in order to extract relevant information on various systems. Highlighting the design of new microsensors and various applications, the authors present recent progress in instrumentation and microsystem design, providing insight to the modification of the sensor itself as well as its environment. Various applications illustrate the presentations, which show how a processing chain is organized from the data acquired by a specific sensor.

  10. Hidden Markov Model as a Framework for Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    line of sight unlike the PIR sensor – they complement each other. Magnetic sensor (B-field sensor): We used both Fluxgate and coil magnetometers ...The former has low frequency response while the coil magnetometer provides high frequency response. A total of six sensors: three fluxgate ...Computer is turned off Figure 7: Fluxgate magnetometer output in x-axis 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 Time (sec

  11. Sensor Anomaly Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shah Ahsanul; Rahman, Mustafizur; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are vulnerable to various sensor faults and faulty measurements. This vulnerability hinders efficient and timely response in various WSN applications, such as healthcare. For example, faulty measurements can create false alarms which may require unnecessary intervention from healthcare personnel. Therefore, an approach to differentiate between real medical conditions and false alarms will improve remote patient monitoring systems and quality of healthcare service afforded by WSN. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to detect sensor anomaly by analyzing collected physiological data from medical sensors. The objective of this method is to effectively distinguish false alarms from true alarms. It predicts a sensor value from historic values and compares it with the actual sensed value for a particular instance. The difference is compared against a threshold value, which is dynamically adjusted, to ascertain whether the sensor value is anomalous. The proposed approach has been applied to real healthcare datasets and compared with existing approaches. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, providing high Detection Rate (DR) and low False Positive Rate (FPR). PMID:25884786

  12. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-11-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers.

  13. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluyol, Onder

    2017-07-11

    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  14. Electrochemical sensors based on polyconjugated conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotti, G. (Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy))

    1992-09-01

    An overview of the applications of polyconjugated conducting polymers to electrochemical sensors is given. Gas sensors, ion sensors, and biosensors (non-enzyme and enzyme sensors) are presented and discussed. The role of the polymer as enzyme host and mediator of charge transfer is particularly emphasized in the light of recent results. (orig.).

  15. Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ke; Liu, Rui Qiang

    2007-11-01

    In this work a Bluetooth-based wireless sensor network is proposed. In this bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks, information-driven star topology and energy-saved mode are used, through which a blue master node can control more than seven slave node, the energy of each sensor node is reduced and secure management of each sensor node is improved.

  16. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-05-18

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  17. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  18. Chemical sensors for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1992-01-01

    The payload of the Space Station Freedom will include sensors for frequent monitoring of the water recycling process and for measuring the many biochemical parameters related to onboard experiments. This paper describes the sensor technologies and the types of transducers and selectors considered for these sensors. Particular attention is given to such aspects of monitoring of the water recycling process as the types of water use, the sources of water and their hazards, the sensor systems for monitoring, microbial monitoring, and monitoring toxic metals and organics. An approach for monitoring water recycling is suggested, which includes microbial testing with a potentiometric device (which should be in first line of tests), the use of an ion-selective electrode for inorganic ion determinations, and the use of optic fiber techniques for the determination of total organic carbon.

  19. Wireless sensor network topology control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuk, Olexandr; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Sova, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Topology control process for the wireless sensor network is considered. In this article the use of rule base for making decision on the search of optimum network topology is offered for the realization of different aims of network management.

  20. Introduction to wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Explores real-world wireless sensor network development, deployment, and applications. The book begins with an introduction to wireless sensor networks and their fundamental concepts. Hardware components, operating systems, protocols, and algorithms that make up the anatomy of a sensor node are described in chapter two. Properties of wireless communications, medium access protocols, wireless links, and link estimation protocols are described in chapter three and chapter four. Routing basics and metrics, clustering techniques, time synchronization and localization protocols, as well as sensing techniques are introduced in chapter five to nine. The concluding chapter summarizes the learnt methods and shows how to use them to deploy real-world sensor networks in a structured way.

  1. EDL Sensor Suite, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Air Data Systems (OADS) L.L.C. proposes a LIDAR based remote measurement sensor suite capable of satisfying a significant number of the desired sensing...

  2. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  3. Microfabricated Ice-Detection Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeAnna, Russell

    1997-01-01

    .... The sensor is capable of distinguishing between an ice covered and a clean surface. It employs a bulk micromachined wafer with a 7 micrometers thick, boron doped, silicon diaphragm which serves as one plate of a parallel plate capacitor...

  4. Motion sensor technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bratitsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to raise a discussion regarding motion sensor technologies, mainly seen as peripherals of contemporary video game consoles, by examining their exploitation within educational context. An overview of the existing literature is presented, while attempting to categorize the educational approaches which involve motion sensor technologies, in two parts. The first one concerns the education of people with special needs. The utilization of motion sensor technologies, incorporated by game consoles, in the education of such people is examined. The second one refers to various educational approaches in regular education, under which not so many research approaches, but many teaching ideas can be found. The aim of the paper is to serve as a reference point for every individual/group, willing to explore the Sensor-Based Games Based Learning (SBGBL research area, by providing a complete and structured literature review.

  5. Cantilever-like micromechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Dohn, Søren; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2011-01-01

    The field of cantilever-based sensing emerged in the mid-1990s and is today a well-known technology for label-free sensing which holds promise as a technique for cheap, portable, sensitive and highly parallel analysis systems. The research in sensor realization as well as sensor applications has...... increased significantly over the past 10 years. In this review we will present the basic modes of operation in cantilever-like micromechanical sensors and discuss optical and electrical means for signal transduction. The fundamental processes for realizing miniaturized cantilevers are described with focus...... on silicon-and polymer-based technologies. Examples of recent sensor applications are given covering such diverse fields as drug discovery, food diagnostics, material characterizations and explosives detection....

  6. Sensor Failure Detection through Introspection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smeltz, Jeremy; Valerius, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    .... One area of research being done is simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). SLAM uses a robot's sensors to generate a map of the area while maintaining its current position within that map...

  7. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, C.; Periaswami, G.; Mathews, C.K.; Shankar, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Author's abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors for youth alcohol enforcement conducted as part of normal or typical police operations. Three municipal police departments of 100 or more sworn ...

  9. The parameters of a sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neacsu, A.; Ciucu, C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of electronics and technology led to the development of high precision sensors. Generally all sensors are based on the inertia of a suspended mass which remains stationary with respect to the ground's movement. In the case of electromagnetic instruments, a coil is linked to the mass of a pendulum that moves in a magnetic field, creating an electric tension. In the case of this sensor, there is no need for a damper mechanism due to the fact that the damping force is produced by the currents induced in a copper plate oscillating in a strong magnetic field. In the experiment we determined the inner oscillating frequency and the damping factor of a sensor based on a mobile coil. (authors)

  10. Wireless Smart Shipboard Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nozik, Andrew B

    2005-01-01

    .... Study will focus on the design and implementation of an Ipsil IP 8930 microcontroller, which is then connected, by the standard TCP/IP implementation, to a network where the sensor information...

  11. Nanomaterials and Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar BASU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials and nanosensors are two most important iconic words of the modern science & Technology. Though nano technology is relatively a new area of research & development it will soon be included in the most modern electronic circuitry used for advanced computing systems. Since it will provide the potential link between the nanotechnology and the macroscopic world the development is primarily directed towards exploitation of nanotechnology to computer chip miniaturization and vast storage capacity. However, for implementation in the consumer products the present high cost of production must be overcome. There are different ways to make nanosensors e.g. top-down lithography, bottom-up assembly, and self molecular assembly. Consequently, nanomaterials & nanosensors have to be made compatible with the consumer technologies. The progress in detecting and sensing different chemical species with increased accuracy may transform the human society from uncertainty and inaccuracy to more precise and definite world of information. For example, extremely low concentrations of air pollutants or toxic materials in air & water around us can be accurately and economically detected in no time to save the human beings from the serious illnesses. Also, the medical sensors will help in diagnoses of the diseases, their treatment and in predicting the future profile of the individual so that the health insurance companies may exploit the opportunity to grant or to deny the health coverage. Other social issues like privacy invasion and security may be best monitored by the widespread use of the surveillance devices using nanosensors.

  12. Photonics for aerospace sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, John; Adler, Eric D.; Filipov, Andree N.; Harrison, Lorna J.; van der Gracht, Joseph; Smith, Dale J.; Tayag, Tristan J.; Viveiros, Edward A.

    1992-11-01

    The maturation in the state-of-the-art of optical components is enabling increased applications for the technology. Most notable is the ever-expanding market for fiber optic data and communications links, familiar in both commercial and military markets. The inherent properties of optics and photonics, however, have suggested that components and processors may be designed that offer advantages over more commonly considered digital approaches for a variety of airborne sensor and signal processing applications. Various academic, industrial, and governmental research groups have been actively investigating and exploiting these properties of high bandwidth, large degree of parallelism in computation (e.g., processing in parallel over a two-dimensional field), and interconnectivity, and have succeeded in advancing the technology to the stage of systems demonstration. Such advantages as computational throughput and low operating power consumption are highly attractive for many computationally intensive problems. This review covers the key devices necessary for optical signal and image processors, some of the system application demonstration programs currently in progress, and active research directions for the implementation of next-generation architectures.

  13. Multi-Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Glenn W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor); LeBel, Peter J. (Inventor); Steele, Tommy C. (Inventor); Rana, Mauro (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A multi-gas sensor is provided which modulates a polarized light beam over a broadband of wavelengths between two alternating orthogonal polarization components. The two orthogonal polarization components of the polarization modulated beam are directed along two distinct optical paths. At least one optical path contains one or more spectral discrimination element, with each spectral discrimination element having spectral absorption features of one or more gases of interest being measured. The two optical paths then intersect, and one orthogonal component of the intersected components is transmitted and the other orthogonal component is reflected. The combined polarization modulated beam is partitioned into one or more smaller spectral regions of interest where one or more gases of interest has an absorption band. The difference in intensity between the two orthogonal polarization components is then determined in each partitioned spectral region of interest as an indication of the spectral emission/absorption of the light beam by the gases of interest in the measurement path. The spectral emission/absorption is indicative of the concentration of the one or more gases of interest in the measurement path. More specifically, one embodiment of the present invention is a gas filter correlation radiometer which comprises a polarizer, a polarization modulator, a polarization beam splitter, a beam combiner, wavelength partitioning element, and detection element. The gases of interest are measured simultaneously and, further, can be measured independently or non-independently. Furthermore, optical or electronic element are provided to balance optical intensities between the two optical paths.

  14. NGST fine guidance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Neil; Hutchings, John; Murowinski, Richard G.; Alexander, Russ

    2003-03-01

    Instrumentation for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently in the Phase A definition stage. We have developed a concept for the NGST Fine Guidance Sensor or FGS. The FGS is a detector array based imager which resides in the NGST focal plane. We report here on tradeoff studies aimed at defining an overall configuration of the FGS which will meet the performance and interface requirements. A key performance requirement is a noise equivalent angle of 3 milli-arcseconds to be achieved with 95% probability for any pointing of the observatory in the celestial sphere. A key interface requirement is compatibility with the architecture of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The concept developed consists of two independent and redundant FGS modules, each with a 4' x 2' field of view covered by two 2048 x 2048 infrared detector arrays, providing 60 milli-arcsecond sampling. Performance modeling supporting the choice of this architecture and the trade space considered is presented. Each module has a set of readout electronics which perform star detection, pixel-by-pixel correction, and in fine guiding mode, centroid calculation. These readout electronics communicate with the ISIM Command &Data Handling Units where the FGS control software is based. Rationale for this choice of architecture is also presented.

  15. Security in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oreku, George S

    2016-01-01

    This monograph covers different aspects of sensor network security including new emerging technologies. The authors present a mathematical approach to the topic and give numerous practical examples as well as case studies to illustrate the theory. The target audience primarily comprises experts and practitioners in the field of sensor network security, but the book may also be beneficial for researchers in academia as well as for graduate students.

  16. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  17. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  18. Nanoplasmonic sensors for biointerfacial science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Rahim Ferhan, Abdul; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-06-19

    In recent years, nanoplasmonic sensors have become widely used for the label-free detection of biomolecules across medical, biotechnology, and environmental science applications. To date, many nanoplasmonic sensing strategies have been developed with outstanding measurement capabilities, enabling detection down to the single-molecule level. One of the most promising directions has been surface-based nanoplasmonic sensors, and the potential of such technologies is still emerging. Going beyond detection, surface-based nanoplasmonic sensors open the door to enhanced, quantitative measurement capabilities across the biointerfacial sciences by taking advantage of high surface sensitivity that pairs well with the size of medically important biomacromolecules and biological particulates such as viruses and exosomes. The goal of this review is to introduce the latest advances in nanoplasmonic sensors for the biointerfacial sciences, including ongoing development of nanoparticle and nanohole arrays for exploring different classes of biomacromolecules interacting at solid-liquid interfaces. The measurement principles for nanoplasmonic sensors based on utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) phenomena are first introduced. The following sections are then categorized around different themes within the biointerfacial sciences, specifically protein binding and conformational changes, lipid membrane fabrication, membrane-protein interactions, exosome and virus detection and analysis, and probing nucleic acid conformations and binding interactions. Across these themes, we discuss the growing trend to utilize nanoplasmonic sensors for advanced measurement capabilities, including positional sensing, biomacromolecular conformation analysis, and real-time kinetic monitoring of complex biological interactions. Altogether, these advances highlight the rich potential of nanoplasmonic sensors and the future growth prospects of

  19. Hydrogen Leak Detection Sensor Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Barton D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the characteristics of the Hydrogen Sensor database. The database is the result of NASA's continuing interest in and improvement of its ability to detect and assess gas leaks in space applications. The database specifics and a snapshot of an entry in the database are reviewed. Attempts were made to determine the applicability of each of the 65 sensors for ground and/or vehicle use.

  20. Integrating Sensor-Collected Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    APPENDIX H: ACRONYMS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS______________________________________________ KML Keyhole Markup Language L LADAR Laser Radar LAN Local... close to the sensor as possible. I endorse the Task Force’s findings and recommendations and encourage you to review the report. Dr. William...deeply-buried targets – require that the relevant sensors be in close proximity to the target. The task force discussed the requirements of close -in