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Sample records for ring-neck doves streptopelia

  1. First records in Guinea Bissau of Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are no confirmed records of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha in north-eastern Guinea Bissau and there is very little information available on the biology of the species. Eight individuals of the Adamawa Turtle Dove were identified from the game bags of sport hunters in north-eastern Guinea Bissau, ...

  2. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria

    2003-02-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves.

  3. MtDNA genetic diversity and structure of Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Zoltán; Dimopoulos, Evangelos Antonis; Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Eraud, Cyril; Kusza, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    The Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is one of the most successful biological invaders among terrestrial vertebrates. However, little information is available on the genetic diversity of the species. A total of 134 Eurasian Collared Doves from Europe, Asia and the Caribbean (n = 20) were studied by sequencing a 658-bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Fifty-two different haplotypes and relatively high haplotype and nucleotide diversities (Hd±SD = 0.843±0.037 and π±SD = 0.026±0.013) were detected. Haplotype Ht1 was particularly dominant: it included 44.03% of the studied individuals, and contained sequences from 75% of the studied countries. Various analyses (FST, AMOVA, STRUCTURE) distinguished 2 groups on the genetic level, designated 'A' and 'B'. Two groups were also separated in the median-joining network and the maximum likelihood tree. The results of the neutrality tests were negative (Fu FS = -25.914; Tajima D = -2.606) and significantly different from zero (P≤0.001) for group A, whereas both values for group B were positive (Fu FS = 1.811; Tajima D = 0.674) and not significant (P>0.05). Statistically significant positive autocorrelation was revealed among individuals located up to 2000 km apart (r = 0.124; P = 0.001). The present results provide the first information on the genetic diversity and structure of the Eurasian Collared Dove, and can thereby serve as a factual and comparative basis for similar studies in the future.

  4. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the

  5. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions.

  6. Natural Infections With Pigeon Paramyxovirus Serotype 1: Pathologic Changes in Eurasian Collared-Doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) and Rock Pigeons ( Columba livia) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, M; Afonso, C L; Stanton, J B; Knowles, S; Ip, H S; White, C L; Fenton, H; Ruder, M G; Dolinski, A C; Lankton, J

    2017-07-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons ( Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  7. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  8. Effects of dietary aluminium in combination with reduced calcium and phosphorous on the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, D.; Fischer, K.; Peakall, D.; Angehrn, P.

    1986-10-01

    Elevated levels of Al have been reported in surface waters and in certain aquatic organisms including aquatic insects in areas receiving acidic precipitation. It has been suggested that Al can affect avian reproduction. In this study, Ring doves were assigned to a control group fed a diet reduced in Ca and P and to a treated group fed the same diet supplemented with 0.1% Al. A four month dosing period did not result in any effect on egg production, fertility or hatchability. Eggshell permeability was decreased initially but subsequently recovered to a normal level. Dietary aluminium suLphate did not affect plasma Ca, P nor Mg levels of adults nor did it affect the pattern of growth nor the final weight of chicks fed on the same diet. There was a tendency for Al to accumulate in the sternum of growing doves fed levels up to 1500 ppm Al. Neither reproduction nor growth of this species were influenced by levels of Al equivalent to those occuring in areas receiving acid deposition. However, the results of a preliminary experiment suggest that decreasing the dietary levels of Ca and P below 0.9% and 0.5% respectively, in combination with excess Al (0.075%) caused significant impacts upon reproduction and growth. Similar experimental findings have been reported in the literature for domestic birds where levels of dietary Al exceeded those of Ca and P. 21 refs.

  9. Novel avian oropharyngeal trichomonads isolated from European turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur) and racing pigeons (Columba livia): genetic and morphometric characterisation of clonal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrero, M C; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Liebhart, D; Ganas, P; Martínez-Díaz, R A; Ponce-Gordo, F; Carrero-Ruiz, A; Hess, M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T

    2017-11-01

    Extensive diversity has been described within the avian oropharyngeal trichomonad complex in recent years. In this study we developed clonal cultures from four isolates selected by their different ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 (ITS) genotype and their association with gross lesions of avian trichomonosis. Isolates were obtained from an adult racing pigeon and a nestling of Eurasian eagle owl with macroscopic lesions, and from a juvenile wood pigeon and an European turtle dove without clinical signs. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis of the ITS, small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (SSUrRNA) and Fe-hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) genes together with a morphological study by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed. No significant differences in the structures were observed with scanning electron microscopy. However, the genetic characterisation revealed novel sequence types for the SSUrRNA region and Fe-hyd gene. Two clones were identified as Trichomonas gallinae in the MLST analysis, but the clones from the racing pigeon and European turtle dove showed higher similarity with Trichomonas tenax and Trichomonas canistomae than with T. gallinae at their ITS region, respectively. SSUrRNA sequences grouped all the clones in a clade that includes T. gallinae, T. tenax and T. canistomae. Further diversity was detected within the Fe-hyd locus, with a clear separation from T. gallinae of the clones obtained from the racing pigeon and the European turtle dove. In addition, morphometric comparison by optical microscopy with clonal cultures of T. gallinae revealed significant statistical differences on axostyle projection length in the clone from the European turtle dove. Morphometric and genetic data indicate that possible new species within the Trichomonas genus were detected. Taking in consideration the diversity in Trichomonas species present in the oral cavity of birds, a proper genetic analysis is highly recommended when outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Features of spermatogenesis in the laughing dove Streptopelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and regression of the testes as described by Lofts & Mur- ton (1973) but probably has the testicular tubules in some development/regression equilibrium which would allow mature spermatozoa to be produced throughout the year but would also have some parts of the tubules in a resting condition. It has been established in ...

  11. Lead concentrations in the bones of city and country doves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, W.R.; Frost, P.G.H.; Redelinghuys, E.P.; van der Merwe, R.P.

    The lead content of bones of laughing doves Streptopelia senegalensis was assayed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A significant difference in the mean lead content was found between two groups of wild doves. The one group was taken in the city of Cape Town, and the other group 50 km away in rural farmland near Stellenbosch. The bones of the urban doves contained on average seven times more lead per unit weight of tissue than those of their rural con-specifics. Concentrations of lead in the bones of rural and urban doves are approximately 70% and 80% below those recorded for corresponding pigeon Columba livia populations in Pennsylvania, USA. These differences between urban and rural populations are believed to reflect the relatively greater degree of lead in the atmosphere of the urban environment, presumably as a result of motor car exhaust emissions. 2 references, 1 table.

  12. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  13. Transcontinental mourning dove recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Brian

    1971-01-01

    A Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) banded in New York has been reported shot in California. On 25 August 1969, near Palmyra (43°00' N, 77°10' W), New York Department of Environmental Conservation personnel placed U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service band 883-97279 on the leg of a hatching-year Mourning Dove of unknown sex. During the first weekend of the dove season in September 1970, Stan Solus (P.O. Box 594, Seiad Valley, California) recovered the band from a dove he shot in the Shasta Valley, Siskiyou County, California (41°30' N, 122°20' W). As Mr. Solus included the band with his reporting letter and, in response to my asking him for verification, reaffirmed his original information, the recovery has been accepted as authentic. I suggest this vagrancy may be explained by assuming that the inexperienced New York bird got emotionally involved with a western bird with which it shared winter quarters, perhaps in Mexico, and thus the following year ended up a flower child in California.

  14. Cryptosporidium meleagridis in an Indian ring-necked parrot (Psittacula krameri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, U M; Xiao, L; Limor, J; Gelis, S; Raidal, S R; Fayer, R; Lal, A; Elliot, A; Thompson, R C

    2000-03-01

    To perform a morphological and genetic characterisation of a Cryptosporidium infection in an Indian ring-necked parrot (Psittacula krameri) and to compare this with C meleagridis from a turkey. Tissue and intestinal sections from an Indian ring-necked parrot were examined microscopically for Cryptosporidium. The organism was also purified from the crop and intestine, the DNA extracted and a portion of the 18S rDNA gene amplified, sequenced and compared with sequence and biological information obtained for C meleagridis from a turkey as well as sequence information for other species of Cryptosporidium. Morphological examination of tissue sections from an Indian ring-necked parrot revealed large numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts attached to the apical border of enterocytes lining the intestinal tract. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts measured about 5.1 x 4.5 microns, which conformed morphologically to C meleagridis. The sequence obtained from this isolate was identical to sequence information obtained from a C meleagridis isolate from a turkey. Cryptosporidium meleagridis was detected in an Indian ring-necked parrot using morphological and molecular methods. This is the first time that this species of Cryptosporidium has been reported in a non-galliform host and extends the known host range of C meleagridis.

  15. Rapid morphological changes, admixture and invasive success in populations of Ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) established in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gros , Ariane; Samadi , Sarah; Zuccon , Dario; Cornette , Raphaël; Braun , Michael P.; Senar , Juan Carlos; Clergeau , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), native of Asia and Africa, is a very successful invasive species in Europe: it has been present there for over 50 years. A recent study showed that European invasive populations occupy a colder climatic niche than in their native range but the establishment of this tropical species in temperate regions remains unexplained. Two main hypotheses may explain the success of Ring-necked parakeet in Europe: admixture between indi...

  16. Foot preferences in wild-living ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri, Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Braun, Michael; Lintker, Stephanie

    2011-03-01

    Evidence for foot preferences has been reported in parrots and the majority of parrot species uses the left foot to hold and process food objects. Here we assessed the footedness of ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) in a wild-living non-native population in Heidelberg, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. Observations were made when parrots fed on catalpa trees Catalpa sp., with 20- to 50-cm-long fruits. Parakeets tend to bite off catalpa fruits with their beak, using one foot holding the fruit. Further, we established an experimental set-up (feeding location) and prepared pieces of apple in an adequate size to force parrots to handle the food with one foot. From 184 individuals feeding on the catalpa trees, 102 were recorded using the left foot and 82 the right foot. At the feeding location, 24 individuals were left-footed and 11 were right-footed. These observations suggest a foot preference in the ring-necked parakeet both on the population level and on the individual level.

  17. Molecular characterisation of an avihepadnavirus isolated from Psittacula krameri (ring-necked parrot).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Bednarek, Karolina; Kraberger, Simona; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-03-01

    Avihepadnaviruses have been documented previously in ducks, herons, geese, storks and cranes. Here, we describe the full genome of a new avihepadnavirus isolated from Psittacula krameri (ring-necked parrot) in Poland. The parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV) genome (3042 bp) shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnavirus isolates and is phylogenetically most closely related to heron and stork hepatitis B viruses isolates. PHBV has a genome organization similar to that of other hepadnaviruses and contains ORFs for a preC/C, preS/S and polyprotein. Additionally, we identified an X-like ORF in the genome of PHBV. The full-genome data will be useful in developing screening tools for avihepadnaviruses in parrots.

  18. Aging mourning doves by outer primary wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, H.M.; Blankenship, L.H.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1967-01-01

    Many immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) cannot be aged by the conventional white-tipped primary covert method if molt has proceeded beyond the 7th primary. A new method of aging doves in this group is based on the presence (immature) or absence (adult) of a buff-colored fringe on the tips of the 9th and 10th primaries. Experienced biologists were nearly 100 percent accurate in aging wings of 100 known-age doves from eastern and midwestern states. The technique is not as reliable for doves from southwestern United States because of added feather wear, apparently from harsh vegetative and soil conditions.

  19. Safety of fenbendazole in Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, R; Yaeger, M; Hostetter, S; Tell, L A; Wetzlich, S; Vickroy, T; Lillie, B; MacFarlane, W; Laudenslager, T; Whitley, E; Dzikamunhenga, R; Larson, W

    2014-03-01

    Ring-necked pheasants raised on propagation farms can be severely parasitized with Syngamus trachea (gapeworm) and other parasitic worms. Fenbendazole is a highly effective benzimidazole-class anthelmintic that is not currently approved for game bird species in the United States. The objective of this work was to provide target animal safety data to support a label claim for fenbendazole in pheasants at 100 parts per million (ppm) in the feed for 7 consecutive days. Demonstration of safety in young pheasants and a separate demonstration of reproductive safety in adult birds were required. In the young bird study, 160 Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus, 80 males and 80 females) were fed a commercial game bird starter ration containing no antibiotics, growth promoters, or coccidiostats until day 0 of the study (approximately 21 days of age). On day 0 the birds were placed on their respective study diets containing fenbendazole at 0, 100, 300, and 500 ppm for 21 days (three times the normal treatment duration). Clinical observations were recorded twice daily. Feed consumption, feed conversion rate, and body weights were determined for each pen. Three birds from each pen were randomly selected for necropsy, histopathology, and clinical pathology. Birds were carefully examined for feathering abnormalities immediately following euthanasia. The remaining birds in each pen were submitted for drug concentration analysis so that concentrations (for low vs. high treatment levels) could be correlated with clinical observations, clinical pathology, and histologic findings. There no morbidities or mortalities after study day--1. There were no statistically significant treatment-related differences in feed consumption, feed conversion rates, body weights, serum biochemistry profiles, hematologic profiles, gross necropsy findings, histopathologic examination, and feathering. Allowable liver and muscle concentrations of fenbendazole sulfone in turkeys are 6 and 2

  20. Migration routes and staging areas of trans-Saharan Turtle Doves appraised from light-level geolocators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Eraud

    Full Text Available The identification of migration routes, wintering grounds and stopover sites are crucial issues for the understanding of the Palearctic-African bird migration system as well as for the development of relevant conservation strategies for trans-Saharan migrants. Using miniaturized light-level geolocators we report a comprehensive and detailed year round track of a granivorous trans-Saharan migrant, the European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur. From five recovered loggers, our data provide new insights on migratory journeys and winter destinations of Turtle Doves originating from a breeding population in Western France. Data confirm that Turtle Doves wintered in West Africa. The main wintering area encompassed Western Mali, the Inner Delta Niger and the Malian/Mauritanian border. Some individuals also extended their wintering ranges over North Guinea, North-West of Burkina Faso and the Ivory-Coast. Our results reveal that all individuals did not spend the winter period at a single location; some of them experienced a clear eastward shift of several hundred kilometres. We also found evidence for a loop migration pattern, with a post-breeding migration flyway lying west of the spring route. Finally, we found that on their way back to breeding grounds Turtle Doves needed to refuel after crossing the Sahara desert. Contrary to previous suggestions, our data reveal that birds used stopover sites for several weeks, presumably in Morocco and North Algeria. This later finding is a crucial issue for future conservation strategies because environmental conditions on these staging areas might play a pivotal role in population dynamics of this declining species.

  1. Declining ring-necked pheasants in the Klamath Basin, California: II. Survival, productivity, and cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Buhler, D.R.; Henny, Charles J.; Drew, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cover condition and its influence on nesting success, survival, and body condition of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were evaluated at Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge (TLNWR) and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge (LKNWR). Inadequate nesting cover was responsible for extremely low nest success early in the nesting season at TLNWR. Later in the season at TLNWR, spring-planted crops provided cover to conceal nesting and renesting hens; however, only 0.07 young were produced (to 1 August) per hen during the study. The extremely low reproductive rates were well below those required to maintain a stable population. At TLNWR, most adult mortality during spring and early summer (before crops provided adequate cover) apparently resulted from predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This mortality occurred weeks before insecticide applications. Hard winters (cold temperatures and heavy snowfall) periodically reduce the pheasant population in the Klamath Basin and again greatly reduced numbers during the last year of this study. Unfortunately, pheasant populations declined under the conditions found during this study and were unable to recover from the hard winter of 1992 to 1993. Mean body mass and tarsal length of adult hen pheasants at TLNWR, which is intensively farmed, were less than those for hens at LKNWR, which is not intensively farmed. Results of our study suggest that TLNWR hens may have been nutritionally stressed, and that the amount and distribution of vegetative cover needs to be improved at TLNWR. Habitat management of edge cover along agricultural crops should feature perennial grasses and legumes with small tracts of land interspersed throughout the agricultural fields to provide alternative cover for wildlife in general including pheasants.

  2. Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L; Green, David E; Justice-Allen, Anne E; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Ip, Hon S

    2012-06-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens.

  3. Genomic evidence of demographic fluctuations and lack of genetic structure across flyways in a long distance migrant, the European turtle dove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Luciano; Campagna, Leonardo; Wilke, Thomas; Lormee, Hervé; Eraud, Cyril; Dunn, Jenny C; Rocha, Gregorio; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Metzger, Benjamin; Cecere, Jacopo G; Marx, Melanie; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2016-11-07

    Understanding how past climatic oscillations have affected organismic evolution will help predict the impact that current climate change has on living organisms. The European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur, is a warm-temperature adapted species and a long distance migrant that uses multiple flyways to move between Europe and Africa. Despite being abundant, it is categorized as vulnerable because of a long-term demographic decline. We studied the demographic history and population genetic structure of the European turtle dove using genomic data and mitochondrial DNA sequences from individuals sampled across Europe, and performing paleoclimatic niche modelling simulations. Overall our data suggest that this species is panmictic across Europe, and is not genetically structured across flyways. We found the genetic signatures of demographic fluctuations, inferring an effective population size (Ne) expansion that occurred between the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, followed by a decrease in the Ne that started between the mid Holocene and the present. Our niche modelling analyses suggest that the variations in the Ne are coincident with recent changes in the availability of suitable habitat. We argue that the European turtle dove is prone to undergo demographic fluctuations, a trait that makes it sensitive to anthropogenic impacts, especially when its numbers are decreasing. Also, considering the lack of genetic structure, we suggest all populations across Europe are equally relevant for conservation.

  4. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  5. The analyzing of Dove marketing strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo; Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction In this report,I try to analyze the related information about DOVE chocolate.Firstly,I would like to introduce this product.Dove chocolate is one of a series of products launched by the world’s largest pet food and snack food manufacturers,U.S.multinational food company Mars(Mars).Entered China in 1989,It becomes China’s leading brand of chocolate in

  6. Thinking like a duck: fall lake use and movement patterns of juvenile ring-necked ducks before migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Charlotte L; Fieberg, John; Scharenbroich, Christopher; Herwig, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    The post-fledging period is one of the least studied portions of the annual cycle in waterfowl. Yet, recruitment into the breeding population requires that young birds have sufficient resources to survive this period. We used radio-telemetry and generalized estimating equations to examine support for four hypotheses regarding the drivers of landscape scale habitat use and movements made by juvenile ring-necked ducks between the pre-fledging period and departure for migration. Our response variables included the probability of movement, distances moved, and use of different lake types: brood-rearing lakes, staging lakes, and lakes with low potential for disturbance. Birds increased their use of staging areas and lakes with low potential for disturbance (i.e., without houses or boat accesses, >100 m from roads, or big lakes with areas where birds could sit undisturbed) throughout the fall, but these changes began before the start of the hunting season and their trajectory was not changed by the onset of hunting. Males and females moved similar distances and had similar probabilities of movements each week. However, females were more likely than males to use brood-rearing lakes later in the fall. Our findings suggest juvenile ring-necked ducks require different lake types throughout the fall, and managing solely for breeding habitat will be insufficient for meeting needs during the post-fledging period. Maintaining areas with low potential for disturbance and areas suitable for staging will ensure that ring-necked ducks have access to habitat throughout the fall.

  7. Tolerance doses of cutaneous and mucosal tissues in ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) for external beam megavoltage radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Heather W; Roberts, Royce E; Latimer, Kenneth S; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen; Northrup, Nicole C

    2009-03-01

    Currently used dosages for external-beam megavoltage radiation therapy in birds have been extrapolated from mammalian patients and often appear to provide inadequate doses of radiation for effective tumor control. To determine the tolerance doses of cutaneous and mucosal tissues of normal birds in order to provide more effective radiation treatment for tumors that have been shown to be radiation responsive in other species, ingluvial mucosa and the skin over the ingluvies of 9 ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were irradiated in 4-Gy fractions to a total dose of either 48, 60, or 72 Gy using an isocentric cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. Minimal radiation-induced epidermal changes were present in the high-dose group histologically. Neither dose-related acute nor chronic radiation effects could be detected in any group grossly in cutaneous or mucosal tissue over a 9-month period. Radiation doses of 72 Gy in 4-Gy fractions were well tolerated in the small number of ring-necked parakeets in this initial tolerance dose study.

  8. Pox in mourning doves in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.

    1961-01-01

    Pox infection has occurrcd in mourning doves in at least 8 states on 12 separate occasions. Unsuccessful attempts were made to transmit both fowl pox (chicken isolate) and passerine pox (cowbird isolate) to mourning doves.

  9. Serologic surveillance of wild and pen-reared ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) as a method of understanding disease reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Ian; Coates, Peter S.; Stoute, Simone T.; Senties-Cue, C. Gabriel; Gharpure, Radhika V.; Pitesky, Maurice E.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated exposure to infectious diseases in wild (n=33) and pen-reared (n=12) Ring-necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in the Central Valley of California during 2014 and 2015. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against hemorrhagic enteritis (HE), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in both wild and pen-reared pheasants.

  10. Case report: Pox in the mourning dove in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Herman, C.M.; King, E.S.

    1960-01-01

    Although trichomoniasis has received attention as a cause of death among mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura),  ittle work has been done on other diseases of this species. Kossack and Hanson2 reported the occurrence of pox lesions in mourning doves in Illinois. Rosen3 reported that "pigeon pox" had caused a severe mortality in a mourning dove flock near Yreka, Siskiyou County, California. A severe outbreak of pox that occurred in a captive flock of mourning doves at the Patuxent Research Refuge further emphasizes the need for more study of this disease as a cause of dove mortality. Twenty-two mourning doves were live trapped on the Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland, in September, 1958. The doves were examined for presence of Trichomonas gallinae and, when found to be free of trichomonads, were made the nucleus of a captive dove colony. A mourning dove that had a small, pink nodule on the left eyelid was captured on the Agricultural Research Center on September 17, 1958. The nodule was excised and the cut surface was treated with tincture of merthiolate. The dove then was added to the dove colony.

  11. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  12. Ecology and behavior of the zenaida dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data are summarized from a 10 year study of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in Puerto Rico and its offshore islands. The dove displays sexual size dimorphism, with males generally larger than females: Most activities (feeding, courtship, fighting) occurred in mornings and afternoons, whereas loafing and maintenance activities were more prevalent at mid-day. I recorded 77 plant species used as food by Zenaida Doves in Puerto Rico. Major food species uncluded Scleria lithosperma, Argemone mexicana, Croton rigidus, Phyllanthus amarus, Cordia angustifolia, Zanthoxylum martinicense, Euphorbia heterophylla, and several species of legumes. Zenaida Doves have two major vocalizations: the 'Coo', or Advertisement Call, given in assertive and sexual contexts, and the Nest Call, primarily used at or near the nest. Doves nested in a wide variety of habitats, including forest edge, mangrove forest, dry scrub, and mixed agriculture-urban areas. Nests were generally placed in trees, but doves nested on the ground where certain terrestrial predators were absent. Nests were found in all months of the year, although a breeding peak occurred from March through Mayor July. Doves replaced clutches when nests were destroyed, and recycled up to four times in a season. Males selected nest sites and initiated building. Eggs (2) were laid on alternate days, beginning about two days after the nest was completed. Incubation and nestling stages averaged 13.9 :t 0.5 [SE] and 14.3 :t 0.6 days. The male attended the nest from mid-morning (X = 08:59 hr) through mid-afternoon (x = 16:53), then the female took over incubation and brooding duties for the night. Nests were continuously covered from the laying of the first egg through day seven of the nestling stage. Thereafter, adult attendance dropped steadily until day 14, when they carne to the nest only for chick feedings. Chicks (days 0-15) showed a mean daily weight gain of 18.3% and attained a fledging weight of about 120g (81% of adult weight

  13. Marked dietary differences between sympatric feral rock doves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-24

    Jun 24, 1993 ... Although feral rock doves Columba Iivia and rock pigeons C. guinea fly daily in mixed flocks between roosting and nesting sites in Cape Town, South Africa, they feed separately in farmlands north of the city during the austral summer. Examination of the crop contents of 32 feral rock doves and 48 rock ...

  14. Marked dietary differences between sympatric feral rock doves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although feral rock doves Columba livia and rock pigeons C. guineafly daily in mixed flocks between roosting and nesting sites in Cape Town, South Africa, they feed separately in farmlands north of the city during the austral summer. Examination of the crop contents of 32 feral rock doves and 48 rock pigeons revealed that ...

  15. Improved clinicopathologic assessments of acute liver damage due to trauma in Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Holthaus, Lisa; Barron, Heather Wilson; Divers, Stephen J; McBride, Michael; Almy, Frederic; Bush, Sharon; Latimer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-01

    Increased activities of certain biochemical enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) have been associated with blunt liver injury in many species. To evaluate changes in plasma hepatic biochemical parameters in acute avian liver disease caused by trauma and to compare biochemical changes with histologic lesions in hepatic parenchyma, 30 healthy fasted Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) were divided into 2 groups, and traumatic liver injury was caused by endoscopic liver biopsy (group 1) or by liver biopsy and crushing injury to the hepatic parenchyma with endoscopic forceps (group 2) in anesthetized birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours in alternate groups to compare analyte values after injury with those at baseline. Results showed consistently decreased plasma ALP activity (excluding 1 time point) throughout the study, which was thought to be associated with isoflurane administration. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase activity initially increased but rapidly declined thereafter and was attributed to acute focal hepatocellular injury. In both groups, increases in plasma AST, ALT, and LDH activities was most likely caused by muscle injury because creatine kinase activity was concurrently increased. Compared with baseline values, bile acid concentration and y-glutamyl transferase activity were not affected by liver biopsy or crush injury. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was the most specific indicator of liver injury in both groups. Histologic changes correlated poorly with biochemical results, possibly because the small area of hepatic parenchyma that was damaged did not affect enzyme values substantially.

  16. Long-term and widespread changes in agricultural practices influence ring-necked pheasant abundance in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S; Brussee, Brianne E; Howe, Kristy B; Fleskes, Joseph P; Dwight, Ian A; Connelly, Daniel P; Meshriy, Matt G; Gardner, Scott C

    2017-04-01

    Declines in bird populations in agricultural regions of North America and Europe have been attributed to agricultural industrialization, increases in use of agrochemical application, and increased predation related to habitat modification. Based on count data compiled from Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) from 1974 to 2012, Christmas Bird Count (CBC) collected from 1914 to 2013, and hunter data from Annual Game Take Survey (AGTS) for years 1948-2010, ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) in California have experienced substantial declines in agricultural environments. Using a modeling approach that integrates all three forms of survey data into a joint response abundance index, we found pheasant abundance was related to the amount of harvested and unharvested crop land, types of crops produced, amount of total pesticide applied, minimum temperature, precipitation, and numbers of avian competitors and predators. Specifically, major changes in agricultural practices over the last three decades were associated with declines in pheasant numbers and likely reflected widespread loss of habitat. For example, increases in cropland were associated with increased pheasant abundance during early years of study but this effect decreased through time, such that no association in recent years was evidenced. A post hoc analysis revealed that crops beneficial to pheasant abundance (e.g., barley) have declined substantially in recent decades and were replaced by less advantageous crops (e.g., nut trees). An additional analysis using a restricted data set (1990-2013) indicated recent negative impacts on pheasant numbers associated with land use practices were also associated with relatively high levels of pesticide application. Our results may provide valuable information for management policies aimed at reducing widespread declines in pheasant populations in California and may be applicable to other avian species within agricultural settings. Furthermore, this general analytical

  17. Immunologic status of mourning doves following an epizootic of trichomoniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Amend, S.R.

    1972-01-01

    An epizootic of trichomoniasis in mourning doves at the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge began in 1969 and continued into 1970. The disease was seen in 16% of the adults and 2% of the immatures in 1970, but only one immature bird out of 37 surveyed (3%) carried Trichomonas gallinae. Challenge infection of 33 doves from the epizootic area showed 85 percent to be resistant to trichomoniasis, compared to 69 percent resistance in doves from Maryland, where no epizootic has occurred for at least 3 years. Plasma protein changes which occurred following challenge infection were identical in CSNWR and Maryland doves which showed evidence of disease. Of the doves which showed no signs of disease, those from the CSNWR exhibited no change in beta globulins, identical to the response in pigeons which survive an infection by T. gallinae, but they had some tissue invasion by the parasite.

  18. An observation of a partially albinistic zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three of the 4 forms of albinism that occur in avifauna have been detected in Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove). Albinism is rare in this species, and the incidence rate of each age and sex cohort is not well known. Consequently, we examined the pigmentation of Mourning Doves encountered in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, and classified the age and sex of all individuals. One adult male Mourning Dove had unusually light coloration of some feathers and the upper mandible. This pigmentation is consistent with partial albinism. This was the only individual out of 10,749 examined that appeared to be albinistic. This low incidence rate of albinism supports the conclusion that this condition is relatively rare in Mourning Doves (Mirarchi 1993).

  19. Unretrieved shooting loss of mourning doves in north-central South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Unretrieved loss for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in north-central South Carolina was between 27 and 41 percent of the retrieved kill for the 1973 through 1975 hunting seasons based on 1,396 doves shot by 281 hunters. Dove hunters hunted in groups, fired 8.6 shots per retrieved dove, and engaged in a substantial number of illegal activities. Increased dove populations and hunter bag resulted in increased unretrieved loss, numbers of shots per bagged bird, and illegal activities. Retriever dogs increased the efficiency of dove hunters.

  20. Mourning Dove nesting habitat and nest success in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobney, R.D.; Schulz, J.H.; Sheriff, S.L.; Fuemmeler, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting studies conducted in areas containing a mixture of edge and continuous habitats have focused on edge habitats. Consequently, little is known about the potential contribution of continuous habitats to dove production. In this study we evaluated the relative importance of these two extensive habitat types by monitoring the habitat use and nest success of 59 radio-marked doves during 1990-1991 in central Missouri. Of 83 nests initiated by our marked sample, most (81.9%) were located in edge habitats. Although continuous habitats were selected less as nest sites, the proportion of successful nests did not differ significantly from that in edge habitats. Our data indicate that continuous habitats should not be considered marginal nesting habitat. If the intensity of use and nest success that we observed are representative regionally or nationally, continuous habitats could contribute substantially to annual Mourning Dove production because of the high availability of these habitats throughout much of the Mourning Dove breeding range.

  1. A risk assessment for consumers of mourning doves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Gochfeld, M.

    1998-01-01

    Recreational and subsistence hunters and anglers consume a wide range of species, including birds, mammals, fish and shellfish, some of which represent significant exposure pathways for environmental toxic agents. This study focuses on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Savannah River Site (SRS), a former nuclear weapons production facility in South Carolina. The potential risk of contaminant intake from consuming mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), the most popular United States game bird, was examined under various risk scenarios. For all of these scenarios the authors used the mean tissue concentration of six metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, selenium, chromium, manganese) and radiocesium, in doves collected on and near SRS. They also estimated risk to a child consuming doves that had the maximum contaminant level. The authors used the cancer slope factor for radiocesium, the Environmental Protection Agencies Uptake/Biokinetic model for lead, and published reference doses for the other metals. As a result of their risk assessments they recommend management of water levels in contaminated reservoirs so that lake bed sediments are not exposed to use by gamebirds and other terrestrial wildlife. Particularly, measures should be taken to insure that the hunting public does not h ave access to such a site. Their data also indicate that doves on popular hunting areas are exposed to excess lead, suggesting that banning lead shot for doves, as has been done for waterfowl, is desirable

  2. Sedative effects of midazolam and xylazine with or without ketamine and detomidine alone following intranasal administration in Ring-necked Parakeets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesal, Nasser; Eskandari, Mohammad H

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of intranasal administration of midazolam and xylazine (with or without ketamine) and detomidine and their specific antagonists in parakeets. Prospective study. 17 healthy adult Ring-necked Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) of both sexes (mean weight, 128.83+/-10.46 g [0.28+/-0.02 lb]). The dose of each drug or ketamine-drug combination administered intranasally that resulted in adequate sedation (ie, unrestrained dorsal recumbency maintained for >or=5 minutes) was determined; the onset of action, duration of dorsal recumbency, and duration of sedation associated with these treatments were evaluated. The efficacy of the reversal agents flumazenil, yohimbine, and atipamezole was also evaluated. In parakeets, intranasal administration of midazolam (7.3 mg/kg [3.32 mg/lb]) or detomidine (12 mg/kg [5.45 mg/lb]) caused adequate sedation within 2.7 and 3.5 minutes, respectively. Combinations of midazolam (3.65 mg/kg [1.66 mg/lb]) and xylazine (10 mg/kg [4.55 mg/lb]) with ketamine (40 to 50 mg/kg [18.2 to 22.7 mg/lb]) also achieved adequate sedation. Compared with detomidine, duration of dorsal recumbency was significantly longer with midazolam. Intranasal administration of flumazenil (0.13 mg/kg [0.06 mg/lb]) significantly decreased midazolam-associated recumbency time. Compared with the xylazineketamine combination, duration of dorsal recumbency was longer after midazolam-ketamine administration. Intranasal administration of flumazenil, yohimbine, or atipamezole significantly decreased the duration of sedation induced by midazolam, xylazine, or detomidine, respectively. Intranasal administration of sedative drugs appears to be an acceptable method of drug delivery in Ring-necked Parakeets. Reversal agents are also effective when administered via this route.

  3. Importance of structural stability to success of mourning dove nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, R.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of nest-site selection and nesting habitats often involve a "characterization" of nests and of habitats in which nests are found. Our objective in the present work is to identify nest-site characteristics that are associated with variation in components of Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) fitness (e.g. the probability of a nest succeeding), as opposed to simply "characterizing" dove nest sites. If certain nest- site characteristics affect the probability that a nest will succeed, then we suspect that these characteristics will be associated with either concealment (the probability of detection by certain predators) or structural stability (the probability of eggs or entire nests falling to the ground as a result of wind, rain storms, parental activity, etc.). Although other workers agree that structural stability is an important determinant of Mourning Dove nesting success (e.g. McClure 1944: 384; Woolfenden and Rohwer 1969: 59), we are aware of no actual tests of this hypothesis.

  4. 76 FR 38202 - Proposed Information Collection; Mourning Dove Call Count Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; Mourning Dove Call Count Survey AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... we gather accurate data on various characteristics of migratory bird populations. The Mourning Dove... determine the population status of the mourning dove. If this survey were not conducted, we would not be...

  5. Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk-Dove Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders; Neugebauer, Tibor; Schram, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field.......We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field....

  6. 50 CFR 20.103 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. 20.103 Section 20.103 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves and pigeons in the 48 contiguous United States. The mourning dove hunting...

  7. The Holy Spirit as Dove and as Tongues of Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the dove and the tongues of fire in Jørgen Gustava Brandt's hymn "Hør himmelsus i tredie time!" (Hear the rush from heaven at the third hour!) The following intertexts are included in the analysis: Acts 2:1-4; Gen 11:1-9, examples of fire as image of God in the Old Testament...

  8. Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Schulz, John H.; Jones, Susan B.; Mong, T.

    2003-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors. The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures (e.g., parallelism, recovery of exogenous corticosterone) to demonstrate that the assay accurately and precisely measured glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove fecal extracts. We conducted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids. Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately 2-3 hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH (1 IU per kg body mass). Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

  9. Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, D.P.; Otis, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

  10. Lack of developmental and reproductive toxicity of 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-105) in Ring-Necked Pheasants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, M.W.; Miller, L.; Goodman, B.; Melancon, M.J.; Peterson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Mono-ortho PCBs are global contaminants of wildlife with the potential to produce toxicity by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated mechanism. To determine the potency of 2,3,3',4,4'pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-105) for producing reproductive and developmental toxicity, adult ring-necked pheasant hens (Phasianus colchicus) were orally dosed with 0, 0.06, 0.6 or 6 mg PCB105/kg hen/week for 10 weeks to achieve cumulative doses of 0, 0.6, 6, or 60 mg PCB -105/hen after which hens were bred with untreated roosters once per week for 8 weeks. Except at week 6 of the egglaying period when cumulative egg production in the 6mg PCB 105/hen group was greater than controls, fertilized egg production was not significantly different between treatment groups. Embryo mortality and chick mortality were not significantly different between treatment groups. Total body and heart weights of all chicks 1 day posthatch (dph) were not different between groups, however liver weights of chicks from the 60mg/kg treatment groups were greater than controls at 1 dph. The first chick to hatch from each hen was reared to 21 dph and among these birds the total body, liver and heart weights were not different between groups. There were no dose-related malformations of the beak or limbs, and no signs of subcutaneous edema, ascites, or pericardial edema in chicks at 1 or 21 dph. Hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activities [ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), and methyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MROD)] were significantly elevated in chicks at 1 dph from hens given a cumulative PCB105 dose of 6 mg/kg and in chicks at 21 dph from hens given a cumulative PCB dose of 60 mg/kg. These results indicate that a cumulative PCB-105 dose up to 60 mg/kg hen does not decrease the production of fertilized eggs or increase embryo or chick mortality in ring-necked pheasants, but does increase chick hepatic monooxygenase activity.

  11. Landscape correlates along mourning dove call-count routes in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, R.D.; Vilella, F.J.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count surveys in Mississippi, USA, suggest declining populations. We used available mourning dove call-count data to evaluate long-term mourning dove habitat relationships. Dove routes were located in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Deep Loess Province, Mid Coastal Plain, and Hilly Coastal Plain physiographic provinces of Mississippi. We also included routes in the Blackbelt Prairie region of Mississippi and Alabama, USA. We characterized landscape structure and composition within 1.64-km buffers around 10 selected mourning dove call-count routes during 3 time periods. Habitat classes included agriculture, forest, urban, regeneration stands, wetland, and woodlot. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to select the best candidate model. We selected a model containing percent agriculture and edge density that contained approximately 40% of the total variability in the data set. Percent agriculture was positively correlated with relative dove abundance. Interestingly, we found a negative relationship between edge density and dove abundance. Researchers should conduct future research on dove nesting patterns in Mississippi and threshold levels of edge necessary to maximize dove density. During the last 20 years, Mississippi lost more than 800,000 ha of cropland while forest cover represented largely by pine (Pinus taeda) plantations increased by more than 364,000 ha. Our results suggest observed localized declines in mourning dove abundance in Mississippi may be related to the documented conversion of agricultural lands to pine plantations.

  12. Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of dove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2004-11-01

    Dove ovarian follicle is a complex structure composed of oocyte surrounded by a somatic compartment consisting of theca externa, theca interna and granulosa. The structure of ovarian follicle (1 and 2 mm) of dove was studied by electron microscopy. The granulosa was pseudostratified in the 1-mm-diameter follicles and stratified with two or three irregular rows of cells in the 2-mm-diameter follicles. In the larger follicle indentations between oocyte and granulosa cells become more numerous and the microvilli of granulosa cell elongated to form a zona radiata with similarly elongated oocyte microvilli. Lining bodies were present at the tips of granulosa microvilli and in the cortical region of the oocyte. In the oocyte cortex were observed coated pits, coated vesicles, dense tubules, multivesicular bodies and primordial yolk spheres. Primordial yolk spheres may contain lining bodies and were observed fused with dense tubules and multivesicular bodies or associated with smooth cisternae.

  13. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  14. Survival models for harvest management of mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative models of the relationship between annual survival and harvest rate of migratory game-bird populations are essential to science-based harvest management strategies. I used the best available band-recovery and harvest data for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) to build a set of models based on different assumptions about compensatory harvest mortality. Although these models suffer from lack of contemporary data, they can be used in development of an initial set of population models that synthesize existing demographic data on a management-unit scale, and serve as a tool for prioritization of population demographic information needs. Credible harvest management plans for mourning dove populations will require a long-term commitment to population monitoring and iterative population analysis.

  15. Upper digestive tract trichomoniasis in mourning doves and other birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, R.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    This paper, while partially a review of previously published reports from North America, presents many new records on the occurrence of Trichomonas gallinae in North American columbiform birds. Evidence is presented that the .infection is present throughout most of the United States and on occasion has reached epizootic proportions in mourning doves and band-tiled pigeons in isolated areas. An extensive epizootic is reported involving several thousand eastern mourning doves in the Southeastern States during the summer of 1950. Although probably the chief means of transmission is from. parent to offspring in columbiform birds (and the occurrence of infection in nestling mourning doves demonstrates that this mode of inoculation occurs) in severe epizootics there also is undoubtedly a transmission by contamination of water or food besides, or as well as, the parent to offspring transfers. When T. gallinae is implanted in clean pigeons it becomes evident that there is a variety of strains of the organisms and that they differ considerably in virulence. Some strains may kill almost every recipient, while others, though they readily infect, never produce the slightest discomfort or pathology. Nonlethal infections produce an immunity to all strains tested. In some cases, however, when these double-strain infections are further inoculated into. clean birds, the effects of either the nonlethal or the killing strain may predominate. The mechanism by which this virulence acts in the blrds is undoubtedly an important factor in determining the morbidity or mortality that may occur in a population. The prevalence of trichomoniasis in native pigeons and doves presents many practical as well as academic problems. Ultimate application of control measures, evenon an experimental basis, must await further knowledge of many more basic facts.

  16. Primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.; Amend, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of 8,141 adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in North and South Carolina revealed that substantial numbers complete primary feather molt in September. Adult mourning doves shed primaries at the rate of 1 per 14 days. No difference was found in this rate between sexes or among years, 1969-74. The initiation of molt differed from year to year, and female molt always preceded male molt. Available data show that southern doves complete primary molt a month earlier than northern doves. Therefore, age based on primary molt can be biased upward if all molt-complete wings from southern hunting samples are considered immature.

  17. Reward banding to determine reporting rate of recovered mourning dove bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    Reward bands placed on the other leg of certain regularly banded immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were used to develop information on reporting rates of recovered dove bands. Reports from 15 widely separated sections of the United States showed considerable variation in recovery rate of doves both with and without reward bands. The overall percentages of banded doves that were reported as recovered were 9.69% for those with reward bands and 3.83% for controls. The bandreporting rate for states influenced by publicity was 66%; that for states not influenced was 32%.

  18. Haemoproteus, a blood parasite, in domestic pigeons and mourning doves in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisley, J.O.; Herman, C.M.

    1967-01-01

    The occurrence of Haemoproteus in pigeons throughout the world and in mourning doves in the United States is reviewed. Haemoproteus has previously been reported only once from pigeons in Maryland. During this study it was found in all of 18 pigeons from one area but in none of 12 from an adjacent area. No infections were found in 90 Maryland mourning doves. All of the 10 mourning doves from Florida were infected whereas 60 nestlings from Texas and Mississippi had no parasites. None was found in 358 nestling white-winged doves from Texas.

  19. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Peterson, Markus J.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band

  20. Progress of primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, K.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Wight, H.M.

    1970-01-01

    The examination of 7,892 adult doves in Missouri between 1953 and 1965 showed that less than 2.5% of adult doves completed their molt before October 1. Adult doves of both sexes began molting their primary feathers during early June in Missouri and lost the last (tenth) primary during the latter half of October. Approximately 140-150 days were required to complete the molt. Thus, early-hatched immatures, which begin their primary molt 25-30 days after hatching, contributed the bulk of the wings with completed molts in September. By correctly classifying September samples of dove wings with a completed molt as young-of-the-year a more accurate young:adult ratio is obtained.

  1. Yue Joseph Wang named Grant A. Dove Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Yue Joseph Wang, professor of electrical and computer engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, has been named the Grant A. Dove Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  2. Spent shot availability and ingestion on areas managed for mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J.H.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Washburn, B.E.; Wester, G.R.; Lanigan, J. T.; Franson, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) hunting is becoming increasingly popular, especially in managed shooting fields. Given the possible increase in the availability of lead (Pb) shot on these areas, our objective was to estimate availability and ingestion of spent shot at the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area (EBCA, hunted with nontoxic shot) and the James A. Reed Memorial Wildlife Area (JARWA, hunted with Pb shot) in Missouri. During 1998, we collected soil samples one or 2 weeks prior to the hunting season (prehunt) and after 4 days of dove hunting (posthunt). We also collected information on number of doves harvested, number of shots fired, shotgun gauge, and shotshell size used. Dove carcasses were collected on both areas during 1998-99. At EBCA, 60 hunters deposited an estimated 64,775 pellets/ha of nontoxic shot on or around the managed field. At JARWA, approximately 1,086,275 pellets/ha of Pb shot were deposited by 728 hunters. Our posthunt estimates of spent-shot availability from soil sampling were 0 pellets/ha for EBCA and 6,342 pellets/ha for JARWA. Our findings suggest that existing soil sampling protocols may not provide accurate estimates of spent-shot availability in managed dove shooting fields. During 1998-99, 15 of 310 (4.8%) mourning doves collected from EBCA had ingested nontoxic shot. Of those doves, 6 (40.0%) contained a?Y7 shot pellets. In comparison, only 2 of 574 (0.3%) doves collected from JARWA had ingested Pb shot. Because a greater proportion of doves ingested multiple steel pellets compared to Pb pellets, we suggest that doves feeding in fields hunted with Pb shot may succumb to acute Pb toxicosis and thus become unavailable to harvest, resulting in an underestimate of ingestion rates. Although further research is needed to test this hypothesis, our findings may partially explain why previous studies have shown few doves with ingested Pb shot despite their feeding on areas with high Pb shot availability.

  3. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Changes in land use as a possible factor in Mourning Dove population decline in Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrand, William D.; Meyers, P.M.; Bissonette, J.A.; Conover, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) population indices for the western United States have declined significantly since 1966. Based on data collected in 1951-1952, in Fillmore, Utah, we examined whether there had been a local decline in the dove population index since the original data were collected. We then determined whether habitat had been altered, identified which foraging habitats doves preferred, and assessed whether changes in land use could be responsible, in part, for a decline in the local population index. We found that dove population indices declined 72% and 82% from 1952-1992 and 1952-1993, respectively. The most dramatic change in habitat was an 82% decline in land devoted to dry land winter wheat production and a decline in livestock feed pens. Doves foraged primarily in harvested wheat fields, feed pens, and weedy patches. We hypothesize that a decrease in wheat availability during the spring and the consolidation of the livestock industry have contributed to a population decline of Mourning Doves in central Utah.

  5. Calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves from harvest age ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Otis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined results from the first national-scale effort to estimate mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) age ratios and developed a simple, efficient, and generalizable methodology for calibrating estimates. Our method predicted age classes of unknown-age wings based on backward projection of molt distributions from fall harvest collections to preseason banding. We estimated 1) the proportion of late-molt individuals in each age class, and 2) the molt rates of juvenile and adult birds. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated our estimator was minimally biased. We estimated model parameters using 96,811 wings collected from hunters and 42,189 birds banded during preseason from 68 collection blocks in 22 states during the 2005–2007 hunting seasons. We also used estimates to derive a correction factor, based on latitude and longitude of samples, which can be applied to future surveys. We estimated differential vulnerability of age classes to harvest using data from banded birds and applied that to harvest age ratios to estimate population age ratios. Average, uncorrected age ratio of known-age wings for states that allow hunting was 2.25 (SD 0.85) juveniles:adult, and average, corrected ratio was 1.91 (SD 0.68), as determined from harvest age ratios from an independent sample of 41,084 wings collected from random hunters in 2007 and 2008. We used an independent estimate of differential vulnerability to adjust corrected harvest age ratios and estimated the average population age ratio as 1.45 (SD 0.52), a direct measure of recruitment rates. Average annual recruitment rates were highest east of the Mississippi River and in the northwestern United States, with lower rates between. Our results demonstrate a robust methodology for calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves and represent the first large-scale estimates of recruitment for the species. Our methods can be used by managers to correct future harvest survey data to generate recruitment estimates for use in

  6. Streptopelia senegalensis (Linn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subsequent to the introduction of agricultural pesticides in southern Africa. Although no ... control the sale and use of, amongst others, pesticides. By. 1961 the following ..... Studies of the global baseline pollution. Fresenius' Z. Anal. Chem.

  7. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Skow, Kevin L.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Snelgrove, Robert T.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  8. Evaluating call-count procedures for measuring local mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, M.J.; Baskett, T.S.; Goforth, W.R.; Sadler, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    Seventy-nine mourning dove call-count runs were made on a 32-km route in Osage County, Missouri, May 1-August 31, 1971 and 1972. Circular study areas, each 61 ha, surrounding stop numbers 4 and 5, were delineated for intensive nest searches and population estimates. Tallies of cooing male doves along the entire call-count route were quite variable in repeated runs, fluctuating as much as 50 percent on consecutive days. There were no consistent relationships between numbers of cooing males tallied at stops 4 and 5 and the numbers of current nests or doves estimated to be present in the surrounding study areas. We doubt the suitability of call-count procedures to estimate precisely the densities of breeding pairs, nests or production of doves on small areas. Our findings do not dispute the usefulness of the national call-count survey as an index to relative densities of mourning doves during the breeding season over large portions of the United States, or as an index to annual population trends.

  9. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-04-25

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Functional morphology and seed anatomy of the invasive weed, benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis): Implications for dispersal by mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghal dayflower (BD) is an exotic weed that reduces yields in many agricultural crops. Potential dispersal of this weed by migratory Mourning doves was investigated in this study. Evidence shows that doves feed on BD seeds, with some birds containing hundreds of seeds. Seeds extracted from harvest...

  11. Resistance of Benghal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) Seeds to Harsh Environments and the Implications for Dispersal by Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) in Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential dispersal of Benghal dayflower seeds by mourning doves was studied in southern Georgia, U.S.A. The gut contents (both crop and gizzard) of mourning doves harvested in the autumn months were investigated to determine if mourning doves fed on Benghal dayflower and whether seeds can surv...

  12. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  13. Nesting characteristics of mourning doves in central New Mexico: Response to riparian forest change

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2012-01-01

    Riparian forests of the American Southwest are especially prone to changes in composition and structure due to natural and anthropogenic factors. To determine how breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) respond to these changes, we examined nest site use and nest survival in control plots, fuel reduction plots before and after mechanical thinning, and post-wildfire...

  14. Mourning dove ( Zenaida macroura) wing-whistles may contain threat-related information for con- and hetero-specifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth W.

    2008-10-01

    Distinct acoustic whistles are associated with the wing-beats of many doves, and are especially noticeable when doves ascend from the ground when startled. I thus hypothesized that these sounds may be used by flock-mates as cues of potential danger. To test this hypothesis, I compared the responses of mourning doves ( Zenaida macroura), northern cardinals ( Cardinalis cardinalis), and house sparrows ( Passer domesticus) to audio playbacks of dove ‘startle wing-whistles’, cardinal alarm calls, dove ‘nonstartle wing-whistles’, and sparrow ‘social chatter’. Following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls, conspecifics and heterospecifics startled and increased vigilance more than after playbacks of other sounds. Also, the latency to return to feeding was greater following playbacks of startle wing-whistles and alarm calls than following playbacks of other sounds. These results suggest that both conspecifics and heterospecifics may attend to dove wing-whistles in decisions related to antipredator behaviors. Whether the sounds of dove wing-whistles are intentionally produced signals warrants further testing.

  15. Efeitos anestésicos da administração intranasal ou intramuscular de cetamina S+ e midazolam em pomba-rola (Streptotelia sp. Anesthetic effects of intranasal or intramuscular administration of S+ Ketamine and Midazolam in ring necked dove (Streptotelia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane L. Beier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A via intranasal é uma boa alternativa por ser indolor e de fácil aplicação em aves. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos anestésicos da associação de cetamina S+ e midazolam pela via intranasal (IN em comparação com a via intramuscular (IM em pombos. Foram utilizados 12 pombos alocados em dois grupos com 15 dias de intervalo, os quais receberam: grupo IM: 20 mg/kg de cetamina S+ associada a 3,5 mg/kg de midazolam pela via intramuscular (musculatura do peito; e grupo IN, mesmo protocolo, porém, pela via intranasal. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: período de latência, tempo de duração em decúbito dorsal, tempo total de anestesia, tempo de recuperação e efeitos adversos. Para a análise estatística, empregou-se o teste de Wilcoxon, com as diferenças consideradas significativas quando PThe intranasal route is a good alternative because is painless and easy to perform in birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic effects of S+ ketamine and midazolam administered by intranasal or intramuscular route in pigeons. Twelve animals were used in a randomized and crossover design. Animals received two treatments with 2-weeks interval. IM group: animals received 20mg/kg of S+ ketamine and 3.5mg/kg of midazolam by intramuscular route (pectoral muscles; IN group: animals received the same protocol by intranasal route. Parameters evaluated were: onset of action, time of duration in dorsal recumbency; total time of anesthesia and side effects. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon test and the differences were considered significant when P<0.05. Onset of action was 30 [30-47.5] and 40 [30-50] seconds for IM and IN respectively. Time of duration in dorsal recumbency was 59 [53.25-65] and 63 [37-71.25] minutes for IM and IN respectively, without significant differences between treatments. Total time of anesthesia was 88 [86.25-94.5] and 68 [53.5-93] minutes for IM and IN, respectively, with significant difference between groups. The recovery time was lower for IN (15[4.25-19.5] minutes compared with IM (32 [28.25-38.25] minutes. Two animals of each group presented regurgitation in the recovery period. It was concluded that S+ ketamine and midazolam administered intranasal is an acceptable method of drug delivery and can be used to promote anesthesia in pigeons.

  16. Mourning dove hunting regulation strategy based on annual harvest statistics and banding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Although managers should strive to base game bird harvest management strategies on mechanistic population models, monitoring programs required to build and continuously update these models may not be in place. Alternatively, If estimates of total harvest and harvest rates are available, then population estimates derived from these harvest data can serve as the basis for making hunting regulation decisions based on population growth rates derived from these estimates. I present a statistically rigorous approach for regulation decision-making using a hypothesis-testing framework and an assumed framework of 3 hunting regulation alternatives. I illustrate and evaluate the technique with historical data on the mid-continent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population. I evaluate the statistical properties of the hypothesis-testing framework using the best available data on mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). I use these results to discuss practical implementation of the technique as an interim harvest strategy for mourning doves until reliable mechanistic population models and associated monitoring programs are developed.

  17. RELIGIOUS SEARCH AND SECTARIAN UTOPIA IN ANDREY BELY'S NOVEL "THE SILVER DOVE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolikhalova N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Andrey Bely's novel "The Silver Dove" in the context of his religious, spiritual and artistic search during 1905–1907. Analysis of the novel's architectonics reveals both Christian and occult motifs and images. The main character's denial of sectarian utopia based on the "spiritualization of flesh" concept, as well as his inner self-crucifixion (confession of guilt brings positive outlook to the ending of the novel.

  18. Fungal Diversity in a Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystem (DOVE on Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Staudigel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumarolic Ice caves on Antarctica’s Mt. Erebus contain a dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystem (DOVE and represent a deep biosphere habitat that can provide insight into microbial communities that utilize energy sources other than photosynthesis. The community assembly and role of fungi in these environments remains largely unknown. However, these habitats could be relatively easily contaminated during human visits. Sixty-one species of fungi were identified from soil clone libraries originating from Warren Cave, a DOVE on Mt. Erebus. The species diversity was greater than has been found in the nearby McMurdo Dry Valleys oligotrophic soil. A relatively large proportion of the clones represented Malassezia species (37% of Basidomycota identified. These fungi are associated with skin surfaces of animals and require high lipid content for growth, indicating that contamination may have occurred through the few and episodic human visits in this particular cave. These findings highlight the importance of fungi to DOVE environments as well as their potential use for identifying contamination by humans. The latter offers compelling evidence suggesting more strict management of these valuable research areas.

  19. Mourning dove population trend estimates from Call-Count and North American Breeding Bird Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Dolton, D.D.; Droege, S.

    1994-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) Callcount Survey and the North American Breeding Bird Survey provide information on population trends of mourning doves throughout the continental United States. Because surveys are an integral part of the development of hunting regulations, a need exists to determine which survey provides precise information. We estimated population trends from 1966 to 1988 by state and dove management unit, and assessed the relative efficiency of each survey. Estimates of population trend differ (P lt 0.05) between surveys in 11 of 48 states; 9 of 11 states with divergent results occur in the Eastern Management Unit. Differences were probably a consequence of smaller sample sizes in the Callcount Survey. The Breeding Bird Survey generally provided trend estimates with smaller variances than did the Callcount Survey. Although the Callcount Survey probably provides more withinroute accuracy because of survey methods and timing, the Breeding Bird Survey has a larger sample size of survey routes and greater consistency of coverage in the Eastern Unit.

  20. Domestic Violence Enhanced Perinatal Home Visits: The DOVE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Phyllis W; Bullock, Linda F; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Alhusen, Jeanne L; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Bhandari, Shreya S; Schminkey, Donna L

    2016-11-01

    Perinatal intimate partner violence (IPV) is common and has significant negative health outcomes for mothers and infants. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an IPV intervention in reducing violence among abused women in perinatal home visiting programs. This assessor-blinded multisite randomized control trial of 239 women experiencing perinatal IPV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in U.S. urban and rural settings. The Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program (DOVE) intervention group (n = 124) received a structured abuse assessment and six home visitor-delivered empowerment sessions integrated into home visits. All participants were screened for IPV and referred appropriately. IPV was measured by the Conflicts Tactics Scale2 at baseline through 24 months postpartum. There was a significant decrease in IPV over time (F = 114.23; p < 0.001) from baseline to 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum (all p < 0.001). Additional models examining change in IPV from baseline indicated a significant treatment effect (F = 6.45; p < 0.01). Women in the DOVE treatment group reported a larger mean decrease in IPV scores from baseline compared to women in the usual care group (mean decline 40.82 vs. 35.87). All models accounted for age and maternal depression as covariates. The DOVE intervention was effective in decreasing IPV and is brief, thereby facilitating its incorporation within well-woman and well-child care visits, as well as home visiting programs, while satisfying recommendations set forth in the Affordable Care Act for IPV screening and brief counseling.

  1. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  2. The Hawk-Dove game in phenotypically homogeneous and heterogeneous populations of finite dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laruelle, Annick; da Silva Rocha, André Barreira; Escobedo, Ramón

    2018-02-01

    The Hawk-Dove game played between individuals in populations of finite dimension is analyzed by means of a stochastic model. We take into account both cases when all individuals in the population are either phenotypically homogeneous or heterogeneous. A strategy in the model is a gene representing the probability of playing the Hawk strategy. Individual interactions at the microscopic level are described by a genetic algorithm where evolution results from the interplay among selection, mutation, drift and cross-over of genes. We show that the behavioral patterns observed at the macroscopic level can be reproduced as the emergent result of individual interactions governed by the rules of the Hawk-Dove game at the microscopic level. We study how the results of the genetic algorithm compare with those obtained in evolutionary game theory, finding that, although genes continuously change both their presence and frequency in the population over time, the population average behavior always achieves stationarity and, when this happens, the final average strategy played in the population oscillates around the evolutionarily stable strategy in the homogeneous population case or the neutrally stable set in the heterogeneous population case.

  3. Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove (Columba livia) flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of 367 individually marked birds, 311 were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was 87.1% and was not significantly different than a hypothesized 90% site faithful distribution. Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was 91.3%, which was also not significantly different than a 90% distribution. Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found 107 birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock.

  4. Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove (Columba livia) flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of 367 individually marked birds, 311 were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was 87.1% and was not significantly different than a hypothesized 90% site faithful distribution. Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was 91.3%, which was also not significantly different than a 90% distribution. Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found 107 birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock

  5. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict : Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, Pranjal H.; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M.; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove

  6. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  7. A comparison of the nesting success of mourning doves and American robins in conventionally managed and organic orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to document more closely the effects of operational pesticide use on non-target avian species. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) nesting activity was monitored in three organic and three conventional orchards during two breeding seasons. Surveys were conducted to characterize the avian community within orchards under both management practices. Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides, known to be extremely toxic to birds, were repeatedly sprayed during the peaks in dove and robin breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 85.5% of the nests tested during routine spray operations. The threat of direct pesticide exposure to eggs, nestlings, and adult birds was considerable. Nest daily survival rates (DSRs) for both doves and robins, were significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards in 1991 and years combined (P < 0.05). Species diversity was significantly greater in the organic orchards (H = 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H = 1.79). Results suggest that repeated applications of pesticides, within the conventional orchards, directly or indirectly, affected the reproductive success of doves and robins, as well as influenced species diversity within the treated orchards. Organic orchards appear to provide more favorable nesting and foraging habitat for birds than conventional orchards.

  8. Intestinal Helminths in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) from Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.A.; Franson, J.C.; Kinsella, J.M.; Hollmen, T.; Hansen, S.P.; Hollmen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined 115 hunter-killed mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) from 4 states (Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.) in 1998 and 1999 to investigate geographical variation in the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections. Four intestinal helminth species were identified: Killigrewia delafondi, Ornithostrongylus crami, Ascaridia columbae, and Capillaria obsignata. The number of worms (all helminth species combined) per infected bird ranged from 1 to 166 (mean ± SE = 12.7 ± 7.45, median = 2.0). Filarids. Aproctella stoddardi, were found in 2 birds but were probably adhering to the outside of the intestine. Overall, 18% of the doves were infected with 1 or more species of helminths. The percentage of doves infected with at least 1 helminth species varied from 4% in Arizona to 27% in South Carolina. Mixed infections occurred in only 3 individuals (14% of infected birds). We found no significant differences in prevalence of infection among any of the 4 helminths by host age or sex, and prevalences were too low to test for differences among states. The intensity of O. crami was higher in males than in females but did not differ significantly among states. Intensities of the other 3 helminths did not differ by sex or state, and we found no differences in helminth intensity by age. Intestinal length was significantly greater in infected than in uninfected birds.

  9. Preliminary Surficial Geology of the Dove Spring Off-Highway Vehicle Open Area, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Amoroso, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Introduction As part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring plan to evaluate the environmental impact of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land in California, this report presents results of geologic studies in the Dove Spring OHV Open Area. This study produced baseline data, which when combined with historic and current patterns of land use, forms the basis for vegetation and wildlife monitoring designed to address the following questions: 1. Is the density and length of OHV routes increasing? 2. Are there cumulative effects of past and current OHV use associated with changes in the environmental integrity of soils, plants, and wildlife? 3. Is the spread of invasive species associated with levels of OHV use? 4. Is there a threshold of OHV impact that might be translated to management action by the BLM? The monitoring studies will be used to collect baseline environmental information to determine levels of environmental impact of OHV use. This approach will use a low-impact area as a proxy for pre-impact conditions (substituting space for time) to determine thresholds of OHV impacts beyond which environmental integrity is affected. Indicators of environmental integrity will emphasize factors that are fundamental to ecosystem structure and function and likely to be sensitive to OHV impacts. Surficial geology is studied because material properties such as texture and chemistry strongly control soil moisture and nutrient availability and therefore affect plant growth and distribution. An understanding of surficial geology can be used to predict and extrapolate soil properties and improve understanding of vegetation assemblages and their distribution. In the present study, vegetation associations may be examined as a function of surficial geology as well as other environmental variables such as slope, aspect, NRCS (National Resources Conservation Service) soil classification, elevation, and land-use history. Ground measurements of

  10. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  11. The role of dopamine in the timing of Pavlovian conditioned keypecking in ring doves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, T; Horvitz, J C; Kitsos, E; Balsam, P D

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dopaminergic drugs on the timing of conditioned keypecking in ring doves was studied in two experiments. Subjects were given pairings of a keylight with food and the temporal distribution of keypecks was obtained during unreinforced probe trials. Experiment 1 demonstrated that injections of pimozide before each session immediately decreased response rates but shifted timing distributions gradually to the right over several days of treatment. Experiment 2 showed similar results using a longer interstimulus interval (ISI). No shifts were observed when the drug was injected after training sessions, or when a delay, identical to each subject's average latency to eat during the drug condition, was inserted between keylight offset and food presentation. Consequently, the shifts in timing were mediated neither by mere accumulation of the drug nor a delay from keylight offset to food presentation resulting from the drug's ability to slow motor processes. The results suggest that pimozide modulates response rate through its effect on motor processes or incentive value, and response timing through a conditioned response (CR) to injection-related cues established via their repeated pairings with the drug.

  12. Assessment of the Potential Role of Tryptophan as the Precursor of Serotonin and Melatonin for the Aged Sleep-wake Cycle and Immune Function: Streptopelia Risoria as a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Paredes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review we summarize the relationship between the amino acid, tryptophan, the neurotransmitter, serotonin, and the indole, melatonin, with the rhythms of sleep/wake and the immune response along with the possible connections between the alterations in these rhythms due to aging and the so-called “serotonin and melatonin deficiency state.” The decrease associated with aging of the brain and circulating levels of serotonin and melatonin seemingly contributes to the alterations of both the sleep/wake cycle and the immune response that typically accompany old age. The supplemental administration of tryptophan, e.g. the inclusion of tryptophan-enriched food in the diet, might help to remediate these age- related alterations due to its capacity of raise the serotonin and melatonin levels in the brain and blood. Herein, we also summarize a set of studies related to the potential role that tryptophan, and its derived product melatonin, may play in the restoration of the aged circadian rhythms of sleep/wake and immune response, taking the ringdove (Streptopelia risoria as a suitable model.

  13. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of hemosporidian parasites in birds of Socorro Island, México, and their role in the re-introduction of the Socorro dove (Zenaida graysoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenny S; Martínez-Gómez, Juan E; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Loiseau, Claire; Bell, Douglas A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2013-04-01

    The Socorro dove Zenaida graysoni , endemic to Socorro Island, was last reported in the wild in 1972. Fortunately, the species has been propagated in zoos in Europe and the United States, and plans are under way to re-introduce it to its native habitat. This will be the first known attempt to return a bird species extinct in the wild to its ancestral island. In order to assess the disease threats the Socorro dove may face, the avifauna of Socorro Island, with a specific focus on Socorro ground doves Columbina passerina socorroensis and mourning doves Zenaida macroura , as well as Socorro doves in captivity, were screened for blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium , Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma spp. We found Haemoproteus spp. in 17 (74%) of 23 Socorro ground doves, 23 (92%) of 25 mourning doves, and 3 (14%) of 21 northern mockingbirds; none of the other bird species showed infections. Here, we report the phylogenetic analysis of 19 distinct lineages of Haemoproteus spp. detected in birds of Socorro Island and compare their evolutionary relationships to parasites detected in the avifauna of the Galápagos Islands, continental Latin America, and Europe. Microscopic examination revealed 1 mourning dove infected with Plasmodium ( Haemamoeba ), thus underscoring the importance of using both PCR and microscopy when analyzing avian blood samples for hemosporidian parasites. The study confirms that the Socorro dove will most likely be exposed to Haemoproteus spp. that currently infect mourning doves and Socorro ground doves of Socorro Island. A monitoring program for both birds and vectors should be implemented to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium sp. and as a necessary conservation measure for critically endangered birds on the island.

  14. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off (status differentiation). The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy (status confrontation). Ninety-eight undergraduate students (42 men) provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk-dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player. Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: basal testosterone was positively related to satisfaction in the game among low basal-cortisol individuals but not among high basal-cortisol individuals. There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level. Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Cézilly, Frank; Moreau, Jérôme; Motreuil, Sébastien; Wattier, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  16. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Monceau

    Full Text Available Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA. Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados. Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  17. Ultrastructural characterization of the pulmonary cellular defences in the lung of a bird, the rock dove, Columba livia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, J. N.; Cowley, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Free (surface) avian respiratory macrophages (FARMs) were harvested by lavage of the lung/air-sac system of the rock dove, Columba livia. The presence of FARMs in the atria and infundibula was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The respiratory system has developed several cellular defence lines that include surface macrophages, epithelial, subepithelial and interstitial phagocytes, and pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Hence, C. livia appears to have a multiple pulmonary cellular protective armoury. Ultrastructurally, the FARMs and the PIMs were similar to the corresponding cells of mammals. The purported high susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases, a state that has largely been deduced from morbidities and mortalities of commercial birds, and which has chiefly been attributed to paucity of the FARMs, is not supported by the present observations.

  18. A Dragon and a Dove? A Comparative Overview of Chinese and European Trade Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s footprint in African trade grows larger by the day, the need to contextualize this rise through comparative analysis becomes ever more necessary. This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: those of a dragon and a dove. The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: the policies and institutional mechanisms that shape the relationship; the composition of the trade flows; the geographic distribution of trade dominance; and the influence of norms and values on the trade pattern. It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

  19. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  20. Effects of dietary methylmercury on ring-necked pheasants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fimreite, N

    1971-01-01

    The effects of methylmercury-treated grain (methylmercury dicyandiamide) on penned pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were studied. No weight reduction in the adult birds could be ascribed to the mercury compound. Compared to the controls, mortality was lower than average in the groups that received a mercury-contaminated diet throughout the experiment, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect of mercury. Food consumption was affected only in the group that received the largest amounts of mercury. Some of the hens receiving the greatest amounts of mercury exhibited extensive demyelination of the spinal cord. Strong adverse effects on reproduction were found: the most important indication was reduced hatchability, followed by a reduced egg production and a large number of shell-less eggs. Chick survival was comparatively less affected. Egg weight was reduced significantly in most of the experimental groups, especially during the last weeks of the experiment, and the highest mercury levels produced a large number of eggs with abnormal color. 16 references, 8 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Re-analysis of a banding study to test the effects of an experimental increase in bag limits of mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1966-1971, eastern US states with hunting seasons on mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) participated in a study designed to estimate the effects of bag limit increases on population survival rates. More than 400 000 adult and juvenile birds were banded and released during this period, and subsequent harvest and return of bands, together with total harvest estimates from mail and telephone surveys of hunters, provided the database for analysis. The original analysis used an ANOVA framework, and resulted in inferences of no effect of bag limit increase on population parameters (Hayne 1975). We used a logistic regression analysis to infer that the bag limit increase did not cause a biologically significant increase in harvest rate and thus the experiment could not provide any insight into the relationship between harvest and annual survival rates. Harvest rate estimates of breeding populations from geographical subregions were used as covariates in a Program MARK analysis and revealed an association between annual survival and harvest rates, although this relationship is potentially confounded by a latitudinal gradient in survival rates of dove populations. We discuss methodological problems encountered in the analysis of these data, and provide recommendations for future studies of the relationship between harvest and annual survival rates of mourning dove populations.

  2. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, mercury, and PCB's in mourning doves from eastern United States--1970-71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) breast muscle samples from birds collected in 1970-71 from Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Florida were found to contain residues of DDT, DDE, DDD, polychlorinated biphenyls, dieldrin, mirex, mercury, and heptachlor epoxide in amounts not considered hazardous to consumers, human or nonhuman. There were 145 birds involved, 7 to 10 from each State. Residues of DDT plus DDE plus DDD averaged 5.83 ppm lipid weight (0.068 ppm wet weight); those of PCB's, 9.75 ppm lipid weight (0.121 ppm wet weight); compounds were found in all birds. Heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin were found in little more than trace amounts: heptachlor in all birds, dieldrin in 73. Mirex was found only in birds from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, averaging 4.32 ppm lipid weight (0.046 ppm wet weight) in eight birds. Less than 0.05 ppm (wet weight) mercury was found in all birds except 10, in which it ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 ppm. The 10 were from Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama.

  3. E ora dove?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.E. GOODHART

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The author is one of the UK's eminent monetary economists and a member of the UK's Monetary Policy Committee. After summarising his early academic career, he discusses his time at the Bank of England and the formation of UK monetary policy. This leads on to a survey of his later experiences in returning to academia and his analysis of foreign exchange markets and central bank autonomy. The movements of foreign exchange markets have been thought to react upon the arrival of news concerning changes in monetary policy. However, close examination of the US forex market does not show any significant fluctuations in reaction to particular news disclosures. Economic news with pre-announced release dates have been proven to produce jumps in volatility within minutes of disclosure. The use of high frequency data at given intervals has been shown to produce price spikes and subsidence after a few minutes.  JEL Codes: E02, F31Keywords: Market fluctuations, Economic news, Volatility, Foreign exchange markets

  4. Escherichia coli and Salmonella ser. Saintpaul natural co-infection in a free-living ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G.A. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports a co-infection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in a free-living ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti received at the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies of the State University of Ceará, Brazil. The bird presented diarrhea, leg paralysis and anorexia, and died shortly after. Necropsy was then performed and samples from lung, kidney, liver and intestine were collected for microbiological and histopathological analyses. Escherichia coli was isolated from cloacal swab, lung and kidney samples. Salmonella ser. Saintpaul was identified in liver and spleen samples. Escherichia coli isolates were tested for the presence of eight diagnostic genes for diarrheagenic pathotypes (STEC, ETEC, EPEC, EIEC, EAEC with conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR. EAEC was detected in the lung and kidney, and STEC in the intestine. In conclusion, Columbina talpacoti is susceptible to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Salmonella ser. Saintpaul infection, which may have public health implications.

  5. Family Common Name Scientific name Main food Main Guild Beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICKSON

    Spur-winged Plover, Vanellus spinosus, crustaceans, insects, worms, Invertebrate, 1.38, 0.6, 3.4, 0.59, RES. Kittlits Plover, Charadrius ... Great Snipe, Gallinago media, crustaceans, worms, insects, Invertebrate, 0.34, PM. Common ... Red-eyed Dove, Streptopelia semitorquata, seeds, grains, Granivore, 1.38, 0.62, 0.59, RES.

  6. The influence of vegetation structure on bird communities in a Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest species nesting in gardens during this study was the Cape Sparrow (Passer melanurus), followed by the Laughing Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Greater Striped Swallow (Hirundo cucullata). Bar-throated Apalis (Apalis thoracica), Namaqua Warbler (Phragmacia substriata), Fiscal Flycatcher ...

  7. Modelling bird songs: Voice onset, overtones and registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaccarelli, R.; Elemans, C.P.H.; Fitch, W.T.; Herzel, H.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze two symmetric two-mass models of the avian syrinx. Our first model applies to songbirds and is a rescaled version of the well-known human two-mass model. Our second model (trapezoidal model) introduces a smoother geometry and is used to simulate the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria)

  8. A survey of avifauna and vegetation communities in Hadejia-Nguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two globally threatened species namely, European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur) and Pallid harrier (Circus macrourus) were also recorded. Results showed that neither vegetation diversity nor density correlated with bird diversity nor density in both PAs and UPAs (p > 0.05), suggesting that there could be other factors ...

  9. Science rushes to dove's service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2003-01-01

    Sesame is a project of transfer of the BESSY-1 synchrotron from Berlin (Germany) to Jordan with the aim of starting a scientific cooperation among the researchers of the Middle-East area. The goal is to generate some scientific, technological and economical fallout in this region which has suffered the Israel-Arab conflict. This synchrotron radiation facility will find applications in various domains: medicine, mechanics, archaeology, environment etc.. (J.S.)

  10. Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Al-Bakry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.

  11. Return to Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  12. Composizione e improvvisazione: dove sta la differenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Goldoni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Improvisation is often conceived as making music without reading a score. This interpretation derives from the Western identification of composition with written music. But “improvisation” too is a form of composition – and not just in “real time” – with aims and criteria that differ from those of written music. Today the interest in improvisation is growing –and even changing with respect to the postwar years – in connection with changes in music, sound and social relationships, reflecting new media developments.

  13. Feather and nest mites of two common resident birds in two ecologically different Egyptian governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Mazyad, S A; Younis, M S

    1999-08-01

    The study of the role played by birds in the distribution of various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections is increasingly from year to year, taking into consideration the flying ability of birds and their migration for food and vital processes. Two of the common Egyptian resident birds, house sparrow (Passer d. niloticus) and laughing dove (Streptopelia s. aegyptiaca) were chosen to study their mite fauna. The overall mite index was 4.74 on the house sparrow and 7.22 on the laughing dove. As to mites, a total of 31 species belonging to 23 genera, 17 families and 3 suborders were collected. The common mites on both types of birds were 22 species. Three species only on house sparrow, and six species only on laughing dove. The house sparrow served host for 25 mite species and the laughing dove served host for 28 mite species. The infestation rates of mites on house sparrow ranged between 1.11% to 23.33% and 0.21% to 34.54% in Sharkia and Qalyobia governorates respectively. For laughing dove, the mite infestation rates ranged between 0.82% to 50% and 3.45% to 55.17% for both governorates respectively. Some of the collected mites have medical and/or veterinary importance. The whole results were discussed.

  14. Systematic and pathologic study of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae infestation in ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811 Estudo da sistemática e da patologia de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae em rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Pinto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai infestation in a ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti, captured in a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although with a low prevalence (10%, the intensity of infection was high, considering that 116 worms were recovered from one of the kidneys. Gross lesions were not observed and histopathological analysis showed very dilated renal collecting ducts with destruction and flattening of the lining epithelial cells, without inflammatory reaction. The pathological findings were compared to those previously reported for P. bragai in other hosts, since the proposal of the species in 1934.O trematódeo digenético Paratanaisia bragai é referido pela primeira vez parasitando a rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti, proveniente de área suburbana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Embora com baixa prevalência (10%, a intensidade de infecção foi alta, considerando que 116 exemplares do parasito foram obtidos de um dos rins. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas. A análise histopatológica demonstrou grande dilatação dos dutos coletores renais, com destruição e achatamento das células epiteliais de revestimento, sem reação inflamatória. Os achados patológicos foram comparados aos anteriormente relatados para P. bragai em outros hospedeiros, desde a proposição da espécie em 1934.

  15. Convergent Evolution of Head Crests in Two Domesticated Columbids Is Associated with Different Missense Mutations in EphB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickrey, Anna I.; Domyan, Eric T.; Horvath, Martin P.; Shapiro, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Head crests are important display structures in wild bird species and are also common in domesticated lineages. Many breeds of domestic rock pigeon (Columba livia) have crests of reversed occipital feathers, and this recessive trait is associated with a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of EphB2 (Ephrin receptor B2). The domestic ringneck dove (Streptopelia risoria) also has a recessive crested morph with reversed occipital feathers, and interspecific crosses between crested doves and pigeons produce crested offspring, suggesting a similar genetic basis for this trait in both species. We therefore investigated EphB2 as a candidate for the head crest phenotype of ringneck doves and identified a nonsynonymous coding mutation in the intracellular kinase domain that is significantly associated with the crested morph. This mutation is over 100 amino acid positions away from the crest mutation found in rock pigeons, yet both mutations are predicted to negatively affect the function of ATP-binding pocket. Furthermore, bacterial toxicity assays suggest that “crest” mutations in both species severely impact kinase activity. We conclude that head crests are associated with different mutations in the same functional domain of the same gene in two different columbid species, thereby representing striking evolutionary convergence in morphology and molecules. PMID:26104009

  16. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in birds from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Radka; Kobédová, Kateřina; Halajian, Ali; Bártová, Eva; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Rampedi, Kgethedi Michael; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2018-02-01

    There are not any records on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of wild birds in the African continent. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DNA from these protozoan parasites in brain tissue samples collected in years 2014-2015 from 110 wild and domestic birds of 15 orders. Birds came mainly from the province of Limpopo (n=103); the other seven birds came from other five provinces of South Africa. Parasite DNAs were detected by PCR in animal brains. While all samples were negative for N. caninum, T. gondii DNA was detected in three (2.7%) birds: a Red-eyed Dove (Streptopelia semitorquata), a Laughing Dove (S. senegalensis) and a Southern-Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus leucomelas), all from Limpopo province. Positive samples were selected for genotyping by a 15 microsatellite markers method in a single multiplex PCR assay. Only the sample from the Red-eyed Dove was successfully genotyped and characterized as type II. This is the first detection of T. gondii in tissue of native African wild birds and the first study focusing on N. caninum in birds from South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Temporal specificity of extinction in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael R; Yang, Cynthia; Ohyama, Tatsuya; Balsam, Peter D

    2004-07-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of varying the conditioned stimulus (CS) duration between training and extinction. Ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) were autoshaped on a fixed CS-unconditioned stimulus (US) interval and extinguished with CS presentations that were longer, shorter, or the same as the training duration. During a subsequent test session, the training CS duration was reintroduced. Results suggest that the cessation of responding during an extinction session is controlled by generalization of excitation between the training and extinction CSs and by the number of nonreinforced CS presentations. Transfer of extinction to the training CS is controlled by the similarity between the extinction and training CSs. Extinction learning is temporally specific. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  19. Nest-niche differentiation in two sympatric columbid species from a Mediterranean Tetraclinis woodland: Considerations for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanane, Saâd; Yassin, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Studies of niche partitioning among Columbid species have mainly addressed food habits and foraging activities, while partitioning in relation to nest-niche differentiation has been little studied. Here we investigate whether two sympatric columbid species-Woodpigeon (Columba palumbus) and Turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur)-occupy similar niches. A total of 74 nests were monitored: 37 nests for each species. The study, conducted in June 2016, attempted to determine the factors that may play a role in nest-niche differentiation among the two sympatric columbid species in a Moroccan Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) forest. We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to test the relevance of nest placement, proximity of food resources, forest edge and human presence variables in the nest distribution of the two species. The results show substantial niche segregation in the T. articulata nest-trees selected by Woodpigeons and Turtle doves, with selection depending primarily on the tree size and nest height. Observed nest-niche partitioning may diminish the potential for competition between these species and enhance opportunities for their coexistence. Management policies and practices aimed at ensuring the presence of mixed-sized class of Thuya trees must be prioritized. We recommend additional studies designed to: (1) reproduce the same experimental approach on other Mediterranean Thuya forests to improve our understanding of the effects of different levels of anthropogenic disturbance on the breeding behaviour of these two game species; (2) better understand the spatio-temporal dynamics of Woodpigeon and Turtle dove coexistence in the region; and (3) better identify the spatio-temporal extent of the effect of forest management on Woodpigeon and Turtle dove site occupancy.

  20. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  1. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  2. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  3. ХЛОПЧИК ІЗ ГОЛУБОМ НА ПЛЕЧІ: ДИТИНСТВО ТА ЮНІСТЬ ОСТАПА ВИШНІ / THE BOY WITH THE DOVE ON HIS SHOULDER: CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH OF OSTAPVYSHNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслана СЛУХЕНСЬКА

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Слухенская Руслана. Мальчик с голубем на плече: детство и юность Остапа Вишни. Украинский юмор особый, он граничит с жанрами трагедии. Ярким примером трагикомедии есть жизнь и творчество выдающегося, наиболее известного и уважаемого в народе украинского юмориста ΧΧ века Остапа Вишни. Актуальность статьи выражается тем, что постколониальное литературоведение и история литературы переживают волну просмотров советского периода. Это открывает новый своеобразный дискурс литературы и писателей как ее создателей, где поступки и тексты следует „считывать” между строк и действий. Ключевые слова: Остап Вишня, юмор, советская система, биография, детство, юность. Sluhenska Ruslana. The boy with the dove on his shoulder: childhood and youth of OstapVyshnya. Ukrainian humor is a particular genre, it resembles tragedy. A striking example of the tragicomedy is life and work of OstapVyshnya – the most outstanding, and the most famous Ukrainian humorist of the ΧΧ century respected by the people. The importance of the article is reflected in the hit wave of revision and reinterpretation of the post-colonial Soviet literary criticism, literary history, and the literature. This opens a new kind of discourse of literature full of suggestions and writers as its creators, where the works and texts should be „read” between lines and actions, where the surviving artists attempted to squeeze through the

  4. The Dove and the Devil: Religion and War from the Mideast to the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    core religious beliefs that directly conflict with other beliefs resulting in absolute differences. Sacred beliefs extend into other areas of life... religious matters being elevated as a causal factor in war. Because improper perceptions reduce the efficacy of strategy, understanding the true role of...westward expansion reveals a pattern. Base political motives usually drive conflict, but leaders often cloak objectives in religious language to

  5. Rescuing the Soiled Dove: Pop Culture's Influence on a Historical Narrative of Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Micki; Henehan, Shelli

    2018-01-01

    American popular culture romanticises relationships between sex workers and their customers; novels, films and television depict prostitutes as innocents in need of rescue by a wealthy or powerful man. Miss Laura's Social Club, a restored Victorian brothel in Fort Smith, Arkansas, USA, functions both as an informal house museum and the visitor…

  6. Dove sta andando l'analisi musicale? Riflessioni sul VII EuroMac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Baroni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Come tutti i lettori della Rivista ormai sapranno, si è svolto a Roma dal 29 settembre al 2 ottobre di quest’anno, presso il Conservatorio di S. Cecilia, il settimo convegno europeo di analisi musicale (VII European Music Analysis Conference ossia VII EuroMac. Nel convegno, organizzato dal GATM e diretto da Giorgio Sanguinetti, sono state presentate 197 relazioni e svolti otto laboratori. Tutti i materiali sono stati riassunti in un volume (Programme and Abstract Book, Iter Edizioni di Subiaco curato da Egidio Pozzi e Antonio Cascelli.

  7. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) with divergent coping styles: When doves become hawks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Gomez, M.de Lourdes; Kittilsen, S.; Höglund, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented invertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma Cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) a...

  8. Observer visitation frequency and success of mourning dove nests: A field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Coon, R.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hensler, G.L.; Hines, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of nesting success generally require visits by the investigator to the nests under study. Such visits may themselves influence nesting success, however, and this possibility has been discussed and investigated by a number of workers with a variety of bird species. Livezey (1980) reviewed the relevant literature for duck nests and noted that most studies failed to demonstrate differences in nesting success between visited nests and those not visited. Livezey (1980) found in his own work that nest abandonment may have occurred as a result of disturbance by observers but that nest predation was not related to time spent by observers at nests or number of observers approaching nests. Various components of nesting and breeding success in seabirds are thought to be adversely affected by human disturbance and nest visitation (Gillett et al. 1975, Robert and Ralph 1975, Ollason and Dunnet 1980). Upland, ground-nesting species have also been studied (e.g. Stoddard 1931, Evans and Wolfe 1967, Henry 1969, Roseberry and Klimstra 1970, Klimstra and Roseberry 1975), and, although conclusions have varied, a number of these workers found no effect of observers on nest-predation rates.

  9. Consiglia Recchia, Dove conserverò le immense lune, Il Ponte Italo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    affermato lo stesso Bonaviri, «un tipo di letteratura nuova, di ordine critico e biografico, a tipo di ... La scrittrice sembra suggerire che il “guardare” cerca di assegnare un senso a quel magma ... Carbonell, Universitat de València, 1999, pp. 670.

  10. Potential and Limitations of Photometric Reconstruction Through a Flock of Dove Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altena, B.; Mousivand, A.; Mascaro, J.; Kääb, A.

    2017-10-01

    When Earth observation satellite systems are designed, one typically prefers a sun-synchronous orbit. However, the first generations of cubesats from Planet were deployed out of the International Space Station (ISS) and therefore do not obey such an orbit. Their configuration samples at different local times within the mid-latitudes. Consequently, it is in theory possible to exploit photometric techniques and extract highly detailed topographic information. In this study we demonstrate and explore photometry based on Planet cubesat images for Tyndall glacier at the Southern Patagonian icefield, and Zhadang glacier situated on the Tibetan plateau.

  11. Transference of function shapes organ identity in the dove tree inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekemans, Dries; Viaene, Tom; Caris, Pieter; Geuten, Koen

    2012-01-01

    • An important evolutionary mechanism shaping the biodiversity of flowering plants is the transfer of function from one plant organ to another. To investigate whether and how transference of function is associated with the remodeling of the floral organ identity program we studied Davidia involucrata, a species with conspicuous, petaloid bracts subtending a contracted inflorescence with reduced flowers. • A detailed ontogeny enabled the interpretation of expression patterns of B-, C- and E-class homeotic MADS-box genes using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. We investigated protein-protein interactions using yeast two-hybrid assays. • Although loss of organs does not appear to have affected organ identity in the retained organs of the reduced flowers of D. involucrata, the bracts express the B-class TM6 (Tomato MADS box gene 6) and GLOBOSA homologs, but not DEFICIENS, and the C-class AGAMOUS homolog, representing a subset of genes also involved in stamen identity. • Our results may illustrate how petal identity can be partially transferred outside the flower by expressing a subset of stamen identity genes. This adds to the molecular mechanisms explaining the diversity of plant reproductive morphology. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of some avian species using Cytochrome b gene sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A; Khalil, S. R; Abd-Elhakim, Y. M

    2015-01-01

    Veritable identification and differentiation of avian species is a vital step in conservative, taxonomic, forensic, legal and other ornithological interventions. Therefore, this study involved the application of molecular approach to identify some avian species i.e. Chicken (Gallus gallus), Muskovy duck (Cairina moschata), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), and Rock pigeon (Columba livia). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (358 bp) was amplified and sequenced using universal primers. Sequences alignment and phylogenetic analyses were performed by CLC main workbench program. The obtained five sequences were deposited in GenBank and compared with those previously registered in GenBank. The similarity percentage was 88.60% between Gallus gallus and Coturnix japonica and 80.46% between Gallus gallus and Columba livia. The percentage of identity between the studied species and GenBank species ranged from 77.20% (Columba oenas and Anas platyrhynchos) to 100% (Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii, Coturnix coturnix and Coturnix japonica, Meleagris gallopavo and Columba livia). Amplification of the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene proved to be practical for identification of an avian species unambiguously. PMID:27175180

  13. Urban birds in the Sonoran Desert: estimating population density from point counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Johnston López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted bird surveys in Hermosillo, Sonora using distance sampling to characterize detection functions at point-transects for native and non-native urban birds in a desert environment. From March to August 2013 we sampled 240 plots in the city and its surroundings; each plot was visited three times. Our purpose was to provide information for a rapid assessment of bird density in this region by using point counts. We identified 72 species, including six non-native species. Sixteen species had sufficient detections to accurately estimate the parameters of the detection functions. To illustrate the estimation of density from bird count data using our inferred detection functions, we estimated the density of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto under two different levels of urbanization: highly urbanized (90-100% of urban impact and moderately urbanized zones (39-50% of urban impact. Density of S. decaocto in the highly-urbanized and moderately-urbanized zones was 3.97±0.52 and 2.92±0.52 individuals/ha, respectively. By using our detection functions, avian ecologists can efficiently relocate time and effort that is regularly used for the estimation of detection distances, to increase the number of sites surveyed and to collect other relevant ecological information.

  14. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena, which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women, who provided information regarding therapeutic uses of animals. A total of 15 animals and animal products were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the collared dove (Streptopelia sp., hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources in the investigated area.

  15. Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanović, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Milić, Nenad; Nisavić, Jakov; Petrović, Tamas; Savić, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry.

  16. PCR-based diagnosis, molecular characterization and detection of atypical strains of avian Chlamydia psittaci in companion and wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, S A; Peighambari, S M

    2013-02-01

    Chlamydiosis is one of the most important infectious diseases of birds. In this study, 253 clinical samples were taken from 27 bird species belonging to seven orders. Thirty-two (12.6%) samples were positive for Chlamydia psittaci major outer membrane gene (ompA) DNA by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve nested PCR-positive specimens were typed by ompA gene-based PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism, using CTU/CTL primers and AluI restriction enzyme. Four restriction patterns were identified, including genotype A (two specimens from an African grey parrot [Psittacus erithacus] and a lorikeet [Trichoglossus haematodus]), genotype B (two specimens from a rock dove [Columbia livia] and a canary [Serinus canaria]), a third new restriction pattern (six specimens from African grey parrots), and a fourth new restriction pattern (two specimens from a ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri] and an Alexandrine parakeet [Psittacula eupatria]). The third and the fourth restriction patterns are suggested to be provisional genotypes I and J, respectively. Partial sequencing of the ompA gene of seven specimens completely correlated with the results of PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism and confirmed the presence of genotypes A and B and the two new provisional genotypes I and J. The two new genotypes have the closest identity with C. psittaci genotype F and Chlamydia abortus, respectively. From an evolutionary perspective, both new genotypes, particularly genotype J, are intermediate between the two species, C. psittaci and C. abortus.

  17. Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides baseline environmental information for the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. Results from this work provide general descriptions of the animals and major plant communities present. A vegetation map derived from a combination of on-site surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is provided as part of this report. Twenty-seven wildlife species of special interest (protected, sensitive, furbearer, game animal, etc.), and waterfowl, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Bird censuses revealed 13 raptorial species (including four of special interest: bald eagle, golden eagle, osprey, and prairie falcon); five upland game bird species (sage grouse, California quail, chukar, gray partridge, and ring-necked pheasant); common loons (a species proposed for state listing as threatened); and five other species of special interest (sage thrasher, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, sage sparrow, and long-billed curlew). Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River. Six small mammal species were captured during this study; one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Five species of furbearing animals were observed (coyote, beaver, raccoon, mink, and striped skunk). Four species of reptiles and one amphibian were noted. Fisheries surveys were conducted to document the presence of gamefish, and sensitive-classified fish and aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout were the only fish collected within the boundaries of the proposed northern expansion area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. A Vulture is Not a Dove: The Politics of Indigeneity and Resistance to Canadian Extractivism in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Schnoor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian mining activities have exploded throughout Latin America over the past 15-20 years, bringing a host of problems and leading to burgeoning resistance movements. This paper argues that a growing strategy deployed by Canadian mining companies, and the regimes that support them, in their engagements with Indigenous communities in the Global South who are resisting extractive activities on their territories, entails cultivating Indigenous subjectivities in ways that co-opt their aspirations for decolonization, self-determination, and demands for the recognition of Indigenous rights. That energy is then channelled into supporting, indeed demanding, the very model of extractive capitalism that Canadian mining regimes wish to develop in the region. Drawing upon theories of governmentality and the work of Canadian Indigenous scholars Glen Coulthard and Taiaiake Alfred on the politics of recognition and decolonization, this paper chronicles struggles over Indigeneity as a political subjectivity through three ongoing extractive-related conflicts in Guatemala, Chile, and Panama.

  19. Electron microscopic study on macrogametogenesis of Eimeria labbeana infecting the Egyptian wild doves and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtar, A R; Abdel-Ghaffar, F A; Ahmed, A K

    1991-04-01

    The development of macrogametes of Eimeria labbeana was studied by electron microscopy in the epithelial cells of the villi at 96 hrs. post-infection. Appearance of young macrogamonts was characterized by the loss of the architecture of the apicomplexa (polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid, subpellicular microtubules), while the pellicle became only one unit membrane. This was associated by the formation of wall forming bodies II then I. Moreover, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi were increased in the cytoplasm. Amylopectin granules as well as lipid globules were greatly increased in mature macrogametes. Host cell reaction due to infection included enlargement and deformation of infected cells, hypertrophy of their nuclei, swollen and degeneration of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolation of ground cytoplasm. These changes occur in both cells with and without parasite.

  20. Cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: genetic diversity and potential public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Sun, Yanru; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-08-01

    To characterize the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pet birds in Henan, China, 434 fecal samples were acquired from 14 families of birds in pet shops. The overall prevalence of Cryptopsoridium was 8.1% (35/434) by the Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The Cryptosporidium-positive samples were analyzed by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species and two genotypes were identified, including C. baileyi (18/35 or 51.4%) in five red-billed leiothrixes (Leiothrix lutea), four white Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora), four common mynas (Acridotheres tristis), two zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a crested Lark (Galerida cristata), a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae), and a black-billed magpie (Pica pica); Cryptosporidium meleagridis (3/35 or 8.6%) in a Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), a Rufous turtle dove (Streptopelia orientalis), and a fan-tailed pigeon (Columba livia); Cryptosporidium galli (5/35 or 14.3%) in four Bohemian waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus) and a silver-eared Mesia (Leiothrix argentauris); Cryptosporidium avian genotype III (3/35 or 8.6%) in two cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and a red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha); and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (6/35 or 17.1%) in six cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Among the pet birds, 12 species represented new hosts for Cryptosporidum infections. The presence of C. meleagridis raises questions on potential zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis from pet birds to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban Bird Feeders Dominated by a Few Species and Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie A. Galbraith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The practice of garden bird feeding is a global phenomenon, involving millions of people and vast quantities of food annually. Many people engage in the practice of feeding assuming that birds gain some benefit from the food they provide, yet recent studies have revealed the potential for detrimental impacts as well. However, there is still a paucity of information on the impacts of feeding, including the ubiquity of these impacts among and within feeder-visiting species. Consistency in feeder use among birds is likely an important determinant of this. Individual birds and species that make frequent use of feeders are more likely to experience both the benefits and detrimental impacts of supplementary food. We investigated patterns of feeder use by garden birds visiting experimental feeding stations in Auckland, New Zealand, with the specific aim of determining whether use of supplementary food was consistent or variable among individuals and species. We used camera traps as well as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology to examine intra- and interspecific feeder visitation patterns and to discern species associations. Eleven bird species were detected using feeding stations, however, two introduced species (house sparrow Passer domesticus and spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis dominated visitation events. These species were present at feeders most frequently, with the largest conspecific group sizes. Significant associations were detected among a number of species, suggesting interspecific interactions are important in determining feeder use. We also found within-species differences in feeder use for all focal species, with individual variation greatest in house sparrows. Furthermore, season had an important influence on most visitation parameters. The observed individual and species-specific differences in supplementary food resource use imply that the impacts of garden bird feeding are not universal. Crucially, particularly given

  2. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...- tailed pigeons. 16. Mourning Doves Council Recommendations: The Atlantic and Mississippi Flyway Councils... of mourning doves, resulting in a 70-day season and 15-bird daily bag limit. The daily bag limit could be composed of mourning doves and white-winged doves, singly or in combination. The Mississippi...

  3. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., early seasons begin during September each year and have a primary emphasis on such species as mourning..., mourning doves, white-winged doves, white-tipped doves, and band-tailed pigeons; and the status and harvest...: For the early season, daily bag limit is 10 mourning or white-winged doves, singly, or in the...

  4. Identità oltre l'illusione. Palestina, terra di architettura e poteri, dove smarrirsi può significare trovare senso e identità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fiume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The case study is focused on the Israeli-Palestinian context. Power relations are analyzed under the lenses of practical examples and bibliographic references to demonstrate how in this peculiar context architecture and urban planning constitute a web of power. A situationist approach has been suggested as a key tool to overcome those power relations. It is just in virtue of this situationist approach that an alternative discourse can grow, becoming strong enough to be a counter-hegemonic narrative. The first part of the essay set up a set of interpretive tools, analysing the concept of landscape from an anthropological, sociological and geographical perspective. The second part merge those theories with practical samples taken from Israeli and Palestinian bureaucracy and urban planning. A key concept is the "matrix of control" proposed by the Israeli-American anthropologist and activist Jeff Halper. The core of the essay is an excerpt of the fieldwork diary of the author, written during summer 2011 in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The detail of the account is a car trip from Bethlehem to Jenin (on the North shore of West Bank.

  5. ‘And Somewhere the Dove Rose’: Seamus Heaney y su Fase Aérea en la Crítica Literaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ráez-Padilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on the different analyses made by critics regarding the beginning of the so-called airy phase in Seamus Heaney’s oeuvre. In contrast with the generalized critical acceptance of a new airy, visionary, escapist phase, which follows a first earthy, sensorial, more politically committed phase, the main objective of this article is to show the outstanding critical disagreement over the collection/s which introduce/s this poetic shift and, consequently, the fragility of such critical hypothesis. After providing evidence on this discrepancy among critics and claiming our own disagreement with this airy phase, we offer a re-examination of Heaney’s poetic evolution which detaches itself from the binary opposition earth vs. air in favour of emphasizing tension and balance between both of them  –as in many other Heaneyian dualities–  all throughout his literary career.

  6. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... year and have a primary emphasis on such species as mourning and white-winged doves. Late seasons begin..., daily bag limit is 10 mourning or white-winged doves, singly, or in the aggregate. For the late season, the daily bag limit is 10 mourning doves. Possession limits are twice the daily bag limits after the...

  7. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... a primary emphasis on such species as mourning and white-winged dove. Late seasons begin about... migratory bird surveys and assigned the following OMB control numbers: 1018-0010--Mourning Dove Call Count... bag limit is 10 mourning or white-winged doves, singly, or in the aggregate. For the late season, the...

  8. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... commonly include such species as American woodcock, sandhill cranes, mourning doves, and white-winged doves... begin September 1 and end September 15, 2013. Daily bag limits would be 10 mourning or white-winged... December 23, 2013. The daily bag limit would be 10 mourning doves. The possession limit would be twice the...

  9. 77 FR 3490 - Information Collection Request Sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...] Information Collection Request Sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for Approval; Mourning Dove...: Mourning Dove Call Count Survey. Service Form Number(s): 3-159. Type of Request: Extension of currently... migratory bird populations. The Mourning Dove Call Count Survey is an essential part of the migratory bird...

  10. Interference competition between an invasive parakeet and native bird species at feeding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, Marine; Couillens, Bertrand; Deschamps-Cottin, Magali; Clergeau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Interference competition has proved to be a factor of successful establishment of invasive species. This type of competition may have a stronger impact when native species have temporal niche overlap with the invasive species. The ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri has been successfully introduced in many countries and its interspecific agonistic behavior has already been reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the territorial and preemptive interference competition between the ring-necked parakeet and native bird species in a recently colonized area. We used an empirical approach by recording video sequences in gardens equipped with bird feeders in winter. Our results showed that the ring-necked parakeet was the most frequent species at the feeders. Several native species showed temporal niche overlap with the ring-necked parakeet, the highest overlap being with the starling Sturnus vulgaris . The starling was also the species most impacted by interference competition with the parakeet. Our study suggests that, by being most frequently present at the feeders, by demonstrating the most agonistic behavior and by hindering access to food of the other species, the ring-necked parakeet is a superior competitor and may compete with native bird species.

  11. The birds-consumers of the fruits and disseminators of Phellodendron Rupr. seeds in the south of Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nechaev

    2016-02-01

    with the excrements outside. In addition, Eurasian Nuthatches and Tits actively distribute the seeds, making stocks under the tree bark and in the semihollows. The passive agents of dissemination are Hazel Grouse – Tetrastes bonasia, Common Pheasant – Phasianus colchicus, Great Spotted Woodpeckers – Dendrocopos major, Oriental Tutle DovesStreptopelia orientalis, Pallas’s Rose Finches, Hawfinches – Coccothraustes coccothraustes and some others, who can crack hard seed peel by the peckers, but some part of the seed peels retain undamaged in the gastrointestinal tract and is pushed outside. The main role in the cork-tree dissemination belongs to the migrants and wintering birds – woodpeckers, azure-winged magpies, thrushes and waxwings, distributing seeds on the feeding places and transferring them on the different distances from the areas of the plant growing.

  12. 50 CFR 20.61 - Importation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.61 Importation limits. No person shall import migratory game birds in excess of the following importation limits: (a) Doves and pigeons. (1) From any foreign country except Mexico, during any one calendar week beginning on Sunday, not to exceed 25 doves...

  13. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... heard per route from the Mourning Dove Call-count Survey (CCS), doves seen per route from the CCS, birds... recovery and harvest data. Harvest and hunter participation are estimated from the HIP. The CCS-heard data... management units. Over the long term, trends based on CCS-heard and CCS-seen data were consistent in the CMU...

  14. Salida de campo a Les Echets (Francia) el 7 de junio de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Les Echets (Francia) el 7 de junio de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Carduelis sp. (seguramente, el Jilguero, C.carduelis), Columba oenas (Paloma zurita), Miliaria calandra (Triguero, llamada Emberiza calandra por el autor), Phoenicurus ochruros (Colirrojo tizón), Phylloscopus collybita (Mosquitero común), Saxicola torquata (Tarabilla común), Streptopelia sp. (Tórtola) y Sylvia communis (Curruca zarcera). Field trip to Les Echets (Fra...

  15. Vacuolar myelinopathy in waterfowl from a North Carolina impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, T.; Fischer, John R.; Thomas, Nancy; Sileo, L.; Brannian, Roger E.; Miller, Kimberli J.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuolar myelinopathy was confirmed by light and electron microscopic examination of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris), and buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) collected during an epizootic at Lake Surf in central North Carolina (USA) between November 1998 and February 1999. Clinical signs of affected birds were consistent with central nervous system impairment of motor function (incoordination, abnormal movement and posture, weakness, paralysis). This is the first report of this disease in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes).Aug

  16. Exploring the Submerged New World on R/V Weatherbird II between 20110808 and 20110818

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underwater archaeologists, led by James Adovasio and Andy Hemmings of Mercyhurst College, dove at four sites that were first visited in 2009. At these locations,...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies, (IJOURELS). Vol.7 No.2, 2017, ..... Bee, iah meaning Vulture , Zimri meaning a mountain Sheep ,. Jonah meaning Dove , ..... American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures Vol. 24, No. 1. (1907) ...

  18. 77 FR 9698 - Notice of Continuation of Visitor Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... National Parks. AMIS002-89 Lake Amistad Resort Amistad National and Marina, LLC. Recreation Area. AMIS003-87 Rough Canyon Amistad National Marina, LLC. Recreation Area. CACH001-84 White Dove, Inc., Canyon de...

  19. On the distributive patterns of ATPase activity and its functional significance in retinae of certain birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, H B; Tyagi, H R

    1977-01-01

    The present study incorporates the details of distribution of adenosine triphosphatase amongst the various constituents of retinae of Passer, Psittacula, Streptopelia and Athene. The outer segments in all the cases are intensely positive for the enzyme. This is the part where the light strikes first and initiates the visual processes. The nuclear layers are also positive for the enzyme activity. It is interesting to note that inner plexiform layers show clear-out demarcations of various sub-synaptic layers in all the birds except Psittacula. The ganglion cells and optic nerve fibres are also positive for the enzyme.

  20. Crowding in the city: losing and winning competitors of an invasive bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailos Hernández-Brito

    Full Text Available Invasive species can take advantage of resources unexploited by natives (opportunism hypothesis or they can exploit the same resources but more aggressively or efficiently (competition hypothesis, thus impacting native species. However, invasive species tend to exploit anthropogenic habitats that are inefficiently used by natives such as urban environments. Focusing on the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri, one of the most invasive birds worldwide, we combined observations of interspecific aggressions, species-specific cavity-nest preferences and the spatial distribution of the native cavity-nesting vertebrate community to determine the invasion process as well as its potential impacts on native species in a Mediterranean city. Our results support the competition hypothesis, suggesting that ring-necked parakeets are outcompeting native species sharing nest-site preferences. Parakeets initiated and won most interspecific aggressions, which were directed towards competitors but also towards predators. This behaviour could explain the spatial arrangement of natives, with most bird species breeding close to parakeets possibly to take advantage of their effective antipredatory behaviour. However, temporal and spatial patterns of segregation suggest that a threatened bat species is negatively affected by parakeets. This demonstrates that common species gain benefits and threatened ones (in this study, a bat and possibly a falcon lose nest sites due to invaders. Therefore, the conservation status of the native species that pay the costs of competition with invaders should be considered. This scenario of winners and losers may, however, shift towards more losers if the ring-necked parakeet population continues to grow, thus requiring close monitoring and control/eradication programs to avoid further impacts.

  1. Crowding in the city: losing and winning competitors of an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Brito, Dailos; Carrete, Martina; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Ibáñez, Carlos; Tella, José L

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species can take advantage of resources unexploited by natives (opportunism hypothesis) or they can exploit the same resources but more aggressively or efficiently (competition hypothesis), thus impacting native species. However, invasive species tend to exploit anthropogenic habitats that are inefficiently used by natives such as urban environments. Focusing on the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), one of the most invasive birds worldwide, we combined observations of interspecific aggressions, species-specific cavity-nest preferences and the spatial distribution of the native cavity-nesting vertebrate community to determine the invasion process as well as its potential impacts on native species in a Mediterranean city. Our results support the competition hypothesis, suggesting that ring-necked parakeets are outcompeting native species sharing nest-site preferences. Parakeets initiated and won most interspecific aggressions, which were directed towards competitors but also towards predators. This behaviour could explain the spatial arrangement of natives, with most bird species breeding close to parakeets possibly to take advantage of their effective antipredatory behaviour. However, temporal and spatial patterns of segregation suggest that a threatened bat species is negatively affected by parakeets. This demonstrates that common species gain benefits and threatened ones (in this study, a bat and possibly a falcon) lose nest sites due to invaders. Therefore, the conservation status of the native species that pay the costs of competition with invaders should be considered. This scenario of winners and losers may, however, shift towards more losers if the ring-necked parakeet population continues to grow, thus requiring close monitoring and control/eradication programs to avoid further impacts.

  2. Biological Inventory Cape La Croix Creek Watershed, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    abundant are toads and, in moist meadows, leopard frogs. Twenty-one species of reptiles are known or likely to occur in agricul- tural and old field...inventory. Snakes represent the remaining reptiles from these habitats, especially the genus Natrix, having six species. Snakes also comprise the bulk...duck 6 3,730 11 3 0.02 Pintail 7 2,546 41 198 2.12 Blue & Snow geese 8 1,064 9 10 0.26 Common goldeneye 9 1,036 - - - Ring-necked duck 10 1,033 7 29

  3. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the California Waterfowl Association (CWA) and other organizations, have compiled large datasets on the nesting ecology and management of dabbling ducks and associated upland nesting birds (Northern Harriers [Circus cyaneus], Short-eared Owls [Asio flammeus], Ring-necked Pheasants [Phasianus colchicus], and American Bitterns [Botaurus lentiginosus]) throughout California on Federal Refuges, State Wildlife Areas, and private lands, some participating in State and Federal habitat programs. These datasets encompass several long-term monitoring programs at multiple sites throughout California, and include data from more than 26,000 nests and span nearly 30 years.

  4. Development of an Inflatable Head/Neck Restraint System for Ejection Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-28

    crewman’s head . It has been observed that low pressures, about 2 psi (1.38 nt/cm2 ) to 4 psi (2.76 nt/cm2 ), create some "spring back" or trampoline ...neck ring Neck injury Head rotation 210 ABSTRACT (Continue on rev’erse side If necessary end identify by block number) 4A ringý-shaped inflatable head ...injuries due to violent forward head rotation at the time of ejection thrust and parachute opening shock. Inflation of the neck ring will,’ be conducted by a

  5. What Is True Halving in the Payoff Matrix of Game Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Katsumata, Yuki; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In game theory, there are two social interpretations of rewards (payoffs) for decision-making strategies: (1) the interpretation based on the utility criterion derived from expected utility theory and (2) the interpretation based on the quantitative criterion (amount of gain) derived from validity in the empirical context. A dynamic decision theory has recently been developed in which dynamic utility is a conditional (state) variable that is a function of the current wealth of a decision maker. We applied dynamic utility to the equal division in dove-dove contests in the hawk-dove game. Our results indicate that under the utility criterion, the half-share of utility becomes proportional to a player's current wealth. Our results are consistent with studies of the sense of fairness in animals, which indicate that the quantitative criterion has greater validity than the utility criterion. We also find that traditional analyses of repeated games must be reevaluated.

  6. Characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (Newcastle disease virus) isolated in South Africa from 2001 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolnik, C; Gerdes, G H; Kitching, J; Swanepoel, S; Romito, M; Bisschop, S P R

    2008-06-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1), a variant of Newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in South Africa since the mid-1980s. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced into South Africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in Europe and the Far East since the early 1990s. During 2006, a PPMV-1 virus was isolated from an African ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) which became acutely infected with PPMV-1 and died, probably after scavenging off infected dove carcasses in the region, since a closely-related PPMV-1 strain was also isolated from doves collected nearby. The hornbill isolate had ICPI and MDT values characteristic of PPMV-1 strains. The threat of PPMV-1 to poultry production and biodiversity in southern Africa highlights the importance of monitoring the spread of this strain.

  7. What Is True Halving in the Payoff Matrix of Game Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Ito

    Full Text Available In game theory, there are two social interpretations of rewards (payoffs for decision-making strategies: (1 the interpretation based on the utility criterion derived from expected utility theory and (2 the interpretation based on the quantitative criterion (amount of gain derived from validity in the empirical context. A dynamic decision theory has recently been developed in which dynamic utility is a conditional (state variable that is a function of the current wealth of a decision maker. We applied dynamic utility to the equal division in dove-dove contests in the hawk-dove game. Our results indicate that under the utility criterion, the half-share of utility becomes proportional to a player's current wealth. Our results are consistent with studies of the sense of fairness in animals, which indicate that the quantitative criterion has greater validity than the utility criterion. We also find that traditional analyses of repeated games must be reevaluated.

  8. What Is True Halving in the Payoff Matrix of Game Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In game theory, there are two social interpretations of rewards (payoffs) for decision-making strategies: (1) the interpretation based on the utility criterion derived from expected utility theory and (2) the interpretation based on the quantitative criterion (amount of gain) derived from validity in the empirical context. A dynamic decision theory has recently been developed in which dynamic utility is a conditional (state) variable that is a function of the current wealth of a decision maker. We applied dynamic utility to the equal division in dove-dove contests in the hawk-dove game. Our results indicate that under the utility criterion, the half-share of utility becomes proportional to a player’s current wealth. Our results are consistent with studies of the sense of fairness in animals, which indicate that the quantitative criterion has greater validity than the utility criterion. We also find that traditional analyses of repeated games must be reevaluated. PMID:27487194

  9. A comparative study on the distribution of non-specific esterase amongst the various constituents of retinas of some vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H R; Tewari, H B

    1979-01-01

    A wide coverage of the retinae of a large number of animals (Calotes, Varanus, Naja, Athene, Passer, Streptopelia, Psittacula and Funambulus) from the point of view of the histoenzymological distribution of non-specific esterase amongst the various constituents reveals mostly identical patterns. They are as follows: 1. Outer segments - positive in all cases. 2. Outer plexiform layer - equipped with enzymatic activity in all the instances. 3. Inner nuclear layer - thin cytoplasmic rim of the neurons characterized by positive activity; the nuclei of the neurons are completely negative. 4. Inner plexiform layer - this layer is endowed with the enzymatic activity. 5. Ganglion cells - negative in all cases. 6. Nerve fibres of the layer of nerve fibres, situated adjasent to ganglion cells are positive in all the animals; in case of squirrel oligodandroglial cells present in the region have demonstrated activity of a high order. On of the high-lights of the present contribution is demarcation of the inner plexiform layer into three stratified zones, equipped with enzymatic activity in Calotes, Streptopelia, Naja and Funambulus. Such stratifications are not seen in Varanus, Passer and Psittacula. The significance of the various patterns and the equipment of the enzyme in various constituents at various locals have been discussed in relation to the metabolic functions, zone-wise and interzone-wise in visual processes of various animals.

  10. Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hazel; Strubbe, Diederik; Tollington, Simon; Prys-Jones, Robert; Matthysen, Erik; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins of populations across the invasive range and explore the potential influence of climate and propagule pressure from the pet trade on observed genetic patterns. Ring-necked parakeet samples representing the ancestral native range (n = 96) were collected from museum specimens, and modern samples from the invasive range (n = 855) were gathered from across Europe, Mauritius and Seychelles, and sequenced for two mitochondrial DNA markers comprising 868 bp of cytochrome b and control region, and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. Invasive populations comprise birds that originate predominantly from Pakistan and northern areas of India. Haplotypes associated with more northerly distribution limits in the ancestral native range were more prevalent in invasive populations in Europe, and the predominance of Asian haplotypes in Europe is consistent with the higher number of Asian birds transported by the pet trade outside the native range. Successful establishment of invasive species is likely to be underpinned by a combination of environmental and anthropogenic influences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Assessing landscape constraints on species abundance: Does the neighborhood limit species response to local habitat conservation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Powell, Larkin A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants.

  12. La spazialità dell’ascolto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mattiucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hanno sistemato il mio computer da una settimana... finalmente l’audio funziona di nuovo! Ora sì che va meglio. Arrivo e mi metto le cuffie, ancora prima di scorrere l’archivio sul mio desktop. È un gesto che fanno quasi tutti intorno a me. È come se cercassero un’altra stanza all’interno di questa grande stanza che condividiamo. Ognuno si ritaglia nello spazio delle proprie orecchie il posto dove vorrebbe essere, più congeniale al lavoro quotidiano o dove, più semplicemente, ci si concentri meglio.

  13. Promoting Environmental Citizenship and Corporate Social Responsibility through a School/Industry/University Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbels, Susan; Evans, Stewart M.; Delany, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership was formed between King Edward VI School Morpeth (UK) and the pharmaceutical company Merck, Sharp and Dohme within the programme of "Joint Responsibility" operated by the Dove Marine Laboratory (Newcastle University, UK). Pupils surveyed an ecologically important coastal area in northeast England and made 15 recommendations…

  14. Home Page: Division of Birds: Department of Vertebrate Zoology: National

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division Hall of Fame How do you identify a bird from a feather? Zoologist Carla Dove explains in this Ask Smithsonian video how the microscopic structure of a bird's feather can help identify the species and at the same time, make air travel safer for humans. Honeycreeper Family Tree Phylogeny of the Hawaiian

  15. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  16. Oscar Riddle's Science, a Special Bird, & the Founding of the NABT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoort, Frances S.

    2013-01-01

    Oscar Riddle, born in Indiana in 1877, was an ardent evolutionist and a key player in the founding of the National Association of Biology Teachers in 1938. He studied heredity and behavior in domestic pigeons and doves with Charles O. Whitman of the University of Chicago, received his Ph.D. in zoology in 1907, and in 1912 began a long career at…

  17. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  18. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in fecal droppings from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heddema, Edou R.; ter Sluis, Sietske; Buys, Jan A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Wijnen, Joop H.; Visser, Caroline E.

    2006-01-01

    In many cities, the feral rock dove is an abundant bird species that can harbor Chlamydophila psittaci. We determined the prevalence and genotype of C. psittaci in fresh fecal samples from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The prevalence was 7.9% overall (26/331; 95% confidence interval,

  19. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment... annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule establishes hunting..., Arizona (Tribal Members and Nontribal Hunters). Doves Season Dates: Open September 1 through 15, 2010...

  20. Direct Observation vs. Video-Based Assessment in Flexible Cystoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnaes-Hansen, Julia; Mahmood, Oria; Bube, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    .86. Interrater reliability was 0.74 for single measure and 0.85 for average measures. A hawk-dove effect was seen between the 2 raters. Direct observer bias was detected when comparing direct observer scores to the assessment by an independent video-rater (p

  1. Modelling analogical change : A history of Swedish and Frisian verb inflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Why did Shakespeare write 'shak’d' when we say 'shook'? Why do some people say 'dived' and others 'dove'? These questions have to do with how we inflect verbs for past tense, and how those strategies vary across time and space. This dissertation sheds light on the issue through case studies of verbs

  2. Tsoon libiseb ajast ära nagu Kodaki slaididki / Laura Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Laura, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Prantsuse kunstniku Dove Alluoche'i püüdest leida Arvo Iho abiga paigad, kus Andrei Tarkovski 28 aastat tagasi väntas filmi "Stalker", rekonstrueerides Sergei Didõki kaamera vahendusel Tarkovski vaatepunkte ja taastades "tsoonis" tolleaegset atmosfääri. Seeria "Tsoon" koosneb 13 fotost, mida eksponeeritakse Tallinnas, Pariisis, Bueonos Aireses ja mujal

  3. La telematica per i docenti: quali contenuti?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Persico

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosi' come in Italia, dove il Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione ha promosso il Piano di Sviluppo delle Tecnologie Didattiche, anche i governi di altri paesi europei stanno investendo considerevolmente nell'integrazione delle Tecnologie della Informazione e della Comunicazione.

  4. JOHANNINE METAPHORS/ SYMBOLS LINKED TO THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    logy of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the Johannine Gospel ... In modern Greek the word metaphor means “transport” or “transfer”. ..... most, almost half of these 21 occurrences (9 times), are to be found in chapter 4.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 900 ... C MacDonald, B Hilton, R Dove. Vol 15, No 1 (2015), Intrahousehold allocation, household headship and nutrition of under-fives: a study of western Kenya, Abstract PDF. S M Mikalitsa. Vol 12, No 5 (2012), Introducing new agricultural technologies and marketing strategies: A means for increasing ...

  6. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  7. Stress Induces Contextual Blindness in Lotteries and Coordination Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Brocas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study how stress affects risk taking in three tasks: individual lotteries, Stag Hunt (coordination games, and Hawk-Dove (anti-coordination games. Both control and stressed subjects take more risks in all three tasks when the value of the safe option is decreased and in lotteries when the expected gain is increased. Also, subjects take longer to take decisions when stakes are high, when the safe option is less attractive and in the conceptually more difficult Hawk-Dove game. Stress (weakly increases reaction times in those cases. Finally, our main result is that the behavior of stressed subjects in lotteries, Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove are all highly predictive of each other (p-value < 0.001 for all three pairwise correlations. Such strong relationship is not present in our control group. Our results illustrate a “contextual blindness” caused by stress. The mathematical and behavioral tensions of Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove games are axiomatically different, and we should expect different behavior across these games, and also with respect to the individual task. A possible explanation for the highly significant connection across tasks in the stress condition is that stressed subjects habitually rely on one mechanism to make a decision in all contexts whereas unstressed subjects utilize a more cognitively flexible approach.

  8. 9 CFR 147.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes of meat or egg production and competitive showing. Game birds. Domesticated fowl, such as pheasants, partridge, quail, grouse, and guineas, but not doves and pigeons. Meat type chickens. Chickens bred for the primary purpose of producing meat. Plan Conference. A meeting convened for the purpose of...

  9. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese in small amounts Cottage cheese Whole eggs Game Buffalo, ostrich, rabbit, venison Dove, duck, goose, or pheasant (no skin) Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb It’s best to limit your intake of red meat which is often higher in saturated fat and ...

  10. 9 CFR 94.0 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than poultry or game birds). Bovine. Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bison bison. Bovine spongiform... loaded with meat product, or the areas at various points along the belt in an oven chamber, slowest to.... Game birds. Migratory birds, including certain ducks, geese, pigeons, and doves (“migratory” refers to...

  11. Johannine metaphors/symbols linked to the paraclete-spirit and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Johannine author uses metaphors and symbols to enable the primary and secondary readers to come to a better understanding of the Paraclete-Spirit. The study of particular Johannine metaphors is valuable in understanding the message and theology of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the ...

  12. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  13. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: F-15E Beddown at Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    destruction, stunted growth, necrosis ( killing of plant tissue), chlorosis (loss or reduction in plant chlorophyll), leaf abscission (dropping of leaves...occasionally run, fly, or crowd when exposed to sonic booms. In a field and laboratory study, Mourning Doves, Mockingbirds , Cardinals, Lark Sparrows, and

  14. Construction of Explosive Ordnance Disposal Facility Moody Air Force Base, Georgia Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    rodents and songbirds such as the northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottis), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), mourning dove (Zenaida... killed during construction activities. Additionally, the proposed action would result in the permanent destruction of less than one acre of wildlife...species likely to be displaced or killed are common, abundant species in the area. Additional short-term minor impacts to wildlife, including

  15. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  16. THE FASTEST OODA LOOP: THE IMPLICATIONS OF BIG DATA FOR AIR POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    need for a human interpreter. Until the rise of Big Data , automated translation only had a “small” library of several million words to pull from and...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE FASTEST OODA LOOP: THE IMPLICATIONS OF BIG DATA FOR AIR POWER by Aaron J. Dove, Maj, USAF A...1 Previous Academic Study....................................................................................................2 Why Big Data

  17. Interaction times change evolutionary outcomes: Two-player matrix games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Cressman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAR 07 (2017), s. 199-207 ISSN 0022-5193 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 690817 - FourCmodelling Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evolutionary game theory * Hawk-Dove game * pair formation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519317300103

  18. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    A study was conducted to assess the prevalence of helmith parasites of ... There are about 300 species of birds belonging to the pigeon and dove ..... reduction in egg production and subsequently death have been known to occur as a result of.

  19. AN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF LEAD SHOT EXPOSURE IN NON-WATERFOWL AVIAN SPECIES: UPLAND GAME BIRDS AND RAPTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing concern that birds in terrestrial ecosystems may be exposed to spent lead shot. Evidence exists that upland birds, particularly mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), ingest spent lead shot and that raptors ingest lead shot by consuming wounded game. Mortality, ne...

  20. Breve Manuale di Geografia Umana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Colombino, A.

    2012-01-01

    Il percorso per andare al lavoro, la scelta sul dove trascorrere le prossime vacanze, le nostre opinioni sulla politica estera, le nostre preoccupazioni per la crisi economica, le nostre affermazioni di identità, il nostro desiderio di fuga dal quotidiano, perfino la scelta di acquistare una casa in

  1. PREDICT: Pattern Representation and Evaluation of Data Through Integration, Correlation and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    SB, Helbok R, et al. Cerebral perfusion pressure thresholds for brain tissue hypoxia and metabolic crisis after poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage...for future work. ALARMSMONITORINGDETAILED STATUS HOME Dove, J Doe, Joe Johnson, P. Myers, S Palli, H.Doe, E WBC Platelet Creatinine Lactic Acid AST

  2. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-16

    astounding. Doves on the earth’s globe, two-wheeled trucks, golden-horned rams dance among the flowers . Words drawn with a light hand: "Long live peace in...bananas, water-melons, pineapples , tea, ground-nuts and so on. These goods are commonly carried by vessels of the Far Eastern Shipping Company

  3. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented 137 Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (T e ) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot T e was nearly four times longer than T e for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. T e could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  5. Adiciones al inventario avifaunístico del estado de Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Belem Hernández-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos por primera vez nueve especies de aves para el estado de Querétaro, México, cinco de ellas nativas (Cyrtonyx montezumae, Buteo lineatus, Phalaropus fulicarius, Falco mexicanus e Icterus spurius y cuatro introducidas (Streptopelia roseogrisea, Cyanoliseus patagonus, Amazona finschi yCalocitta colliei. El inventario avifaunístico del estado incluye ahora 430 especies, de las cuales 418 son nativas y 12 introducidas. Consideramos que el estudio de la avifauna en la zona oeste de Querétaro, que corresponde a la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana, se ha venido completando en los últimos años con un importante esfuerzo de muestreo, por lo que con los presentes registros se conocen 271 especies de aves en ella.

  6. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus).

  7. Species distributions models in wildlife planning: agricultural policy and wildlife management in the great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Jorgensen, Christopher; Stuber, Erica F.; Gruber, Lutz F.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Zach, Eric S.; Decker, Karie L.

    2017-01-01

    We know economic and social policy has implications for ecosystems at large, but the consequences for a given geographic area or specific wildlife population are more difficult to conceptualize and communicate. Species distribution models, which extrapolate species-habitat relationships across ecological scales, are capable of predicting population changes in distribution and abundance in response to management and policy, and thus, are an ideal means for facilitating proactive management within a larger policy framework. To illustrate the capabilities of species distribution modeling in scenario planning for wildlife populations, we projected an existing distribution model for ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) onto a series of alternative future landscape scenarios for Nebraska, USA. Based on our scenarios, we qualitatively and quantitatively estimated the effects of agricultural policy decisions on pheasant populations across Nebraska, in specific management regions, and at wildlife management areas. 

  8. Multilocus DNA fingerprints in gallinaceous birds: general approach and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotte, O; Bruford, M W; Burke, T

    1992-06-01

    Multilocus profiles were investigated in five different species of Galliformes (ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus, Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica, domestic chicken Gallus gallus, and red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus) using two human multilocus probes (33.6 and 33.15) in combination with each of four restriction enzymes (AluI, DdeI, HaeIII or HinfI). All the species show a DNA fingerprint-like pattern using at least one restriction enzyme in combination with each multilocus probe. The number of bands detected and the value of the index of similarity for each species differ significantly between the profiles obtained with each multilocus probe. Some enzyme/probe combinations reveal strong cross-hybridization of the multilocus probes with satellite or satellite-like DNA sequences in pheasant, peacock, quail and chicken, which partially or completely prevented scoring of the profile. The choice of restriction enzyme was found to influence the number of bands, the value of the index of similarity and the probability of obtaining an identical fingerprint between unrelated individuals. The Mendelian inheritance and independent segregation of the fragments detected using AluI was investigated in three species (ring-necked pheasant, Indian peafowl and red grouse). Some bands were shown to be tightly linked. An extreme case was encountered in the red grouse, where 12 of the 15 bands scored in one parent represented only two, apparently allelic, haplotypes and so derived from a single locus. However, fingerprint patterns will often be adequate for use in paternity analyses, such as in behavioural studies, despite the occurrence of haplotypic sets of bands. Identical DNA multilocus profiles were sometimes observed between captive-bred siblings in one species. These results emphasize the desirability of determining, in each new species, the optimal experimental conditions as a preliminary to any behavioural or population

  9. The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, S Mechiel; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Wingfield, John C; McEwen, Bruce S

    2005-02-01

    Why do we get the stress-related diseases we do? Why do some people have flare ups of autoimmune disease, whereas others suffer from melancholic depression during a stressful period in their life? In the present review possible explanations will be given by using different levels of analysis. First, we explain in evolutionary terms why different organisms adopt different behavioral strategies to cope with stress. It has become clear that natural selection maintains a balance of different traits preserving genes for high aggression (Hawks) and low aggression (Doves) within a population. The existence of these personality types (Hawks-Doves) is widespread in the animal kingdom, not only between males and females but also within the same gender across species. Second, proximate (causal) explanations are given for the different stress responses and how they work. Hawks and Doves differ in underlying physiology and these differences are associated with their respective behavioral strategies; for example, bold Hawks preferentially adopt the fight-flight response when establishing a new territory or defending an existing territory, while cautious Doves show the freeze-hide response to adapt to threats in their environment. Thus, adaptive processes that actively maintain stability through change (allostasis) depend on the personality type and the associated stress responses. Third, we describe how the expression of the various stress responses can result in specific benefits to the organism. Fourth, we discuss how the benefits of allostasis and the costs of adaptation (allostatic load) lead to different trade-offs in health and disease, thereby reinforcing a Darwinian concept of stress. Collectively, this provides some explanation of why individuals may differ in their vulnerability to different stress-related diseases and how this relates to the range of personality types, especially aggressive Hawks and non-aggressive Doves in a population. A conceptual framework is

  10. Rugas e pneuzinhos, que mal tem? O discurso da beleza fora dos padrões na publicidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Bezerra Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem o intuito de mostrar, através da apresentação de anúncios dasempresas de cosméticos Natura e Dove que  o discurso publicitário reflete e refrata a sociedade em que esta inserido para se tornar ainda mais sedutor e mais afinado com seu público-alvo. A partir de seus anúncios  veiculados nas décadas de 90 (Natura e 2000 (Dove, cada empresa, a seu tempo, se mostra em sintonia com os anseios de suas consumidoras, abrindo caminho para uma valorização e fidelização às suas marcas. Para atingirmos nosso objetivo nos fundamentaremos nas reflexões de Mikhail Bakhtin e Norman Fairclough. 

  11. La nuova fisica delle particelle e i segreti dell'universo un dialogo fra filosofia, scienza e religione

    CERN Document Server

    Bodei, Remo

    2017-01-01

    La Scuola della Cattedrale, presieduta da Monsignor Gianantonio Borgonovo, prosegue il suo ciclo di incontri con un evento culturale nel segno della fisica che esplora il mondo delle particelle. Guido Tonelli, fisico e professore ordinario dell’Università di Pisa, tratta degli eventi che hanno portato alla scoperta del bosone di Higgs al Cern di Ginevra dove è stato realizzato Lhc, l’acceleratore di particelle più potente del mondo, con un’analisi di materia e antimateria, energia e universo, per capire come tutto è cominciato e come forse andrà a finire. Dove potrà arrivare l’uomo con queste nuove visioni? Quali cambiamenti e traguardi sono ipotizzabili? Come leggere da un punto di vista religioso e filosofico questi nuovi scenari che la scienza prospetta? L’evento ha visto gli interventi di Monsignor Borgonovo e del filosofo Remo Bodei, professore emerito di Filosofia all’Università di Pisa.

  12. Weaving a Tapestry from Threads Spun by Geneticists: The Series Perspectives on Genetics, 1987–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, William F.

    2016-01-01

    The Perspectives column was initiated in 1987 when Jan Drake, Editor-in-Chief of GENETICS, invited Jim Crow and William Dove to serve as coeditors of “Anecdotal, Historical, and Critical Commentaries.” As the series evolved over 21 years, under the guidance of Crow and Dove, the input of stories told by geneticists from many countries created a panorama of 20th-century genetics. Three recurrent themes are visible: how geneticists have created the science (as solitary investigators, in pairs, or in cooperative groups); how geneticists work hard, but find ways to have fun; and how public and private institutions have sustained the science of genetics, particularly in the United States. This article ends by considering how the Perspectives series and other communication formats can carry forward the core science of genetics from the 20th into the 21st century. PMID:27384024

  13. La trama del cosmo spazio, tempo, realtà

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Dal regno immutabile di Newton, dove lo spazio e il tempo sono assoluti, alla concezione fluida dello spazio-tempo di Einstein, alle tesi della meccanica quantistica, il fisico americano mostra come il mondo sia molto diverso da quello che l'esperienza comune potrebbe far pensare. Concentrandosi sull'enigma del tempo, Greene stabilisce che nessuna regola fisica conferma l'idea che esso scorra in una particolare direzione. Attraverso l'analisi della teoria del big bang, dimostra quanto le recenti teorie delle superstringhe e la M-teoria possano conciliare ogni cosa, dalla più piccola particella al più grande buco nero. Una visione che culmina in un "multiverso" dove spazio e tempo possono dissolversi in entità più sottili e fondamentali.

  14. Analisi e variazioni di tempo: la Polacca op. 53 di Chopin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Sanguinetti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L'aspetto più difficile e sfuggente dell'esecuzione musicale è forse quello della scelta del tempo e delle sue variazioni. Qual è il tempo giusto per una composizione, e come va stabilito? E poi, una volta deciso il tempo generale, questo va osservato strettamente o l'esecutore può concedersi accelerandi e rallentandi occasionali, o addirittura cambiare il tempo in una data parte della composizione, per poi riprendere successivamente il tempo principale? In cosa consiste il rubato, e dove questa pratica trova legittimità? È giustificato introdurre una variazione agogica anche dove il compositore non l'ha prescritta? Domande di questo genere si pongono continuamente agli esecutori, e le risposte ovviamente dipendono da una gran quantità di fattori, prima di tutto dal contesto storico e stilistico nel quale il pezzo è originato, e dalla conoscenza della prassi esecutiva relativa alla sua epoca e alla sua tradizione locale.

  15. Gli effetti socio-economici e spaziali del servizio ferroviario dell’Alta Velocità: due casi a confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Consuelo Travascio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo fornisce una lettura degli effetti socio-economici e spaziali generati dalla messa in esercizio di una rete ferroviaria ad AV sull’organizzazione territoriale. Esso si articola in due parti. Nella prima, sono analizzati gli effetti che in letteratura sono attribuiti alle infrastrutture di trasporto, focalizzandosi sulle ripercussioni che la messa in esercizio dell’AV ha generato sulla crescita demografica e sulla localizzazione delle attività economiche attorno alle stazioni, nonché sulla domanda di trasporto e sulla riconfigurazione dei flussi. Nella seconda parte si passa allo studio di due casi significativi: il Giappone, dove l’introduzione del servizio ha modificato la struttura socio-economica del territorio; la Spagna, dove ha favorito la comparsa di nuove tipologie di utenti e la ridefinizione delle relazioni tra le varie città servite dall’infrastruttura.

  16. Dal Big Bang ai buchi neri

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W

    1988-01-01

    "Che cosa sappiamo sull'universo, e come lo sappiamo? Da dove è venuto, e dove sta andando? L'universo ebbe un inizio e, in tal caso cosa c'era prima? Il tempo avrà mai una fine?" Con questi quesiti Stephen Hawking introduce il lettore in una straordinaria avventura: un'emozionante cavalcata nel tempo. L'espansione dell'universo, il principio di indeterminazione, le particelle elementari e le forze della natura, l'origine e la sorte dell'universo, l'unificazione della fisica sono le grandi tappe di questo viaggio indimenticabile. Ma oltre a riassumere le conoscenze tradizionali Hawking illustra le ultime teorie sulla fisica dei buchi neri, il principio antropico, la teoria dell'universo inflazionario, l'universo contenuto in una bolla. Il titolo viene ripubblicato in una nuova veste editoriale, con la copertina che per l'occasione è stata realizzata da Hennie Haworth.

  17. I Crimini italiani fra realismo e convenzione

    OpenAIRE

    Milanesi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Un gruppo di scrittori italiani formato da Niccolò Ammaniti, Andrea Camilleri, Massimo Carlotto, Sandrone Dazieri, Giancarlo De Cataldo, Diego De Silva, Giorgio Faletti, Marcello Fois, Carlo Lucarelli, Antonio Manzini, ha pubblicato, nel 2005, sotto la direzione di Giancarlo De Cataldo, una raccolta di racconti intitolata Crimini. Nel 2008, ha visto la luce Crimini italiani, una seconda raccolta, sempre diretta da De Cataldo, dove non compaiono Ammaniti, Camilleri e Ma...

  18. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Freshwater Diversion to Barataria and Breton Sound Basins. Feasibility Study. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes A, B, C, and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    the bullfrog, pig frog, bronze frop, leopard frog, lesser siren, gulf coast toad, preen and squirrel treefrogs, cricket frog, and several species of...geese that winter in significant numbers are lesser snow geese. Other game birds include coots, rails, gallinules, snipe, woodcock, and mourning doves...98 • . - . . . ." . . . . - " - -. - . . Simoneaux, L.F. 1979. The distribution of menhaden, genus Brevortia. with respect to salinity, in the upper

  19. TERREMOTI DELLA VAL PADANA DEL 15-16 MAGGIO 1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. SPADEA

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalle notizie rilevate dalla Stampa
    e da quelle tratte dall'indagine che l'ufficio Centrale di Meteorologia
    ha compiuto per nostro conto, si è potuto stabilire che la zona epicentrale
    cadeva nel lodigiano, dove ha sviluppato una intensità valutata
    dal V I al V I I grado della scala Mercalli.

  20. Vertebrate ecology at the Los Medanos site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    October and November 1980 vertebrate ecology study accomplishments are outlined in this report. The report provides a listing of food items found in the crops of Mourning Doves collected at the WIPP Site during 1979 and a listing of small mammal digestive tracts and reproductive tracts that have been removed, labeled and preserved. Scaled Quail collection results are also reported. Each specimen was weighed and sexed and the crop contents of each specimen was removed for analysis

  1. The Determination of Phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    chemicals applied to the soil. Weeds 13:185-190. L. ,aberg, J.J. and C.V. Cutting , eds. 1977. Environmental Effects on Crop ?hysiologv. 5th Long Astiton...19 7 1. " ElvIene product ion from ozone injured plants . Environ. del I I it L1 . I k [it I K. Dec line and recovery ,f petunia dove lOpntOnt from

  2. Escaping Beauty through moral narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigate through ethnographic studies the shared cultural meanings expressed about human beauty. How is sense making about the notion of beauty constructed, verballized and negotiated in a group of young females between 24 and 26 years old. Furthermore the study discuss and elaborat...... on the concept of a postpostmodern condition, with the Brand Dove as an example of a Brand acting as a Citizen-Artist (Holt 2002)....

  3. Legacy Bird Species at Risk Monitoring in and Around Camp Navajo and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    19th century due to a convergence of complex stressors such as overgrazing, timber harvest, drought , and fire suppression (Allen et al. 2002, Moore... pinus 16 Olive Warbler Peucedramus taeniatus 5 Plumbeous Vireo Vireo solitarius 60 Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea 177 Red Crossbill Loxia...Dove Zenaida macroura 14 Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus 50 Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus 58 Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi 1

  4. DoD Civilian Training: Source, Content, Frequency and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    statistics. This especially includes Mr. Mike Dove, Ms. Kris Hoffman, Ms. Ninfa Camargo , Mr. Edward Christie, Ms. Rebecca Tag, Ms. Elizabeth Kundift Ms...Center, San Francisco , CA, will close. DoD Civilian Training Study Page 10 Chapter 2: Source There were 1,507 civilians trained We learned that 166...San Diego, CA Service School Command 13 60 San Diego, CA Submarine Training Facility 4 61 San Francisco , CA Naval Technical Training Center 13 62

  5. Sguardi sull'Universo problemi di cosmologia

    CERN Document Server

    Bondi, Hermann

    1973-01-01

    Quanto è grande l'Universo ? Quanto antiche sono le stelle e le galassie ? A quale velocità si allontanano da noi le galassie più lontane ? Perché è buio di notte s ci sono nel cielo innumerevoli stelle ? Che cosa avviene dentro le stelle ? E tra una stella a l'altra ? Come è cominciato l'Universo, e dove andrà a finire ?

  6. Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment for the Ravines and Beach Area Study areas of the Surplus Operable Unit, Fort Sheridan, Illinois, Volume 3 - BRA Text and BRA Appendices A-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-13

    in quadriplegia (Ledet et al, 1973). For chickens , the lowest oral lethal dose of trivalent arsenic as arsenic trioxide and sodium arsenite reported...Benchmarks for Wildlife: 1996 Revision (ES/ER/TM-86/R3). The Original Value (mg/kg/day) for the Test Organism (rat, mouse, dove, chicken , duck) was... roasted coffee and in charcoal broiled, barbecued or smoked meats. It is also found in creosote, coal tar, petroleum asphalt, and a variety of

  7. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Military Working Dog Facility at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    dove (Zenaida macroura), greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), American crow (Cowus brachyrhynchos), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos...permitted by regulations, the MBTA makes it unlawful to pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill ; attempt to take, capture, or kill ; possess; offer to or...or through a foreign country, any bird, part, nest, or egg that was captured, killed , taken, shipped, transported, or carried contrary to the laws

  8. Women in the Military: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Military: Where They Stand, 5th ed. Washington, DC: WREI [Women’s Research and Education Institute], April 2005. 37pp. (UB418 .W65M14 2005) Oliver...34Women in War: Operational Issues of Menstruation and Unintended Pregnancy." Military Medicine 172 (January 2007): 9-16. Ingenta Dove, Mary Baker, and...Publishing Group, 2004. 112pp. (D790 .D66 2004) Fort Des Moines Museum & Education Center. Fort Des Moines Museum & Education Center Home Page. http

  9. Bourgois, F. (2005, Cercando rispetto. Drug economy e cultura di strada, Roma, DeriveApprodi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scandurra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Bourgois, professore presso il Dipartimento di Antropologia, Storia e Medicina Sociale dell’Università della California, si trasferisce per cinque anni a East Harem, uno dei ghetti più degradati e malfamati di New York. Qui frequenta spacciatori di crack di origine portoricana, passa il tempo nelle sale sotto casa dove questi ultimi giocano, entra nelle case delle loro famiglie allargate.

  10. Environmental Assessment of Proposed Mixed-Use Business Park on an Enchanced Use Lease at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    water from the local service providers; however, sanitary sewer services would be provided by GFAFB (Giltner 2013). Alternative 1 would include...utilizing the base include red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), clay - colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), and...USAF 2006a). The glacial deposits are composed of silts, clays , sand, and gravel generally 225 ft thick, comprised of approximately 95 ft of clay

  11. Renal trematode infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in zoo housed Columbiformes and a red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Steve; Chantrey, Julian; Chatterton, James; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Trematode infections affect a diverse range of avian species and the organs that are parasitised are also very varied. The family Eucotylidae contains seven genera of renal flukes that parasitise various birds. In birds, mild to severe lesions have been reported for species of the genus Paratanaisia, which was originally described from columbiform and galliform specimens collected in South America and has been identified in a number of wild avian species. This paper investigates eight cases of renal trematode infection at Chester Zoo in the UK due to Paratanaisia bragai in five previously unreported species: red bird-of-paradise, Socorro dove, Mindanao bleeding heart dove, laughing dove and emerald dove. Pathological changes, which varied between species, are discussed. A known intermediate snail host Allopeas clavulinum was present in the enclosures but there was no direct evidence of trematode infection. The size of the snails, possible low prevalence and the difficulty of visualising sporocysts contributed to this. Thus the development and application of further molecular diagnostic markers that can be applied to snail tissues is warranted. Parasite identification was confirmed utilizing DNA amplification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using PCR and trematode specific primers. Sequencing full ssrDNA and D1-D3 lsrDNA confirmed the identity in all cases as P. bragai. However, the short 310 bp fragment used provides insufficient variation or sequence length for wider application. The epidemiology, pathology and consequences for the management of these endangered species are discussed. Preliminary work on developing an effective ante mortem diagnostic PCR test kit is also highlighted.

  12. Renal trematode infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in zoo housed Columbiformes and a red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Steve; Chantrey, Julian; Chatterton, James; Aldhoun, Jitka A.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Trematode infections affect a diverse range of avian species and the organs that are parasitised are also very varied. The family Eucotylidae contains seven genera of renal flukes that parasitise various birds. In birds, mild to severe lesions have been reported for species of the genus Paratanaisia, which was originally described from columbiform and galliform specimens collected in South America and has been identified in a number of wild avian species. This paper investigates eight cases of renal trematode infection at Chester Zoo in the UK due to Paratanaisia bragai in five previously unreported species: red bird-of-paradise, Socorro dove, Mindanao bleeding heart dove, laughing dove and emerald dove. Pathological changes, which varied between species, are discussed. A known intermediate snail host Allopeas clavulinum was present in the enclosures but there was no direct evidence of trematode infection. The size of the snails, possible low prevalence and the difficulty of visualising sporocysts contributed to this. Thus the development and application of further molecular diagnostic markers that can be applied to snail tissues is warranted. Parasite identification was confirmed utilizing DNA amplification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using PCR and trematode specific primers. Sequencing full ssrDNA and D1-D3 lsrDNA confirmed the identity in all cases as P. bragai. However, the short 310 bp fragment used provides insufficient variation or sequence length for wider application. The epidemiology, pathology and consequences for the management of these endangered species are discussed. Preliminary work on developing an effective ante mortem diagnostic PCR test kit is also highlighted. PMID:24533313

  13. LA GESTIONE DEI CREDITI ANOMALI IN TEMPO DI CRISI

    OpenAIRE

    MANUELA GERANIO

    2013-01-01

    L'evoluzione del mercato del credito al dettaglio negli anni più recenti, caratterizzati da una riduzione dei volumi erogati e da un aumento delle anomalie, va evidenziando l'importanza di un approccio proattivo e sempre più business oriented anche nella fase di recupero dei crediti, volto a minimizzare i tempi ed i costi della collection nonché a conservare, dove possibile, la relazione con il cliente.

  14. Symbolika křesťanských hřbitovů

    OpenAIRE

    ČERNÁ, Pavlína

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly describes historical evolution of Christianity. It follows up formation of Christianity and events that affected its evolution significantly. It analyzes main Christian symbols like fish, anchor, chalice, dove or lamb. It constructs meaning of the symbols from the beginning of Christianity to present days. The importance of the symbols for believers is demonstrated by frequent quotations from the Bible. It shows the meaning of the symbols for other civilizations and reli...

  15. Non-destructive splitter of twisted light

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    Efficiently discriminating beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) is of fundamental importance for various applications including high capacity optical communication and quantum information processing. We design and experimentally verify a distinguished method for effectively splitting different OAM-carried beams by introducing Dove prisms in a ring cavity. Because of rotational symmetry broken of two OAM-carried beams with opposite topological charges, their transmission spe...

  16. Studio dei fattori che influenzano la digeribilità della fibra nella bovina da latte: approcci dinamici

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfante, Elena

    2017-01-01

    I ruminanti sono altamente specializzati nella digestione della fibra. In condizioni di ottima funzionalità digestiva, sono le particelle di foraggio ad essere trattenute per lungo tempo nel rumine dove possono essere degradate dai batteri cellulosolitici. Nonostante queste conoscenze, la stima della degradabilità ruminale delle porzioni potenzialmente degradabili delle fibre è stata notevolmente sottostimata da taluni modelli dinamici di razionamento. Studi più recenti realizzati da Kriz...

  17. Formulated Beta-Cyfluthrin Shows Wide Divergence in Toxicity among Bird Species

    OpenAIRE

    Addy-Orduna, Laura M.; Zaccagnini, María-Elena; Canavelli, Sonia B.; Mineau, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to birds is negligible, though few species have been tested. The oral acute toxicity of formulated beta-cyfluthrin was determined for canaries (Serinus sp.), shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), and eared doves (Zenaida auriculata). Single doses were administered to adults by gavage. Approximate lethal doses 50 (LD50) and their confidence intervals were determined by approximate D-optimal design. Canaries were found to be...

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes of living and extinct pigeons revise the timing of the columbiform radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, André E R; Novak, Ben J; Haile, James; Heupink, Tim H; Fjeldså, Jon; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Poinar, Hendrik; Church, George M; Shapiro, Beth

    2016-10-26

    Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the nature and timing of the group's evolutionary radiation remains poorly resolved, despite recent advances in DNA sequencing and assembly and the growing database of pigeon mitochondrial genomes. One challenge has been to generate comparative data from the large number of extinct pigeon lineages, some of which are morphologically unique and therefore difficult to place in a phylogenetic context. We used ancient DNA and next generation sequencing approaches to assemble complete mitochondrial genomes for eleven pigeons, including the extinct Ryukyu wood pigeon (Columba jouyi), the thick-billed ground dove (Alopecoenas salamonis), the spotted green pigeon (Caloenas maculata), the Rodrigues solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria), and the dodo (Raphus cucullatus). We used a Bayesian approach to infer the evolutionary relationships among 24 species of living and extinct pigeons and doves. Our analyses indicate that the earliest radiation of the Columbidae crown group most likely occurred during the Oligocene, with continued divergence of major clades into the Miocene, suggesting that diversification within the Columbidae occurred more recently than has been reported previously.

  19. Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Begona; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Merino, Ruben; Gomez, Gema; Rivera, Laura; Jose Gonzalez, Maria; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p'-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, with 21 pg/g for house sparrows, and 7.7 pg/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in house sparrow and common ground doves were 58 and 254 pg/g, respectively, and are within the highest concentrations reported in species that are in the low levels of food webs. The major differences in organochlorine levels between species were found for ortho-PCBs and DDTs. ortho-PCB levels were higher in the seedeater species, whereas DDT levels were higher in the omnivorous species. Heavy metal levels were far below those associated with negative effects. - Capsule: The first data on contaminants in birds from Baja California is given

  20. Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Begona [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: bjimenez@iqog.csic.es; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Merino, Ruben [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Gema [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rivera, Laura [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mar Bermejo 195, Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Jose Gonzalez, Maria [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Abad, Esteban [Department of Ecotechnologies, Research and Development Center, CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Rivera, Josep [Department of Ecotechnologies, Research and Development Center, CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p'-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, with 21 pg/g for house sparrows, and 7.7 pg/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in house sparrow and common ground doves were 58 and 254 pg/g, respectively, and are within the highest concentrations reported in species that are in the low levels of food webs. The major differences in organochlorine levels between species were found for ortho-PCBs and DDTs. ortho-PCB levels were higher in the seedeater species, whereas DDT levels were higher in the omnivorous species. Heavy metal levels were far below those associated with negative effects. - Capsule: The first data on contaminants in birds from Baja California is given.

  1. Characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (Newcastle disease virus isolated in South Africa from 2001 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abolnik

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1, a variant of Newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in South Africa since the mid-1980s. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced in to South Africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in Europe and the Far East since the early 1990s. During 2006, a PPMV-1 virus was isolated from an African ground hornbil(l Bucorvus leadbeateri which becamea cutely infected with PPMV-1 and died, probably after scavenging off infected dove carcasses in the region, since a closely-related PPMV-1 strain was also isolated from doves collected nearby. The hornbill isolate had lCPl and MDT values characteristic of PPMV-1s trains. The threat of PPMV-1 to poultry production and biodiversity in southern Africa highlights the importance of monitoring the spread of this strain.

  2. Stress Responses to Heat Exposure in Three Species of Australian Desert Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shangzhe; Romero, L Michael; Htut, Zaw Win; McWhorter, Todd J

    Birds need to respond to weather changes quickly and appropriately for their own well-being and survival. The inability to respond appropriately to heat waves can be fatal to individual birds and can translate into large-scale mortality events. We investigated corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil∶lymphocyte (H∶L) ratio responses of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), and diamond doves (Geopelia cuneata) to heat exposures. The birds were exposed to a temperature similar to what they experience during a typical summer day (35°C) and a higher temperature (45°C) similar to that experienced during a heat wave. There were no significant increases between the CORT concentrations before and after heat exposure in zebra finches and budgerigars at 35° and 45°C, but there was a significant increase in CORT concentrations in diamond doves after exposure to 45°C. The H∶L ratios increased significantly after heat exposure in budgerigars at 35° and 45°C and in diamond doves at 35°C. No significant correlation was found between the changes in CORT and H∶L ratios. The data suggest that there are species differences in birds' stress responses to heat exposure that may reflect their ability to detect and adapt to high temperatures. There appear to be differences between the two types of stress measurements, which may reflect differences in the timescales of these responses.

  3. Architectural elements and bounding surfaces in fluvial deposits: anatomy of the Kayenta formation (lower jurassic), Southwest Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    1988-03-01

    Three well-exposed outcrops in the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic), near Dove Creek in southwestern Colorado, were studied using lateral profiles, in order to test recent regarding architectural-element analysis and the classification and interpretation of internal bounding surfaces. Examination of bounding surfaces within and between elements in the Kayenta outcrops raises problems in applying the three-fold classification of Allen (1983). Enlarging this classification to a six-fold hierarchy permits the discrimination of surfaces intermediate between Allen's second- and third-order types, corresponding to the upper bounding surfaces of macroforms, and internal erosional "reactivation" surfaces within the macroforms. Examples of the first five types of surface occur in the Kayenta outcrops at Dove Creek. The new classifications is offered as a general solution to the problem of description of complex, three-dimensional fluvial sandstone bodies. The Kayenta Formation at Dove Creek consists of a multistorey sandstone body, including the deposits of lateral- and downstream-accreted macroforms. The storeys show no internal cyclicity, neither within individual elements nor through the overall vertical thickness of the formation. Low paleocurrent variance indicates low sinuosity flow, whereas macroform geometry and orientation suggest low to moderate sinuosity. The many internal minor erosion surfaces draped with mud and followed by intraclast breccias imply frequent rapid stage fluctuation, consistent with variable (seasonal? monsonal? ephemmeral?) flow. The results suggest a fluvial architecture similar to that of the South Saskatchewan River, through with a three-dimensional geometry unlike that interpreted from surface studies of that river.

  4. Quantifying Silica Reactivity in Subsurface Environments: Reaction Affinity and Solute Matrix Controls on Quartz and SiO2 Glass Dissolution Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, Patricia M.

    2000-01-01

    During the three years of this project, Professor Dove's laboratory made tremendous progress in understanding controls on amorphous silica dissolution kinetics in aqueous solutions. Our findings have already received considerable attention. In hydrothermal and low temperature studies, the work focused on determining quantitative and mechanistic controls on the most abundant silica polymorphs in Earth environments--quartz and amorphous silica. Our studies achieved goals set forth in the original proposal to establish a new quantitative understanding of amorphous silica dissolution. This support has resulted in 10 journal, 12 abstracts and 2 thesis publications. The PI and students were also recognized with 6 awards during this period. The 1998 EMSP conference in Chicago was an important meeting for our project. The symposium, enabled P.I. Dove to establish valuable contacts with ''users'' having specific needs for the findings of our EMSP project related to the urgency of problems in the Tanks Focus Area (TFA). Since that time, our working relations developed as Dove interacted with TFA scientists and engineers on the problems of waste glass properties. These interactions refined our experimental objectives to better meet their needs. Dove presented the results of EMSP research findings to a TFA subgroup at a Product Acceptance Workshop held in Salt Lake City during December 1998. The travel costs to attend this unanticipated opportunity were paid from EMSP project funds. In January 2000, Dove also attended a similar meeting in Atlanta with PNNL, SRL and BNF scientists/engineers to discuss new issues and make another level of decisions on the Product Acceptance goals. Our EMSP-funded research interfaced very well with the ongoing studies of Dr. Pete McGrail and colleagues in the Applied Geochemistry Group at PNNL. The value of our work to ''users'' was further demonstrated when Dove's EMSP-funded Postdoc, Dr. Jonathan Icenhower was hired by the same PNNL group. With

  5. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50). Based on the dose-response curves and LC50s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC50 was 1.79 ug/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC50s were 1 ug/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC50s were greater than 0.25 ug/g mercury but less than 1 ug/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (S terna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC50s were less than 0.25 ug/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we could compare the toxicity of our

  6. Assessment of the Potential Role of Tryptophan as the Precursor of Serotonin and Melatonin for the Aged Sleep-wake Cycle and Immune Function: as a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Paredes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review we summarize the relationship between the amino acid, tryptophan, the neurotransmitter, serotonin, and the indole, melatonin, with the rhythms of sleep/wake and the immune response along with the possible connections between the alterations in these rhythms due to aging and the so-called “serotonin and melatonin deficiency state.” The decrease associated with aging of the brain and circulating levels of serotonin and melatonin seemingly contributes to the alterations of both the sleep/wake cycle and the immune response that typically accompany old age. The supplemental administration of tryptophan, e.g. the inclusion of tryptophan-enriched food in the diet, might help to remediate these age-related alterations due to its capacity of raise the serotonin and melatonin levels in the brain and blood. Herein, we also summarize a set of studies related to the potential role that tryptophan, and its derived product melatonin, may play in the restoration of the aged circadian rhythms of sleep/wake and immune response, taking the ringdove ( Streptopelia risoria as a suitable model.

  7. Population expansion of some bird species in the city of Wrocław

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2002-2010, distribution and numbers of eight bird species were studied in the whole city of Wrocław, SW Poland (293 km2. The estimation for these species are as follow: Streptopelia turtur: 3 breeding pairs, Upupa epops: 1, Cuculus canorus: 49, Emberiza hortulana: 7, Luscinia megarhynchos: 214-286, Phoenicurus phoenicurus: 87-118, Turdus pilaris: 105-150, Hippolais icterina: 136-181. In comparison with 1980‘s and 1990’s, a rapid increase in the numbers P. phoenicurus, and T. pilaris, and a slight increase of L. megarhynchos and Cuculus canorus were documented. T. pilaris began to breed in the city in the end of 1990‘s. The increase may indicate that the habitats in Wrocław improved both in regard to food availability, nesting sites and other environmental requisitions. The increase in the numbers recorded for C. canorus, P. phoe-nicurus, and L. megarhynchos may also be a result of good conditions prevailing in their wintering grounds in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences support a Cretaceous origin of Columbiformes and a dispersal-driven radiation in the Paleocene .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sergio L; Johnson, Kevin P; Clayton, Dale H; Baker, Allan J

    2007-08-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among genera of pigeons and doves (Aves, Columbiformes) have not been fully resolved because of limited sampling of taxa and characters in previous studies. We therefore sequenced multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA genes totaling over 9000 bp from 33 of 41 genera plus 8 outgroup taxa, and, together with sequences from 5 other pigeon genera retrieved from GenBank, recovered a strong phylogenetic hypothesis for the Columbiformes. Three major clades were recovered with the combined data set, comprising the basally branching New World pigeons and allies (clade A) that are sister to Neotropical ground doves (clade B), and the Afro-Eurasian and Australasian taxa (clade C). None of these clades supports the monophyly of current families and subfamilies. The extinct, flightless dodo and solitaires (Raphidae) were embedded within pigeons and doves (Columbidae) in clade C, and monophyly of the subfamily Columbinae was refuted because the remaining subfamilies were nested within it. Divergence times estimated using a Bayesian framework suggest that Columbiformes diverged from outgroups such as Apodiformes and Caprimulgiformes in the Cretaceous before the mass extinction that marks the end of this period. Bayesian and maximum likelihood inferences of ancestral areas, accounting for phylogenetic uncertainty and divergence times, respectively, favor an ancient origin of Columbiformes in the Neotropical portion of what was then Gondwana. The radiation of modern genera of Columbiformes started in the Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene, as previously estimated for other avian groups such as ratites, tinamous, galliform birds, penguins, shorebirds, parrots, passerine birds, and toucans. Multiple dispersals of more derived Columbiformes between Australasian and Afro-Eurasian regions are required to explain current distributions.

  9. Overcoming the response plateau in multiple myeloma: a novel bortezomib-based strategy for secondary induction and high-yield CD34+ stem cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesvizky, Ruben; Mark, Tomer M; Ward, Maureen; Jayabalan, David S; Pearse, Roger N; Manco, Megan; Stern, Jessica; Christos, Paul J; Mathews, Lena; Shore, Tsiporah B; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Xiang, Zhaoying; Ely, Scott; Skerret, Donna; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Coleman, Morton; Lane, Maureen E

    2013-03-15

    This phase II study evaluated bortezomib-based secondary induction and stem cell mobilization in 38 transplant-eligible patients with myeloma who had an incomplete and stalled response to, or had relapsed after, previous immunomodulatory drug-based induction. Patients received up to six 21-day cycles of bortezomib plus dexamethasone, with added liposomal doxorubicin for patients not achieving partial response or better by cycle 2 or very good partial response or better (≥VGPR) by cycle 4 (DoVeD), followed by bortezomib, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and filgrastim mobilization. Gene expression/signaling pathway analyses were conducted in purified CD34+ cells after bortezomib-based mobilization and compared against patients who received only filgrastim ± cyclophosphamide. Plasma samples were similarly analyzed for quantification of associated protein markers. The response rate to DoVeD relative to the pre-DoVeD baseline was 61%, including 39% ≥ VGPR. Deeper responses were achieved in 10 of 27 patients who received bortezomib-based mobilization; postmobilization response rate was 96%, including 48% ≥ VGPR, relative to the pre-DoVeD baseline. Median CD34+ cell yield was 23.2 × 10(6) cells/kg (median of 1 apheresis session). After a median follow-up of 46.6 months, median progression-free survival was 47.1 months from DoVeD initiation; 5-year overall survival rate was 76.4%. Grade ≥ 3 adverse events included thrombocytopenia (13%), hand-foot syndrome (11%), peripheral neuropathy (8%), and neutropenia (5%). Bortezomib-based mobilization was associated with modulated expression of genes involved in stem cell migration. Bortezomib-based secondary induction and mobilization could represent an alternative strategy for elimination of tumor burden in immunomodulatory drug-resistant patients that does not impact stem cell yield.

  10. Nodular typhlitis associated with the nematodes Heterakis gallinarum and Heterakis isolonche in pheasants: frequency and pathology with evidence of neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Rodrigo Caldas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation related to the frequency and pathology of Heterakis gallinarum and pathology of Heterakis isolonche in pheasants from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was conducted by means of clinical examinations, necropsies, and histopathological analysis in 50 ring-necked pheasants from backyard flocks of 11 localities; also, histological sections of caeca of golden pheasants deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC have been considered in the present study. During necropsies, only specimens of H. gallinarum were recovered with a prevalence of 90%, mean intensity of 81.9 and range of infection of 1-413. Gross lesions were characterized by congestion, thickening, petechial haemorrhages of the mucosa, intussusception, and nodules in the cecal wall. Under microscopy, chronic difuse typhlitis, haemosiderosis, granulomas with necrotic center in the submucosa and leiomyomas in the submucosa, muscular and serosa associated with immature H. gallinarum worms were observed. The examination of histological sections previously deposited in the CHIOC, revealed more severe alterations associated with concomitant infections with H. gallinarum and H. isolonche in golden pheasants, and were characterized by several necrotic areas with cholesterol clefts in the submucosa, giant cell granulomas in the submucosa, and serosa centralized by necrosis and worm sections and neoplastic nodules in the muscular and submucosa.

  11. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  12. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEW K. SPRENGER

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014. A total of 52.7% (116/220 of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66 and mammals was 59.1% (91/154. Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37.3% (82/220 of the samples, Eimeria spp. in 10% (22/220, and Trichuris spp. in 4.5% (10/220. The most frequent mammal species were llamas (Lama glama, and dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus with infection rate of 70.1% (54/77 and 60.8% (14/23, respectively. In other hand, cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus and ring necks (Psittacula krameri, were the most researched birds, with infection rate of 20% (40/50 and 100% (6/6, respectively. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed in most of wildlife animals. Further investigations should be conducted focusing on parasite control strategies and the conservation measurements for harmonizing the human-animal interaction on the long-term, reducing associated health risks.

  13. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Lew K; Yoshitani, Ursula Y; Buzatti, Andreia; Molento, Marcelo B

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014). A total of 52.7% (116/220) of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66) and mammals was 59.1% (91/154). Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37.3% (82/220) of the samples, Eimeria spp. in 10% (22/220), and Trichuris spp. in 4.5% (10/220). The most frequent mammal species were llamas (Lama glama), and dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus) with infection rate of 70.1% (54/77) and 60.8% (14/23), respectively. In other hand, cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and ring necks (Psittacula krameri), were the most researched birds, with infection rate of 20% (40/50) and 100% (6/6), respectively. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed in most of wildlife animals. Further investigations should be conducted focusing on parasite control strategies and the conservation measurements for harmonizing the human-animal interaction on the long-term, reducing associated health risks.

  14. Imported parakeets harbor H9N2 influenza A viruses that are genetically closely related to those transmitted to humans in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, M; Imada, T; Sanada, Y; Etoh, M; Sanada, N; Tsukamoto, K; Kawaoka, Y; Yamaguchi, S

    2001-04-01

    In 1997 and 1998, H9N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from the respiratory organs of Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula Krameri manillensis) that had been imported from Pakistan to Japan. The two isolates were closely related to each other (>99% as determined by nucleotide analysis of eight RNA segments), indicating that H9N2 viruses of the same lineage were maintained in these birds for at least 1 year. The hemagglutinins and neuraminidases of both isolates showed >97% nucleotide identity with those of H9N2 viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 1999, while the six genes encoding internal proteins were >99% identical to the corresponding genes of H5N1 viruses recovered during the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong. These results suggest that the H9N2 parakeet viruses originating in Pakistan share an immediate ancestor with the H9N2 human viruses. Thus, influenza A viruses with the potential to be transmitted directly to humans may be circulating in captive birds worldwide.

  15. Evaluation of ecological constraints on peat mining in New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautreau-Daigle, H

    1990-07-01

    A study was undertaken to obtain baseline information on moose and waterfowl usage of peatlands in the Escuminac bog complex in New Brunswick, in order to determine the impact of existing peat mining activities and to assist in making decisions regarding future resource development. The bog complex comprises a relatively large number of freshwater ponds which support breeding populations for waterfowl and serve as staging areas during bird migrations. Aerial surveys were carried out to quantify the use of these ponds by waterfowl and to determine changes in their level of use as a result of peat extraction. Results indicate that usage of ponds by birds seems mostly limited to staging and migration, except for black and ring-necked ducks. Those species are the most significant users of bog ponds and have been found to breed and raise young in the ponds. Some areas were found to get more waterfowl than others, but this was not shown to be related to peat mining activity. Active mined areas were devoid of waterfowl, but this area was a relatively small portion of the total bog area. The moose survey examined moose activity in a control area (without peat mining) and a representative bog area where peat mining occurred. Results do not indicate a difference in the moose activity patterns between the two areas. 9 refs., 25 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  17. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  18. Karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes: an examination of the process of karyotypic evolution by comparison of the molecular cytogenetic findings with the molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, M; Nishibori, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y

    2004-01-01

    To define the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Chinese bamboo-partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of the Phasianidae, and plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) of the Cracidae, with chicken DNA probes of chromosomes 1-9 and Z. Including our previous data from five other species, chicken (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis) of the Phasianidae, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) of the Numididae and California quail (Callipepla californica) of the Odontophoridae, we represented the evolutionary changes of karyotypes in the 13 species of the Galliformes. In addition, we compared the cytogenetic data with the molecular phylogeny of the 13 species constructed with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and discussed the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes. Comparative chromosome painting confirmed the previous data on chromosome rearrangements obtained by G-banding analysis, and identified several novel chromosome rearrangements. The process of the evolutionary changes of macrochromosomes in the 13 species was in good accordance with the molecular phylogeny, and the ancestral karyotype of the Galliformes is represented. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Il muro nella mente:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 78 anni, Nadine Gordimer, premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1991, è infaticabile: il suo ultimo romanzo The Pick up è stato pubblicato negli Stati Uniti e in Inghilterra, dove ha ricevuto però tiepida accoglienza,e ora anche in Italia1. Alcuni mesi fa, tuttavia, Nadine Gordimer veniva ricordata dai giornali per un’impresa non letteraria: si tratta di un film-documentario dal titolo Johannesburg-Berlin, The Wall in the Mind, che Gordimer ha scritto e che ha girato con suo figlio, Hugo Cassirer, nel 1995-1996.

  20. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  1. Il Toyota way e la crisi. Tornare alle origini del lean management per sopravvivere e prosperare

    OpenAIRE

    A. Camuffo; D. Weber

    2009-01-01

    Nel settore automobilistico gli occhi sono tutti puntati sui bailouts delle Big Three americane e sugli interventi statali a supporto dei produttori europei, oltre che sulla scommessa rappresentata dall’operazione FIAT-Chrysler. Ma la domanda più importante per capire dove andrà il settore auto è cosa accadrà a Toyota. È questa la vera domanda che ci si deve porre, perché il Toyota Way è importante, al di là del suo destino individuale, per il destino del settore automobi...

  2. Multidimensional extended spatial evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krześlak, Michał; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the classical hawk-dove model using mixed spatial evolutionary games (MSEG). In these games, played on a lattice, an additional spatial layer is introduced for dependence on more complex parameters and simulation of changes in the environment. Furthermore, diverse polymorphic equilibrium points dependent on cell reproduction, model parameters, and their simulation are discussed. Our analysis demonstrates the sensitivity properties of MSEGs and possibilities for further development. We discuss applications of MSEGs, particularly algorithms for modelling cell interactions during the development of tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Sir Humphry Davy, the discoverer of anesthetic action of nitrous oxide--Davy and poets of British Romanticism and inhalation of laughing gas by his friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1998-01-01

    In "Dove Cottage", the old house of the poet laureate William Wordsworth (1770-1850) in Grasmere, England, there is a portrait of Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). In 1804, Wordsworth invited his young friend to his home. Davy's works in the field of chemistry are well known. Interestingly enough, once he wished he could be a poet. His future seemed to be prosperous and delightful. He was highly evaluated by Robert Southey, poet laureate. But he has chosen the way of chemist. The author found some facts from literatures and received some information by courtesy of the Wordsworth Trust, Centre for British Romanticism. Davy's life and his works were introduced chronologically.

  4. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  5. Studio di Architetture e Protocolli per Reti Ottiche

    CERN Document Server

    Cucchi, R; Raffaelli, C; Vistoli, C

    1999-01-01

    Le reti ottiche basate sulla tecnologia WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) sono molto promettenti per rispondere non solo alle esigenze di capacit trasmissiva ma anche per la realizzazione di reti costituite da apparati $9 esclusivamente ottici dove la lunghezza d¹onda rappresenta il circuito di comunicazione fra nodo sorgente e nodo destinatario.Questo documento prende in esame il ³trigger di II livello dell¹esperimento ATLAS come case study², ne $9 analizza le esigenze di trasmissione dei dati e descrive uno studio di fattibilit basato su una rete ottica a stella.

  6. The Underpinnings of American Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    domestic opportunity. Hamilton saw international commerce as a win-win strategy as opposed to a zero-sum game of war.20 Hamiltonian defense of...former dove,” Salon Magazine (January 2, 2002), http://www.salon.com/books/feature/2002/01/03/hawk/index.html (accessed Jan 10, 2010). 33 25 Ibid...2009). 48 Joan Walsh, "Yes, It’s Obama’s War Now," Salon Magazine, (December 1, 2009), http://www.salon.com/news/afghanistan/index.html?story=/opinion

  7. DAYA SAING DAN MODEL PEMASARAN SENTRA INDUSTRI USAHA KERAJINAN SANGKAR BURUNG PERKUTUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Arum Savitri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objectives of this study were 1 analyzing the competitiveness, 2 analyzing the market size, 3 analyzing marketing strategies’ priorities and alternatives to improve the competitiveness of industry center of dove cage in Dawuhan Mangli Village, Jember Regency. The method used in this study was descriptive analysis. The analysis tools used in this study were Porter’s Diamond Theory, BCG (Boston Consulting Group, SWOT and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process. Competitiveness analysis using diamond theory of Porter showed that industry center of dove cage handicraft in Dawuhan Mangli Village, Jember Regency is still weak. There are 9 components that have weaknesses while other 7 components have strengths. Market growth rate and relative market share formulated on BCG diagram are in the position of Question Marks, which means that the business has the opportunity to grow and expand but needs sufficient cash flow in order to increase its relative market. Based on SWOT and AHP analysis were obtained 7 marketing strategies with their priorities scales including: strengthening the capital, PSBP group formation, education and training, warehouse and workshop building, institutional formation of marketing and raw materials, increasing promotion, improving the quality and diversification of products. To enhance the industrial competitiveness of dove cage industry, development activities through strengthening the marketing and raw materials institution should be done.Keywords: competitiveness, marketing strategy, dove cage ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah 1 menganalisis daya saing, 2 menganalisis market size, 3 merumuskan prioritas strategi pemasaran untuk sentra industri usaha kerajinan sangkar burung perkutut di Desa Dawuhan Mangli, Kabupaten Jember. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif. Analisis yang digunakan adalah Porter’s Diamond Theory, analisis BCG (Boston Consulting Group, SWOT, dan AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process

  8. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...

  9. Dos nuevos registros de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae sobre Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae en la Argentina Two new records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae on Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Guardia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae, Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing y Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, son registradas por primera vez sobre Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("yerutí yungueña" (Aves: Columbidae. Además, C. gracilicapitis es citada por primera vez para la Argentina.Two species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae, Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing and Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker are recorded for the first time on Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("Large-tailed dove" (Aves: Columbidae. In addition, C. gracilicapitis is recorded for the first time in Argentina.

  10. Youtube attracca (per ora) in un porto sicuro: in Tema di Responsabilità del Service Provider: Nota a Viacom Int'l, Inc. v. YouTube, Inc., 718 F. Supp. 2d 514 (S.D.N.Y. 2010) = Youtube Docks in a Safe Harbor (for now): On Service Provider’s Liability: Note to Viacom Int'l, Inc. v. YouTube, Inc., 718 F. Supp. 2d 514 (S.D.N.Y. 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanella, Federica

    2011-01-01

    La nota affronta la complessa questione della responsabilità indiretta dell’Internet Service Provider per le violazioni del diritto d’autore perpetrate in via diretta dagli utenti finali. Viacom è uno tra i più grandi creatori e distributori al mondo di programmi televisivi, film ed altre forme di intrattenimento. YouTube è un sito internet dove ciascuno può visualizzare in streaming video caricati dagli utenti stessi o da società di intrattenimento. Viacom ritiene che YouTube sia responsabil...

  11. Folly Beach, South Carolina. Survey Report on Beach Erosion Control and Hurricane Protection. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Animal species which may be observed in this community include the ground dove, mockingbird , robin, blackbird, grackle, opossum, rabbit, raccoon, gray...Laughing gull Larus- atricilia Least tern Sterna al bi fruncs Lesser yellowlegs Totanus flavip es Marsh hawk Circus cyaneus Mockingbird rlinus...ve’c It kill 0Iinltso ilt -iolIr;nt pet erilfi I grasses-- slit It Is- ci uiis (l~iiP j il it i I - il-it) .0 bit i ci 1tutu I grass 0’a n i tie

  12. Uno scenario da film: la "Mostra del Lazio" di Armando Brasini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscini Vitali, Aurora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La Mostra dell’agricoltura, dell’industria e delle arti applicate, detta più comunemente “del Lazio”, tenutasi nel 1923 presso il Galoppatoio di Villa Borghese a Roma, impegnò l’architetto Armando Brasini nella realizzazione di una vera e propria “cittadella” espositiva; gli scenografici padiglioni, poi impiegati per le ambientazioni del film Quo Vadis, furono progettati come elementi cardine di un utopico spazio urbano dove potesse di-mostrarsi la rinascita, tutta fascista, del mito imperiale.

  13. Bird diversity in northern Myanmar and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Xia; Kyaw, Myint; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Le; Swa, Kyaw; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2017-09-18

    We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species ( Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus ) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s. l. was higher than species richness at higher elevations. Our results suggest that the current protected areas in this region should be expanded to lower elevations to cover critical conservation gaps.

  14. Bird diversity in northern Myanmar and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Xia; Kyaw, Myint; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Le; Swa, Kyaw; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2017-01-01

    We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species (Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s. l. was higher than species richness at higher elevations. Our results suggest that the current protected areas in this region should be expanded to lower elevations to cover critical conservation gaps. PMID:29181901

  15. Os mares e o "fondaco": viagens de Florian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Horn

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available I due mari di Fliran, emignato di seconda generazione diviso tra la terra dove nato e la terra di sua madre, tra la Germania e la Calabria. Un viaggio che contiene altri viaggi, tra i quali spicca quello di Florian nel suo esere e la ricerca di un´identità. Ill viaggio di Dumas, punto di partenza per un viaggio interstuale e confluenza di un percorso esistenziale, e Ill Fondaco del Fico, transformato in locanda di famiglia e simbolo maggiore di una cultura antica che si rinnova. L´emigrazione como potenzialità umana e letteraria; spazio di pluralità.

  16. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  17. Immagini del mondo e forme della politica in Max Weber

    OpenAIRE

    Alagna, Mirko Domenico

    2014-01-01

    L’idea della redenzione era di per sé antichissima, se in essa si include la liberazione dal bisogno, dalla fame, dalla siccità, dalla malattia e – infine – dalla sofferenza e dalla morte. Tuttavia la redenzione acquistò un significato specifico soltanto dove fu espressione di un’''immagine del mondo'' razionalizzata sistematicamente e di una presa di posizione in base a questa. Infatti ciò che la redenzione, secondo il suo senso e la sua qualità psicologica, voleva e poteva significare, dipe...

  18. Chlamydia psittaci in feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) and other backyard birds in Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert; Justice-Allen, Anne; Bodenstein, Barbara; Knowles, Susan N.; Grear, Daniel A.; Adams, Laura; Levy, Craig; Yaglom, Haley D.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Ciembor, Paula; Gregory, Christopher R.; Pesti, Denise; Ritchie, Branson W.

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, a mortality event of nonnative, feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) in residential backyards in Maricopa County, Arizona, US was attributed to infection with Chlamydia psittaci. In June 2014, additional mortality occurred in the same region. Accordingly, in August 2014 we sampled live lovebirds and sympatric bird species visiting backyard bird feeders to determine the prevalence of DNA and the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci using real-time PCR-based testing and elementary body agglutination, respectively. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was present in conjunctival-choanal or cloacal swabs in 93% (43/46) of lovebirds and 10% (14/142) of sympatric birds. Antibodies to C. psittaci were detected in 76% (31/41) of lovebirds and 7% (7/102) of sympatric birds. Among the sympatric birds, Rock Doves (Columba livia) had the highest prevalence of C. psittaci DNA (75%; 6/8) and seroprevalence (25%; 2/8). Psittacine circovirus 1 DNA was also identified, using real-time PCR-based testing, from the same swab samples in 69% (11/16) of species sampled, with a prevalence of 80% (37/46) in lovebirds and 27% (38/142) in sympatric species. The presence of either Rosy-faced Lovebirds or Rock Doves at residential bird feeders may be cause for concern for epizootic and zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci in this region.

  19. Correlation of Neuromarketing to Neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Shreyam, Richa; Garg, Ridhi; Sayed, Tabassum

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research work is to identify the most preferred brand of soap in New Delhi through wireless EEG signal through Neuromarketing. A group of four major soap brand advertisements i.e. Pears, Lux, Cinthol and Dove are considered for this research. The advertisement (video) of above these brands are used to stimulate the subjects (9 male and 9 female with age range of 22-30 years) The brain signal responses for the stimuli were collected using a 14 channel wireless headset with a sampling frequency of 128 Hz. The acquired signals are preprocessed using fourth order Butterworth band pass filter. Then feature extraction is done to extract desired features from the EEG signal. The mean value and then power of mean value of each soap brand is calculated. The frequency spectrum of above soap brands is obtained through time-frequency analysis using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT). The results so obtained are plotted in graphs for final analysis. The present experimental results are analyzed and it is indicated that the subjects are mostly inspired on Dove brand of soap compared to other brands.

  20. I sistemi biometrici lo sviluppo dei mercati negli Usa, UE e nel mondo. La normativa frena quello italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zucchetti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni il settore biometrico sta compiendo, a livello mondiale, importanti passi in avanti soprattutto in termini di sviluppo e di diffusione. Questo trend positivo riguarda il mondo anglosassone e, in particolare, la realtà statunitense dove i sistemi biometrici vengono utilizzati, nelle più svariate situazioni, sia come controllo della sicurezza fisica delle persone, sia come terminali per l’autorizzazione all’accesso. La stessa diffusione non è riscontrabile nella maggior parte dei Paesi europei e in Italia dove raffrontiamo una realtà assai atipica nella quale la biometria fa un gran parlare di sé ma, in concreto, viene utilizzata con molta difficoltà. Tuttavia, un punto di contatto tra tutti gli attori europei ed extraeuropei può essere individuato nello sviluppo del settore relativo al riconoscimento biometrico applicato ai passaporti ed alle carte di identità. Il processo di globalizzazione ha generato, infatti, grandi masse di individui in continuo e costante movimento da un Paese all’altro e, contestualmente, ha prodotto una crescente domanda di sicurezza soprattutto nei confronti della minaccia terroristica. Appare chiaro, quindi, come l’identificazione certa delle persone diventi una necessità e debba presentare tecnologie simili per essere utilizzate ovunque.

  1. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  2. Vagare e invaghirsi: derive magmatiche nel web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ranieri

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available La dimensione virtuale delle nuove tecnologie, dove 'virtuale' non vuole certo significare qualcosa come 'falso' o 'illusorio', è il giardino ideale dove pascolare le delizie (e le croci di una passione che non può terminare perché ad essa è preclusa l'esperienza del possesso. Allora gli occhi si fanno avidi contenitori di immagini, i polpastrelli si caricano dell'elettricità dell'incontro, gli organi sono sollecitati ad interagire con l'interfaccia della tecnologia e a farsi essi stessi interfaccia, anche solo per diminuire le probabilità del rigetto dell'impianto mentale tecnologico. Il fruitore del Web, lacerando lo specchio del monitor (Alice, certo, ma anche Alien, mette in atto la sua performance di interazione e significazione motoria, che è diversa ad ogni connessione e lungo lo scandire del nuovo tempo espresso in bps, e che proprio per questo è quanto mai body-art, deriva teatrale-tecnologica dell'arte concettuale o, a questo punto, concezionale, generatrice di ibridi Avatar.

  3. ABC di corpi: alcuni alfabeti figurati del XVI secolo del Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Butera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fra le diverse tipologie di motivi ornamentali, gli alfabeti figurati costituiscono un vero e proprio genere a se stante, che attinge al repertorio iconografico del proprio tempo e lo riflette in composizioni dotate di grande fascino e originalità. Per la quantità, la qualità e l’eterogeneità degli esemplari custoditi, il Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna costituisce un caso più unico che raro in Italia, vantando alfabeti figurati che abbracciano ampi confini geografici e cronologici, spaziando dal tardo gotico al XIX secolo. Dopo una breve introduzione sulle vicende collezionistiche di un nucleo grafico così insolito e particolare, l’articolo si concentra su alcuni esemplari di alfabeti figurati del Cinquecento di area transalpina. Partendo dall’alfabeto dei bambini di Hans Weiditz (1521, costruito rispettando le più rigorose regole geometriche, codificate nei coevi trattati rinascimentali, ma anche riflesso del rinato gusto per i fregi all’antica con putti, si passa agli alfabeti di Peter Flötner (1534 e di Jost Amman (1567, dove le lettere sono integralmente costituite da corpi umani, forzati in complicate posture, talvolta persino licenziose. Questi esemplari rappresentano degli interessanti esperimenti calligrafici, dove l’uomo diviene concretamente l’unità di misura dei caratteri dell’alfabeto.

  4. Surveillance potential of non-native Hawaiian birds for detection of West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Brand, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP® test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance.

  5. Optical derotator alignment using image-processing algorithm for tracking laser vibrometer measurements of rotating objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hossam; Kim, Dongkyu; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2017-06-01

    An optical component called a Dove prism is used to rotate the laser beam of a laser-scanning vibrometer (LSV). This is called a derotator and is used for measuring the vibration of rotating objects. The main advantage of a derotator is that it works independently from an LSV. However, this device requires very specific alignment, in which the axis of the Dove prism must coincide with the rotational axis of the object. If the derotator is misaligned with the rotating object, the results of the vibration measurement are imprecise, owing to the alteration of the laser beam on the surface of the rotating object. In this study, a method is proposed for aligning a derotator with a rotating object through an image-processing algorithm that obtains the trajectory of a landmark attached to the object. After the trajectory of the landmark is mathematically modeled, the amount of derotator misalignment with respect to the object is calculated. The accuracy of the proposed method for aligning the derotator with the rotating object is experimentally tested.

  6. Blood-feeding patterns of the Culex pipiens complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew J; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula; Brown, David A; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.

  7. Current status of bird pest species in agroecosystems of Buenos Aires province, central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codesido, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We carried out the first assessment of abundance and distribution of bird pest species (eared dove Zenaida auriculata, monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus, picazuro pigeon Patagioenas picazuro and spot-winged pigeon P. maculosa in the pampas of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, and analyzed their association with the presence of crops and/or introduced exotic woodlots in the rural landscape. We surveyed 35 transects located along secondary roads. Bird pest abundance was significantly higher at those sites with presence of woodlots (p<0.0001. Species-specific analyses revealed that abundance of both monk parakeet and picazuro pigeon was sensitive to the frequency of woodlots of tall and perennial tree species (Eucalyptus spp.; p<0.001, whereas eared dove abundance increased significantly with the frequency of woodlots composed by short and perennial tree species (Pinus spp., Casuarina spp.; p=0.002. Most bird pest species in the study area are more sensitive to the presence of woodlots rather than to the presence of croplands in the rural landscape. These results have practical implications, suggesting that an effective control of bird pest species in Buenos Aires province could be attained by managing exotic perennial tree species woodlots.

  8. The flight of the Passenger Pigeon: phylogenetics and biogeographic history of an extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin P; Clayton, Dale H; Dumbacher, John P; Fleischer, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    The human-caused extinction of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) is one of the best known and documented of any bird. This event was particularly alarming because the Passenger Pigeon went from being one of the most numerous avian species in the world to extinct in a period of decades, when the last individual died in captivity in a Cincinnati Zoo in 1914. While a great deal of information exists on the likely direct and indirect causes of its demise, as well as information on life-history, the phylogenetic relationships of this species have been subject to considerable speculation. Here we use DNA sequences obtained from museum specimens to resolve the phylogenetic position of this species with respect to other pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). We show that the Passenger Pigeon is not related to the New World mourning doves (Zenaida) as many authors have suggested, but is the sister taxon of all other New World pigeons (Patagioenas). Biogeographic analysis suggests the Passenger Pigeon lineage may have colonized North America from Asia, and subsequently dispersed into South America, leading to a more extensive radiation of New World pigeons. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. New twist in the optical schematic of surface slope measuring long trace profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Lacey, Ian; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The advents of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited synchrotron storage ring sources of x-rays are catalyzing the development of new, ultra-high accuracy metrology methods. To fully exploit the potential of these sources, metrology needs to be capable of determining the figure of an optical element with sub-nanometer height accuracy. Currently, the two most prevalent slope measuring instruments used for characterization of x-ray optics are the auto-collimator based nanometer optical measuring device (NOM) and the long trace profiler (LTP) using pencil beam interferometry (PBI). These devices have been consistently improved upon by the x-ray optics metrology community, but appear to be approaching their metrological limits. Here, we revise the traditional optical schematic of the LTP. We experimentally show that, for the level of accuracy desired for metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics, the Dove prism in the LTP reference channel appears to be one of the major sources of instrumental error. Therefore, we suggest returning back to the original PBI LTP schematics with no Dove prism in the reference channel. In this case, the optimal scanning strategies [Yashchuk, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)] used to suppress the instrumental drift error have to be used to suppress a possible drift error associated with laser beam pointing instability. We experimentally and by numerical simulation demonstrate the usefulness of the suggested approach for measurements with x-ray optics with both face up and face down orientations.

  10. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    A portable, hand-held apparatus is described for optically scanning indicia imprinted about a planar end face of an article having an outer wall surface, the apparatus comprising: a supporting frame; light detector means fixed to the frame for digitizing light patterns directed thereto; indexing means on the frame for engaging the planar end face and locating the end face in a preselected focal plane on the frame. The indexing means has an inner wall surface complementary to the article wall surface for disposition thereabout and terminates in an end portion beyond the planar end face. The inner wall surface has a radially inwardly extending shoulder spaced from the end portion and engageable with the planar end face; light means directed onto the preselected focal plane; optical means mounted on the frame about a central axis, the optical means being optically interposed between the indexing means and the light detector means for directing reflected light from the preselected focal plane to the light detector means and including a dove prism centrally aligned along the central axis; and means for selectively rotating the dove prism relative to the frame about the central axis to thereby rotate the image from the focal plane as transmitted to the light detector means

  11. Dal pixel all'acquerello: la tecnologia NPR nelle illustrazioni di architettura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Garagnani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Il progetto in architettura nasce dall’intuizione, concretizzata dapprima con schizzi istintivi atti ad esprimere compiutamente ciò che la parola non riesce a descrivere. Poi i disegni si fanno più dettagliati, recando graficismi e simboli normati per meglio descrivere il particolare. La computer grafica permette di orientare la comunicazione del progetto fino a simulazioni contestualizzate fortemente simili alla realtà. Tale forma di espressione tuttavia non sempre è appropriata, restituendo sovente l’impressione di osservare soluzioni definitive di progetto, mentre in realtà si è pervenuti forse ad una fase di sviluppo dove ancora le alternative sono possibili e dove il realismo digitale non riesce a rendere conto di tutti gli aspetti, anche emozionali, insiti nell’idea da rappresentare. Sono stati sviluppati software indirizzati al rendering non fotorealistico (NPR per fornire uno strumento flessibile al progettista che vuole raccontare la sua intuizione. In questo scritto vengono presentati alcuni risultati ottenibili con due programmi NPR specifici: Informatix Piranesi 5 e Autodesk Impression.

  12. Book review. Un veterinario a spasso per il mondo tra guerre, colonialismo e apartheid. Attilio Pini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attilio Pini, classe 1930, dai tre ai sedici anni ha vissuto in Somalia dove la sua famiglia si trasferì a seguito della malattia della madre Anna. Rientrato in Italia si è laureato in Medicina Veterinaria all'Università di Torino, città nella quale era stato mandato a finire il Liceo. È stato per un po' all'IZS del Piemonte ma poco dopo ha abbandonato la comodità del posto fisso e nel 1962 è tornato in Africa per andare a lavorare al Veterinary Research Laboratory di Kabete, in Kenya, dove è nata nel 1967 la sua a prima figlia Barbara. Si è poi spostato in Sudafrica, dove nel 1971 è nato il secondo figlio Stefano, all'Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute di Pretoria di cui è diventato in seguito vice direttore. A causa delle tensioni politiche e razziali, spinto anche dalla moglie Ilaria (da cui si separerà poco dopo decise di rientrare in Italia, a Ventimiglia, ritrovandosi suo malgrado a cambiare completamente vita e finire a gestire un campeggio. Sarà il prof. Adriano Mantovani a recuperarlo alla professione convincendolo ad andare in Zambia per lavorare a un progetto di cooperazione finanziato dal Ministero degli Affari Esteri. Dopo quell'esperienza seguiranno altre missioni in Bangladesh, ancora in Zambia, in Salvador ed Eritrea. Sul finire degli anni '80 Attilio Pini è tornato definitivamente in Italia dove ha collaborato con l'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, si è risposato con Nadia e, nel 1989, ha iniziato a lavorare per l'IZS di Teramo dove tuttora presta servizio. In questo agile libro è racchiusa l'avvincente storia di un "uomo senza radici e senza consuetudini" narrata in prima persona, senza filtri, con una capacità di sintesi rara. Tanti gli aneddoti sulla sua famiglia della media borghesia che aveva "la tipica servitù dei paesi coloniali": la figura dell'amata madre che "non aveva molta simpatia per i fascisti", del padre Ugo, Capo di Stato Maggiore in Somalia ma anch'egli molto critico verso il regime

  13. Las aves de distribución mediterránea en el País Vasco: abundancia y tendencia poblacional en el sur de Álava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainzarain, J.A., Belamendia, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varias especies de aves, entre ellas algunas catalogadas como amenazadas, presentan en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca una distribución meridional centrada en la Rioja Alavesa. Mediante transectos efectuados en esta comarca en las primaveras de 2012 y 2013, se obtuvieron datos sobre la abundancia de estas especies en diferentes tipos de hábitat. Con el fin de conocer la evolución reciente de sus poblaciones, esta información se comparó con la de dos estudios anteriores, llevados a cabo en 1988/89 y 1994. Nuestros datos revelan que el alcaudón real Lanius meridionalis se ha extinguido como nidificante en la comarca y que, junto con esta especie, la tórtola europea Streptopelia turtur, la calandria común Melanocorypha calandra y el escribano hortelano Emberiza hortulana son las que han experimentado una disminución más marcada. En sentido contrario, la curruca cabecinegra Sylvia melanocephala ha colonizado la comarca después de 1988, y la terrera común Calandrella brachydactyla probablemente haya aumentado sus efectivos. Las tendencias observadas coinciden en gran medida con las registradas en el conjunto de España mediante el programa SACRE. La abundancia global del grupo de especies analizadas ha sufrido un descenso significativo en las dos últimas décadas, paralelo a un notable aumento de la superficie ocupada por el viñedo en la comarca en detrimento de otros usos minoritarios del suelo.

  14. Detección de aves exóticas en parques urbanos del centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pineda-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas arboladas urbanas son utilizadas por algunas aves invasoras en su proceso de colonización; la detección temprana de estas especies es una acción necesaria para su vigilancia y control. Utilizamos un muestreo rápido en parques urbanos, que requiere de poco tiempo de planeación y ejecución, como una forma de detección de aves que actualmente aumentan su distribución en México: Streptopelia decaocto (paloma de collar, Myiopsitta monachus (perico monje, Turdus rufopalliatus (mirlo dorso rufo y Sturnus vulgaris (estornino pinto. Realizamos los muestreos en la mayoría de los parques de las ciudades de León de los Aldama, Guanajuato, Aguascalientes y Santiago de Querétaro. Presentamos los primeros registros de M. monachus, T. rufopalliatus y S. vulgaris para la ciudad de León de los Aldama; así como de M. monachus en la de Guanajuato. Además, en Santiago de Querétaro registramos las cuatro especies buscadas; a T. rufopalliatus en Guanajuato, y a S. vulgaris en Aguascalientes. Analizamos las variables asociadas con la presencia de las especies, así como el establecimiento de las especies en cada ciudad en relación con la proporción de parques en que se presentan. Sugerimos que este método es útil para evaluar la distribución actual de estas especies en México y proveer de conocimiento básico para futuros estudios.

  15. Systemic Inflammatory Load in Young and Old Ringdoves Is Modulated by Consumption of a Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jonathan; Terrón, María del Pilar; Garrido, María; Barriga, Carmen; Paredes, Sergio Damián; Espino, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A chronic subclinical inflammatory status that coexists with immune dysfunction is commonly found in the elderly population. Consumption of foods rich in antioxidants (e.g., cherries) is an attractive strategy to reduce risk from chronic diseases. Based on previous studies showing the antioxidant effect of a Jerte Valley cherry derivative product in humans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intake of a Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage on inflammatory load in both young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). To this purpose, circulating levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as serum levels of different acute-phase proteins were measured before and after a 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage. Thus, the 10-day treatment with the cherry-based beverage modulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both young and old ringdoves by down-regulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ) and up-regulating the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-2, and IL-10). Moreover, the 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based product reduced the levels of several proteins involved in acute-phase responses, such as C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin, and serum amyloid P component. On the other hand, old birds showed imbalanced levels of inflammatory markers toward a pro-inflammatory status, thereby underlining the fact that aging is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and inflammation-related chronic diseases. To sum up, the data suggest a potential health benefit by consuming the cherry-based beverage, especially in aged populations, through their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:22846077

  16. Thirty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    This third supplement subsequent to the 6th edition (1983) of the A.O.U. "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature as of 1 March 1989. The changes fall into nine categories: (1) six species are added to the main list (Pterodroma longirostris, Larus crassirostris, Streptopelia decaocto, Cocccyzus julieni, Chrysolampis mosquitus, Emberiza aureola) because of new distributional information; (2) five species (Ara cubensis, Chlorostilbon bracei, Empidonax occidentalis, Polioptila californica, Pipilo crissalis) are added to the main list because of the splitting of species already on the list; (3) one name (Anthus rubescens) is changed because of the splitting of a species from outside the Checklist area; (4) two names (Morus bassanus, Nyctanassa violacea) is removed from the main list to Appendix B because of re-evaluation of Northern Hemisphere records; (6) three species (Pterodrama rostrata, P. alba, P. solandri) are moved from Appendix A to Appendix B, and one (P. defilippiana) is added to Appendix B because of questionable sight records; (7)A.O.U. numbers are added to three species (Ciccaba virgata, Myiopagis viridicata, Molothrus bonariensis) on the basis on new distributional records or supporting data; (8) several corrections in spelling or citations are made; and (9) English names are changed for twelve species to accommodate worldwide usage of these names. No new distributional information is included except as indicated above (i.e. minor changes of distribution are not noted). These actions bring the number of species recognized as occurring in North America (main list) to 1,945.

  17. Nuevos registros de aves con anormalidad pigmentaria en México y propuesta de clave dicotómica para la identificación de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick R. Rodríguez-Ruíz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Las anormalidades pigmentarias en aves han adquirido mayor importancia e interés entre la comunidad ornitológica; sin em- bargo, resulta necesario contar con una herramienta de diagnóstico apropiada que brinde los criterios para lograr un sistema de identificación entre los distintos tipos de anormalidades. Para ello, proponemos una clave dicotómica para su identificación en campo con base en terminología obtenida de literatura especializada y una asociación de caracteres fenotípicos de aves. También, reportamos la presencia de anormalidades pigmentarias en la coloración corporal y de plumaje de cinco especies de aves que han sido observadas de forma ocasional en áreas perturbadas por impacto antropogénico en Tamaulipas, México: melanismo en la tortolita mexicana (Columbina inca, aberración ino en la paloma turca (Streptopelia decaocto, aberración ino en el correcaminos norteño (Geococcyx californianus, leucismo parcial en el pijuy (Crotophaga sulcirostris y leucismo parcial en el tordo de ojo rojo (Molothrus aeneus. Las evidencias de casos actuales sugieren un aparente aumento de especies en vida libre con variación en la pigmentación. Las causas que lo provocan aún son discutibles, por lo cual, relacionar qué factores naturales o artificiales están involucrados en estos padecimientos podrá contribuir a determinar su origen y detectar problemas a nivel de poblaciones. La clave dicotómica propuesta en la identificación de anormalidades pigmentarias puede ser una herramienta continua en contextos modernos, si se unifica la terminología empleada.

  18. The transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin into eggs and chicks following exposure to hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Yamashita, Junko; Tomita, Takako [Shizuoka Univ. (Japan); Matsushita, Sachihiro; Ikeya, Moriji; Iwasawa, Toshiyuki [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins have been shown to exert reproductive and teratogenic effects in several strains of mice, rats, and chickens. We reported that in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at less than 7.5 ng/egg on day 0 did not influence hatchability, whereas more than 10 ng/egg completely inhibited hatching. We also reported that maternal exposure to TCDD in Barred Plymouth Rock hens induced a reversible inhibition of egg laying. The hatchability of the eggs from TCDD exposed hens was significantly decreased and eggshell thickness was thicker than that from control hens 1. These results suggested that the TCDD in maternally exposed hens was transferred into eggs and induced embryo toxicity. Transfer of TCDD in eggs has been reported previously in foraging chickens 2,3 and ring-necked pheasants 4,5. The TCDD concentration in chicken eggs related to environmental exposure, especially contact with soil. The measurement of dioxins in eggs is important for assessing environmental contamination by dioxins and for humans because chicken eggs are one of the most popular food for humans. Measurement of TCDD concentration is generally performed by GC/MS method which is expensive and requires special equipment. Recently, a simple method for TCDD assay using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 6 and CALUX bioassay 7 has been reported. The objectives of this study were, first, to determine the TCDD concentration in eggs by ELISA. Second, the transfer of maternally exposed TCDD into the egg, embryo and chicks was examined.

  19. A Bayesian method for assessing multiscalespecies-habitat relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F.; Gruber, Lutz F.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    ContextScientists face several theoretical and methodological challenges in appropriately describing fundamental wildlife-habitat relationships in models. The spatial scales of habitat relationships are often unknown, and are expected to follow a multi-scale hierarchy. Typical frequentist or information theoretic approaches often suffer under collinearity in multi-scale studies, fail to converge when models are complex or represent an intractable computational burden when candidate model sets are large.ObjectivesOur objective was to implement an automated, Bayesian method for inference on the spatial scales of habitat variables that best predict animal abundance.MethodsWe introduce Bayesian latent indicator scale selection (BLISS), a Bayesian method to select spatial scales of predictors using latent scale indicator variables that are estimated with reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. BLISS does not suffer from collinearity, and substantially reduces computation time of studies. We present a simulation study to validate our method and apply our method to a case-study of land cover predictors for ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) abundance in Nebraska, USA.ResultsOur method returns accurate descriptions of the explanatory power of multiple spatial scales, and unbiased and precise parameter estimates under commonly encountered data limitations including spatial scale autocorrelation, effect size, and sample size. BLISS outperforms commonly used model selection methods including stepwise and AIC, and reduces runtime by 90%.ConclusionsGiven the pervasiveness of scale-dependency in ecology, and the implications of mismatches between the scales of analyses and ecological processes, identifying the spatial scales over which species are integrating habitat information is an important step in understanding species-habitat relationships. BLISS is a widely applicable method for identifying important spatial scales, propagating scale uncertainty, and

  20. Hematozoan parasites of Rio Grande wild turkeys from southern Texas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Marc D.; Christensen, Beth A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three of 300 blood samples (41%) taken from Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from three locations in southern Texas (Welder Wildlife Refuge, Chaparrosa Ranch, and Campo Alegre Ranch) and subinoculated into domestic broad-breasted white turkey poults were positive for a Plasmodium (Novyella) sp. Analysis of blood films from 350 turkeys revealed Haemoproteus meleagridis in 76% of the birds. A significantly greater mean parasite intensity was observed in birds from Welder Wildlife Refuge. Birds from the Campo Alegre Ranch exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of H. meleagridis than birds from Chaparrosa. The Plasmodium sp. was infective for canaries (Serinus canaria), bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), but would not produce infection in white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus) or Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix). Attempts to infect Culex tarsalis and C. pipiens pipiens were unsuccessful. Asexual erythrocytic synchrony was not observed when blood-induced infections were monitored in two domestic turkey poults every 4 hr for 72 hr. Exoerythrocytic stages were not found upon examination of impression smears and tissue samples taken from brain, liver, spleen, kidney, lung, and bone marrow. The Plasmodium sp. is most similar morphologically to three species in the subgenus Novyella, P. hexamerium, P. vaughani, and P. kempi. The most striking similarities are to P. hexamerium, and involve mean merozoite number, erythrocytic schizont location, and vertebrate host susceptibility. It differs from P. vaughani in being able to infect turkeys and in type of parasitized erythrocytes. Differences to P. kempi include mean merozoite number, and ability to infect pheasants, and its inability to develop inC. pipiens and C. tarsalis.

  1. Inventory of montane-nesting birds in Katmai and Lake Clark national parks and preserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service’s Inventory and Monitoring Program, biologists from the U. S. Geological Survey’s Alaska Science Center conducted an inventory of birds in montane regions of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves during 2004–2006. We used a stratified random survey design to allocate samples by ecological subsection. To survey for birds, we conducted counts at 468 points across 29, 10-km x 10-km (6.2-mi x 6.2-mi) sample plots in Katmai and 417 points across 25, 10-km x 10-km sample plots in Lake Clark. We detected 92 and 104 species in Katmai and Lake Clark, respectively, including 40 species of conservation concern. We detected three species not previously recorded in Katmai (Ring-necked Duck [Aythya collaris], Lesser Scaup [Aythya affinis], and White-tailed Ptarmigan [Lagopus leucurus]) and two species not previously recorded in Lake Clark (Northern Flicker [Colaptes auratus ] and Olive-sided Flycatcher [Contopus cooperi]). The most commonly detected species in both parks was Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca) and American Pipit (Anthus rubescens) were abundant and widely-distributed as well. We defined sites as low (100–350 m), middle (351–600 m), or high (601–1,620 m) elevation based on the distribution of vegetation cover, and similarly categorized the 34 most-commonly detected species based on the mean elevation of sample points at which they were detected. High elevation (i.e., alpine) sites were characterized by high percent cover of dwarf shrub and bare ground habitat and supported species like Rock Ptarmigan (L. mutus), American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), Wandering Tattler (Tringa incana), Surfbird (Aphriza virgata), and Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), all species of conservation concern. This inventory represents the first systematic survey of birds nesting in montane regions of both parks. Results from this inventory can form the foundation of

  2. Toxoplasma gondii: A study of oocyst re-shedding in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Sammi, Ana Sue; Dos Santos, Joeleni Rosa; Sasse, João Pedro; Martins, Thais Agostinho; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Cardim, Sérgio Tosi; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the re-shedding of T. gondii oocysts in cats fed tissue cysts of homologous and heterologous strains 12, 24 and 36 months after the first infection. Thirteen cats were used in the present study and were divided into four groups: G1 (n=2), G2 (n=3), G3 (n=5), and G4 (n=3). G1, G3 and G4 cats were infected with brain cysts of ME49 and G2 with TgDoveBr8, both genotype II strains of T. gondii. The G1 and G2 cats were re-infected after twelve months with brain cysts of VEG strain (genotype III), and G3 cats were re-infected with TgDoveBr1 (genotype II). The G3 cats were re-infected a third time after 24 months from the second infection, and the G4 cats were re-infected 36 months after the initial infection with cysts of the VEG strain. The cats' feces were evaluated using fecal flotation and genotyped with PCR-RFLP. The serological responses for IgM, IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. All cats shed oocysts after the initial infection. Only one G1 cat shed oocysts when re-infected after twelve months with the VEG strain. No G2 cats excreted oocysts after the second infection with VEG. G3 cats, when re-infected after twelve months with the TgDoveBr1 strain, did not shed oocysts. However, when challenged after a third time with the VEG strain, three out of four cats shed oocysts. In the G4 group, when re-infected after thirty-six months with the VEG strain, two out of three cats shed oocysts. All oocyst samples were genotyped and characterized as the same genotype from the inoculum. Protection against oocyst re-excretion occurred in 90%, 25%, and 33.4% of cats after 12, 24, and 36 months from the initial infection, respectively. Therefore, the environmental contamination by oocysts from re-infected adult cats is only 30% lower than from kittens. In conclusion, the excretion of T. gondii oocysts was higher in experimentally re-infected cats throughout the years, especially when a heterologous strain was used. Copyright © 2017

  3. Remote control systems evolution in the new open energy market; Evoluzione del telecontrollo nel nuovo mercato dell'energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiglioni, L. [Soluzioni hardware/software per l' automazione e il controllo degli impianti industriali, Taizzano sul Naviglio, Milan (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Considering new energy market in Italy, the new role of remote control applications is discussed. In the open market the whole electric process is managed by several different actors; common protocol scheme and additional sharing data policies are necessaries facing the increased communications requirements due to deregulation. Remote control systems evolution then will lead from process oriented to data management oriented systems; related methodologies and solutions are described. [Italian] Il telecontrollo, nell'ambito del nuovo mercato dell'energia, diviene di importanza fondamentale per la necessita' di condivisione dei dati verso il livello di pianificazione e di analisi prestazionale. Viene individuata una linea evolutiva per i sistemi di telecontrollo, dove da un'attenzione rivolta al processo si passa a sistemi orientati all'apertura verso l'esterno e al data management. Vengono descritte alcune metodologie orientate allo scambio dati tra centri e verso sistemi esterni.

  4. Unfair and Anomalous Evolutionary Dynamics from Fluctuating Payoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollmeier, Frank; Nagler, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Evolution occurs in populations of reproducing individuals. Reproduction depends on the payoff a strategy receives. The payoff depends on the environment that may change over time, on intrinsic uncertainties, and on other sources of randomness. These temporal variations in the payoffs can affect which traits evolve. Understanding evolutionary game dynamics that are affected by varying payoffs remains difficult. Here we study the impact of arbitrary amplitudes and covariances of temporally varying payoffs on the dynamics. The evolutionary dynamics may be "unfair," meaning that, on average, two coexisting strategies may persistently receive different payoffs. This mechanism can induce an anomalous coexistence of cooperators and defectors in the prisoner's dilemma, and an unexpected selection reversal in the hawk-dove game.

  5. Subsurface stratigraphy and uranium--vanadium favorability of the Morrison Formation, Sage Plain Area, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdley, W.A.; Flook, J.E.; Harris, R.E.

    1975-08-01

    The four members of the Morrison Formation that are recognizable in the area studied are, in ascending order, the Salt Wash, Recapture, Westwater Canyon, and Brushy Basin. The Salt Wash member has the highest uranium favorability of all the Morrison strata in the area studied. An especially favorable area, in which the Salt Wash interval is thick and contains several thick sandstones, is situated on either side of the Utah-Colorado state line between Monticello, Utah, and Dove Creek, Colorado. The upper Morrison strata (Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin members) have low uranium favorability. The Westwater Canyon member contains adequate sandstones but lacks known uranium deposits in the project area. The Brushy Basin member, although rated as having low potential, nevertheless does possess some attributes that make it worthy of further attention. The Recapture member does not contain sufficient well-developed sandstones or uranium deposits to merit its being classed as favorable for potential uranium-vanadium resources. (LK)

  6. Strategija upravljanja imidžom prodavaonice

    OpenAIRE

    Soče Kraljević, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Pozicioniranje u svijesti kupaca i snažna promocijska podrška doveli su mnoge uspješne prodavaonice na malo na sam vrh. Najvećim dijelom to je zasluga imidža stvorenog u svijesti kupaca. Imidž jedne prodavaonice na malo može, ali ne mora odgovarati stvarnosti. Često djeluje poput klišeja. On precjenjuje određene čimbenike prodavaonice, dok neke druge jednostavno izostavlja. Upravo je zbog toga imidž značajan i često presudan u ponašanju potrošača. Predmet rada je utvrđivanje utjecaja imid...

  7. Tribunale di Bologna, ordinanza del 15 ottobre 2012Art. 18 comma 4 nuovo testo st. lav. su insussistenza del fatto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    temilavoro.it - redazione

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La insussistenza del fatto contestato deve interpretarsi come fatto giuridico, inteso come il fatto globalmente accertato, nell'unicum delle sue componenti oggettiva e soggettiva, dove­dosi correlativamente escludere che essa sia riferibile al solo fatto materiale, posto che tale interpretazione sarebbe palese­mente in violazione dei principi generali di diligenza e buona fede nell'esecuzione del contratto.* La disciplina applicabile al licenziamento disciplinare illegitti­mo consegue alla gravità del fatto, infatti, la recente riforma dell'art. 18 St. Lav. prevede che il giudice ordini la reintegra­zione nelle ipotesi di licenziamento illegittimo anche allorché il fatto rientri tra le condotte punibili con una sanzione conser­vativa, secondo le previsioni dei contratti collettivi e dei codici disciplinari applicabili.* * massime a cura della redazione

  8. La presa di parola di Anne Hutchinson. Insubordinazione e conflitto nella giovane America puritana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Vivan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne Hutchinson lasciò l’Inghilterra nel 1634 per emigrare nel Massachusetts puritano, dove nel 1637 e 1638 fu processata, condannata, scomunicata ed espulsa come donna insubordinata, deviante e pericolosa. Il suo ruolo intellettuale e politico nell’alba incandescente della prima America viene qui analizzato e discusso ascoltando da presso il racconto che promana dalla voce della stessa Anne Hutchinson attraverso i verbali dei due processi, trascritti dai contemporanei con la fedeltà letterale che era tipica del puritanesimo americano. La drammatica controversia che ebbe al centro la presa di parola di questa donna segnò la prima grande crisi della neonata società coloniale – la cosiddetta crisi antinomiana -- e ne determinò gli sviluppi futuri, indirizzandoli verso un sistema di potere politico su basi teocratiche.

  9. Spaziotempo la relatività ristretta

    CERN Document Server

    Sexl, Roman

    1980-01-01

    Invitato a parlare della propria vita per un volume celebrativo del suo settantesimo compleanno, Albert Einstein, sempre restio a ogni forma di pubblicità personale, invece di scrivere della sua esistenza privata scelse di rievocare gli sviluppi del suo pensiero: dalle prime curiosità all'affermarsi della vocazione giovanile, sino al riconoscimento sempre più chiaro delle mete che si prefiggeva. Un'"autobiografia scientifica", insomma, dove più dei fatti contano le rivoluzionarie formulazioni teoriche che hanno impresso una svolta fondamentale alla fisica moderna. A seguire, scienziati eminenti come Wolfgang Pauli, Max Born, Niels Bohr e Kurt Godei discutono l'"autobiografia" di Einstein facendo rivivere la grande disputa tra deterministi e indeterministi, tra la ricerca einsteiniana di una teoria del campo sempre più generale e la concezione opposta, allora sostenuta dalla maggioranza dei fisici. Infine, nella sua incisiva replica finale, Einstein risponde punto su punto ai commentatori e ai critici, di...

  10. Attraction to mammals of male mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes diantaeus in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, T G

    1985-06-01

    During investigations in central Sweden on the ecology of mosquito vectors of Ockelbo disease, large numbers of Aedes diantaeus males and lesser numbers of Ae. communis, Ae. excrucians and Ae. intrudens males were captured in animal-baited (rabbit, guinea pig, hen, dove, unbaited control) suction- and net-traps. In the five suction-traps, 57% of the diantaeus captured (N = 1,896) were males. Although the guinea pig-baited suction-trap captured the highest mean number of diantaeus males, data showed that these males, like the females, were mainly attracted to the largest mammal, i.e., the rabbit. These males assembled in the vicinity of the rabbit presumably to intercept females coming to feed. The net-trap data showed that orientation by the males to the rabbit presumably involved olfactory cues emanating from the mammal.

  11. Evolution of Cooperation in Social Dilemmas on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation in social dilemmas is essential for the functioning of systems at multiple levels of complexity, from the simplest biological organisms to the most sophisticated human societies. Cooperation, although widespread, is fundamentally challenging to explain evolutionarily, since natural selection typically favors selfish behavior which is not socially optimal. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in three exemplars of key social dilemmas, representing the prisoner’s dilemma, hawk-dove and coordination classes of games, in structured populations defined by complex networks. Using individual-based simulations of the games on model and empirical networks, we give a detailed comparative study of the effects of the structural properties of a network, such as its average degree, variance in degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and assortativity coefficient, on the promotion of cooperative behavior in all three classes of games. PMID:26928428

  12. Environmental impact of heavy metals. Vanadium; Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il vanadio (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. (comp.)

    2001-09-01

    In this paper is presented the environmental impact of vanadium production, environmental distribution biological accumulation are reported. [Italian] Il vanadio (V) e' un metallo scarsamente presente in natura, classificandosi al 21mo posto dopo l'arsenico per abbondanza nella crosta terrestre. Tuttavia e' rinvenibile nell'atmosfera di aree industrializzate dove si utilizzano il carbone fossile e l'olio combustibile. Infatti fonti principali di inquinamento ambientale sono costituiti dai greggi petroliferi che contengono in soluzione una serie di metalli tra cui il vanadio. Per inalazione di polveri contenenti V si hanno generalmente effetti sull'apparato respiratorio con irritazione nasale ed epistassi, bronchiti ed enfisema polmonare, mentre a livello nervoso si manifestano effetti neurotossici sul centro vasomotori e sul controllo nervoso della contrazione cardiaca, con riduzione complessiva della funzionalita' cardica. Recentemente e' stato osservato che il V esercita effetti allergici ed infiammatori.

  13. Evidential Equilibria: Heuristics and Biases in Static Games of Complete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali al-Nowaihi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard equilibrium concepts in game theory find it difficult to explain the empirical evidence from a large number of static games, including the prisoners’ dilemma game, the hawk-dove game, voting games, public goods games and oligopoly games. Under uncertainty about what others will do in one-shot games, evidence suggests that people often use evidential reasoning (ER, i.e., they assign diagnostic significance to their own actions in forming beliefs about the actions of other like-minded players. This is best viewed as a heuristic or bias relative to the standard approach. We provide a formal theoretical framework that incorporates ER into static games by proposing evidential games and the relevant solution concept: evidential equilibrium (EE. We derive the relation between a Nash equilibrium and an EE. We illustrate these concepts in the context of the prisoners’ dilemma game.

  14. Aspectos histológicos e histoquímicos da cloaca feminina de Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes Histological and histochemical aspects of female cloaca of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloíza de Oliveira Teles

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic dove Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a species well adapted to Brazil and the study of its reproductive biology is part of a broad research project on birds. This essay describes the morphological aspects of the cloaca of female Columba livia, describing compartments lengthwise starting from the head such as the coprodeo, urodeo and proctodeo limited by mucosal folds. Each compartment of the cloaca presents its own morphological characteristics which differ one from the other in form, height and position of mucosal projections, kinds of tissues, presence and histological aspects of glands, presence of lymphonodus. The rectum opens into the coprodeo, the ureter opens into the oviduct and the cloacal sac opening into the proctodeo. Histochemical studies have shown the presence of glycoproteins in tissue cells and gland cells on the three segments of the cloaca.

  15. The urban phenomenon and re-spatialization of the complex pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Pickenhayn

    2008-06-01

    More than half of a century has passed since the popularization of the concept of pathogen complex. During this time, the world urban population has been multiplied by five, compared to the rural population. The environmental changes led to ecological modifications in these dynamic systems, perceptible in the agents and vectors of the transmitted pathologies, which adopted new strategies of survival. A case study in the city of San Juan, Argentina, where the pathogen complex of the Chagas’ Disease registers transformations, is presented. Its vector, Triatoma infestans, gradually carries its populations from the surrounding rural environments to the city. To do this, it profits from an inter-specific relationship with doves (Columba livia, acting on them as parasite, and takes advantage of their mobility.

  16. Structural Color of Rock Dove’s Neck Feather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that some kinds of animal have surprisingly brilliant colors showing beautiful iridescence. These colors are called structural colors, and are thought to originate from optical interference caused by periodic microstructures that have sizes comparable with the wavelength of light. However, much larger structural modifications can also play an important role in the coloration mechanism. In this paper, we show through careful optical and structural investigations that the structural color of the neck feather of rock dove, Columba livia, has a very comprehensive mechanism: the thin-layer optical interference phenomenon fundamentally produces the iridescence, while the layer structure is accompanied by various kinds of larger-size structural modifications that control the angular range of the reflection. Further, it is found that the granules containing melanin pigment exist in a localized manner to effectively enhance the contrast of the color caused by optical interference.

  17. ET IN ARCADIA NOS Paesaggi, testimonianze e città

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Il Piano Territoriale Paesistico Regionale è lo strumento di governo del territorio, nel quale conservazione e trasformazione si saldano in un unico progetto per l’azione di tutela del paesaggio, con la finalità di conservarne gli elementi di qualità e di testimonianza, favorendone il recupero, laddove il paesaggio risulta degradato e compromesso. Il paesaggio dell’Ambito, dalla fascia costiera varia e si modifica addentrandosi verso l’altopiano interno, dove al paesaggio agrario di agrumi e oliveti si contrappone il seminativo asciutto delle colline interne. Gli insediamenti sono costituiti prevalentemente da borghi rurali e risalgono alla fase di ripopolamento della Sicilia interna (fine del XV secolo-metà del XVIII secolo. Numerose tracce di insediamenti umani della preistoria e della colonizzazione greca arricchiscono questo territorio dai forti caratteri naturali.

  18. Caso e caos

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    1992-01-01

    Caso e caos – Il caso ha la sua ragione. Ma quale? E cos’è in realtà il caso? Da dove viene e come può fare irruzione nella nostra descrizione dell’universo? A tutte queste domande, in una chiara e lucida esposizione, cerca di dare risposta David Ruelle. Curiosando tra i risultati scientifici del XX secolo e soffermandosi anche su fenomeni e problemi estranei alla scienza tradizionale – le lotterie, gli oroscopi, la teoria dei giochi, la genesi della turbolenza – Ruelle ci guida a conoscere il caso avendo la matematica, la fisica e tutte le scienze naturali come compagne. Ancora oggi il modo in cui il caso irrompe nelle nostre vite e nel mondo può essere un mistero, ma grazie ai progressi della scienza, qui raccontati, riusciamo a saperne un poco di più.

  19. Habitat association, size, stomach contents, and reproductive condition of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Puerto Rican boa occurs in a variety of habitats, including wet montane forest, lowland wet forest, mangrove forest, wet limestone karst, and offshore cays, and from sea level to 480 m. Mean SVL of 49 encountered boas (live and road-killed) was 136.9 ?? 35.1 (range = 38.8-205 cm), with a mean mass of 952.1 ?? 349.0 g (n = 47; range = 140-1662 g). Prey in digestive tracts (n = 29) included remains of black rats, house mice, three species of anoles, bats, common ground-doves, domestic fowl chicks, and invertebrates. Females were in reproductive condition in late April through mid-August and had an average brood size of 21.8 ?? 6.0 (n = 9, range = 13-30 ).

  20. Teletrasporto dalla fantascienza alla realtà

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Chi di noi correndo nell’ansia di un ritardo non ha desiderato per un attimo di teletrasportarsi nel luogo dell’appuntamento? Proprio come facevano i personaggi di Star Trek entrando nella sala teletrasporto dell’ Enterprise e ricomparendo immediatamente in qualche altro punto dell’universo. Forse ci siamo anche chiesti se la scienza e gli sviluppi della tecnologia ci porteranno mai a questo. Gli autori propongono un viaggio nel mondo dei quanti, dove si nascondono possibilità sorprendenti: non solo il teletrasporto di particelle, ma sistemi crittografici a prova della più abile spia, e calcolatori che usano singoli atomi come registri di memoria, capaci di calcoli ritenuti fino a oggi impossibili. I fondamenti della fisica microscopica vengono descritti senza tecnicismi; se ne illustrano applicazioni che, come è successo in passato con il transistor e il laser, trasformeranno radicalmente i nostri calcolatori, le transazioni commerciali e le carte di credito, le comunicazioni, insomma una parte im...

  1. Community cooperatives combat sexual assault and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Marc D

    2003-02-01

    The effectiveness of the SANE program is borne out by the following testimonies: "The emotional support required by these victims is best rendered by a SANE. This frees the ED nurse to care for other patients, while sexual assault victims receive a high level of care," says Nancy Donel, RN manager at St. Thomas Hospital ED. "The DOVE program benefits not only the emergency physician, but the EMS system as well. It gives us a resource and a specifically identified program with well-trained, qualified providers. Through their training and knowledge, SANEs not only help victims, but also increase the number of legal convictions that take assailants off the streets. This improves the health and safety of the communities in which we live and serve," says Michael Mackan, MD, of the Summa Health System.

  2. DALL’«ARTICOLO EPR» AGLI ESPERIMENTI DI ALAIN ASPECT: IL LUNGO CAMMINO DEL PROBLEMA DELLA NONLOCALITÀ IN MECCANICA QUANTISTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Matarese

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quando, nel 1935, venne pubblicato il famoso articolo chiamato poi “EPR Paper” per le iniziali dei suoi autori - Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen -, la comunità scientifica dovette confrontarsi non solo con le manifeste provocazioni che il suo argomento voleva mostrare, ma anche con latenti problemi che sarebbero sbocciati più avanti in tutti i loro stridenti contrasti. L’incompletezza della meccanica quantistica, che l’“articolo EPR” si proponeva di dimostrare, poggiava infatti su un principio molto problematico, quello della località, che sarebbe esploso nell’esperimento prima concettuale di Bohm e poi sperimentale di Aspect. Ciò che questo articolo vuole delineare è lo sviluppo del problema della nonlocalità, dai suoi albori fino alla prova della sua effettiva esistenza nel mondo quantistico, dove, come ben ha dimostrato Bell, nulla possono fare le variabili nascoste per dissolvere la realtà nonlocale di alcuni fenomeni.

  3. Non-destructive splitter of twisted light based on modes splitting in a ring cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-02-08

    Efficiently discriminating beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) is of fundamental importance for various applications including high capacity optical communication and quantum information processing. We design and experimentally verify a distinguished method for effectively splitting different OAM-carried beams by introducing Dove prisms in a ring cavity. Because of rotational symmetry broken of two OAM-carried beams with opposite topological charges, their transmission spectra will split. When mode and impedance matches between the cavity and one OAM-carried beam are achieved, this beam will transmit through the cavity and other beam will be reflected, both beams keep their spatial shapes. In this case, the cavity acts like a polarized beam splitter. Besides, the transmitting beam can be selected at your will, the splitting efficiency can reach unity if the cavity is lossless and it completely matches the beam. Furthermore, beams carry multi-OAMs can also be split by cascading ring cavities.

  4. Il Bosone di Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Poster di ATLAS sul bosone di Higgs indirizzato al pubblico generico, che spiega il meccanismo di Brout-Englert-Higgs e la sua importanza. Spiega anche il ruolo del Bosone di Higgs, come viene cercato, il percorso della sua scoperta e cosa viene dopo la scoperta. Disponibile anche in Francese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697501) e Inglese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697389). Non esitate a utilizzarlo nelle sedi dei vostri Istituti e negli eventi divulgativi! Il poster è in formato A0. Cliccate sull'immagine per scaricare il .pdf ad alta qualità e stamparlo dove preferite. Per qualisasi domanda o commento potete contattare atlas-outreach-coordination@cern.ch

  5. New records on the Abruzzo brown bear range, particularly on Gran Sasso and Laga Mountains / Osservazioni sull'areale dell'orso marsicano, con particolare riferimento al Gran Sasso e ai Monti della Laga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bologna

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New records of Abruzzo brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus in some mountain massifs of Central Apennines (Laga, Gran Sasso, Velino, Sirente and Northern Molise are reported. These records are discussed in relation to the recent dispersion of the relictual population, and the probable recolonization of some areas where the brown bear went out in the last two centuries. Riassunto Viene brevemente discusso il fenomeno di dispersione e ricolonizzazione di aree montane centro-appenniniche da parte dell'orso bruno marsicano. Tra i nuovi reperti, particolarmente significativi sono quelli più settentrionali, relativi ai Monti della Laga ed al Gran Sasso, dove la specie era estinta da circa duecento anni.

  6. Multiplicative by nature: Logarithmic transformation in allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Gary C

    2014-06-01

    The traditional allometric method, which is at the heart of research paradigms used by comparative biologists around the world, entails fitting a straight line to logarithmic transformations of the original bivariate data and then back-transforming the resulting equation to form a two-parameter power function in the arithmetic scale. The method has the dual advantages of enabling investigators to fit statistical models that describe multiplicative growth while simultaneously addressing the multiplicative nature of residual variation in response variables (heteroscedasticity). However, important assumptions of the traditional method seldom are assessed in contemporary practice. When the assumptions are not met, mean functions may fail to capture the dominant pattern in the original data and incorrect form for error may be imposed upon the fitted model. A worked example from metabolic allometry in doves and pigeons illustrates both the power of newer statistical procedures and limitations of the traditional allometric method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ricavare un'opera viva da una soffitta: scrittura e teatro in balia di una cura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Uber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Il laboratorio di scrittura della Soffitta dura dall’autunno 2005 alla primavera 2006. In quell’anno l’Unità Operativa in cui lavoro, appartenendo diversi suoi operatori alla Società Italiana per lo Studio dei Comportamenti Alimentari (S.I.S.D.C.A., assume l’impegno di organizzare a Piacenza uno dei convegni nazionali annuali della Società stessa. Sulla scorta d’un consolidato piacere della mia équipe di valorizzare le risorse espressive dei suoi membri, progetto d’allestire con la collaborazione di un gruppo teatrale piacentino uno spettacolo a partire dal testo prodotto con il gruppo. Quest’ultimo viene rielaborato e ne viene ricavata una drammaturgia dove la soffitta diviene la stiva d’una nave nella quale A., la protagonista, compirà il suo viaggio “verso il mondo che l’aspetta là fuori”.

  8. DIJAGNOSTIKA I LIJEČENJE INCIDENTALOMA NADBUBREŽNE ŽLIJEZDE: PREPORUKE REFERENTNOG CENTRA MINISTARSTVA ZDRAVSTVA ZA BOLESTI NADBUBREŽNE ŽLIJEZDE

    OpenAIRE

    KAŠTELAN, DARKO; DUŠEK, TINA; AGANOVIĆ, IZET; ŠTERN-PADOVAN, RANKA; KUZMANIĆ, DUŠKO; KAŠTELAN, ŽELJKO; KNEŽEVIĆ, NIKOLA; CRNČEVIĆ-ORLIĆ, ŽELJKA; KRALJEVIĆ, IVANA; DŽUBUR, FEĐA; PAVLIĆ-RENAR, IVANA; GILJEVIĆ, ZLATKO; JELČIĆ, JOZO; BARETIĆ, MAJA; ŠKORIĆ, TANJA

    2010-01-01

    Incidentalomi nadbubrežne žlijezde jesu tumori otkriveni tijekom dijagnostičke evaluacije nekoga drugog kliničkog stanja. Tehnološki napredak radioloških uređaja i njihova sve veća upotreba u svakodnevnoj kliničkoj praksi doveli su do češćeg otkrivanja ovih tumora čineći njihovu dijagnostiku i liječenje jednim od najvažnijih izazova moderne endokrinologije. Radi racionalnog pristupa ovim bolesnicima radna skupina koju su činili vodeći hrvatski stručnjaci iz područja bolesti nadbubrežne žlijez...

  9. La videoproiezione architetturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Antonelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trasfigurare un edificio, seppure temporaneamente, comporta una serie di responsabilità: l'edificio  non è semplicisticamente uno schermo su cui proiettare immagini, si trasforma invece nel luogo dove l'idea architettonica viene portata ad un livello inusuale di protagonismo, sottraendo provvisoriamente l'architettura dalla dipendenza dall'edificio. La forma diventa strumento di astrazione, metafora, concetto. L'arte come trasformazione della realtà percettiva in trasgressive contraddizioni ottiche, fino all’evasione ed astrazione lega con filo diretto la videoproiezione architetturale all’estetica delle avanguardie artistiche del '900. Come enunciato da Umberto Eco nella “teoria della menzogna” ogni forma richiama un contenuto interpretabile da parte del fruitore. Con la videoproiezione architetturale c'è la possibilità-necessità di finalizzare il mentire in senso critico costruttivo.

  10. Computational Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Summary Computational prediction of toxicity has reached new heights as a result of decades of growth in the magnitude and diversity of biological data. Public packages for statistics and machine learning make model creation faster. New theory in machine learning and cheminformatics enables integration of chemical structure, toxicogenomics, simulated and physical data in the prediction of chemical health hazards, and other toxicological information. Our earlier publications have characterized a toxicological dataset of unprecedented scale resulting from the European REACH legislation (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). These publications dove into potential use cases for regulatory data and some models for exploiting this data. This article analyzes the options for the identification and categorization of chemicals, moves on to the derivation of descriptive features for chemicals, discusses different kinds of targets modeled in computational toxicology, and ends with a high-level perspective of the algorithms used to create computational toxicology models. PMID:29101769

  11. Geothermal infrastructure for an historic village in Tuscany: a sustainable retrofit solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Il comune di Montieri ha recentemente costruito una rete di teleriscaldamento alimentata a vapore geotermico. L’aspetto innovativo risiede nell’uso del vapore geotermico di scarto dalla produzione di elettricità, per fornire riscaldamento e acqua calda sanitaria per 425 utenze del centro storico. Con il progetto Geothermal Community (Concerto, FP7 sono stati intrapresi ulteriori obiettivi per l’ambiente costruito: la riduzione del consumo energetico degli edifici e l’aumento della quota delle risorse energetiche rinnovabili utilizzate dalla comunità. L’articolo propone una analisi dei benefici ambientali ed economici delle misure di efficienza energetica pianificate dal progetto Europeo alla luce dell’installazione della rete di teleriscaldamento. I risultati presentano uno spunto di riflessione interessante per la formulazione dei piani di riduzione delle emissioni delle aree urbane storiche Italiane ed Europee dove sono presenti simili infrastrutture. 

  12. Energy sweepstakes: fusion gets a chance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Congress plans to speed up the magnetic-fusion program by shifting the emphasis from plasma research to fusion-reactor engineering. The bill doubles the overall fusion budget over the next five years in order to construct a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. A review panel of scientists suggested limiting the cost to under $1 billion and holding the increase until late 1983. The panel also suggested waiting until 1990 to set a date for demonstrating a competitive commercial reactor even though progress made in the 1970s could bring a realistic date as close as 2000. The new policy evolves from the debate between tokamak hawks, who want to take the best prospect to commercialization immediately, and the doves, who want to wait to see if the best possible concept turns out to be the magnetic mirror or some other contender. The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) represents a compromise of these positions

  13. El amor en el cine egipcio. Análisis de la relación hombre-mujer en algunas películas egipcias desde 1950 hasta 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Croubalian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Love has always played a central role in Arab cultures, whether idealized/Platonic (as in the story of Majnûn and Laylâ or earthly/carnal (as in the well-known Dove Ring. About Affinity and Friends by Ibn Hazm al-Andalûsî [993-1064]. Today love is still dealt with by many Arab philosophers and poets, especially Egyptian. This article intends to show the ways in which love has been represented in Egyptian cinema during the last fifty years, through four different categories of love: physical love, Platonic love, fatherly love and love between husband and wife. This essay demonstrates that contemporary Egypt’s conceptions of love are still very much the same as in the classical era, though contemporary cinema adds the support of the moving image to our understanding of this feeling.

  14. La classificazione aristotelica delle scienze in Pietro d'Abano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Berti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La classificazione delle scienze di Pietro d'Abano costituisce un'interessante riformulazione della classificazione analoga, proposta da Aristotele in Metaph. VI, e della teoria degli abiti dianoetici, proposta da Aristotele in Eth. Nic. VI. Come risulta dal Conciliator per quanto concerne la medicina e dal Lucidator per quanto concerne l'astronomia, Pietro segue la classificazione aristotelica e le interpretazioni che di essa erano state date nel medioevo (dottrina dei tre gradi di astrazione e distinzione tra methodus compositiva e methodus resolutiva, aggiungendovi come contributo originale l'introduzione di una parte pratica sia nella medicina che nell'astronomia (astronomia iudicialis, dove quest'ultima deriva da Tolomeo e dagli Arabi.

  15. Role of wing morphing in thrust generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the role of morphing on flight dynamics of two birds by simulating the flow over rigid and morphing wings that have the characteristics of two different birds, namely the Giant Petrel and Dove Prion. The simulation of a flapping rigid wing shows that the root of the wing should be placed at a specific angle of attack in order to generate enough lift to balance the weight of the bird. However, in this case the generated thrust is either very small, or even negative, depending on the wing shape. Further, results show that morphing of the wing enables a significant increase in the thrust and propulsive efficiency. This indicates that the birds actually utilize some sort of active wing twisting and bending to produce enough thrust. This study should facilitate better guidance for the design of flapping air vehicles.

  16. Analisi dell’utilizzo di Twitter nella costruzione di un seminario sperimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Reinhardt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonostante i massicci cambiamenti sociali e tecnologici che si sono verificati a causa del Web negli ultimi anni, i corsi universitari spesso enfatizzano metodi di insegnamento da tempo consolidati e basati su strumenti di apprendimento e risorse tradizionali. Durante tali corsi gli studenti spesso acquisiscono una conoscenza che non è aggiornata e che è lontana da un apprendimento realistico, basato su problemi. L'uso di strumenti e metodi più recenti spesso rimane fuori dalla padronanza degli studenti. In questo contributo si descrive brevemente l’impostazione sperimentale di un seminario in due università tedesche dove l’uso di Social Media per la comunicazione e la collaborazione è stato saldamente integrato alla progettazione di un percorso di apprendimento formale. Si illustra, inoltre, l'utilizzo di Twitter durante il seminario, usando metodologie riprese dalla Social Network Analysis.

  17. Servio e l’analogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Luisa Delvigo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo analizza dettagliatamente Serv. ad Georg. 4, 219 (cioè lo scolio relativo al passo in cui Virgilio tratta la presunta partecipazione delle api allo spirito divino. Qui Servio Danielino affronta il problema della coerenza filosofica di Virgilio (cfr. ad Aen. 10, 467 dove sono discussi da Servio i diversi influssi filosofici sull’opera virgiliana, difendendo il poeta da chi lo accusava di non manifestare in questi versi fedeltà all’epicureismo. Servio, da parte sua, ricollega il passo in questione al discorso di Anchise nel VI dell’Eneide e sottolinea i legami con Lucrezio e il metodo epicureo, evidenziando l’uso virgiliano dell’analogia e mostrando ancora una volta uno spiccato interesse per la scienza epicurea.

  18. Meccanica razionale

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, Paolo; Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Vianello, Maurizio Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Questo testo, che giunge ora alla Terza Edizione, è stato concepito principalmente per le necessità delle Scuole di Ingegneria, dove la Meccanica Razionale ha il duplice ruolo di introdurre sia alla modellizzazione fisico-matematica rigorosa che a specifiche applicazioni sviluppate poi in altri insegnamenti. La trattazione che qui proponiamo vuole presentare i concetti fondamentali mantenendo sempre l'attenzione rivolta alle applicazioni, a volte comuni ad altre discipline, in vista di sinergie didattiche favorite dalla presenza di corsi integrati. Abbiamo cercato di dare al libro una impostazione il più possibile coerente con questa finalità, soprattutto in alcune sezioni tradizionalmente caratterizzate da una trattazione più astratta: dai vincoli al Principio dei lavori virtuali, dal Principio di d'Alembert alla Meccanica Analitica. Abbiamo comunque mantenuto la tradizionale e, a nostro parere, irrinunciabile struttura ipotetico-deduttiva nello svolgimento delle argomentazioni, che fa ancora della Mecc...

  19. Il museo che non c’è. Note sulla dispersione del patrimonio in Gran Bretagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Patey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Indifferente alla loro recente moltiplicazione come al sodalizio che vi si celebra con l’architettura di grido, un fantasma si aggira per i musei. Sordo al nome di Jean Nouvel (Reina Sofia, Louvre quanto a quelli di Herzog & De Meuron (Tate Modern, impermeabile ai fasti del British Museum (Norman Foster come ai restauri della Tate Britain (James Stirling, disinteressato alle fortune del ‘nuovo’ Victoria and Albert Museum e malinconico come si addice alla sua natura, il fantasma invita a interrogare tanta luccicante spettacolarità e forse a non dimenticare che, per quanto custode di memoria e guardiano di culture, il museo è anche il luogo dove vengono consumate, direttamente o meno, amnesie e damnatio memoriae e in nome del quale continuano a perpetrarsi non poche violazioni e disseminazioni.

  20. 1975 progress report: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site radioecology--ecology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.

    1976-06-01

    Results are reported from measurements of the content of various radionuclides in the tissues of wild animals on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sampled during 1975. Tissue samples from antelope, waterfowl, rodents, rabbits, and doves were analyzed for 13 radionuclides, including 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 90 Sr, 131 I, and 60 Co which were responsible for the largest amounts of radioactivity. Measurements were also made of the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am in soil samples and the radioactivity in tumbling weeds at the radioactive waste management site. Data are included from studies on the ecology of the pygmy rabbit, Salvilagus idahoensis, amphibians, reptiles, birds of prey, rodents, and coyotes, and vegetation in relation to land use at the site. Seasonal variations in the deposition and retention of 141 Ce and 134 Cs on sagebrush and bottlebrush grass were compared

  1. The islands are different: human perceptions of game species in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Johnson, Edwin D

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  2. La mimesis al servizio della giustizia nel film di Angelopoulos Anaparastassi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fallerini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Un uomo viene ucciso dalla moglie e dal suo amante in uno sperduto villaggio dell’Epiro. L’episodio, ispirato ad un fatto di cronaca, è l’espediente narrativo del primo lungometraggio di Theo Angelopoulos, Anaparastassi (Ricostruzione di un delitto, 1970, nel quale la ricostruzione delle dinamiche del delitto si traduce in una critica al sistema giudiziario che, concentrato soprattutto nella ricerca dei colpevoli, non tiene conto di situazioni di degrado economico sociale e morale. Il film di Angelopoulos è stato girato durante la dittatura dei Colonnelli: in un clima di sopraffazione e censura il regista riesce a inserire all’interno della trama apparentemente innocua di un giallo-poliziesco una forte denuncia nei confronti del sistema sociale e politico. La mimesis è qui intesa come ricostruzione del reale e come interpretazione, dove il traguardo della verità assoluta diventa una utopia che mette in discussione il sistema giudiziario stesso. Si parte dall’assunto che il diritto e la legge hanno bisogno di una rappresentazione per poter esercitare la propria funzione: operano su una scena che non è mai la realtà, anche se reali sono gli effetti della funzione giudicatrice. Questo corto circuito tra realtà e rappresentazione nel sistema giudiziario viene analizzato da Angelopoulos ricorrendo anche ai temi del mito, del ritorno e dell’esilio, e affidandosi alla struttura narrativa del giallo, pur tradendone sistematicamente le regole: non c’è mistero dietro a questo delitto, lo spettatore viene accompagnato alla scoperta di meccanismi e leggi di portata universale, dove non sono le risposte che contano piuttosto la scoperta di nuovi interrogativi probabilmente senza soluzione. In questo film sono già presenti gli elementi stilistici che caratterizzeranno le opere successive del regista greco, primo tra tutti l’effetto di straniamento attraverso il quale è possibile risolvere la dicotomia tra realtà e rappresentazione.

  3. Dietary habits of urban pigeons (Columba livia and implications of excreta pH – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spennemann Dirk H. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigeons are considered to be urban pests, causing untold damage to buildings and potentially impacting the health of humans who come into contact with them or their faeces. Pigeon faecal matter has been implicated in both health impacts and building damage, with the acidity of the excreta playing an important role. Purpose of the Review. This paper is a wide-ranging review of the chemical processes of excreta in the pigeon to aid our understanding of the potential problems of pigeons to buildings and human amenity in the urban space. The natural pH of pigeons is shown to vary based on the bird’s and age as well as reproductive stage. Key findings of the review. The influences of the altered diet between the rock dove (the wild progenitor of the feral pigeon and the feral pigeon are detailed, indicating that the human-based diet of urban pigeons most likely causes the feral pigeon excreta to be more acidic than the rock dove excreta. This higher acidity is due in part to diet, but also to potential increases in faecal and/or uric acid volumes due to the low quality of human-based diets. Again, this area of interest is highly data deficient due to the few number of studies and unspecified dietary intake before pH measurement. Implications of the review. Humans are increasingly concerned about pigeon populations (and presumably their accumulated faeces in the urban space, and control comprises a large part of the interaction between humans and feral pigeons. This review provides a greater understanding of feral pigeons and the true effects of their excreta.

  4. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, B W

    2015-12-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator-prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk-dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for fighting is constant per fighting event. The strategy of the predator-population is quantified by a trait being the proportion of the number of predator-individuals playing hawk tactics. The dynamics of the trait is described by two models of adaptation: the replicator dynamics (RD) and the adaptive dynamics (AD). In the RD-approach a variant individual with an adapted trait value changes the population's strategy, and consequently its trait value, only when its payoff is larger than the population average. In the AD-approach successful replacement of the resident population after invasion of a rare variant population with an adapted trait value is a step in a sequence changing the population's strategy, and hence its trait value. The main aim is to compare the consequences of the two adaptation models. In an equilibrium predator-prey system this will lead to convergence to a neutral singular strategy, while in the oscillatory system to a continuous singular strategy where in this endpoint the resident population is not invasible by any variant population. In equilibrium (low prey carrying capacity) RD and AD-approach give the same results, however not always in a periodically oscillating system (high prey carrying-capacity) where the trait is density-dependent. For low costs the predator population is monomorphic (only hawks) while for high costs dimorphic (hawks and doves). These results illustrate that intra-specific trait dynamics matters in predator-prey dynamics.

  5. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  6. Effetti dei blocchi totali del traffico motorizzato sulla concentrazione dei principali inquinamenti atmosferici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Signorelli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: il contenimento degli inquinamenti atmosferici attraverso blocchi parziali e totali dei veicoli circolanti nelle aree critiche è un tema molto dibattuto negli ultimi anni, soprattutto in relazione all’efficacia a breve e medio termine di questi provvedimenti sulla concentrazione degli inquinanti nell’aria. Sulla base dei dati diffusi dall’ARPA della Regione Lombardia sono stati analizzati gli effetti di due blocchi totali del traffico motorizzato, avvenuti in due domeniche dell’inverno 2001-2002, sulle concentrazioni di due inquinanti specifici per il traffico veicolare, il PM10 e il benzene.

    Metodologia: l’analisi è stata condotta in Lombardia considerando i dati ambientali delle tre zone critiche dove sono stati registrati i valori più elevati di inquinanti atmosferici e dove sono stati attuati i blocchi del traffico come misura d’emergenza (Milano, Como e Sempione. Tramite l’elaborazione di alcuni parametri metereologici, di grafici e di dati relativi l’andamento delle medie giornaliere e orarie degli inquinanti considerati è stata, quindi valutata l’efficacia dei blocchi stradali ai fini della diminuzione dell’inquinamento atmosferico.

    Risultati: i risultati ottenuti hanno evidenziato che le concentrazioni di inquinanti subiscono complessivamente un calo nelle ore di blocco del traffico, ma risalgono rapidamente a partire dalle ore successive la conclusione dei blocchi e non subiscono variazioni significative nei giorni successivi. I fattori metereologici (vento e pioggia intensa rivestono grande importanza nel condizionare la concentrazioni di PM10 e benzene.

    Conclusioni: i risultati confermano che i provvedimenti d’emergenza di limitazione del traffico non rappresentano una soluzione definitiva per ridurre complessivamente l’inquinamento atmosferico nelle aree urbane. Risulta, quindi, necessario effettuare

  7. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Tebo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth’s surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth’s surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO, including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the

  8. The seasonal role of field characteristics on seed-eating bird abundances in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Mariano; Abba, Agustín M.; Bilenca, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In temperate agroecosystems, avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices. We assessed the seasonal roles of field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000 km2 study area in the Pampas of central Argentina. During spring-summer and autumn of 2011–2013, we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species. We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species. We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance to the nearest woodlot. In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements. Species that build their nests in trees, such as eared doves Zenaida auriculata, picazuro pigeons Patagioenas picazuro, and monk parakeets Myiopsitta monachus, were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots, whereas grassland yellow-finches Sicalis luteola, which nest at areas with tall grasses, were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings. In autumn (non-breeding season), most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs. The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources. In addition, both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons Patagioenas maculosa were associated with woodlots, which provide suitable roosting sites. Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems, the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season. PMID

  9. Ecrire et souffrir : L’inspiration partagée de Constance Fenimore Woolson et de Henry James Literature and Grief: Constance Fenimore Woolson and Henry James, A Common Inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Hayat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Miss Grief is a story by Constance Fenimore Woolson, an American novelist who often wrote about the difficulty a woman had in becoming an artist — a writer or a painter — in the nineteenth century. This tale is a very strange text, a kind of anticipation of a meeting to come, in Italy, in 1880, between Woolson and Henry James, and a friendship which lasted until the former’s death in 1894. For thirteen years, both writers would share a common inspiration. Death itself could not break the links between the two authors, who were connected even when settled in different European countries. William James, who was a member of the American Society for Psychical Research, probably helped his brother Henry to communicate — or so it appears — in some way with Woolson, even after her fatal accident, or possible suicide, in Venice. Henry James probably had in mind Miss Grief, a story by his dead friend, before writing some of his books. Indeed, Woolson had been the first to develop the image of “the figure in the carpet,” which was later transformed by Henry James. Woolson was also the first to devise a plot which Henry James would later use as a canvas for his novel The Wings of the Dove. What is an author and what is authorship? It seems impossible to separate what is Woolson’s and what is Henry James’s in four works of fiction that are in fact to be read together : Miss Grief, The Figure in the Carpet, The Beast in the Jungle, The Wings of the Dove.

  10. The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Johnson, Edwin D.

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs ( Sus scrofa), goats ( Capra hircus), mouflon ( Ovis musimon), axis deer ( Axis axis), turkeys ( Melagris gallopavo), and doves ( Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned ( n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  11. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  12. Real Estate Crowdfunding. Un’innovazione finanziaria per gli investimenti immobiliari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Morri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo presenta una panoramica del crowdfunding e delle sue potenziali applicazioni al settore immobiliare. La crisi economica globale del 2008 ha condotto a una paralisi dell’economia che ha comportato la riduzione della fiducia nel sistema bancario e nei servizi finanziari in generale. Nell’ultimo decennio una delle tecniche di finanziamento più rivoluzionaria è stata il crowdfunding, cioè la possibilità di essere finanziati dalla “folla” (crowd attraverso l’utilizzo di Internet. Il crowdfunding nel settore immobiliare ha origine negli Stati Uniti nel 2012 con il Jumpstart Our Business Start-up Act (JOBS Act, dove da allora si sta sviluppando a ritmi elevati. In Italia, il crowdfunding per progetti nel settore immobiliare non si è ancora sviluppato in quanto la legge in concreto non ne consente l’utilizzo; tuttavia esistono alcune piattaforme che stanno utilizzando il concetto in modi differenti, raccogliendo un certo interesse. Il Real Estate Crowdfunding può rappresentare un’interessante opportunità per i privati che vogliono investire nel settore immobiliare, ma non hanno abbastanza capitale per partecipare a grandi transazioni o esperienza nella gestione. In quest’articolo, dopo un’iniziale descrizione del crowdfunding in generale, ci si focalizza sulla sua applicazione nel settore immobiliare, analizzando il mercato statunitense dove vi sono le piattaforme più sviluppate. Infine, si presenta una panoramica del mercato italiano, spiegando le normative e i limiti del crowdfunding e descrivendo la modalità operativa sviluppata da alcune piattaforme per superare legalmente tali limitazioni. Negli Stati Uniti sono già operative oltre 125 piattaforme con una raccolta superiore a un miliardo di dollari; in Italia invece ci sono ancora limiti per le start-up che si occupano di crowdfunding e sono state create solo poche piattaforme che operano con un modello parzialmente diverso.

  13. [National epidemiological surveillance systems of mesothelioma cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Binazzi, Alessandra; Branchi, Claudia; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUZIONE: sebbene la relazione causale tra esposizione ad amianto e malattie neoplastiche sia ben nota, in molti Paesi il consumo del materiale è ancora rilevante e crescente. A causa della lunga latenza, nei Paesi dove è stato bandito (come in Italia) è oggi in corso un'epidemia di malattie correlate ad amianto. OBIETTIVI: descrivere i sistemi di sorveglianza dei mesoteliomi attivi nel mondo mediante un'analisi comparativa. è stata condotta una revisione bibliografica della letteratura disponibile sui sistemi di sorveglianza epidemiologica dei mesoteliomi attivi nel mondo, comparando metodi e risultati disponibili. RISULTATI: sistemi di ricerca dei casi incidenti e di analisi anamnestica dei soggetti ammalati sono attivi solo in Italia, Francia e Corea del Sud. I Paesi presso i quali sono attivi sistemi di rilevazione e controllo dei casi incidenti di mesotelioma sono quelli in cui vige il bando dell'amianto e che hanno sperimentato consumi rilevanti in passato. Non sono stati istituiti sistemi epidemiologici di sorveglianza in molti Paesi dove il consumo di amianto è ancora importante (inclusi Russia, Cina, India e Brasile). CONCLUSIONI: si conferma l'importanza dei sistemi di sorveglianza epidemiologica dei mesoteliomi per la sanità pubblica, il sostegno alle politiche di welfare e la prevenzione dei rischi. Lo sviluppo di progetti per tendere a una maggiore uniformità nei metodi di ricerca dei casi, di classificazione delle diagnosi e dell'esposizione e nelle tecniche di analisi dei dati potrebbe consentire una maggiore fruibilità dei dati aggregati. La disponibilità di dati internazionali confrontabili può essere di stimolo all'adozione di provvedimenti di bando internazionale.

  14. [Communication and auditory behavior obtained by auditory evoked potentials in mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Collado-Corona, Miguel Angel; Morales-Martínez, José de Jesús

    2004-01-01

    amphibians, Frog catesbiana (frog bull, 30 animals); reptiles, Sceloporus torcuatus (common small lizard, 22 animals); birds: Columba livia (common dove, 20 animals), and mammals, Cavia porcellus, (guinea pig, 20 animals). With regard to lodging, all animals were maintained at the Institute of Human Communication Disorders, were fed with special food for each species, and had water available ad libitum. Regarding procedure, for carrying out analysis of auditory evoked potentials of brain stem SPL amphibians, birds, and mammals were anesthetized with ketamine 20, 25, and 50 mg/kg, by injection. Reptiles were anesthetized by freezing (6 degrees C). Study subjects had needle electrodes placed in an imaginary line on the half sagittal line between both ears and eyes, behind right ear, and behind left ear. Stimulation was carried out inside a no noise site by means of a horn in free field. The sign was filtered at between 100 and 3,000 Hz and analyzed in a computer for provoked potentials (Racia APE 78). In data shown by amphibians, wave-evoked responses showed greater latency than those of the other species. In reptiles, latency was observed as reduced in comparison with amphibians. In the case of birds, lesser latency values were observed, while in the case of guinea pigs latencies were greater than those of doves but they were stimulated by 10 dB, which demonstrated best auditory threshold in the four studied species. Last, it was corroborated that as the auditory threshold of each species it descends conforms to it advances in the phylogenetic scale. Beginning with these registrations, we care able to say that response for evoked brain stem potential showed to be more complex and lesser values of absolute latency as we advance along the phylogenetic scale; thus, the opposing auditory threshold is better agreement with regard to the phylogenetic scale among studied species. These data indicated to us that seeking of auditory information is more complex in more

  15. Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B M; Barnes, H J; Rowley, W A

    1983-07-01

    Vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) in Iowa are presented. Plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), chukars (Alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), peacocks (Pavo cristatus), and canaries (Serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (Anser anser), but will not infect ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), pigeons (Columba livia), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), leghorn white chickens (Gallus gallus), or starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Oocysts and (or) sporozoites were recovered from 68% (84/124) and 98% (60/61) of the Culex pipiens pipiens and C. tarsalis examined, respectively. Oocysts developed faster and sporozoites invaded the salivary glands sooner in C. tarsalis (6 days) than in C. p. pipiens (7 days). Culex tarsalis transmitted P. kempi more effectively than C. p. pipiens, although both species were capable of transmitting the parasite by natural feeding. Oocysts developed and sporozoites also were produced in C. restuans, but its ability to transmit the parasite was not determined. Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain) and A. triseriatus were refractive to P. kempi. Plasmodium kempi produces trophozoites with large refractile globules and fine cytoplasmic extensions, mature schizonts in the form of a condensed fan containing four to eight nuclei (usually 5), and elongate gametocytes with irregular borders. All stages are confined almost exclusively to mature erythrocytes, with no effect on host cell size or position of host cell nucleus. Plasmodium kempi is most similar morphologically to P. (Novyella) hexamerium and P. (Novyella) vaughani. It differs from P. hexamerium in having large refractile globules in trophozoites and immature schizonts, an inability to infect starlings, an absence of

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  17. Cytochrome P4501A induction in avian hepatocyte cultures exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls: Comparisons with AHR1-mediated reporter gene activity and in ovo toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Gillian E., E-mail: gmann017@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mundy, Lukas J., E-mail: lukas.mundy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jones, Stephanie P., E-mail: stephanie.jones@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Chiu, Suzanne, E-mail: suzanne.chiu@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Klein, Jeff, E-mail: jeffery@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Konstantinov, Alex, E-mail: alex@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Potter, Dave, E-mail: dpotter@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Avian-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were developed by the World Health Organization to simplify environmental risk assessments of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), but TEFs do not account for differences in the toxic and biochemical potencies of DLCs among species of birds. Such variability may be due to differences in species sensitivity to individual DLCs. The sensitivity of avian species to DLCs was recently associated with the identity of amino acids 324 and 380 in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, measuring AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 (CYP1A5) reporter gene, in combination with a species' AHR1 ligand binding domain sequence, were also shown to predict avian species sensitivity to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB relative potency in a given species. The goals of the present study were to (1) characterize the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA in chicken, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes and (2) compare these in vitro results to those previously generated by the LRG assay and in ovo toxicity studies. EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression data support and complement the findings of the LRG assay. CYP1A enzyme activity and mRNA expression were significantly correlated both with luciferase activity and in ovo toxicity induced by PCBs. Relative potency values were generally similar between the LRG and EROD assays and indicate that the relative potency of some PCBs may differ among species. -- Highlights: ► The chicken isn't the most sensitive species to CYP1A induction by PCB 105 and 118. ► The relative potency of PCBs differs between avian species. ► EROD activity was correlated with luciferase activity from the LRG assay. ► EROD activity was a better predictor of

  18. Cytochrome P4501A induction in avian hepatocyte cultures exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls: Comparisons with AHR1-mediated reporter gene activity and in ovo toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Gillian E.; Mundy, Lukas J.; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P.; Chiu, Suzanne; Klein, Jeff; Konstantinov, Alex; Potter, Dave; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were developed by the World Health Organization to simplify environmental risk assessments of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), but TEFs do not account for differences in the toxic and biochemical potencies of DLCs among species of birds. Such variability may be due to differences in species sensitivity to individual DLCs. The sensitivity of avian species to DLCs was recently associated with the identity of amino acids 324 and 380 in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, measuring AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 (CYP1A5) reporter gene, in combination with a species' AHR1 ligand binding domain sequence, were also shown to predict avian species sensitivity to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB relative potency in a given species. The goals of the present study were to (1) characterize the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA in chicken, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes and (2) compare these in vitro results to those previously generated by the LRG assay and in ovo toxicity studies. EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression data support and complement the findings of the LRG assay. CYP1A enzyme activity and mRNA expression were significantly correlated both with luciferase activity and in ovo toxicity induced by PCBs. Relative potency values were generally similar between the LRG and EROD assays and indicate that the relative potency of some PCBs may differ among species. -- Highlights: ► The chicken isn't the most sensitive species to CYP1A induction by PCB 105 and 118. ► The relative potency of PCBs differs between avian species. ► EROD activity was correlated with luciferase activity from the LRG assay. ► EROD activity was a better predictor of toxicity than CYP

  19. Fire, humans, and climate: modeling distribution dynamics of boreal forest waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börger, Luca; Nudds, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of landscape change and environmental variability on ecological processes is important for evaluating resource management policies, such as the emulation of natural forest disturbances. We analyzed time series of detection/nondetection data using hierarchical models in a Bayesian multi-model inference framework to decompose the dynamics of species distributions into responses to environmental variability, spatial variation in habitat conditions, and population dynamics and interspecific interactions, while correcting for observation errors and variation in sampling regimes. We modeled distribution dynamics of 14 waterbird species (broadly defined, including wetland and riparian species) using data from two different breeding bird surveys collected in the Boreal Shield ecozone within Ontario, Canada. Temporal variation in species occupancy (2000-2006) was primarily driven by climatic variability. Only two species showed evidence of consistent temporal trends in distribution: Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) decreased, and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) increased. The models had good predictive ability on independent data over time (1997-1999). Spatial variation in species occupancy was strongly related to the distribution of specific land cover types and habitat disturbance: Fire and forest harvesting influenced occupancy more than did roads, settlements, or mines. Bioclimatic and habitat heterogeneity indices and geographic coordinates exerted negligible influence on most species distributions. Estimated habitat suitability indices had good predictive ability on spatially independent data (Hudson Bay Lowlands ecozone). Additionally, we detected effects of interspecific interactions. Species responses to fire and forest harvesting were similar for 13 of 14 species; thus, forest-harvesting practices in Ontario generally appeared to emulate the effects of fire for waterbirds over timescales of 10-20 years. Extrapolating to all

  20. Avian metapneumovirus subtype C in Wild Waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, C M; Parmley, E J; Buchanan, T; Nituch, L; Ojkic, D

    2018-02-18

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an emerging poultry pathogen that has a significant economic impact on poultry production worldwide. The geographic range of the virus continues to expand, and wild birds have been implicated as reservoirs of aMPV that have the potential to spread the virus over long distances. Our objective was to determine the apparent prevalence of aMPV subtype C in wild waterfowl in Ontario, Canada. Wild waterfowl were captured in August and September, 2016 as part of routine migratory waterfowl population monitoring by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and placed together for aMPV testing using real-time RT-PCR. A total of 374 live wild birds from 23 lakes were sampled and tested for aMPV. Among all ducks tested, 84 (22%) were positive for aMPV. The proportion of samples that tested positive ranged from 0% in ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis) to 44% (8 of 18) in American black ducks (A. rubripes). Waterfowl positive for aMPV were found at 14 of 23 lakes in the study area and the percent positive at these 14 lakes ranged between 5% and 84%. Although subtype C aMPV has been detected in a variety of wild birds in North America, this is the first report of aMPV in wild ducks in Ontario, Canada. The high apparent prevalence, particularly in mallards and American black ducks (37 and 44%, respectively), suggests that these species may be important reservoirs of aMPV. Given the potential impact of aMPV on domestic poultry and the potential role of wild birds as reservoirs of the virus, further investigation of the geographic distribution, risk factors associated with aMPV carriage in wild waterfowl and potential role of other birds in the epidemiology of aMPV in Canada is warranted. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. A review of the methods for monitoring roe deer European populations with particular reference to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Meriggi

    2009-02-01

    suscita grande attenzione. Con lo scopo di evidenziare l'andamento delle pubblicazioni e la distribuzione dei metodi di censimento per anno, Paese e tipo di habitat, abbiamo analizzato la letteratura europea sui metodi di monitoraggio delle popolazioni di capriolo dal 1950 al 2004. Particolare attenzione è stata data ai metodi normalmente adottati in Italia e in Toscana, che è la regione dove la gestione del capriolo si può considerare più avanzata. I lavori pubblicati hanno avuto una tendenza all'aumento così come il numero di metodi utilizzati e la loro complessità. La Francia, l'Italia, il Regno Unito e la Spagna sono risultati i Paesi con la letteratura più ricca su questo argomento e anche quelli dove è stato sperimentato il maggior numero di metodi. Undici metodi di censimento - soprattutto transetti lineari, conteggi di pallottole fecali, catturqa-marcatura-ricattura e indice chilometrico d'abbondanza -, sono stati usati negli ambienti boscati e solamente 6 nelle aree aperte, in particolare il conteggio delle pallottole fecali. In Europa il metodo più usato per pianificare il prelievo con la caccia di selezione è risultato quello dei punti dominanti, mentre in Italia e particolarmente in Toscana sono principalmente usati le battute su aree campione e i conteggi notturni. Sfortunatamente in Europa i piani di prelievo sono ancora troppo basati sulle conoscenze e sulla tradizione dei cacciatori. Tuttavia, fanno eccezione a questa regola i Paesi dove la gestione venatoria del capriolo è iniziata di recente. In Italia e in Toscana i metodi di monitoraggio delle popolazioni di capriolo dovrebbero essere migliorati, adottando tecniche meno dispendiose e più accurate.

  2. Do Soils affect Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus abundance in agricultural habitats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Santilli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, much research on brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 ecology has been conducted in Europe to identify habitat-species relationships and the reasons for the decline in hare populations that have occurred since the 1960s. However, very few studies have considered the influence of soil texture on the abundance of this species in agricultural habitats. In this paper we examine the relationship between winter brown hare density in protected areas (game refuges in four provinces of the Tuscany region (central Italy and soil texture. Results show that hares reach higher densities in areas characterized by "loam" soils compared to areas where soils are richer in clay. Although this relationship is probably complex, soil texture may indirectly affect brown hare populations by influencing the temperature and moisture of the ground and influencing the timing of farming operations (tillage. Riassunto Il suolo influenza l’abbondanza della lepre Lepus europaeus negli ambienti agricoli? Negli ultimi anni sono state effettuate numerose ricerche sull’ecologia della lepre europea Lepus europaeus, al fine di evidenziare le relazioni fra questa specie ed il tipo di habitat e di comprendere i motivi del declino avvenuto a partire dagli anni ’60. Ciononostante pochi studi hanno preso in considerazione l’influenza del tipo di suolo sulla consistenza di questo lagomorfo negli ambienti agricoli. Nel presente lavoro viene esaminata la relazione fra la densità invernale della lepre all’interno delle zone di ripopolamento e cattura di quattro province toscane e la tessitura del suolo di queste aree. E’ stato riscontrato che le lepri raggiungono densità più elevate in aree dove predominano i suoli franchi rispetto ad aree dove risultano più argillosi. Sebbene questa relazione sia probabilmente complessa, la tessitura del suolo potrebbe influenzare

  3. The seasonal role of field characteristics on seed-eating bird abundances in agricultural landscapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel ZUFIAURRE; Mariano CODESIDO; Agustín M.ABBA; David BILENCA

    2017-01-01

    In temperate agroecosystems,avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices.We assessed the seasonal roles of field WPe,field use in the surroundings,and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000 km2 study area in the Pampas of central Argentina.During spring-summer and autumn of 2011-2013,we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species.We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species.We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type,field use in the surroundings,and distance to the nearest woodlot.In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements.Species that build their nests in trees,such as eared doves Zenaida auriculata,picazuro pigeons Patagioenas picazuro,and monk parakeets Myiopsitta monachus,were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots,whereas grassland yellow-finches Sicalis luteola,which nest at areas with tall grasses,were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings.In autumn (non-breeding season),most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs.The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources.In addition,both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons Patagioenas maculosa were associated with woodlots,which provide suitable roosting sites.Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems,the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season.

  4. DIAGNOSTICA PER IMMAGINI DI UN CAPOLAVORO DI CARAVAGGIO IMMAGINI OLTRE IL VISIBILE PER IL SEPPELLIMENTO DI SANTA LUCIA PROVENIENTE DALLA CHIESA DI SANTA LUCIA AL SEPOLCRO DI SIRACUSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Prestileo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Il 28 maggio 1606 Michelangelo Merisi fugge da Roma dove non fará mai piú ritorno; l’ultimo duello gli è costato la condanna a morte. Iniziano per lui gli anni della latitanza, anni che trascorrerá tra Napoli, Malta e la Sicilia. Nel suo passaggio in Sicilia, Caravaggio realizza dipinti di eccezionale qualitá, sicuramente tra i piú belli della sua breve e intensa esistenza. Nell’isola l’artista arriva nell’ottobre del 1608, dopo l’ennesima fuga, questa volta da Malta. La sua prima tappa siciliana è Siracusa, dove vive un artista suo amico: Mario Minniti. Da lui trova riparo e lavoro perché dipinge su commissione una grande tela per la chiesa di Santa Lucia al Sepolcro, Il Seppellimento di Santa Lucia, realizzata in un breve lasso di tempo, trasferendosi Caravaggio a Messina nel dicembre dello stesso anno.

     

    Diagnostic campaign on Caravaggio’s painting

    The Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Identità Siciliana, Diparti-mento dei Beni Culturali e  dell'Identitá Siciliana, Regione Siciliana (i nomi italiani tutti in corsivo has carried out a diagnostic cam-paign on the painting Il Seppellimento di Santa Lucia (oil on canvas, 1608 by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, in order to evaluate the state of conservation of the work of art before its return to Syracu-se, in the Church of S. Lucia al Sepolcro (the original placing from which the painting was removed at the end of the Seventies due to the unsuitable and unstable environment conditions of the exhibi-tion area, which inevitably led to its bad conservation conditions. The diagnostic campaign has been carried out in situ with portable instruments, for a one-month period, during the open exhibition in the Regional Gallery of Sicily of Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo, where the painting has temporarily been displayed in 2006. The investigations were aimed at having a deeper knowledge of the work of art with reference

  5. Viaggiatori per “diporto” nella Napoli di antico regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Avallone

    2010-10-01

    . Ma quali erano le vie ed i mezzi di trasporto per arrivare nel Regno? Dove potevano rifocillarsi i viaggiatori? Quali erano i documenti che dovevano presentare alla frontiera? E ancora: chi erano, dove alloggiavano? Il lettore potrà trovare le risposte nell’articolo, frutto dell’elaborazione di una ricerca condotta su documentazione dell’epoca.

  6. L’esperienza poetica nell’Argentina degli anni Sessanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lafuente

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENJuan Gelman, Leónidas Lamborghini, Francisco Urondo, César Ferández Moreno, among the most famous of the poetic generation in Argentina during the Sixties, take up the concept of critical verbal art that the Hispanic-American vanguard had proposed as a priority. They finished the work of their predecessors, especially that of the late Huidobro, who, after Altazor left the more external aspects of the play behind, and of César Vallejo, creating a poetic area where emotion and subjectivity coexist with linguistic experimentation, where the pleasure of construction and the subtleties of linguistic deformations are inexorably tied to sentiment.In obliterating the distance between I and You, their poetry abandons the passage between different textual practices and gives space to an inter-subjectivity that leads the reader to forget his passivity and become active in sensory production.Keywords: avant-garde, Argentine poetry, the Sixties, linguistic experimentationITJuan Gelman, Leónidas Lamborghini, Francisco Urondo, César Ferández Moreno, fra i nomi più noti della generazione poetica argentina degli anni Sessanta, riprendono la concezione di un’arte verbale critica che l’avanguardia ispanoamericana aveva proposto come prioritaria. Completano il lavoro dei suoi predecessori, soprattutto dell’ultimo Huidobro, che dopo Altazor abbandona gli aspetti più esterni del gioco, e di César Vallejo, creando uno spazio poetico dove l’emozione, la soggettività, coesistono con la sperimentazione del linguaggio, dove il piacere della costruzione, delle sottigliezze delle deformazioni linguistiche sono indissolubilmente legate al sentimento.La loro poesia, nell’abolire la distanza fra Io e Tu, lascia aperto il passaggio fra le pratiche testuali differenti e dà spazio a un’intersoggettività che induce il lettore ad abbandonare la sua passività e a diventare attivo nella produzione del senso.Parole chiave: avanguardia, poesia argentina

  7. I Passiuna tu Christù - Rito e teatro di una cantica popolare della Grecìa Salentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Questo articolo si basa sugli esiti di una ricerca di campo condotta nei paesi della Grecìa Salentina,una zona del basso Salento, dove si riscontra una peculiare modalità di esecuzione della cantica popolare grìca conosciuta come I Passiuna tu Christù (La Passione di Cristo. Attorno alla metà degli anni ´90 del ´900 la tradizione della cantica è stata oggetto di un prezioso recupero, fondato sulla memoria e disponibilità di alcuni anziani cantori, che l’ha riportata in vita dopo anni di silenzio. Lo studio si è quindi focalizzato sull'esecuzione di Zollino, uno dei comuni grecanico-salentini, dove opera l'associazione culturale "Bottega del Teatro" che per prima ha promosso il recupero di cui si è detto. Protagonista e interprete raffinato della versione zollinese è l'anziano cantore Antimo Pellegrino, la cui voce si fa teatro attraverso un uso sapiente del corpo fatto di gesti stilizzati, regolati da codici che consentono di comprendere il divenire performativo, ossia il testo in grìco, anche a chi non intende tale idioma. Abstract – EN This article is based on the results of a field research conducted in the countries of the Grecìa Salentina, an area of Salento, where there is a particular execution method of the folksong known as I Passiuna tu Christù (The Passion of the Christ. Around the mid-90s of the 20th century the tradition of this folksong has been the subject of a careful recovery, based on memory and availability of some older singers, who brought it back to life after years of silence. The study then focused on the Zollino’s execution, one of the grecanico-salentino’s common, in which works the cultural association "Bottega del Teatro", the first promoter of this recovery. The old singer Antimo Pellegrino is the player and interpreter of the Zollino’s refined version, whose voice becomes theater through a wise use of body made of stylized gestures, regulated by codes that allow you to

  8. [Peculiarities of secondary structure of serum albumin of some representatives of the animal kingdom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekhymenko, G V; Kuchmerovskaia, T M

    2011-01-01

    Methods of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) are suitable techniques for detection of proteins structural changes. These methods were used for determinating peculiarities of the secondary structure of serum albumins in some representatives of two classes of reptiles: Horsfield's tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), water snake (Natrix tessellata) and grass snake (Natrix natrix) and birds: domestic goose (Anser anser), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic duck (Anas platyrhyncha) and dove colored (Columba livia). An analysis of IR spectra and spectra obtained by the method of CD of serum albumins of both classes representatives revealed that beta-folding structure and alpha-helical sections that form the alpha-conformation play an important role in conformational structure formation of polypeptide chain and also disordered sites of molecules of these proteins. It was observed that certain redistribution depending on animals species exists, in the formation of secondary structure of serum albumins of the investigated representatives of reptiles and birds classes between the content of beta-folding structure, alpha-helical sections and disordered sites in molecules of these proteins.

  9. Environmental Factors and Zoonotic Pathogen Ecology in Urban Exploiter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea H; Nemeth, Nicole M; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.

  10. Vote choice and legacies of violence: evidence from the 2014 Colombian presidential elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weintraub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elections are regularly held in countries facing ongoing civil conflicts, including in India, Iraq, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Ukraine. Citizens frequently go to the polls having endured years of violence between armed groups and governments. A growing literature questions how violence conditions voters’ support for incumbents versus challengers, and for hawks versus doves. We analyze this relationship in the context of the 2014 presidential election in Colombia, an election defined by candidates’ positions on negotiations with the country’s largest insurgent group, the FARC. Our results show an inverted-U relationship between past insurgent violence and vote share for President Juan Manuel Santos, the pro-peace candidate: he performed better in communities with moderate levels of insurgent violence and poorly in communities with both very high and very low violence. We also find that areas where the FARC originally mounted attacks 50 years ago more strongly supported Santos. The article concludes by comparing these results with past studies of violence and vote choice in Israel, Turkey, and Spain.

  11. Biosonar, diving and movements of two tagged white-beaked dolphin in Icelandic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    For the first time bio-logging tags were attached to free-ranging white-beaked dolphins, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. A satellite tag was attached to one animal while an acoustic A-tag, a time-depth recorder and a VHF transmitter complex was attached to a second dolphin with a suction cup....... The satellite tag transmitted for 201 days, during which time the dolphin stayed in the coastal waters of western Iceland. The acoustic tag complex was on the second animal for 13 hours and 40 minutes and provided the first insight in echolocation behaviour of a free-ranging white-beaked dolphin. The tag...... registered 162 dives. The dolphin dove to a maximum depth of 45 m, which is about the depth of the bay in which the dolphin was swimming. Two basic types of dives were identified; U-shaped and V-shaped dives. The dolphin used more time in U-shaped dives, more clicks and sonar signals with shorter click...

  12. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  13. Contro Vitruvio. La città giapponese e il suo ordine urbano / Against Vitruvius. The urban order of the japanese city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Malfona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La precisione dell’inquadratura e la preferenza per il dettaglio, che caratterizzano i disegni di Hiroshige Utagawa, rivelano la stessa rinuncia alla visione d’insieme che può essere intercettata nella configurazione planimetrica della città giapponese, caratterizzata da un tessuto urbano privo di ordinatio, dove concetti quali la collocatio e la dispositio risultano quasi retorici. Il Giappone fornisce infatti una particolare declinazione del progetto urbano, inteso come coesistenza sincretica, non sintetica, di pezzi e parti eterogenee. / The prints of Hiroshige Utagawa show a peculiar way of seeing, framing only a portion of space, by revealing the Japanese attention to the detail. Similarly, the Japanese city is particularly well-finished from a closer look (i.e. at a small scale, but at a large scale (i.e. from above the urban fabric does not comply with any type of ordinatio (formal order. In fact, Japan gives a peculiar declination of the urban design: it is intended as a syncretic – not synthetic – mosaic of heterogeneous parts.

  14. High-dimensional free-space optical communications based on orbital angular momentum coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Gu, Xiaofan; Wang, Le

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a high-dimensional free-space optical communication scheme using orbital angular momentum (OAM) coding. In the scheme, the transmitter encodes N-bits information by using a spatial light modulator to convert a Gaussian beam to a superposition mode of N OAM modes and a Gaussian mode; The receiver decodes the information through an OAM mode analyser which consists of a MZ interferometer with a rotating Dove prism, a photoelectric detector and a computer carrying out the fast Fourier transform. The scheme could realize a high-dimensional free-space optical communication, and decodes the information much fast and accurately. We have verified the feasibility of the scheme by exploiting 8 (4) OAM modes and a Gaussian mode to implement a 256-ary (16-ary) coding free-space optical communication to transmit a 256-gray-scale (16-gray-scale) picture. The results show that a zero bit error rate performance has been achieved.

  15. L'ordine del mondo le simmetrie in fisica da Aristotele a Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Il mondo ci appare come una lunga serie di contingenze locali: ogni fatto accade per ragioni sue e quindi ogni previsione relativa al fatto successivo sembra azzardata. C'è però un altro modo di guardare il mondo, ed è quello fondato sulle regolarità intrinseche, sulle trame ordinate della sua tessitura sottile. In fisica il discorso sulla struttura del mondo giunge a noi addirittura da Anassimandro, ma è con Einstein che si fa strada prepotentemente l'idea di necessità, o di inevitabilità, nel mondo fisico. È con la relatività ristretta, nel 1905, che per la prima volta entra a far parte della fisica il concetto di simmetria come elemento fondamentale della spiegazione del mondo. Da Einstein in poi, il mondo apparirà dotato di una sua struttura intrinseca, che permette lo sviluppo di certe regolarità, mentre ne nega altre, proprio come avviene nel "Castello dei destini incrociati" di Italo Calvino, dove il gioco di incroci tra le storie raccontate dai tarocchi permette alcuni sviluppi narrativi e ...

  16. Magnetic transport apparatus for the production of ultracold atomic gases in the vicinity of a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendel, S.; Marchant, A. L.; Wiles, T. P.; Hopkins, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an apparatus designed for studies of atom-surface interactions using quantum degenerate gases of 85 Rb and 87 Rb in the vicinity of a room temperature dielectric surface. The surface to be investigated is a super-polished face of a glass Dove prism mounted in a glass cell under ultra-high vacuum. To maintain excellent optical access to the region surrounding the surface, magnetic transport is used to deliver ultracold atoms from a separate vacuum chamber housing the magneto-optical trap (MOT). We present a detailed description of the vacuum apparatus highlighting the novel design features; a low profile MOT chamber and the inclusion of an obstacle in the transport path. We report the characterization and optimization of the magnetic transport around the obstacle, achieving transport efficiencies of 70% with negligible heating. Finally, we demonstrate the loading of a hybrid optical-magnetic trap with 87 Rb and the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates via forced evaporative cooling close to the dielectric surface.

  17. Cineturismo e valorizzazione del territorio: il caso Puglia / Cine-tourism and territory enhancement: the case of Puglia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Vigilante

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Il cineturismo rappresenta un fenomeno socio-culturale recente e in forte diffusione in Italia. Il suo legame con la valorizzazione del territorio è inscindibile dal momento in cui lo spettatore sceglie un determinato luogo da visitare, stimolato dalla visione di un film, di una fiction o di un cortometraggio. La valorizzazione del territorio attraverso il cinema non è automatica. Vi sono luoghi che grazie a dei film di successo hanno riscontrato un afflusso esponenziale di turisti e altri luoghi dove questo non è avvenuto. Predisporre spazi per l'accoglienza di produzioni cinematografiche o finanziare le produzioni cinematografiche in uno specifico territorio consente un maggiore interesse, da parte dei registi, nei confronti di quelle location che di quel territorio fanno parte.  The film tourism is a socio-cultural phenomenon recently and rapidly spread in Italy. His connection with the development of the area is inseparable from the moment when the viewer chooses a certain place to visit, stimulated by watching a movie, a drama or a short film. The development of the area through cinema is not automatic. There are places that thanks to the hit movie found an exponential influx of tourists and other places where this has not happened. Provide space for the reception of film productions or finance film productions in a specific area allows a greater interest on the part of directors, in respect of those locations that are part of that territory.

  18. Christopher Hasty, Meter as Rhythm [Metro come Ritmo], Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1997.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cascelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quando, nell’undicesimo libro delle Confessioni, S. Agostino si interroga circa la natura del tempo, individua un problema linguistico in senso forte, dove il linguaggio non costituisce una semplice etichetta da attaccare agli eventi ma un modo di entrare in relazione con essi e conoscerli. Quando qualcuno gli domanda cosa sia il tempo, egli non lo sa, cioè non sa come spiegarlo e gli mancano le parole per esprimere qualcosa che, quando nessuno glielo chiede, egli conosce. Come possiamo esprimere il fluire del tempo? Come possiamo dire il tempo e dar voce a una profonda esperienza cognitiva del divenire e della relazione che noi stabiliamo con esso? Queste domande costituiscono le basi del libro di Christopher Hasty. Il suo punto di partenza è la considerazione che, sopprimendo la creatività e la novità dell'effettiva esperienza musicale, l’astrazione dell’analisi tradisce la natura temporale della musica. Al contrario, Hasty vuole prendere in considerazione questa natura temporale e "cercare dei modi di parlare dell’aspetto evanescente della musica, sviluppando concetti che catturino tanto la determinatezza quanto l’indeterminatezza degli eventi al loro passaggio" (p. vii.

  19. Prima la musica: insegnare il melodramma a Oxford negli Anni 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Senici

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La tavola rotonda ‘L’opera monta in cattedra: didattica del melodramma’, coordinata da Lorenzo Bianconi e Annamaria Cecconi nel novembre 2007 in occasione dell’XI Colloquio di Musicologia del «Saggiatore musicale», includeva un mio breve intervento sull’esperienza didattica maturata in moduli d’argomento operistico nell’Università di Oxford, dove ho insegnato dal 1998 al 2008. L’intento era di fornire dati utili a un esercizio comparativo, il quale permettesse d’osservare le esperienze di docenti sia d’università sia di conservatorii italiani dalla prospettiva d’un sistema universitario molto diverso da ambo le istituzioni e che però, come vedremo, per le sue caratteristiche pare collocarsi a cavallo tra le due. Le pagine che seguono costituiscono un ripensamento sistematico di quelle riflessioni, nella speranza che esse possano tuttora risultare di qualche interesse a chi riflette sulla didattica del melodramma in Italia. Dopo aver delineato in breve il contesto istituzionale, presenterò un questionario proposto a due gruppi di studenti; sui risultati esporrò poi qualche riflessione conclusiva, tenendo presenti i temi proposti dal testo-base della tavola rotonda e la discussione che ebbe luogo a Bologna. Avverto infine che, benché io scriva quasi sempre al presente, ciò che dico si riferisce al periodo del mio insegnamento oxoniense: dal 2008 alcune cose possono essere cambiate.

  20. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  1. High-precision laser microcutting and laser microdrilling using diffractive beam-splitting and high-precision flexible beam alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibner, F.; Fornaroli, C.; Holtkamp, J.; Shachaf, Lior; Kaplan, Natan; Gillner, A.

    2017-08-01

    High-precision laser micro machining gains more importance in industrial applications every month. Optical systems like the helical optics offer highest quality together with controllable and adjustable drilling geometry, thus as taper angle, aspect ratio and heat effected zone. The helical optics is based on a rotating Dove-prism which is mounted in a hollow shaft engine together with other optical elements like wedge prisms and plane plates. Although the achieved quality can be interpreted as extremely high the low process efficiency is a main reason that this manufacturing technology has only limited demand within the industrial market. The objective of the research studies presented in this paper is to dramatically increase process efficiency as well as process flexibility. During the last years, the average power of commercial ultra-short pulsed laser sources has increased significantly. The efficient utilization of the high average laser power in the field of material processing requires an effective distribution of the laser power onto the work piece. One approach to increase the efficiency is the application of beam splitting devices to enable parallel processing. Multi beam processing is used to parallelize the fabrication of periodic structures as most application only require a partial amount of the emitted ultra-short pulsed laser power. In order to achieve highest flexibility while using multi beam processing the single beams are diverted and re-guided in a way that enables the opportunity to process with each partial beam on locally apart probes or semimanufactures.

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Dietary Ecology of the Extinct Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Novak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For tens of thousands of years, passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius were a dominant member of eastern North American forest communities, with megaflocks comprising up to several billion individuals. The extinction of passenger pigeons in the early twentieth century undoubtedly influenced associated species and ecosystems as interactions stemming from the pigeons disappeared suddenly. Here, we strive to better understand what was probably one of the most significant of these interactions—that between passenger pigeons and seed bearing trees. Using the band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata and the rock dove (Columba livia as physical and ecological proxies, we evaluated passenger pigeon dietary range and potential to disperse seeds. Our findings suggest that the passenger pigeon's dietary range, observed historically to be taxonomically broad, was constrained to certain seed sizes due to bill gape size. In addition, we conclude that the digestive process invariably destroyed consumed seeds but the potential for a nutrition/dispersal mutualism might still have existed via regurgitation and post-mortem release of crop contents. Our results highlight the range of ecological interactions that can be lost with species' extinction and the inherent challenge of understanding the consequences of those interactions.

  3. Ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah E; Sohn, Edward; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-02-01

    The host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. For example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. This hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. We adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. We tested the ability of host-specific feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) to attach to 6 novel species of pigeons and doves that vary in size by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, Rock Pigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) remained attached equally well to all 6 novel host species. We tested the relative importance of 3 factors that could facilitate louse attachment: whole-body insertion, tarsal claw use, and mandible use. Insertion, per se, was not necessary for attachment. However, insertion on coarse feathers of large hosts allowed lice to access feather barbules with their mandibles. Mandible use was a key component of attachment regardless of feather size. Attachment constraints do not appear to reinforce host specificity in this system.

  4. Rapid contextual conditioning in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, P D; Schwartz, A L

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigate the speed of contextual conditioning in autoshaping. In both experiments, a procedure was employed in which ring doves were magazine trained in one context prior to the manipulation of background values in a second context. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to 4, 8, 64, 128, or 256 US-only presentations prior to autoshaping. Acquisition speed and maintained response measures were monotonically related to the number of pretraining trials. Subjects in Group 4 acquired the key-peck response fastest, and retardation was maximal within 64 pretraining trials. In Experiment 2, subjects given 20 pretraining trials were significantly more retarded than subjects given 2 pretraining trials, but only when pretraining and testing were conducted in the same context. Overall, the results of these experiments show that in autoshaping, contextual conditioning is very rapid; this demonstrates the plausibility of theoretical accounts of Pavlovian conditioning which assert that the development of the conditioned response depends on the associative values of both the CS and background stimuli.

  5. Gamasoidosis caused by the special lineage L1 of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae): A case of heavy infestation in a public place in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Leis, Marilena; Chicca, Milvia; Roy, Lise

    2017-10-01

    Among Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata) mites, some dermanyssoid species are known to cause gamasoidosis, a human dermatitis characterized by papulosquamous eruptions and urticarian lesions. We describe a case of mite infestation which occurred in public conference halls in Ferrara (Italy), affecting four people who attended the place and showed signs of gamasoidosis. The mites were collected and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and mitochondrial DNA sequencing (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial CDS). Based on morphological and molecular data, the species responsible for the infestation was identified as the special lineage L1 of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acarina: Dermanissydae), a cryptic species known to be associated with pigeons. Rock doves, Columba livia Gmelin (Columbiformes: Columbidae) were roosting on the top of the public building, thus the mites probably gained access to the halls through small window openings. The present case report is the first one providing morpho-molecular identification of a D. gallinae cryptic species responsible of gamasoidosis in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conflict and convention in dynamic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Forber, Patrick; Smead, Rory; Riedl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    An important way to resolve games of conflict (snowdrift, hawk-dove, chicken) involves adopting a convention: a correlated equilibrium that avoids any conflict between aggressive strategies. Dynamic networks allow individuals to resolve conflict via their network connections rather than changing their strategy. Exploring how behavioural strategies coevolve with social networks reveals new dynamics that can help explain the origins and robustness of conventions. Here, we model the emergence of conventions as correlated equilibria in dynamic networks. Our results show that networks have the tendency to break the symmetry between the two conventional solutions in a strongly biased way. Rather than the correlated equilibrium associated with ownership norms (play aggressive at home, not away), we usually see the opposite host-guest norm (play aggressive away, not at home) evolve on dynamic networks, a phenomenon common to human interaction. We also show that learning to avoid conflict can produce realistic network structures in a way different than preferential attachment models. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Mild soaps and radiotherapy: a survey of the UK public to identify brands of soap considered mild and analysis of these to ascertain suitability for recommendation in radiotherapy departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Brown, P

    2011-05-01

    Cancer agencies recommend that patients use mild soap when undergoing external beam radiotherapy to minimise skin reactions. They define 'mild soap' as non-alkaline, lanolin free, unperfumed soap with a neutral pH. This study aimed to identify which soaps the UK public perceive as mild and ascertain if these were clinically mild and could potentially be recommended within radiotherapy departments. A survey of 237 participants identified eight top brands of mild soap, which were then tested for pH and analysed for potential irritants. All soaps were lanolin free and non-alkaline, with Simple and Johnson's the closest to pH 5.5. All contained fragrances except Simple and E45. Dove, Pears and Imperial Leather contained the highest concentration of fragrances. All soaps except E45 contained potential irritants. Only Simple and E45 fit the cancer agencies' definition of mild soap and could therefore be recommended for radiotherapy patients. Future research should identify current practices and recommendations in the UK as anecdotal evidence suggests large variations in skin care advice. Further scientific analysis could potentially identify cheaper brands that fit the definition of 'mild'. UK recommendations should be standardised and consistent with best practice to reduce skin reaction severity in radiotherapy patients. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Uresti-Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Methods. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. Results. The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. Discussion. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.

  9. Investigation into the hemolytic activity of tentacle venom from jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    Cyanea nozakii Kishinouy e ( C. nozakii), a giant cnidarian of the class Scyphomedusae, order Semaeostomeae and family Cyaneidae, is widely distributed in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and is abundant from late summer to early autumn. Venom produced by C. nozakii during mass agglomerations can contaminate seawater resulting in death of the halobios and seriously damage commercial fisheries. Swimmers and fishermen commonly suff er painful stings from this jellyfish, resulting in local edema, tingling, breathing difficulties, depressed blood pressure and even death. Such effects arise from the complex mixture of biologically active molecules that make up jellyfish venom. In the present study, the hemolytic activity of venom from tentacles of C. nozakii and factors aff ecting its activity were assayed. The HU50 ( defined as the amount of protein required to lyse 50 % of erythrocytes) of the venom against dove and chicken erythrocytes was 34 and 59 μg/mL, respectively. Carboxylmethyl chitosan and glycerol could increase hemolytic activity at concentrations greater than 0.06% and 0.2 mol/L, respectively.

  10. Una Prefazione nel contesto del 13 novembre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colaianni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Come regolarsi verso le minoranze, ordinarsi coesi nelle società multiculturali e multireligiose dei giorni nostri? Domanda angosciosa e drammatica al cospetto dell’orrenda strage di Parigi, che ho negli occhi mentre scrivo. Come gli altri di cui continua la scia sanguinosa, da Charlie Hebdo fino all’11 settembre di New York, quest’ultimo atto terroristico mira a distruggere i valori fondamentali delle nostre società: la dignità della vita, la libertà, la solidarietà, la pace. Guerra, infatti, è la parola che si sente risuonare. “Siamo in guerra”, s’ode da ogni angolo dell’Occidente. “Guerra!”, allora, dev’essere la risposta, innanzitutto nei territori dominati dalle organizzazioni terroristiche: come se dopo la seconda guerra mondiale con la Carta delle Nazioni Unite non avessimo attributo al Consiglio di sicurezza l’azione di polizia internazionale proprio per evitare il “flagello della guerra”. E un atteggiamento bellico anche sul piano interno: tolleranza zero, chiusura dei confini, legislazione dell’emergenza e misure estreme di polizia nei nostri paesi, dove attraverso le comunità d'immigrati, magari ormai di seconda o terza generazione, s'infiltrano i terroristi. La casa bruci

  11. Phthiraptera and Gamasida Parasites of Columbina picui (Temminck (Columbiformes: Columbidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAA. Coimbra

    Full Text Available Thirty-two specimens of Columbina picui (picui ground-dove were examined, and a collection of arthropods was made by washing the external surface of the body and the nasal cavity. The species in the order Phthiraptera found and their respective prevalences, mean abundance and mean intensity were: Columbicola passerinae (84.4%; 10.3; 12.2, Hohorstiella passerinae (21.9%; 0.7; 3.1 and Physconelloides eurysema (3.1%; 0.1; 2. The gamasid mites found in the birds and their respective prevalences, mean abundance and mean intensity were: Pellonyssus marui (31.3%; 1.2; 3.9, Ornithonyssus bursa (15.6%; 0.2. ;1.2 and Mesonyssus sp. (6.3%; 0.1; 1. Columbicola passerinae, H. passerinae, P. eurysema, O. bursa, P. marui and Mesonyssus sp. were recorded for the first time infecting C. picui in Brazil. Except for O. bursa, the other species are reported for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  12. 3-D x-ray mirror metrology with a vertical scanning long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Grindel, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) was originally developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the specific purpose of measuring the surface figure of large cylindrical mirrors used at grazing incidence in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. In its original configuration, it could measure only along one line down the center of the cylinder. A single linear profile is often sufficient to gauge the quality of the optical surface on these kinds of mirrors. For some applications it is necessary to measure the topography of the entire surface, not just along one line but over a grid that covers the entire surface area. We have modified a standard LTP to enable measurement of the complete surface of Wolter telescope optics in a vertical configuration. The vertical scanning LTP (VSLTP) is capable of producing a complete 3-D map of the surface topography errors relative to the ideal desired surface on complete segments of paraboloids and hyperboloids. The instrument uses a penta prism assembly to scan the probe beam in the longitudinal direction parallel to the mirror symmetry axis and uses a precision rotary stage to provide scans in the azimuthal direction. A Risley prism pair and a dove prism are used to orient the probe beam in the proper direction for the azimuthal scans. The repeatability of the prototype instrument is better than 20 nm over trace lengths of 35 mm with a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Una riflessione interdisciplinare sul termine cambiamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Licari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Il focus che presento propone una riflessione interdisciplinare sul campo semantico del termine cambiamento. Lo scopo è quello di cogliere, attraverso uno sguardo sulla complessità del reale, alcune delle situazioni e alcuni processi dove la parola cambiamento si va a collocare. Come sappiamo il cambiamento lo possiamo ritrovare sia nei processi evolutivi, come in quelli formativi, o in quelli epistemologici, si pensi ad esempio al cambio di paradigma più famoso nella conoscenza umana: il passaggio dal sistema di pensiero geocentrico al sistema eliocentrico. Così, al cambiamento troviamo associati lo spaesamento, le resistenze, la crisi, la rabbia, la tristezza, ma non ultimo, l’ampliamento dei propri orizzonti di crescita personale e collettiva. Parole chiave: paradigma, organizzazione, relazione, esperienze di vita.An interdisciplinary reflection on the term changeAbstract My presentation proposes an interdisciplinary reflection on the semantic field of the word change. While looking at the complexity of reality, it aims at grasping some situations and processes where the term change is involved. As we know, we can find changes in evolutionary, educational, epistemological processes, let us think for example of the most famous paradigm change of human knowledge: the passage from geocentric to heliocentric mindset. Bewilderment, resistances, crisis, anger, sadness are thus associated to change, as well as the enlargement of one’s own personal and collective growth.Key word : paradigm, organization, relationship, life experiences.

  14. Single filament semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botez, D.

    1980-01-01

    A semiconductor laser comprising: a body of semiconductor material including a substrate having a surface and a pair of spaced, substantially parallel dove-tailed shaped grooves in said surface, said body having a pair of end surfaces between which said grooves extend, said end surfaces being reflective to light with at least one of said end surfaces being partially transparent to light a first epitaxial layer over said surface of the substrate and the surfaces of the grooves, said first epitaxial layer having a flat surface portion over the portion of the substrate surface between the grooves, a thin second epitaxial layer over said first epitaxial layer, a third epitaxial layer over said second epitaxial layer, said first and third epitaxial layers being of opposite conductivity types and the second epitaxial layer being the active recombination region of the laser with the light being generated therein in the vicinity of the portion which is over the flat surface portion of the first epitaxial layer, and a pair of contacts on said body with one contact being over said third epitaxial body and the other being on said substrate

  15. Black Mirror: “The National Anthem”. Arte, media e la dissoluzione della democrazia

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    Pierluigi Musarò

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black Mirror è una serie televisiva britannica che, con irriverente satira, ci mette di fronte al “lato oscuro” della tecnologia odierna, l’assuefazione da essa causata, gli effetti inquietanti sulle nostre vite. Riprendendo il tema del nostro disagio contemporaneo con molti decenni di distanza, i sei episodi della serie televisiva, pur ambientati in “realtà” differenti, sembrano, come uno specchio, metterci di fronte alla nostra esistenza, costringendoci a riflettere – in modo amaro e a tratti macabro – sul nostro stile di vita, sulle nostre emozioni e relazioni, sino al nostro modo di intendere e praticare la politica nell’attuale società dello spettacolo. In questo saggio viene analizzato il primo episodio, The National Anthem, un thriller politico tragicomico, con toni da apocalisse, attraverso cui  l’autore denuncia come essere di fronte allo schermo (piuttosto che nello schermo, spendendo buona parte delle nostre giornate all’interno di mondi virtuali dove mettiamo in atto le nostre performance, non abbia più nessuna forza moralizzatrice se non quella dell’auto-espressione spettatoriale.

  16. La cultura del corpo nella complessità della malattia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gattola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Il corpo è il fondamento stesso dell'essere. Nello stato di salute ma, soprattutto, nella malattia, il corpo è il palcoscenico dove si rappresenta lo stato della persona, tra cambiamento e conservazione. Come il linguaggio verbale, scandisce un senso alle frasi, ai termini attraverso la parola, così il corpo, tramite il codice semantico, esprime le caratteristiche di ogni individuo ed il relativo stato di salute o malattia che ne contraddistingue la storia personale. Il corpo è raccoglie e rappresenta le nostre emozioni, per questo motivo è importante ascoltarne i messaggi, comprenderne i sintomi ed il linguaggio, imparare a dialogarci. Conoscere la relazione tra le varie parti che lo compongono, l’ordinamento gerarchico dei vari ranghi, l’individuazione anatomica, le teorie che sono avvenute nelle varie culture nel corso del tempo. L’approccio comunicativo con l’operatore sanitario e la conoscenza del nostro corpo nella scoperta e nel decorso di una malattia sono di vitale importanza per la realizzazione e la buona riuscita del processo assistenziale.

  17. Miliardi e miliardi riflessioni di fine millennio sulla terra e i suoi inquilini

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Carl Sagan, ancora una volta - l'ultima, purtroppo - ci mette a disposizione la sua esperienza (e le sue conoscenze) per vedere il mondo sotto una prospettiva diversa. Questa volta tuttavia, le domande a cui vuole dare risposta non sono soltanto scientifiche ma anche, soprattutto, umanistiche. Con gli occhiali dello scienziato, ma il cuore appassionato dell'uomo, Sagan affronta i temi che condizioneranno i nostri prossimi anni, dai piccoli - ma sorprendenti - problemi di ogni giorno, fino alle grandi domande sul futuro del Pianeta. Così, partendo dai servizi televisivi di Monday Night Football - una sorta di Domenica sportiva americana - Sagan ci accompagna fra le tribù dei cacciatori-raccoglitori che un tempo popolavano la Terra per arrivare a guardare da vicino il fragile equilibrio su cui poggia la vita. Allo stesso modo, prendendo spunto dall'invenzione degli scacchi, ci troviamo di fronte ai temi dell'esplosione demografica, della diffusione dell'Aids e a tutti quei fenomeni dove una piccola unità (un...

  18. Museologia e tecnologia 3D - Applicazioni sui reperti del Museo Archeologico di Aidone in mostra al The J. Paul Getty Museum ( Malibu, aprile 2012-gennaio 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Piccillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il progetto rigurda la scansione e la riproduzione, mediante tecnologia laser scanner 3D, di 19 reperti archeologici (datati dal IV al III secolo a.C. che, dal Museo Archeologico Regionale di Aidone (Sicilia, Italia sono stati dati in prestito, dopo il rientro della “Dea di Morgantina”, al The J.Paul Getty Museum di Malibu (California, USA, dove da aprile 2012 a gennaio 2013 si è tenuta la mostra temporanea “The Sanctuaries of Demeter andPersephoneat Morgantina”.Il caso studiato e documentato riguarda le scansioni, mediante prototipo David Lasercanner®dei suddetti reperti. Il lavoro è stato svolto al fine di documentare con la massima precisione e riprodurre  la copia virtuale fedele dei reperti dati in prestito al The J.Paul Getty Museum di Malibu, per poter verificare, al rientro degli stessi,il loro  stato dopo gli interventi di restauro eseguiti negli Stati Uniti oeventuali danneggiamenti dovuti al loro trasporto. Tali scansioni potrebbero in seguito anche essere utilizzate per aspetti volti alla promozione, alla fruizione (mostra virtualein situ o itinerante e la valorizzazione dei reperti presi in esame.  

  19. Tommaseo e la narrativa storica: dalla riflessione sull’«Antologia» ai racconti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Giardini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo esamina la riflessione di Tommaseo sulla narrativa storica in relazione alla successiva redazione dei racconti, attraverso lo studio degli articoli apparsi sull’«Antologia». Si analizza l’attività critica dello scrittore e, in particolare, l’insoddisfazione per gli esiti dei romanzi recensiti quali elementi indispensabili per la futura elaborazione delle sue singolari soluzioni narrative. L’individuazione delle specificità della prassi narrativa tommaseana ne mette tuttavia in luce anche gli scarti rispetto alla sua poetica storica. Funzionale in tal senso è la recensione ai Promessi sposi, dove Tommaseo mostra di non comprendere pienamente le ragioni dell’opera e il ruolo dell’invenzione, benché condivida l’intento educativo e divulgativo di Manzoni. Tuttavia, la ricerca dell’essenzialità e della poesia come condizioni per un buon romanzo approderà a strutture antinarrative e a una prosa d’arte destinate a un pubblico meno ampio di quello manzoniano: si esclude così l’incolto destinatario di quella pedagogia del romanzo espressa nella rivista fiorentina.

  20. La sfida del trasferimento tecnologico Le Università italiane si raccontano

    CERN Document Server

    Piccaluga, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    L’opera presenta e descrive il fenomeno del trasferimento tecnologico da università a industria attraverso una prospettiva originale, da “insider”, cioè la prospettiva delle università. Il volume racconta, attraverso la penna degli stessi protagonisti, la nascita, la crescita e le esperienze degli Uffici di Trasferimento Tecnologico (TTO) delle principali università italiane, facendo emergere l’eterogeneità delle loro ambizioni, dei traguardi raggiunti e delle risorse a loro disposizione per la valorizzazione della ricerca scientifica. L’idea di fondo dell’opera è che i “numeri” danno una visione importante ma solo parziale di quello che è un TTO universitario. Il nostro lavoro a stretto contatto con i professionisti del trasferimento tecnologico ci ha dimostrato che l’attività di tali uffici è ricca di storie significative e ad alto contenuto formativo, dove l’elemento umano, e le modalità con cui esso è gestito, giocano un ruolo centrale nel trasferimento di conoscenza dal mon...

  1. The Biblical Word of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Wajda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous references to animals in the Bible show that biblical authors had a broad knowledge of nature. According to the current classification of living organisms and method of research used by modern zoology, it is stated that these observations do not have the characteristics of scientific research. In spite of this, they are the evidence of the clear-sighted observation of animals, which is reflected not only in the knowledge of the appearance of individual species, but also of specific behaviours related to their way of life. It concerns not only domestic animals, raised for the purpose of gaining meat, fur, hide and labour, but also wild representatives of the fauna. Bible references concerning the latter apply to the species perceived as highly dangerous to man and domestic animals, i.e.: lions, wolves, bears, leopards or snakes. Amongst the Bible animals one can distinguish these which aroused admiration because of their appearance, such as gazelle, deer, ibex or dove. At the same time, it is essential to emphasise the fact that this rich animal world is just a vivid background of the biblical story of Salvation and a tool used to translate God’s address into human language. For this reason, the knowledge of animal symbolism in the Sacred Scripture makes more accurate understanding of the pericopes possible.

  2. Learning and innovative elements of strategy adoption rules expand cooperative network topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Szalay, Máté S; Zhang, Changshui; Csermely, Peter

    2008-04-09

    Cooperation plays a key role in the evolution of complex systems. However, the level of cooperation extensively varies with the topology of agent networks in the widely used models of repeated games. Here we show that cooperation remains rather stable by applying the reinforcement learning strategy adoption rule, Q-learning on a variety of random, regular, small-word, scale-free and modular network models in repeated, multi-agent Prisoner's Dilemma and Hawk-Dove games. Furthermore, we found that using the above model systems other long-term learning strategy adoption rules also promote cooperation, while introducing a low level of noise (as a model of innovation) to the strategy adoption rules makes the level of cooperation less dependent on the actual network topology. Our results demonstrate that long-term learning and random elements in the strategy adoption rules, when acting together, extend the range of network topologies enabling the development of cooperation at a wider range of costs and temptations. These results suggest that a balanced duo of learning and innovation may help to preserve cooperation during the re-organization of real-world networks, and may play a prominent role in the evolution of self-organizing, complex systems.

  3. Some causes of the variable shape of flocks of birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available Flocks of birds are highly variable in shape in all contexts (while travelling, avoiding predation, wheeling above the roost. Particularly amazing in this respect are the aerial displays of huge flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris above the sleeping site at dawn. The causes of this variability are hardly known, however. Here we hypothesise that variability of shape increases when there are larger local differences in movement behaviour in the flock. We investigate this hypothesis with the help of a model of the self-organisation of travelling groups, called StarDisplay, since such a model has also increased our understanding of what causes the oblong shape of schools of fish. The flocking patterns in the model prove to resemble those of real birds, in particular of starlings and rock doves. As to shape, we measure the relative proportions of the flock in several ways, which either depend on the direction of movement or do not. We confirm that flock shape is usually more variable when local differences in movement in the flock are larger. This happens when a flock size is larger, b interacting partners are fewer, c the flock turnings are stronger, and d individuals roll into the turn. In contrast to our expectations, when variability of speed in the flock is higher, flock shape and the positions of members in the flock are more static. We explain this and indicate the adaptive value of low variability of speed and spatial restriction of interaction and develop testable hypotheses.

  4. Seasonal blood-feeding behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Weld County, Colorado, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Rebekah; Juliusson, Lara; Weissmann, Michael; Evans, Sara; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    Studies on Culex tarsalis Coquillett in Colorado have shown marked seasonal variation in the proportion of blood meals from birds and mammals. However, limitations in the specificity of antibodies used in the precipitin test and lack of vertebrate host availability data warrant revisiting Cx. tarsalis blood feeding behavior in the context of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. We characterized the host preference of Cx. tarsalis during peak WNV transmission season in eastern Colorado and estimated the relative contribution of different avian species to WNV transmission. Cx. tarsalis preferred birds to mammals each month, although the proportion of blood meals from mammals increased in July and August. The distribution of blood meals differed significantly across months, in part because of changes in the proportion of blood meals from American robins, a preferred host. The estimated proportion of WNV-infectious vectors derived from American robins declined from 60 to 1% between June and August. The majority of avian blood meals came from doves, preferred hosts that contributed 25-40% of the WNV-infectious mosquitoes each month. Active WNV transmission was observed in association with a large house sparrow communal roost. These data show how seasonal patterns in Cx. tarsalis blood feeding behavior relate to WNV transmission in eastern Colorado, with the American robin contributing greatly to early-season virus transmission and a communal roost of sparrows serving as a focus for late-season amplification.

  5. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E; Swearingin, Ryan M; Pullins, Craig K; Rice, Matthew E

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  6. The impact of humidity on evaporative cooling in small desert birds exposed to high air temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2014-01-01

    Environmental temperatures that exceed body temperature (Tb) force endothermic animals to rely solely on evaporative cooling to dissipate heat. However, evaporative heat dissipation can be drastically reduced by environmental humidity, imposing a thermoregulatory challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of humidity on the thermoregulation of desert birds and to compare the sensitivity of cutaneous and respiratory evaporation to reduced vapor density gradients. Rates of evaporative water loss, metabolic rate, and Tb were measured in birds exposed to humidities ranging from ∼2 to 30 g H2O m(-3) (0%-100% relative humidity at 30°C) at air temperatures between 44° and 56°C. In sociable weavers, a species that dissipates heat primarily through panting, rates of evaporative water loss were inhibited by as much as 36% by high humidity at 48°C, and these birds showed a high degree of hyperthermia. At lower temperatures (40°-44°C), evaporative water loss was largely unaffected by humidity in this species. In Namaqua doves, which primarily use cutaneous evaporation, increasing humidity reduced rates of evaporative water loss, but overall rates of water loss were lower than those observed in sociable weavers. Our data suggest that cutaneous evaporation is more efficient than panting, requiring less water to maintain Tb at a given temperature, but panting appears less sensitive to humidity over the air temperature range investigated here.

  7. A water market simulator considering pair-wise trades between agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskova, I.; Erfani, T.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    In many basins in England no further water abstraction licences are available. Trading water between water rights holders has been recognized as a potentially effective and economically efficient strategy to mitigate increasing scarcity. A screening tool that could assess the potential for trade through realistic simulation of individual water rights holders would help assess the solution's potential contribution to local water management. We propose an optimisation-driven water market simulator that predicts pair-wise trade in a catchment and represents its interaction with natural hydrology and engineered infrastructure. A model is used to emulate licence-holders' willingness to engage in short-term trade transactions. In their simplest form agents are represented using an economic benefit function. The working hypothesis is that trading behaviour can be partially predicted based on differences in marginal values of water over space and time and estimates of transaction costs on pair-wise trades. We discuss the further possibility of embedding rules, norms and preferences of the different water user sectors to more realistically represent the behaviours, motives and constraints of individual licence holders. The potential benefits and limitations of such a social simulation (agent-based) approach is contrasted with our simulator where agents are driven by economic optimization. A case study based on the Dove River Basin (UK) demonstrates model inputs and outputs. The ability of the model to suggest impacts of water rights policy reforms on trading is discussed.

  8. Life-history differences favor evolution of male dimorphism in competitive games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Johansson, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Many species exhibit two discrete male morphs: fighters and sneakers. Fighters are large and possess weapons but may mature slowly. Sneakers are small and have no weapons but can sneak matings and may mature quickly to start mating earlier in life than fighters. However, how differences in competitive ability and life history interact to determine male morph coexistence has not yet been investigated within a single framework. Here we integrate demography and game theory into a two-sex population model to study the evolution of strategies that result in the coexistence of fighters and sneakers. We incorporate differences in maturation time between the morphs and use a mating-probability matrix analogous to the classic hawk-dove game. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that male dimorphism evolves more easily in our model than in classic game theory approaches. Our results also revealed an interaction between life-history differences and sneaker competitiveness, which shows that demography and competitive games should be treated as interlinked mechanisms to understand the evolution of male dimorphism. Applying our approach to empirical data on bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and bullhorned dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus) indicates that observed occurrences of male dimorphism are in general agreement with model predictions.

  9. LA LIBERTÀ E LE IMMAGINI: UNA DRAMMATURGIA A STAZIONI PER IL CONTROLLO DELL’AMORE. LETTURA DI PURGATORIO XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottavio Brigandì

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro si propone come lettura dei canti XVIII e XIX del Purgatorio, dove il centrale discorso di Virgilio sull’amore come fondamento dell’agire umano trova esemplificazione nella doppia forma dell’incontro con le anime accidiose e del sogno (la celebre «femminabalba». Che sia in dialogo col maestro o nella descrizione dei purganti o per esperienza onirica, la scoperta della forza del desiderio è seguita, rassicurazione e monito insieme, dalla certezza che il libero arbitrio può trattenerci dalle azioni ree, riconducendo il potere appetitivoa quello conoscitivo e dunque trasformando il “moto” d’amore nella feconda stasi della riflessione. Fra gli espedienti che sortiscono l’effetto di porre il lettore sullo stesso piano del Viator, si segnalano l’impianto teatrale del discorso, fitto di stazioni narrative e tematiche, e lo stile ricco di figurazioni, allusivo a un impiego della facoltà immaginativa per un fine poetico che intende mostrarsi utile all’educazione umana e davvero “libero” dal giogo amoroso.

  10. Sul posto della variazione nella teoria linguistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Berruto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Una parte cospicua dell’opera scientifica di Mitja Skubic si può ritenere collocata più o meno direttamente in campi di studio aventi a che fare con la variazione. Una buona cinquantina dei più di 220 titoli di Skubic riportati nella bibliografia curata da Marjeta Prelesnik-Drozg in linguistica XLVIII (2008, 11–31, verte infatti sullo studio di fenomeni in specifiche varietà di lingua (il toscano parlato, la lingua di Goldoni, varie parlate venete, friulano e sloveno di Gorizia, e via discorrendo o su casi di interferenza e contatto nell’area italo-slovena, dove è per lo più evidente una dimensione variazionista. Vorrei quindi offrire al festeggiato in questa sede alcune riflessioni generali sulla questione della variazione linguistica che spero gli giungano gradite. Un tratto evidente nella linguistica anche teorica (o nelle diverse anime della linguistica1 degli ultimi decenni è infatti il progressivo aumento di interesse verso la variazione. Un problema sempre ritornante in tale contesto è quello del posto e del ruolo eventuale che la variazione possa o debba avere nella teoria lingui- stica. Riprendo quindi in queste pagine, con qualche sintetica argomentazione, una questione che, molto dibattuta negli anni Settanta in concomitanza con la fondazio- ne e lo sviluppo della linguistica variazionista di William Labov,2 è emersa solo spo- radicamente negli anni Ottanta e Novanta, ed è divenuta, su altre basi, di nuovo molto attuale all’inizio del Terzo Millennio.

  11. Problemi di Fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Michelangelo

    2008-01-01

    L’introduzione delle lauree triennali ha in molti casi costretto i docenti a ridurre drasticamente il numero di ore di insegnamento e quindi l’estensione dei programmi dei corsi di Fisica. In questo volumetto l'autore si è proposto di esporre sinteticamente ma con il massimo rigore possibile il corso di Fisica Generale I evitando le dimostrazioni delle leggi fisiche, ma dando la priorità alle applicazioni di tali leggi e allo svolgimento di esercizi che in genere viene trascurato in molti corsi. Ha cercato pertanto di presentare i fenomeni fisici sottolineando, dove possibile, la loro presenza nella vita quotidiana e le loro più semplici e immediate applicazioni, consentendo in tal modo agli studenti di vedere la Fisica non più come una interminabile serie di formule ma come un nuovo modo di interpretare e di capire i fenomeni naturali inanimati (del resto non dobbiamo dimenticare che il termine greco da cui deriva il suo nome è fisis, fisis, ovvero natura). Il contenuto è completo, comprendendo anc...

  12. Il De gemitu Columbae del cardinale Roberto Bellarmino e lo jus publicum ecclesiasticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Borghi

    2018-02-01

    ABSTRACT: One of the minor works of cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, De Gemitu Columbae sive De Bono lacrymarum (1617 is composed of three books: the first is dedicated to the "need for moans"; the second and third, respectively, to the sources and the fruits of the "tears". In investigating the origin of the moan, after quoting Isaiah and Nahum, the Author insists on a verse, particularly evocative, taken from the Song of Songs (6, 9. Therefore, the moan is not referred only to the animal in itself, but also to the whole Church: the work in question seems to be more connected to the textures of a "political theology" than to the classic counter-reformed edification readings. The present contribution aims to examine the relationships between De gemitu and the jus publicum ecclesiasticum, not only externum but also - and above all - internum. And, by this way, the highly debated theme of belonging to the Ecclesia, faced by the great Counter-reform theorist through the images of the dove and the chant.

  13. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, M V; Ilinykh, F A; Zaykovskaya, A V; Epanchinzeva, A V; Evstaphiev, I L; Tovtunec, N N; Sharshov, K A; Durimanov, A G; Penkovskaya, N A; Shestopalov, A M; Lerman, A I; Drozdov, I G; Swayne, D E

    2010-09-01

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood, especially for the H5N1 high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) viruses. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 AI viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine with an overall frequency of virus recovery of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from three species of dabbling ducks: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (Anas penelope), and garganey (Anas querquedula), making the frequency of virus recovery for dabbling ducks 6.3%. The viruses were predominantly isolated during the fall sampling period. All viruses were genetically and antigenically characterized. No H5N1 HPAI viruses were isolated, but other HA and NA subtypes were identified including H3N1 (2), H3N6 (3), H3N8 (4), H4N6 (6), H5N2 (3), H7N8 (1), and H10N6 (1) subtypes. All isolates were of low pathogenicity, as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00. For H5N2 and H7N8 isolates, the HA gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecologic connections of the Crimea region with AI viruses from Siberia and Europe. No influenza A isolates were recovered from other Anseriformes (diving ducks [two species of pochards] and graylag geese), Columbiformes (collared doves), Gruiformes (coot), and Galliformes (gray partridges).

  14. Evolution of cooperation: combining kin selection and reciprocal altruism into matrix games with social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som B Ale

    Full Text Available Darwinian selection should preclude cooperation from evolving; yet cooperation is widespread among organisms. We show how kin selection and reciprocal altruism can promote cooperation in diverse 2×2 matrix games (prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift, and hawk-dove. We visualize kin selection as non-random interactions with like-strategies interacting more than by chance. Reciprocal altruism emerges from iterated games where players have some likelihood of knowing the identity of other players. This perspective allows us to combine kin selection and reciprocal altruism into a general matrix game model. Both mechanisms operating together should influence the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of kin selection, reciprocal altruism may be an evolutionarily stable strategy but is unable to invade a population of non-co-operators. Similarly, it may take a high degree of relatedness to permit cooperation to supplant non-cooperation. Together, a little bit of reciprocal altruism can, however, greatly reduce the threshold at which kin selection promotes cooperation, and vice-versa. To properly frame applications and tests of cooperation, empiricists should consider kin selection and reciprocal altruism together rather than as alternatives, and they should be applied to a broader class of social dilemmas than just the prisoner's dilemma.

  15. Mist-netting records of some pest and non-pest rice field birds of the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimon Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    An initial survey was conducted to determine the status of bird population in the Muda rice area of Kedah. Sighting records as well as netting and bird ringing in conjunction with Capture-Recapture method were carried out on two occasions during the planting seasons of June 1993 and August 1994, respectively. On the former occasion, a total of 25 birds were captured by mist?netting at Kampung Kangkong, Mucla, of which 14 comprised of grainivores: twelve specimens of baya weavers or ciak tempua, Ploceusphilippinus and two specimens of scaly-breasted munias or, pipit pinang (Lonchura punctulata). Some nine specimens of white-throated kingfisher or pekaka belukar (Halcyon smyrnensis), a magpie robin or murai kampung (Copsychus sauiaris) and a greater painted snipe or meragi (Rostratula benghalensis) were also ringed and released. A 33% recapture success was recorded during the three-day netting period. On the second occasion, some 15 specimens comprising members of Columbidae, Ploceidae, Motacillidae, Alcedinidae, Apodidae and Caprimulgidae were mist-netted at Alor Serdang, Kota Sarang Semut, Muda. Likewise, the highest number netted (7) were the ubiquitous pest and commensal species, viz; baya weavers, ciak urasia and Richards pipit; followed by four white-breasted kingfishers, two peaceful doves, a house swift and a large-tailed nightjar. Details of vital statistics for each specimen captured were recorded and the results of our field observations showed that insectivores and darters were more likely to be netted than waterbirds and ground dwelling species. (Author)

  16. Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by west African wild ground-feeding birds to Hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-06-01

    Hyalomma (H.) marginatum rufipes ticks commonly infest birds and are potential vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in west Africa. An experimental model for investigating the role of birds in the CCHF virus transmission cycle was developed. Following CCHF virus inoculation, antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in one red-beaked hornbill and one glossy starling, but not in two laughing doves and six domestic chickens. None of the birds showed a detectable viremia. Hyalomma marginatum rufipes larvae were placed on three red-beaked hornbills and one glossy starling. These birds were then inoculated with CCHF virus (10(1.5) 50% mouse intracerebral lethal doses). Virus transmission to larvae or nymphs was obtained and seroconversions in birds were recorded. Virus was also detected in 90% of the individually tested nymphs, as well as in adults. The virus was then successfully transmitted by adult ticks to rabbits and the engorged females were allowed to oviposit. Progeny larvae were placed on another group of birds and one of three birds showed seroconversion. The cycle of transmission of virus between ticks and aviremic ground-feeding birds represent a potential reservoir and amplification mechanism of CCHF virus in west Africa.

  17. La rappresentazione del sogno, due modelli a confronto: la metapsicologia di Sigmund Freud e la teoria del Codice Multiplo di Wilma Bucci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Bellavia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo di questo lavoro è quello di fornire le principali linee di orientamento teorico dell’approccio psicodinamico relative alla funzione del sogno. In tal senso ci si avvarrà della metapsicologia Freudiana, ma anche dei prestigiosi contributi sul carattere del sogno portati da Wilma Bucci. In particolare, si proporrà un parallelismo tra la metapsicologia e la teoria del Codice Multiplo. La teoria energetica di derivazione psicoanalitica mette in risalto alcuni punti cardine sul ruolo del sogno: 1 il sogno deriva dall’energia di un desiderio inconscio; 2 i sogni hanno la funzione di preservare il sonno; 3 la nozione di un censore che si attiva per distorcere e mascherare i contenuti latenti; 4 i contenuti manifesti hanno la funzione di nascondere il reale significato del sogno. Secondo la teoria del codice multiplo, il sogno ha un valore là dove fornisce l’accesso al significato emotivo che è stato dissociato, ma la funzione dell’elaborazione dell’informazione emotiva nel sogno è sovrapponibile a quella dell’elaborazione dell’informazione emotiva durante la veglia, in particolare per quanto riguarda il sonno REM.

  18. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  19. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  20. Dai buchi neri all’adroterapia un viaggio nella fisica moderna

    CERN Document Server

    Curceanu, Catalina Oana

    2013-01-01

    Tutto quello che avreste voluto sapere sulla fisica moderna ma non avevate nessuno a cui chiederlo! Questo libro vi conduce in un viaggio affascinante attraverso i misteri della fisica moderna e delle sue tantissime ricadute nella società, presentando anche le ricerche attualissime, le strade che si aprono davanti a noi: a volte ampi viali illuminati a giorno, altre volte sentieri appena accennati. Dove ci porteranno? La grande forza della scienza, nonché il suo motore, è la curiosità che ci ha spinto a guardare in alto, in profondità ma anche dentro noi stessi. Indagando abbiamo trovato veri tesori. La fisica ci spiega cosa succede nell’atomo ma anche nell’Universo, un mondo che va dal miliardesimo di miliardesimo di metro a una decina di miliardi di anni luce! Abbiamo una spiegazione razionale non soltanto a domande del tipo “di cosa è fatto il mondo?”, ma anche a domande molto più difficili: “come è nato l’Universo e come potrebbe evolversi?”. La fisica fondamentale ha anche enormi ri...

  1. [Social learning as an uncertainty-reduction strategy: an adaptationist approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Daisuke; Kameda, Tatsuya; Shinada, Mizuho

    2003-04-01

    Social learning is an effective mechanism to reduce uncertainty about environmental knowledge, helping individuals adopt an adaptive behavior in the environment at small cost. Although this is evident for learning about temporally stable targets (e.g., acquiring avoidance of toxic foods culturally), the functional value of social learning in a temporally unstable environment is less clear; knowledge acquired by social learning may be outdated. This paper addressed adaptive values of social learning in a non-stationary environment empirically. When individual learning about the non-stationary environment is costly, a hawk-dove-game-like equilibrium is expected to emerge in the population, where members who engage in costly individual learning and members who skip the information search and free-ride on other members' search efforts coexist at a stable ratio. Such a "producer-scrounger" structure should qualify effectiveness of social/cultural learning severely, especially "conformity bias" when using social information (Boyd & Richerson, 1985). We tested these predictions by an experiment implementing a non-stationary uncertain environment in a laboratory. The results supported our thesis. Implications of these findings and some future directions were discussed.

  2. Astronomia e fisica a Firenze dalla Specola ad Arcetri

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Simone; Casalbuoni, Roberto; Dominici, Daniele; Mazzoni, Massimo; Pelosi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    La Mostra "Astronomia e Fisica a Firenze" illustra l'evoluzione delle due discipline dal XVIII secolo fino ai primi decenni del Novecento. Teatro cittadino di questo processo, anzi di tutte le scienze, fu l'Imperiale e Reale Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale, dove adesso ha sede la Mostra. Nell'arco di tempo esaminato tutti gli aspetti dell'indagine della natura erano ugualmente pertinenti ad un'unica figura di studioso, ma verso l'inizio del XX secolo alcuni indirizzi subirono una profonda trasformazione e al prevalente approccio tassonomico e fenomenologico subentrò, soprattutto per Astronomia e Fisica, un'indagine specialistica che finì per differenziare le varie ricerche. Protagonista di questa fase fu lo sviluppo dell'analisi spettroscopica. La Mostra, aperta da dicembre 2016 a marzo 2017, è organizzata dall'Università di Firenze (Museo di Storia Naturale; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia) e dall'Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, in collaborazione con la Sezione di Firenze dell'INFN, il Museo G...

  3. LA COMUNITÀ MACROBENTONICA DELL’ALTO METAURO (APPENNINO UMBRO-MARCHIGIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grilli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La parte alta del bacino idrografico del Fiume Metauro (Appennino Umbro-Marchigiano è stata oggetto di una campagna di ricerca annuale finalizzata alla caratterizzazione della comunità macrobentonica. In quattro stazioni di raccolta è stata riscontrata una comunità di elevata ricchezza tassonomica, alla quale contribuivano taxa stenoeci con valore di indicatori e/o di importanza biogeografica. I popolamenti sono apparsi differenti nelle varie stazioni e nelle diverse stagioni, mostrando nel complesso una relazione inversa tra ricchezza tassonomica e abbondanza del taxon dominante. La diversità tassonomica era più elevata nelle stazioni a maggiore altitudine, caratterizzate da sedimenti grossolani, mentre una sensibile riduzione del numero di taxa è stata osservata lungo l’asta fluviale, dove è apparsa evidente la dominanza di taxa eurieci. La diversità della comunità macrobentonica osservata dimostra l’importanza faunistica ed ecologica del tratto pedemontano del fiume Metauro, evidenziando l’opportunità di una sua gestione attenta alla tutela e alla conservazione.

  4. Preserving the authenticity of food and wine festivals: the case of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santini

    2013-05-01

    Secondo l’UNESCO, i festival enogastronomici fanno parte del patrimonio culturale intangibile: durante questi eventi, la conoscenza del prodotto viene diffusa tra i partecipanti e le comunità locali e così i prodotti locali diventano uno strumento importante per divulgare la cultura di un determinato luogo. Per molti anni in Italia c’è stata una crescita nel numero di festival enogastronomici e nuovi attori, attratti dai facili profitti, sono entrati nel settore. Il risultato è stato la proliferazione di festival tutt’altro che “autentici”, dove vengono offerti prodotti non originari del luogo in cui l’evento si tiene. Questa situazione può danneggiare gravemente il territorio pregiudicandone la credibilità, alterandone la capacità di carico e compromettendo le attrazioni turistiche autentiche così come lo sfruttamento delle risorse locali da parte delle comunità rurali. Dopo aver introdotto il ruolo dei prodotti tipici (cibo e vino nello sviluppo di un’esperienza turistica autentica, l’articolo descrive il recente caso dell’accordo nazionale tra pubbliche amministrazioni, associazioni del commercio e del turismo e organizzazioni di agricoltori per sviluppare alcune linee guida al fine di disciplinare la complessità dei festival enogastronomici, adottando rigidi principi di sicurezza alimentare e preservando l’autenticità culturale storica e ambientale dei luoghi.

  5. “UOMINI-CAVALLO”: GENESI, ELABORAZIONE E MEMORIA ICONOGRAFICA DELLA FIGURA DEL CENTAURO, ALCUNI ESEMPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Maturo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’elaborato è dedicato a uno studio iconografico e simbolico del centauro. La distribuzione delle sue occorrenze in ambiti culturali e geografici diversificati diluita entro un arco cronologico molto esteso ha raccomandato di rinunciare a trattazioni generiche selezionando, dopo una ricognizione complessiva della documentazione del corpus iconografico noto in letteratura, tre ambiti di particolare pregnanza: nel primo di essi, il Vicino-Oriente, è stata rintracciata la sua origine, e dalla metà del II Millennio circa il Mischwesen mostra caratteristiche tipologiche esclusive e ricorre in specifici manufatti dalla forte valenza simbolico-religiosa. Modelli di adozione e diffusa rielaborazione sono stati poi censiti nella penisola italica dell’età del Ferro, luogo in cui l’immagine del centauro, pur mantenendo le sue note morfologiche, sembra riplasmata dal punto di vista iconologico e acquisisce specificità di natura endogena tratte dal substrato culturale autoctono. Infine, per valutare le eredità figurative, è stata compiuta una brevissima incursione tra le elaborazioni medioevali, dove si delinea come la sua iconografia, retaggio del repertorio pagano-classico, venga reinterpretata allegoricamente dal mondo cristiano senza che tuttavia ne appaia snaturata la valenza ancestrale.

  6. Concentrations of chromium, manganese, and lead in air and in avian eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Embryo exposure was not directly related to tropospheric levels of chromium, manganese or lead. - The expansion of urbanization introduces air pollution to wildlife areas. Some metal contaminants occurring in concentrations too small to have any measurable impact on adult birds may seriously affect embryos that are more sensitive to contaminants than the adult. Chromium, manganese, and lead are toxic and can be passed from the hen to the egg. This study relates the concentrations of these metals in eggs to their concentrations in air in three cities. Rock dove eggs were sampled and air pollution records were examined in the California cities of Riverside, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. The eggs from San Francisco did not differ from those of Los Angeles in lead concentration but the air did differ. The eggs collected in Los Angeles in 1998 had concentrations of chromium greater than in those from Riverside and from Los Angeles 1999 but the air had concentrations of chromium that did not differ among those three collections. Concentrations of manganese did not differ among the eggs but did differ among the air samples of the three cities. Exposures of embryos to chromium and manganese in this study were not at levels warranting concern. Although the concentration at which lead in eggs impairs avian health is not established, the highest concentrations found in this study exceed estimated safe concentrations. There is no indication that embryo exposure is directly related to atmospheric levels of these metals in the cities of this study

  7. Ecological theatre and the evolutionary game: how environmental and demographic factors determine payoffs in evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argasinski, K; Broom, M

    2013-10-01

    In the standard approach to evolutionary games and replicator dynamics, differences in fitness can be interpreted as an excess from the mean Malthusian growth rate in the population. In the underlying reasoning, related to an analysis of "costs" and "benefits", there is a silent assumption that fitness can be described in some type of units. However, in most cases these units of measure are not explicitly specified. Then the question arises: are these theories testable? How can we measure "benefit" or "cost"? A natural language, useful for describing and justifying comparisons of strategic "cost" versus "benefits", is the terminology of demography, because the basic events that shape the outcome of natural selection are births and deaths. In this paper, we present the consequences of an explicit analysis of births and deaths in an evolutionary game theoretic framework. We will investigate different types of mortality pressures, their combinations and the possibility of trade-offs between mortality and fertility. We will show that within this new approach it is possible to model how strictly ecological factors such as density dependence and additive background fitness, which seem neutral in classical theory, can affect the outcomes of the game. We consider the example of the Hawk-Dove game, and show that when reformulated in terms of our new approach new details and new biological predictions are produced.

  8. A study of the dynamics of multi-player games on small networks using territorial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Lafaye, Charlotte; Pattni, Karan; Rychtář, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the study of structured populations using models of evolutionary processes on graphs has begun to incorporate a more general type of interaction between individuals, allowing multi-player games to be played among the population. In this paper, we develop a birth-death dynamics for use in such models and consider the evolution of populations for special cases of very small graphs where we can easily identify all of the population states and carry out exact analyses. To do so, we study two multi-player games, a Hawk-Dove game and a public goods game. Our focus is on finding the fixation probability of an individual from one type, cooperator or defector in the case of the public goods game, within a population of the other type. We compare this value for both games on several graphs under different parameter values and assumptions, and identify some interesting general features of our model. In particular there is a very close relationship between the fixation probability and the mean temperature, with high temperatures helping fitter individuals and punishing unfit ones and so enhancing selection, whereas low temperatures give a levelling effect which suppresses selection.

  9. IL LIBRO D’ORO DI ARISTOMACHE: UNA NOTIZIA ANTIQUARIA IN PLUTARCO (MOR. 675 B E UN FRAMMENTO DI EPOS CORINTIO (EUM. FR. 8 BERNABÉ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capel Badino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Discutendo un problema cronologico in merito all’inclusione di gare poetiche nel contesto dei festival panellenici, Plutarco (mor. 675 b riferisce – sull’autorità di Polemone, scrittore antiquario (fr. 27 Preller – informazioni circa un libro d’oro offerto come ex voto nel tesoro dei Sicionii a Delfi dalla sconosciuta figura di Aristomache, vincitrice all’Istmo.Lo studio discute alcuni problemi riguardo al testo di Plutarco – pubblicato con un nuovo apparato critico, la natura dell’ex voto e l’identità di Aristomache. Poiché non c’è notizia di agoni poetici a Corinto prima della fine del IV sec. a.C., con maggiore coerenza rispetto al ragionamento di Plutarco, Aristomache può essere considerata una figura leggendaria assimilabile a una Sibilla. Il frammento di Polemone può essere confrontato con Eum. fr. 8 Bernabé (Favor. Corinth. 13, p. 305.8 Barigazzi, un frammento di un’opera epica, dove una Sibilla, parlando in prima persona, fornisce una tradizione corintia circa l’origine delle Istmie.

  10. Rappresentazioni digitali al tratto: tecniche visuali per un utilizzo avanzato del CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Garagnani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Il vasto panorama esistente di prodotti software destinati al mondo del disegno architettonico, rischia di compromettere quell'individualità che distingue lo stile di rappresentazione del progettista puro. La consuetudine moderna alla rappresentazione tridimensionale fotorealistica a tutti i costi, dove tessiture di materiali e contrasti di luci ed ombre sono a volte talmente esasperati da avere ben poco del fotografico, ha condotto a trascurare le più tradizionali visualizzazioni al tratto, ancora importanti per la loro intrinseca chiarezza esplicativa e visuale delle forme. Non sono pochi infatti i software di nuova produzione che implementano con discutibile disinvoltura motori di rendering più o meno realistici, ma che non sono in grado di presentare disegni prospettici od assonometrici formalmente corretti e gradevoli. Il tracciamento assistito tuttavia può essere un valido strumento di sviluppo anche per tecniche visuali più classiche; in questo breve scritto verranno analizzati due metodi per ottenere questo tipo di elaborati con un pacchetto di disegno digitale standard come AutoCAD.

  11. The sights and insights of examiners in objective structured clinical examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Chong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE is considered to be one of the most robust methods of clinical assessment. One of its strengths lies in its ability to minimise the effects of examiner bias due to the standardisation of items and tasks for each candidate. However, OSCE examiners’ assessment scores are influenced by several factors that may jeopardise the assumed objectivity of OSCEs. To better understand this phenomenon, the current review aims to determine and describe important sources of examiner bias and the factors affecting examiners’ assessments. Methods We performed a narrative review of the medical literature using Medline. All articles meeting the selection criteria were reviewed, with salient points extracted and synthesised into a clear and comprehensive summary of the knowledge in this area. Results OSCE examiners’ assessment scores are influenced by factors belonging to 4 different domains: examination context, examinee characteristics, examinee-examiner interactions, and examiner characteristics. These domains are composed of several factors including halo, hawk/dove and OSCE contrast effects; the examiner’s gender and ethnicity; training; lifetime experience in assessing; leadership and familiarity with students; station type; and site effects. Conclusion Several factors may influence the presumed objectivity of examiners’ assessments, and these factors need to be addressed to ensure the objectivity of OSCEs. We offer insights into directions for future research to better understand and address the phenomenon of examiner bias.

  12. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  13. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  14. Rapid inversion: running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges.

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    Jean-Michel Mongeau

    Full Text Available Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.

  15. The Representation of Aboriginality in the Novels of Peter Temple

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    Bill Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identity politics is fraught with difficulties. Of few places is this truer than in Australia when it comes to the representation of Aboriginality. On the one hand the absence or invisibility of Aboriginality in Australian life and culture maybe interpreted as a deliberate exclusion of a people whose presence is uncomfortable or inconvenient for many Australians of immigrant origin. Equally, the representation of Aboriginality by non-Aboriginals may be seen as an appropriation of identity, an inexcusable commercial exploitation or an act of neocolonialism. Best-selling and prize-winning South African-born author Peter Temple appears to be very much aware of these pitfalls. In his crime novels, written between 1996 and 2009, he has obviously made the decision to grasp the nettle and attempt to represent Aboriginality in a way that would be as acceptable as possible. This paper traces the evolution of Temple's representation of Aboriginality through the three major Aboriginal characters present in his novels: Cameron Delray (Bad Debts, 1996; Black Tide, 1999; Dead Point, 2000; and White Dog, 2003, Ned Lowey (An Iron Rose, 1998 and Detective Sergeant Paul Dove (The Broken Shore, 2005 and Truth, 2009.

  16. Conversazioni autobiografiche con Albino Sacco-Casamassima

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    Orazio Maria Valastro

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1948 venne Olivetti a Matera. Olivetti venne a Matera con un certo ambasciatore americano che praticamente aveva preparato o stava dando una mano per il piano Marschall, venne a Matera e mi vollero incontrare. Io sono stato chiamato dalla piazza, stavo nella piazza, era il mese di luglio, una cosa di questo genere, e andai in un bar, un bar ad angolo mi ricordo in Via Don Minzioni, dove questo Olivetti mi disse 'ma lei che cosa fa coi sassi?' 'Che cos'è questa storia?' Gli raccontai un po' che cosa facevo io con questi amici, avevamo fatto questo, insomma tutto quello che avevamo fatto nei sassi e che volevamo preparare ancora per presentare a qualcuno un piano di revisionamento dei sassi. Mi ricordo, era la prima volta che avevo visto Adriano Olivetti, ne avevo sentito parlare però non avevo mai visto quest'uomo con gli occhi celesti, minuto, coi capelli bianchi, riccioluto, con una cravatta bianca, cosa che mi fece impressione, una specie di angelo.

  17. Epidemiological characterization and risk evaluation associated with the presence of Megninia spp. in posture farms

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    Tiago Mendonça de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was accomplished with the aim to evaluate and to characterize the risks for the presence of Megninia spp. in poultry farms from Minas Gerais, using for that Correspondence Analysis (CA. A secondary database was used and adapted for this study, with information from 402 chicken houses of 42 laying hens commercial properties. Variables used to compose the correspondence model were selected through tests of Qui-square being considered the significant result of P≤0,05. A risk index was built to the presence of Megninia spp. starting from variables considered as risk factors for the presence of those ectoparasites. The CA graph produced for the epidemiological characterization of the presence of Megninia spp. presented an accumulated qui-square value of 58,55%. There was an association of the risk index with the age ranges of the poultry, among the presence Megninia spp. and the use of mineral oil and acaricide in the ration and; finally, an association between the ruddy ground-dove (Columbina talpacoti presence and the absence of mites of the Megninia genus. The results supply knowledge on the epidemiology of Megninia spp. In addition, these information can contribute in the decision, reducing the risks of possible infestations in poultry farms and the negative effects of that parasitism.

  18. Analysis of possible accidents on the heavy water system - Annex 4; Prilog 4 - Analiza mogucih akcidenata na sistemu teske vode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    Analysis of operation of the RA reactor heavy water system has shown that so far there were no failures that could cause reactor shutdown. Consequences of system failures and interruption of heavy water cooling of the core would be very serious. That is the reason for analyzing and estimating these type of failures of system components that could affect the tightness of the system or interrupt its function. The important elements of the heavy water system are: operating cylinder, heavy water pumps, heat exchanger, main and drainage pipes with distribution construction. Failure analysis of all the mentioned system components was done. [Serbo-Croat] Analiza dosadasnjeg rada sistema teske vode na reaktoru RA pokazala je da nije bilo ostecenja i kvarova takvog obima koji bi doveli do prestanka rada reaktora. Posledice ostecenja sistema i prestanak cirkulacije teske vode za potrebe hladjenja jezgra bile bi velike. Zato je potreno analizirati i predvideti takva ostecenja na elementima sistema zbog kojih bi doslo do narusavanja hermeticnosti sistema ili prestanak njegovog rada. Osnovni elementi sitema teske vode su: radni cilindar, pumpe teske vode, izmenjivac toplote, glavni i drenazni cevovodi sa razvodnom armaturom. Uradjena je analiza ostecenja na svim navedenim komponentama sistema.

  19. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

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    R Craig MaClean

    Full Text Available Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves", this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  20. Le narrazioni come metodo di indagine sociologica

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    Rita Bichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L'incontro trentino ha dimostrato l'interesse crescente dei giovani sociologi per lo sviluppo dei metodi narrativi e la capacità che questi hanno di essere efficaci nell'analisi di svariati temi, dai racconti di malattia alle narrazioni identitarie, dallo studio di lavoro e organizzazioni a quello delle migrazioni, di genere e memoria. Tuttavia, l'interesse della sociologia italiana va visto in un quadro di sviluppo più ampio a livello europeo e americano dove, a partire dagli anni '90, l'intervento di alcuni autori come Lyotard, Bruner e Macintyre, ha sancito quella che alcuni autori hanno definito svolta narrativa. La sociologia, infatti, tende sempre più a valorizzare la narrazione come processo di conoscenza peculiare che è attivato costantemente nella vita quotidiana; la "rivoluzione" risiede nel fatto che la narrazione diventa oggetto della sociologia e la disciplina stessa valorizza il suo uso sia come strumento di indagine scientifica, sia come modo di conoscere che come modo di comunicare, rivendicando la legittimità scientifica all'ascolto della parola diretta degli individui coinvolti all'interno delle ricerche di stampo sociologico.

  1. Verbo come elemento della frase in friulano ed in frances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bizjak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro e dedicato a una parte della sfera del verbo nel friulano  lettera­ rio della seconda meta del ventesimo secolo, alla perifrasi verbale e alla locuzione verbale. Nella definizione della perifrasi verbale (PV ho seguito il modello dei lin­ guisti spagnoli Javier Garcia Gonzales, Fernandez de Castro e Leonard Gomez Torrego, essendo ilpunto di partenza ilmio postulato che la PV rappresenti in friu­ lano una categoria grammaticale a parte o, almeno, una categoria in via di gramma­ ticalizzazione. Parallelamente alla situazione in friulano osservo quella nel francese scritto contemporaneo, con lo scopo di constatare delle eventuali somiglianze e diffe­ renze. Tenendo in considerazione la realta linguistica nella regione Friuli-Venezia Giulia, dove le interferenze fra l'italiano, il friulano ed il veneto sono tali che un non-friulanofono non riesce facilmente a distinguere quando si tratta di un sintag­ ma di origine friulana e quando di un calco sintattico sull'italiano, sembra oppor­ tuno, in numerosi casi, confrontare ilsintagma friulano e quello francese anche con la variante corrispondente in italiano letterario moderno; inoltre, nel capitolo in cui sono trattati i cosiddetti tempi bicomposti, vengono citati alcuni esempi nelle diver­ se varieta venete.

  2. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uresti-Cabrera, Luis A; Diaz, Rosalinda; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging.

  3. Turbine rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbut, T G.J.

    1975-10-09

    The feet of rotor blades, with their trapezoidal or dove-tailed cross-sections are, as usual, fastened in corresponding grooves in the drive shaft. The juntion of the groove flank, which, on its outer end, runs radially to the axis of the drive shaft, to the cylinder surface of the drive shaft between the grooves, therefore vertically to the first level takes place not relatively sharp-edged or with only little edge radius, but rather takes place in increasing radii which vary throughout the circumference. The touching of surfaces with the radial blade foot which exits the groove can thus be tight or at a normal assembly tolerance. Avoidance or reduction of load-tension concentrations and of unbalanced load distribution on the foot anchors of the rotor blades is possible. Ceramic and other brittle material can be used besides monolithic materials, and also fiber-reinforced metallic or inorganic and organic composite materials such as boron/aluminum, graphite/epoxy, 'Borsic'-titanium, as well as other organic polymer materials like silicon resin.

  4. Sogno, immagini e disagio psichico: una cura per l'anima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Testa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nella dimensione concettuale e terapeutica della psicologia analitica il lavoro con le immagini si pone come una sorte di spartiacque che caratterizza la specificità e l’identità della clinica junghiana, terreno di incontro col mondo delle psicosi, avvicinandosi al mondo dei deliri e delle allucinazioni come aspetti fenomenologici dove la dimensione personale si interseca con quella archetipica e il senso della propria esistenza ha potuto trovare un contenitore forse unicamente attraverso la voce dei deliri e delle immagini patologizzanti. In tal senso, le immagini accompagnano lungo il viaggio della vita, albergano nei ricordi delle storie prive di fiducia e di amore e possono condurre alla follia oppure rappresentare una ancora di salvezza in un mare tempestoso su una nave senza nocchiero. L'immaginazione è quindi da intendersi come attività creatrice, forza propulsiva che spinge e conduce l'individuo a mettersi in gioco e a valorizzare la dimensione interna non solo come portatrice di aspetti distruttivi e mostruosi, ma anche come possibilità di immaginare e non fantasticare la possibilità che ci possa essere uno spazio per la trasformazione del proprio passato in una storia riscritta in un altro modo, con un altro significato che sia quello dell'unione e non della frantumazione schizofrenica.

  5. Formulated Beta-Cyfluthrin Shows Wide Divergence in Toxicity among Bird Species

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    Laura M. Addy-Orduna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally assumed that the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to birds is negligible, though few species have been tested. The oral acute toxicity of formulated beta-cyfluthrin was determined for canaries (Serinus sp., shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis, and eared doves (Zenaida auriculata. Single doses were administered to adults by gavage. Approximate lethal doses 50 (LD50 and their confidence intervals were determined by approximate D-optimal design. Canaries were found to be substantially more sensitive to formulated beta-cyfluthrin (LD50=(170±41 mg/kg than the other two species tested (LD50=(2234±544 mg/kg and LD50=(2271±433 mg/kg, resp.. The LD50 obtained for canaries was also considerably lower than typical toxicity values available in the literature for pyrethroids. This study emphasizes the need for testing a broader range of species with potentially toxic insecticides, using modern up and down test designs with minimal numbers of birds.

  6. The Frontlines of Brand Risk

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    Fournier Susan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether it be the NFL, Dove, Wells Fargo, VW or countless others–managers need only open a daily newspaper to see how things can go terribly wrong for brands. Decline can be fast and the landing hard. In a contemporary marketplace where ideologies reign and social media guarantees the spread of (misinformation at light speed, a lot of what we think we know about brand marketing needs to be rethought through a risk-management lens. “For me, brand risk is any event, action or condition with the potential to damage a brand’s value, thereby making revenue generation and a company’s market value less than it should or could have been,” Patrick Marrinan, Managing Principal of Marketing Scenario Analytica, states. In his talk with Susan Fournier and Shuba Srinivasan, Patrick illustrates the many facets of a risk that has only begun to be recognized as a serious threat to carefully cultivated brand assets. Here we share what to watch out for and what brands can do to protect against risk.

  7. Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Sebastian; Alba, Anna; Rocha, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Azucena; Rivas, Raquel; Majó, Natalia; Perarnau, Mireia; Massot, Cristina; Miguel, Elena San; Soler, Mercé; Busquets, Núria

    2017-02-01

    Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-collared doves, with a clear pattern in relation to its spatial distribution (coincident with the distribution of this species), and its temporal distribution (with the majority of cases between September and February). So far, endemicity in wild birds has not resulted in ND outbreaks in poultry. However, there are still many uncertainties about, for example, whether NDV may expand to new areas of Catalonia (with higher poultry density), or about the threat that the apparently more novel sublineage 4a may represent. Hence, efforts should be made so that measures to prevent infection of poultry farms (particularly in high-risk areas and periods) are encouraged, and surveillance is maintained.

  8. Expansion joint for guideway for magnetic levitation transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, T.D.

    1993-02-09

    An expansion joint that allows a guideway of a magnetic levitation transportation system to expand and contract while minimizing transients occurring in the magnetic lift and drag forces acting on a magnetic levitation vehicle traveling over the joint includes an upper cut or recess extending downwardly from the upper surface of the guideway and a non-intersecting lower cut or recess that extends upwardly from the lower surface of the guideway. The side walls of the cuts can be parallel to each other and the vertical axis of the guideway; the depth of the lower cut can be greater than the depth of the upper cut; and the overall combined lengths of the cuts can be greater than the thickness of the guideway from the upper to lower surface so that the cuts will overlap, but be spaced apart from each other. The distance between the cuts can be determined on the basis of the force transients and the mechanical behavior of the guideway. A second pair of similarly configured upper and lower cuts may be disposed in the guideway; the expansion joint may consist of two upper cuts and one lower cut; or the cuts may have non-parallel, diverging side walls so that the cuts have a substantially dove-tail shape.

  9. Lune

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Edoardo; Bianucci, Piero

    2010-01-01

    Un'opera unica nel suo genere, nata dall'incontro di due grandi artisti, il fotografo Edoardo Romagnoli e il designer Giulio Confalonieri, recentemente scomparso. Protagonista è la Luna, colta dall'obiettivo della macchina fotografica e ritratta attraverso fotografie sorprendenti e di forte impatto emotivo (alcune esposte al Guggenheim Museum di Venezia). Grafica e fotografia si susseguono e si inseguono, senza interferire l'una con l'altra. Un "passo a due", dove ogni pagina di grafica introduce una pagina di fotografia e, dopo ogni fotografia, appare una pagina di grande effetto grafico. La meraviglia è forte e il ritmo incalzante. Il legame è in copertina: una grande "E" (congiunzione) a rappresentare il rapporto forte tra design e fotografia, immagini e grafica, ma allo stesso tempo anche il profondo piacere dello stare insieme a parlare, fare e disfare, rifare e riparlare, dei due principali attori di quest'opera, il designer e il fotografo. Il tutto accompagnato dal contributo di Piero Bianucci, scri...

  10. Do spotless starlings place feathers at their nests by ultraviolet color?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, Jesús M.; Parejo, Deseada; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Navarro, Carlos; Soler, Juan J.

    2010-02-01

    A considerable number of bird species carry feathers to their nests. Feathers’ presence in the nests has traditionally been explained by their insulating properties. Recently, however, it has been suggested that feathers carried to the nests by females of the spotted starling ( Sturnus unicolor L.) could have an ornamental function based on their ultraviolet (300-400 nm) and human-visible longer wavelength (400-700 nm) coloration. In our population, 95.7% of feathers found inside next-boxes occupied by nesting starlings were rock dove fly feathers. Of these feathers, 82.7% were naturally positioned with their reverse side oriented toward the entrance hole and 42.4% of all found feathers were situated within the nest-cup. Here we experimentally assess the signaling function of ultraviolet coloration of feathers in nests of spotless starlings by providing nests with a number of pigeon flight feathers that were respectively treated on their obverse, reverse, both, or neither side with a UV blocker. Starlings placed 42.5% of the experimental feathers in the nest-cup irrespective of the UV block treatment. Orientation of feathers toward the entrance hole was not related with their ultraviolet radiation. However, feathers placed within the nest-cup were more likely found with their reverse side oriented toward the entrance hole confirming our correlative findings. These results suggest a minor role of ultraviolet coloration on feather location by spotless starlings.

  11. Il Registro della confraternità dei pellicciai di Udine. A cura di Federico Vicario. Biblioteca di Lingua e Letteratura friulana, 4. - Forum, Editrice Universitaria Udinese, Udine 2003; pp. 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L'edizione, in una veste tecnicamente impeccabile, ha come scopo principale quello di presentare i1 registro di una importante confraternita udinese del tardo Medioevo, quella dei pellicciai. In questo ambiente climatico tale mestiere deve esse­ re stato importante; e vedrei una prova nel fatto che viene menzionato, a parte gli beçars - macelatores (es. 42, l'unico, negli Esercizi di versione dal volgare friulano in latino nel sec. XIV in una scuola notarile cividalese dove si legge: L'ager gait, qual è d'estat, fas spargna lis pliçis, chosa ricrisint agl piliças. Ager calidus, qualis est in estate, facit parsimonucare renones, re cuius tedet pelixarios, (es. 40. Il curatore della pubbli­ cazione del Registro, Federico Vicario, vanta già una decina di pubblicazi.oni di testi analoghi e con l'attuale ha aggiunto un ulteriore testo prezioso per la nostra cono­ scenza del friulano antico. Il Registro è l'elenco dei censuari, però, oltre ad essere un documento della vita e dei rapporti sociali del Tre- e Quattrocento, offre un quadro linguistico del friulano in un'epoca in cui la letteratura vera e propria in friulano offre  poco.

  12. Vestite alla turchesca. Travestimenti orientali nella drammaturgia italiana e francese tra Sei e Settecento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agostino Moretti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Da secoli il Mar Mediterraneo rappresenta un confine tra due mondi. Gli orientalisti li chiamavano e continuano a chiamarli mondo “arabo” e mondo “cristiano”. Questo contributo vuole mostrare come, in tempi non sospetti, l’Italia rappresentasse un ponte tra queste due culture. Grazie agli strumenti della storiografia contemporanea, attenta alla vita quotidiana e agli “archivi del corpo”, scopriamo che durante il XVI e il XVII secolo gli incontri tra musulmani e cristiani fossero molto frequenti e spesso felici. Il teatro comico italiano fu il genere letterario che, prima e meglio di ogni altro, riuscì a cogliere e a descrivere tale fenomeno con tutte le implicazioni politiche, religiose e identitarie, restituendone in pieno uno degli elementi sovente sottaciuti e censurati, ovvero la perturbante carica erotica del “diverso”. Uno degli espedienti che riassumono con maggiore efficacia questo  rapporto identitario e culturale è rappresentato dall’uso del travestimento. Paragonando alcune commedie italiane della prima metà del Seicento con il teatro “orientalista” di Bonarelli, Molière e Goldoni, possiamo osservare la nascita e la crescita di una visione stereotipata e libresca dell’altro, là dove i “panni turcheschi” generavano negli spettatori paura e desiderio.

  13. Body dissatisfaction: can a short media literacy message reduce negative media exposure effects amongst adolescent girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Easun, Alice; Harcourt, Diana

    2011-05-01

    This experimental study examined whether a brief video intervention identifying the artificial nature of media images could protect adolescent girls from negative media exposure effects and body dissatisfaction. A 2 (intervention condition)×2 (exposure condition) between-groups design was used. Participants were 127 British girls aged between 10 and 13 recruited from two secondary schools. Girls were assigned to one of four experimental conditions. An intervention video was shown to half of the girls immediately before they viewed ultra-thin models or control images. The video was developed by Dove's Self-Esteem Fund and has the benefits of being professionally produced and freely available through the Internet. In the absence of the intervention video, viewing thin idealized models was associated with lower state body satisfaction and lower state body esteem than exposure to control images. However, viewing the video intervention immediately before exposure prevented this negative exposure effect. The results suggest that, in the short term, this widely available video prevents girls from making damaging social comparisons with media models. Although this study only examined short-term effects, the findings add to the growing evidence that media literacy interventions may be useful tools in protecting young girls from body dissatisfaction. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Spain, Reincarnated: Julio Medem’s Caótica Ana and New Spanish Media(tion in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Martin-Márquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spanish director Julio Medem’s visually stunning yet controversial 2007 film Chaotic Ana was panned for its ostensibly Manichaean treatment of gender relations and its crudely scatological ending, both of which have distracted attention from the work’s fascinating incursions into global politics. While the film’s complex layering of hawk and dove imagery figures centuries of male violence against women, it is also imbricated with an extended meditation on the divergent roles of the United States and Spain on the contemporary world stage. Through the male protagonist Said, a Saharawi painter, the film artfully shifts postcolonial guilt for the fate of the Western Sahara from the former colonizer Spain to the United States. Even as the film obfuscates Spain’s multifaceted imperial past, it engages in a withering indictment of U.S. foreign policy in the post-9/11 era, indicating through a web of symbolic references to the Statue of Liberty that Americans have turned away from their once-vaunted mission. That mission, the film (problematically suggests, must now be taken up by Spain, which, together with other enlightened European nations, serves as a beacon for global justice, drawing upon the Spanish National Court’s declaration of universal jurisdiction to prosecute the U.S. government’s neocolonial crimes against humanity.

  15. The riddles of foehn. Introduction to the historic articles by Hann and Ficker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Petra [University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Meteorology and Geophysics

    2012-12-15

    Two key papers on the topic of foehn are introduced. The first one, published in 1885 by Julius Hann, discusses the history of the 'thermodynamic foehn theory', and the role of the various scientists who contributed to its evolution. Emphasis is placed on the early recognition of important aspects by J.P. Espy which was not properly recognised in Europe at the time of publication (around 1850). Hann's article is very interesting also because it permits insight into the role of social factors for the acceptance of scientific theories, involving two of the most important meteorologists of the 19th century, W. Dove and J. Hann himself. The second paper was published in 1910 by Heinrich Ficker and discusses theories for the process of foehn break-through which are evaluated on the base of Ficker's mesonet in the area of Innsbruck and surroundings. Finally, the most important developments in foehn research in the past 100 years, since the appearance of Ficker's article, are very briefly sketched. (orig.)

  16. Bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of ibuprofen

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2011-10-19

    Background: This study assessed the relative bioavailability of two formulations of ibuprofen. The first formulation was Doloraz , produced by Al-Razi Pharmaceutical Company, Amman, Jordan. The second forumulation was Brufen , manufactured by Boots Company, Nottingham, UK. Methods and results: A prestudy validation of ibuprofen demonstrated long-term stability, freeze-thaw stability, precision, and accuracy. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. After overnight fasting, the two formulations (test and reference) of ibuprofen (100 mg ibuprofen/5 mL suspension) were administered as a single dose on two treatment days separated by a one-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were drawn for a period of 14 hours. Serum harvested from the blood samples was analyzed for the presence of ibuprofen by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from serum concentrations for both formulations. The 90% confidence intervals of the ln-transformed test/reference treatment ratios for peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) parameters were found to be within the predetermined acceptable interval of 80%-125% set by the US Food and Drug Administration. Conclusion: Analysis of variance for peak plasma concentrations and AUC parameters showed no significant difference between the two formulations and, therefore, Doloraz was considered bioequivalent to Brufen. 2011 Al-Talla et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

  17. Bird populations on the Island of Tinian: persistence despite wholesale loss of native forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Amidon, Frederick A.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2012-01-01

    Bird habitat on the island of Tinian, Mariana Islands, has been substantially altered, and only around 5% of the island has native forest today. The modern bird fauna is likely to be a subset of the original avifauna where only species tolerant to native forest loss and human disturbance have survived. Avian surveys were conducted on the island in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current densities and abundances of the remaining species, and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. During the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 11 species. Five of the nine native species and one alien bird have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopusroseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two birds (one native and one alien) were considered relatively stable. Only five birds, including the Tinian Monarch, showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Increased development on Tinian may result in increases in habitat clearing and expansion of human-dominated habitats, and declines in some bird populations would likely continue or be exacerbated with these actions. Expanded development activities on Tinian would also mean increased cargo movement between Guam and Tinian, elevating the probability of transporting the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) to Tinian, which would lead to precipitous decreases and extinctions.

  18. Archaisms and innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    He dived or he dove. He dreamed or he dreamt. Most of us can probably come to think of a word that may be declined in more than one way or that used to be declined in one way but is now declined differently; undoubtedly many people also have an opinion about that phenomenon. But considerably fewer...... Sandgaard Hansen advances a range of criteria as to how one can tell apart archaic word forms from more recent ones only by analysing the shape of different types of nouns; in other words, how one can distinguish between forms that can be traced more than 5,000 years back in time to the Indo-European proto...... of two hitherto unknown patterns of regular sound change, i.e. soundlaws, that happened in the developmental process from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic and that support the methods mentioned above of evaluating the originality of certain types of nouns based on their shape and appearance....

  19. Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; McRae, Brian; Jusufi, Ardian; Birkmeyer, Paul; Hoover, Aaron M.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot. PMID:22701594

  20. Monocrotophos and dicrotophos residues in birds as a result of misuse of organophosphates in Matagorda county Texas USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Lamont, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    About 1100 birds of 12 spp. [Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), mourning dove (Zenaida macrours), Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), redhead (Aythya americana) and ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres)] died from organophosphate poisoning in Matagorda County on the Texas Gulf Coast in March and May 1982. Birds died from feeding on rice seed that was illegally treated with dicrotophos or monocrotophos and placed near rice fields as bait to attract and kill birds. Brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition of affected birds averaged 87% (range 82-89%), and contents of gastrointestinal tracts contained residues of dicrotophos (5.6-14 ppm) or monocrotophos (2.1-13 ppm). Rice seed collected at mortality sites contained 210 ppm dicrotophos or 950 ppm monocrotophos. Mortality from dicrotophos poisoning continued for almost 3 wk. The practice of illegally treating rice seed with either of the 2 organophosphates appears to be infrequent but widespread at present.

  1. Fractionation of the more active extracts of Geranium molle L.: a relationship between their phenolic profile and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, V C; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Santos, P F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-04-25

    Geranium molle L., commonly known as Dove's-foot Crane's-bill or Dovesfoot Geranium, is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family. Contrary to many other Geranium species, the bioactivity and the phytochemical composition of G. molle seem not to have attracted attention until a recent study from our group regarding the bioactivity of several aqueous and organic extracts of the plant. In particular, we assessed the cytotoxic activity of these extracts against several human tumor cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and a non-tumor porcine liver primary cell line, inspired by an ethnopharmacological report describing the traditional use of this medicinal plant in some regions of Northeast Portugal for the treatment of cancer. Following this preliminary evaluation, the most active extracts (acetone and methanol) were fractionated by column chromatography and the resulting fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against the same cell lines. The bio-guided fractionation of the extracts resulted in several fractions exhibiting improved bioactivity in comparison with the corresponding crude extracts. The fractions obtained from the acetone extract consistently displayed the lowest EC50 and GI50 values and presented the highest content of total phenolic compounds. The phytochemical composition of the most bioactive fractions of the acetone and methanol extracts was also determined and about thirty compounds, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids, could be identified for the first time in G. molle.

  2. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  3. Il bilinguismo disegnato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della diversità linguistica e del riconoscimento e della valorizzazione delle forme di bilinguismo dei bambini e dei ragazzi è cruciale nella scuola multiculturale e plurilingue. Ma quale rappresentazione della “mente bilingue” hanno i parlanti una o più lingue? Come immaginano la testa di chi e bilingue e dove collocano le diverse parole? Abbiamo chiesto agli alunni, piccoli e grandi, di alcune scuole di “disegnare il bilinguismo”: emergono in maniera vivida i “posti” diversi in cui le lingue si installano, i dubbi e le spiegazioni dei bambini, la necessità del controllo e la coloritura affettiva dell’uno e dell’altro idioma.  Drawing bilingualism The theme of linguistic diversity and the recognition and appreciation of forms of bilingualism in children and young people is crucial in a multilingual, multicultural school environment. But how do speakers of one or more languages imagine a “bilingual mind”? How do they imagine a bilingual person’s head and where are the different words located? We asked school children to “draw bilingualism”. The “placement” of the different languages, the children’s doubts and explanations and their need to check and the affective coloring of one and the other language emerged.

  4. Formulated Beta-Cyfluthrin Shows Wide Divergence in Toxicity among Bird Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy-Orduna, Laura M; Zaccagnini, María-Elena; Canavelli, Sonia B; Mineau, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to birds is negligible, though few species have been tested. The oral acute toxicity of formulated beta-cyfluthrin was determined for canaries (Serinus sp.), shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), and eared doves (Zenaida auriculata). Single doses were administered to adults by gavage. Approximate lethal doses 50 (LD(50)) and their confidence intervals were determined by approximate D-optimal design. Canaries were found to be substantially more sensitive to formulated beta-cyfluthrin (LD(50) = (170 ± 41) mg/kg) than the other two species tested (LD(50) = (2234 ± 544) mg/kg and LD(50) = (2271 ± 433) mg/kg, resp.). The LD(50) obtained for canaries was also considerably lower than typical toxicity values available in the literature for pyrethroids. This study emphasizes the need for testing a broader range of species with potentially toxic insecticides, using modern up and down test designs with minimal numbers of birds.

  5. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  6. Games of multicellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Kamran; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-08-21

    Evolutionary game dynamics are often studied in the context of different population structures. Here we propose a new population structure that is inspired by simple multicellular life forms. In our model, cells reproduce but can stay together after reproduction. They reach complexes of a certain size, n, before producing single cells again. The cells within a complex derive payoff from an evolutionary game by interacting with each other. The reproductive rate of cells is proportional to their payoff. We consider all two-strategy games. We study deterministic evolutionary dynamics with mutations, and derive exact conditions for selection to favor one strategy over another. Our main result has the same symmetry as the well-known sigma condition, which has been proven for stochastic game dynamics and weak selection. For a maximum complex size of n=2 our result holds for any intensity of selection. For n≥3 it holds for weak selection. As specific examples we study the prisoner's dilemma and hawk-dove games. Our model advances theoretical work on multicellularity by allowing for frequency-dependent interactions within groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  8. A parametric study of dispersion processes in semi-enclosed basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffoni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche S. Teresa, La Spezia (Italy). Dipt. di Innovazione; Bellucci, A.; Zambianchi, E. [Istituto Universitario Navale, Neapel (Italy); Griffa, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, La Spezia (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    studiati per mezzo di un modello di avvezione-diffusione. Un interesse particolare e' stato dato alle seguenti quantita' macroscopiche: la quantita' totale C(t) del tracciante normalizzata, (C(0)=1), e il suo tempo di residenza T. Per flussi stazionari e per tempi t sufficientemente lunghi, il decadimento di C(t) e' esponenziale, C{sub 0}exp(-t/ {tau}{sub 0}) e l'autovalore principale del problema di avvezione-diffusione considerato. E' stato fatto un confronto tra casi dove il flusso nel bacino e' irrotazionale, esemplificati da un canale ad una dimensione, e casi dove il flusso e' rotazionale con ricircolazioni, rappresentati da un flusso con un vortice vicino alla bocca di uscita. La sensibilita' dei risultati ad una serie di parametri e' stata studiata, quali il coefficiente di diffusione turbolenta e le condizioni iniziali e al contorno.

  9. Lo sportivo: un soggetto immunocompromesso? Fattori di rischio e misure preventive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castellacci

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Una problematica comune nell’atleta, durante il periodo successivo a sforzo fisico intenso, è rappresentata dall’aumento dell’incidenza di patologie infettive, sia di origine virale che batterica.

    Nonostante la buona forma fisica, le corrette abitudini di vita e, almeno nel caso dei professionisti, i frequenti controlli medici, lo sportivo va incontro a problemi riconducibili ad una ridotta risposta immunitaria in precisi momenti della sua attività. In realtà, è noto che i linfociti vengono mobilizzati nel sangue prima e durante l’esercizio fisico; tuttavia la concentrazione dei linfociti si riduce notevolmente dopo l’esercizio stesso.

    Si assiste quindi ad un calo dell’attività del sistema immunitario nella fase post esercizio; questo fenomeno, che viene definito come “open window”, si concretizza in un elevato rischio di infezioni in corso di allenamento intensivo o durante le due settimane seguenti eventi sportivi di particolare impegno atletico. Esistono poi diverse concause che contribuiscono ad elevare la suscettibilità dell’atleta alle infezioni: gli elevati ritmi respiratori, fattori dietetici e nutrizionali, i microtraumi muscolari. Inoltre un’alta concentrazione ematica di catecolamine, adrenalina e noradrenalina corrisponde alle fasi di maggiore attivazione linfocitaria, mentre la fase successiva all’esercizio, francamente cortisolica, corrisponde alla riduzione della concentrazione linfocitaria. Non si può inoltre non notare come, se problematiche del genere colpiscono gli atleti professionisti, seguiti costantemente da uno staff medico di prim’ordine, molto più grandi possono essere gli effetti di queste fenomenologie sui praticanti di sport minori ed amatoriali, dove la preparazione fisica ed atletica e la vigilanza medica sono a volte potenzialmente molto più limitate. Inoltre, gli atleti sono spesso sottoposti a spostamenti a seguito dei loro impegni agonistici e devono quindi essere

  10. Status sulle conoscenze dei mammiferi molisani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Norante

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il Molise risulta poco studiato dal punto di vista teriologico e, per colmare almeno in parte tale lacuna, il GMSO si è proposto di raccogliere dati bibliografici e inediti e promuovere qualche progetto. Si riportano sinteticamente dati relativi ad alcune specie. Sciurus vulgaris risulta comune in Prov. di Isernia, più localizzato in quella di Campobasso, presente nelle riserve MAB, nel Parco Naz. d?Abruzzo, Matese e Venafrano, nei pressi della zona ospedaliera di Campobasso ed anche al centro del capoluogo. Hystrix cristata, segnalata fino agli anni anni ?60 a Campomarino è stata trovata di recente (aculei in Alto Molise, sporadiche le segnalazioni nell?agro di S. Croce di Magliano-Colletorto (CB. Canis lupus ha recentemente allargato il suo areale raggiungendo anche siti in collina (per l?immissione dei Daini. Presente oltre che nel PNA, in tutta la Prov. di Isernia, Matese, montagna di Frosolone fino a Castropignano-Casalciprano. Preoccupante invece il randagismo canino verso il quale è auspicabile prendere dei provvedimenti. Ursus arctos è in aumento con massimi in Val di Mezzo, Val Fiorita, Val Pagana, M .te Marrone ed in tutto il gruppo delle Mainarde; fuori dal PNA è sempre più frequente: Matese, Carpinone e recentemente (27.04.03 una coppia in Valle del Sangro a S. Angelo in Pesco (IS. Nel 1995 una femmina è stata investita dal treno nei pressi di Carpinone (IS. Lutra lutra invece è diminuita rispetto al passato. La si incontrava fino agli anni ?70/80 fino alla foce dei fiumi Trigno, Biferno e T. Saccione. Attualmente è segnalata in prov. di Isernia (es. Venafrano, Matese, Montagna di Frosolone. Felis silvestris è presente soprattutto in Prov. di Isernia dove è segnalato in 38 Comuni. In quella di Campobasso appare più localizzato a nord e nel Matese. Riguardo Lynx lynx pare che qualche soggetto sia stato osservato nell?area limitrofa al P.N.A. dove è stata

  11. The reconstructive study in arcaheology: case histories in the communication issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gabellone

    2011-09-01

    efficacia del processo di comunicazione dei Beni Culturali sia strettamente connesso ad una rappresentazione il più possibile svincolata dalle sterili interfacce di RV degli anni novanta. Oggi la rappresentazione deve essere necessariamente proiettata sul piano del realismo e del coinvolgimento emotivo dello spettatore, utilizzando le stesse tecniche che la moderna cinematografia ci propone. La comunicazione in questo caso diventa spettacolo e veicolo di contenuti di alto livello, rivolta a tutti, ma realizzata con strumenti di grande valore scientifico, dove il legante rimane ancora una volta l’inter-disciplinarietà ed il necessario dialogo dei saperi. In questo contesto, le tecnologie high-end non sono più l'obiettivo della ricerca, ma sono il motore invisibile di un processo inarrestabile che rende sempre più difficile la distinzione tra immagini di sintesi e oggetti reali. Un caso emblematico, a tal fine, è rappresentato dallo studio ricostruttivo dei contesti antichi, dove la grafica tridimensionale sopperisce alle limitate possibilità espressive del disegno bidimensionale ed offre soluzioni interpretative e rappresentative fino a pochi anni fa inimmaginabili. Lo spazio virtuale diventa quindi momento importante di riflessione e di studio, ma costituisce soprattutto per il grande pubblico, un modo rivoluzionario per apprendere.

  12. Nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and macrobenthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Watkins, James M.; Hotaling, Christopher; Lantry, Jana R.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Munawar, Mohi; Weidel, Brian C.; Barbiero, Richard; Luckey, Frederick J.; Dove, Alice; Johnson, Timothy B.; Biesinger, Zy

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic levels support the prey fish on which most sport fish depend. Therefore, understanding the production potential of lower trophic levels is integral to the management of Lake Ontario’s fishery resources. Lower trophic-level productivity differs among offshore and nearshore waters. In the offshore, there is concern about the ability of the lake to support Alewife (Table 1) production due to a perceived decline in productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton whereas, in the nearshore, there is a concern about excessive attached algal production (e.g., Cladophora) associated with higher nutrient concentrations—the oligotrophication of the offshore and the eutrophication of the nearshore (Mills et al. 2003; Holeck et al. 2008; Dove 2009; Koops et al. 2015; Stewart et al. 2016). Even though the collapse of the Alewife population in Lake Huron in 2003 (and the associated decline in the Chinook Salmon fishery) may have been precipitated by a cold winter (Dunlop and Riley 2013), Alewife had not returned to high abundances in Lake Huron as of 2014 (Roseman et al. 2015). Failure of the Alewife population to recover from collapse has been attributed to declines in lower trophic-level production (Barbiero et al. 2011; Bunnell et al. 2014; but see He et al. 2015). In Lake Michigan, concerns of a similar Alewife collapse led to a decrease in the number of Chinook Salmon stocked. If lower trophic-level production declines in Lake Ontario, a similar management action could be considered. On the other hand, in Lake Erie, which supplies most of the water in Lake Ontario, eutrophication is increasing and so are harmful algal blooms. Thus, there is also a concern that nutrient levels and algal blooms could increase in Lake Ontario, especially in the nearshore. Solutions to the two processes of concern—eutrophication in the nearshore and oligotrophication in the offshore—may be mutually exclusive. In either circumstance, fisheries management needs information on

  13. Targeting Autotrophic and Lithotrophic Microorganisms from Fumarolic Ice Caves of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitori, R.; Davis, R.; Connell, L.; Kelley, M.; Staudigel, H.; Tebo, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic volcanic oligotrophic environments can host microorganisms that obtain their energy from reduced inorganic chemicals present in volcanic rocks and soils. We sampled basaltic rock from terrestrial Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems (DOVEs) located in two fumarole ice caves, Warren and Warren West, located near the summit of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica. For reference, we sampled a similar cave, Harry's Dream, which receives continuous light during the Austral summer. We report here culturing data for bacterial and eukaryotic microbes from rocky soils in these caves when targeting lithotrophic organisms using media containing reduced inorganic compounds (Mn2+, Fe2+, NH4+). In addition, to test for the possible presence of inorganic carbon fixation, we screened samples for the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) gene. Culturing of soil samples on media targeting both autotrophs and heterotrophs yielded a diverse collection of generally slow-growing colonies of bacteria (majority), fungi and non-fungal eukaryotes. Manganese(II)-oxidizing colonies were identified in Warren and Harry's Dream, and these exhibited two colony morphotypes upon subculturing. Sequencing of the PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene identified a bacterium distantly related to Pseudonocardia sp., a genus with known manganese oxidizers. Other bacteria enriched included members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. There was a low diversity in cultured eukaryotes representing several potential undescribed species (Geomyces sp., Penicillium sp.) and isolates that may represent alternate, previously undescribed habitats and forms (Psilolechia leprosa, Alternaria alternata). One Warren isolate was a 99% 16S rRNA match to the N2 fixer Bradyrhizobium sp.; when inoculated into liquid medium specific for N2 fixers, growth was maintained upon subculture. Putative iron oxidizers were also enriched from the two DOVE caves, using slush agar iron

  14. Il capriolo nel Pollino: ieri, oggi e domani

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    Alberto Sangiuliano

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Fino agli inizi del secolo scorso, il capriolo conservava molto probabilmente un?ampia diffusione in tutta la Calabria settentrionale con una distribuzione pressoché continua, dal Massiccio del Pollino alla Catena Costiera. La contrazione dell?area di distribuzione iniziò verosimilmente già nel sec. 19°, acuendosi tra le due guerre mondiali, con l?estinzione della specie a nord del fiume Lao e sulla Catena Costiera. Cacciabile fino ai primi anni ?70 e in seguito perseguitato dal bracconaggio, il capriolo continuava nel suo inesorabile declino negli anni ?80 e ?90. L?areale era stimato essere di circa 7500 ha, più o meno circoscritto alla impervia Valle del Fiume Argentino (Orsomarso e alle aree limitrofe, con una stima di consistenza intorno a poche decine di individui. Solo in seguito all?istituzione del Parco Nazionale del Pollino, si è registrata una graduale inversione di tendenza: studi della seconda metà degli anni ?90 hanno individuato un?area di presenza stabile e accertata di poco inferiore a 6.000 ha, e una periferica di presenza sporadica e/o probabile (circa 9.000 ha. In seguito a una Convenzione stipulata nel 2000 tra l?Ente Parco e l?Università di Siena, è in corso uno studio sull?ecologia e conservazione del capriolo nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, per favorire l?incremento della locale popolazione di capriolo. Per la determinazione della distribuzione della specie, mensilmente sono stati effettuati percorsi fissi diurni, notturni (con faro e avvistamenti da punti di visibilità, oltre che una serie di escursioni periodiche in aree di presenza incerta. Inoltre è stata condotta una valutazione dell?idoneità ambientale per la specie mediante l?utilizzo di tecniche statistiche multivariate (Analisi di Regressione Logistica Multipla. I nostri dati sembrano indicare che l?area di distribuzione ?storica? si sia notevolmente ampliata soprattutto in direzione nord, nord-est ed est, dove la presenza della specie è stata

  15. Food Sauces to Understand Volcanoes: a Learning Sequence in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccioni, Fabio; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Gioncada, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Some volcanic processes occur at pressures and temperatures very different from daily experience. Such extreme conditions, unreproducible in the classroom, can lead children to build concepts about volcanic phenomena very different from the reality (Greca & Moreira, 2000; Dove, 1998). The didactic goals of this learning sequence concern the relationships between the viscosity of magmas and types of erupted materials and their consequences on volcano shapes, to favour pupils' comprehension of what a volcano is. Viscosity and its temperature dependence can be easily experimented in class with analogue materials at room temperature (Baker et al., 2004). Our research aims are to observe the development of the thought of pupils of middle schools on volcanic phenomena; this allowed to put in evidence the benefits of this approach and to give suggestions to avoid possible critical points. We have experimented a hands-on learning sequence about volcanoes in four third classes of Tuscan middle schools, for an amount of 95 pupils, 48 females and 47 males. Sharing the principles of constructivism, we think useful that pupils start from their own direct experience for understanding natural phenomena not directly observable. Therefore, we start from the experiences and knowledge of children to build a inquiry-based itinerary (Minner et al., 2010; Pieraccioni et al., 2016). The learning sequence begins with a practical activity in which we employ common and well-known materials to introduce the concept of viscosity in order to relate various kinds of magma to the shape of volcanoes. One of the benefits of this approach is to overcome the problems of introducing complex concepts such as acidity of magmas or silica content, far from the pupils' experience and knowledge. These concepts are often used in Italian middle school textbooks to describe and classify volcanoes. The result is a list of names to learn by heart. On the contrary, by using oil, ketchup, peanut butter or honey

  16. Rigenerazione urbana: professione, didattica, ricerca

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    Roberto Mingucci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il numero 3/2011 di IN_BO rappresenta una evoluzione significativa nella vita della rivista. Come da sempre abbiamo segnalato, IN_BO è nata per essere dedicata a temi che coinvolgono l’intero quadro di discipline nella formazione degli Ingegneri-Architetti, con l’obiettivo di mettere a confronto esperienze di ricerca e di studio orientate, in particolare, alla conoscenza, alla rappresentazione e al progetto del territorio, della città e dell’architettura. Questo numero realizza, in una sintesi molto efficace, questa intenzione, confrontando riflessioni, esperienze e progetti sul tema della rigenerazione urbana. Tra le finalità di IN_BO c’è anche quella di voler lavorare alla costruzione di una matura sensibilità progettuale, più legata ai valori e ai significati, pronta anche alla creatività e alla sperimentazione, piuttosto che al rigoroso rispetto normativo, seppure questo rappresenti un passaggio ineludibile e necessario. Ed è proprio quello che questo numero della rivista prova a fare, impostando un ragionamento, raccogliendo input nel confronto con esperienze internazionali, aprendosi a più letture e a più interpretazioni. Questa metodologia operativa è sicuramente utile per gli studenti e i ricercatori, ma allo stesso modo lo è anche per i tecnici e i professionisti, che nel mondo globale devono fare i conti con riferimenti, culturali e progettuali, che superano i confini nazionali, alla ricerca di una nuova dimensione e di una rinnovata identità. IN_BO, dunque, può essere strumento di conoscenza, divenendo recipiente di esperienze, e allo stesso tempo luogo di dialogo a più voci, aperto, continuo e costruttivo. Uno spazio dove l’accademia e la professione si incontrano, in un reciproco e proficuo scambio.

  17. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

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    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  18. The invasive Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) outcompetes native birds in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Martin; Vidal, Eric; Potter, Murray Alan; Sanchez, Thierry; Brescia, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    Invasive alien species are a major cause of biodiversity loss globally, but especially on islands where high species richness and levels of endemism accentuate their impacts. The Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer), a tropical passerine bird that has been introduced widely across locations of high conservation value, is considered an extreme pest. It is currently expanding its range in New Caledonia, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Decisive recommendations on management strategies are required urgently to inform local managers and policy makers, but they should be based on quantitative local evidence, not just on expert opinion. The Red-vented bulbul is widely blamed for its impacts on biodiversity, especially through competition. We used data from 2,472 point counts to explore the abundance relationships between the Red-vented bulbul and 14 other species of bird. Our results revealed a negative relationship between the occurrence of the bulbul and the mean abundance of nine species, all native (or endemic, n = 3) to the New Caledonia archipelago. In contrast, the abundance of other introduced species such as Acridotheres tristis (Common myna), Passer domesticus (House sparrow) and Spilopelia chinensis (Spotted dove) were not affected by the Red-vented bulbul. Moreover, temporal trends in the abundance of impacted species suggest that the Red-vented bulbul may cause niche contractions rather than mortality for native species in man-modified habitats. Monitoring and control of the Red-vented bulbul is recommended to prevent on-going impacts on native bird communities throughout New Caledonia, and its impact on native bird communities elsewhere should be quantified.

  19. ALLA SCOPERTA DEL PACKAGING DESIGN CON IL WEBQUEST

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    Antonietta Gobbis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il seguente saggio tratta le possibilità di presentazione in Università straniere, dove si insegna l’ItalianoL2, di un aspetto culturale italiano di forte impatto all’estero come il design, attraverso l’innovativa metodologia del webquest. L’iniziale parte teorica descrive il webquest come metodo didattico costruttivista, con particolare riferimento alle sue caratteristiche, parti costituenti e tipologie. Nella seconda parte vengono dati esempi concreti di webquest di breve e lunga durata su due prodotti italiani molto famosi di packaging design, che hanno festeggiato il loro anniversario nel 2012: il Bacio Perugina e il Campari Soda. I risultati positivi di entrambi i progetti intendono mostrare i vantaggi di una didattica centrata sull’alunno basata su attività di problem-solving e strategie di cooperative learning.  Discovering packaging design through webquest The following essay deals about the possibilities to introduce a very successful cultural topic like Italian Design in Universities abroad, where Italian is taught as second foreign language, through the innovative methodology of WebQuests. The theoretical part describes WebQuests as constructivist didactic method with reference to its characteristics, main constituent parts  and typologies. In the second part we give concrete examples of short and long term WebQuests about two very famous packaging design Italian products which celebrated in 2012 their anniversary: BacioPerugina and Campari Soda. The positive results of both projects aim to show the advantages of learner-centered teaching methods based on problem-solving activities and cooperative learning strategies.

  20. La fuga dell’‘Io’ narrativo nel romanzo del dopoguerra spagnolo

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    Rosa Pignataro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo consiste in una proposta di analisi di alcuni dei romanzi più significativi del dopoguerra spagnolo a partire dagli anni ’40 fino agli anni ’60-’70. Mi soffermo ad analizzare la ‘fuga’ dell’‘Io’ dalla narrazione in La familia de Pascual Duarte e La colmena, di Camilo José Cela, El camino di Miguel Delibes e Volverás a Región di Juan Benet. Il primo dei romanzi in esame è marcato dalla presenza forte ed imperante del yo narrativo di Pascual che rappresenta appieno la rotondità dell’autobiografia. La ‘fuga’, l’allontanamento, la disgregazione fino alla totale rottura del patto narrativo tra autore e lettore comincia a concretizzarsi con un romanzo della decade successiva, El camino, in cui un narratore onnisciente filtra l’esperienza autobiografica attraverso gli occhi dei bambini. Il passo successivo è la moltiplicazione infinita della rappresentazione del sé in un mosaico di voci e personaggi narranti ne La colmena. La fuga dell’‘Io’, poi, trova la piena realizzazione nell’opera benetiana Volverás a Región che stigmatizza il totale anonimato narrativo dato da un narratore onnisciente ma che, infrangendo le regole ‘tradizionali’ della narrazione, introduce il lettore in uno spazio dai contorni indefiniti, labili, opachi dove l’‘Io’ fluttua, rivela ciò che i personaggi dicono e sentono ma, confondendone nomi e vicende, testimonia la condizione di rovina dell’esistenza umana.

  1. Camminabilità e capacità urbane: valutazione e supporto alla decisione e alla pianificazione urbanistica

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    Ivan Blečić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo propone una metodologia di valutazione della camminabilità (walkability urbana ed il rispettivo strumento software di supporto alla decisione ed alla pianificazione urbanistica. Nella parte introduttiva discutiamo la rilevanza del concetto di camminabilità per la qualità urbana ed offriamo un suo inquadramento teorico all’interno dell’approccio alle capacità (capability approach. La parte centrale è dedicata alla presentazione del modello spaziale e multicriteriale di valutazione della camminabilità. La nostra costruzione della camminabilità nel modello propone un certo ribaltamento di prospettiva rispetto ai metodi sinora proposti: anziché valutare quanto un determinato luogo è in sé camminabile, il punteggio di camminabilità calcolato riflette come e verso dove una persona può intraprendere una camminata a partire da quel luogo; in altre parole, non quanto è camminabile, ma invece qual è la camminabilità di cui il luogo è dotato. Per questo, il punteggio di camminabilità combina tre componenti: (1 il numero di destinazioni di interesse/opportunità urbane raggiungibili a piedi; (2 le loro distanze; (3 la qualità dei percorsi pedonali verso queste destinazioni. La qualità dei percorsi pedonali è valutata in base a diversi attributi rilevanti per la camminabilità, che fanno riferimento a caratteristiche proprie della strada e dell’ambiente circostante in grado di contribuire a rendere il percorso piacevole, sicuro ed attrattivo. A titolo illustrativo viene nella terza parte dell’articolo presentato un esempio di applicazione del modello alla città di Alghero.

  2. Ceremonial dress of the Achaemenid nobility of the VI– V centuries BC (according to findings from the fifth Pazyryk kurgan and synchronous iconic monuments of the Achaemenid time

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    Tsareva E.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of study of a unique composite horse trapping and breast belt, found by expedition of S.I. Rudenko in the 5th Pazyryk kurgan (Mountain Altai, mid. 3rd century BC, and initially attributed as Iranian. The research has been aimed at definition the place and time of creation of three fragmented ornamented textiles, which decorated the trapping and the belt; as well as their original usage and way of coming to the Altai. To achieve the goal the author carefully studied the structures of items under research. The one with purple ground and “tower’s” pattern, which covers the ends of felt foundation of the trapping, is woven with wool and linen Z-spun threads, in warp sharing “kilim” technique, “dove tail” variant. The cloth is identified as Syrian, supposedly the time of reign of Darius I. Two other ones, with “lion procession” pattern (breast belt and “priestess and maidservant in front of an incense burner” (framing of panels was also made from wool and linen, although of different quality and S-spinning, in slit-kilim technique. Both are identified as Egyptian, and dated (most probably to the XXVII (Persian dynasty period. Comparison with representations of similar in decor textiles from synchronous in time monuments, and study of historic data on textile industry of the Achaemenid Empire made it possible to suggest, that “purple kilim” and “lion procession” belt made parts of ceremonial dress of Achaemenid nobility. The cloak could be brought to the Altai by one of the “Scythians”, who got it as a reward when served in the army of Alexander the Great during his Asian campaign.

  3. Scale dependence of biotic homogenisation by urbanisation: a comparison of urban bird communities between central Argentina and northern Finland

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    Leveau Lucas M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed contrasting results about the homogenising force of urbanisation on bird community composition at large and regional scales. We studied whether urbanisation promotes the homogenisation of wintering bird communities and if this varies when comparing towns located within a specific region and towns located in two different biomes of two countries. We used both similarity indices based on the presence/absence data and the abundance data in comparing communities. Processes governing bird community dissimilarity between urbanisation levels were examined with the partitioning of Sörensen index in species turnover and nestedness. We made bird surveys in town centres and suburban habitats of three cities located in the Pampean region of Argentina and in the boreal region of Finland using a single-visit study plot method. Rarefacted species richness did not differ amongst the town centres between the countries, but it was higher in the suburban areas of Argentina than in Finland. At the country-level comparison, we found a higher similarity amongst the town centres than amongst the suburban areas; whereas at the regional comparison, similarity between town centres was comparable to the similarity between suburban areas. The use of an abundance-based index produced a higher similarity between town centre communities of both countries than when using a presence-based index. The dissimilarity between habitats in Argentina was related to nestedness and to species turnover in Finland. Our results indicate that urban-based biotic homogenisation of bird communities is dependent on the scale used, being more evident when comparing cities of different biomes where the same and abundant bird species, such as sparrows and doves, dominate. At the regional scale, quite a high beta-diversity can still be found within urban habitats. Processes of community dissimilarity between urban habitats may differ according to the regional pool of species

  4. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine; Qualificazione di un sistema di rilevazione trasportabile per misure dirette di contaminazione interna di radioiodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for {sup 131}I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported. [Italian] Il presente lavoro consiste nella qualificazione di un sistema di rivelazione per misure dirette di contaminazione interna da radioiodio in tiroide, progettato per essere maneggevole, di semplice e rapido impiego e trasportabile sul luogo dove e' richiesta la misura. Il sistema e' stato studiato per la realizzazione di programmi di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio che, richiedendo frequenze di controllo elevate (quindicinali per lo {sup 131}I), sono estremamente impegnativi ed onerosi, soprattutto se i controlli vengono effettuati in centri di misura esterni. Dopo la determinazione dei parametri della calibrazione in energia ed efficienza, la minima attivita' rivelabile, l'affidabilita' del sistema nel tempo e le condizioni operative ottimali da adottare in sede di misura, viene verificata la piena affidabilita' del sistema in un programma di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio.

  5. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  6. The first 8 years: International Medical Case Reports Journal – summary of publications from 2008 to July 2016

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    Prineas RJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RJ Prineas,1 SG Fraser,2 CE Stevens31Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, UK; 3Department of Epidemiology, New York Blood Center, New York, NY, USAThe case report has a secure place in medical reporting and medical history stretching back to hand-written manuscripts, early medical texts, and earliest medical scientific publications. As scientific methods took hold, fewer case histories were accepted for publication, being replaced by case series and then analyses from epidemiologic studies, clinical trials (controlled and otherwise, and reports of laboratory clinical practice. Clinicopathology conferences around reporting and presentation of separate cases continue to be convened for regular meetings in hospitals and medical schools for teaching purposes. Case reports appear regularly in sections of medical journals or, more recently, as separate journals devoted entirely to them. Further, open-access case report journals have increased in number markedly in the past decade in parallel with International Medical Case Reports Journal (IMCRJ submissions.1Since the beginning of the publication, the number of journal articles published in IMCRJ has increased steadily from 3 in the inauguration year (2008 to 69 in the latest full year of publication (Table 1, indicating the growing interest in disseminating such reports.The Journal, established by Dove Press, started publishing in 2008. During the first 8 years (until July 2016, published reports came from 50 separate countries (including articles from Africa, Asia, Europe UK, and USA. Sixty one percent of submitted reports (235/387 have been published, and 152 reports were rejected.The number of “reviewers” for each report ranged from 2 to 6, with an average of 3. The 3 leading countries submitting articles were the United States, Japan, and Turkey. Most papers have come from a single author

  7. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

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    Lucas Molleman

    Full Text Available Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours. How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma, conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game, conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  8. Microbacterium faecale sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Gui-Ding; Li, Qin-Yuan; Xu, Fang-Ji; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Han, Li; Huang, Xue-Shi; Jiang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    A novel, yellow, aerobic strain, YIM 101168T, isolated from the faeces of a dove (Columba livia), was studied to determine its taxonomic position. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, short rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and non-motile. The strain could grow at 7-37 °C, at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-13 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness value with Microbacteriumgubbeenense NCIMB 30129T of 97.8 % and 41.5±8.7 %, respectively. Ornithine was detected as the diagnostic amino acid in the hydrolysate of the cell wall. Whole-cell sugars were found to be galactose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose and ribose. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Major menaquinones were identified as MK-10, MK-11 and MK-12. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. The phylogenetic analyses as well as the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics indicate that strain YIM 101168T represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium; the name Microbacterium faecale sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species and the type strain is YIM 101168T (=DSM 27232T=KCTC 39554T=CGMCC 1.15152T).

  9. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  10. Le soglie invalicabili: la sicurezza di genere / Des seuils à ne pas franchir : la sécurité de genre / Thresholds not to be crossed: gender security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brollo Marina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della violenza, sia fisica che sessuale, sulle donne è di strettissima attualità. In questo lavoro dopo aver illustrato come il corpo delle donne sia visto in maniera differente nei diversi ambiti della vita economica, sociale, giuridica, si cercherà di quantificare il fenomeno della violenza sulle donne che può anche essere inteso come un modo per varcare la soglia del corpo femminile, cercando di capire chi sono gli autori delle violenze, dove hanno luogo e quale forma assumono. RésuméLe thème de la violence physique et sexuelle infligée aux femmes demeure d'une brûlante actualité. Après avoir illustré la perception du corps des femmes dans les divers domaines de la vie économique, sociale, juridique, nous essayons dans cet article de quantifier le phénomène de la violence infligée aux femmes ; une brutalité qui peut aussi être vue comme un moyen de franchir le seuil du corps féminin. Nous cherchons aussi à comprendre qui sont les auteurs des violences, où elles se déroulent et sous quelles formes.AbstractPhysical and sexual violence against women is a present phenomenon. In this paper, after illustrating the different ways of how women's body are perceived in various areas of economic, social, and legal life, we will try to evaluate the prevalence of violence against women: this phenomenon could also be interpreted as a way of crossing the threshold of a female body.Moreover, we will try to understand who commits violence against women, where and how.

  11. Cassini's Grand Finale Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda

    2017-10-01

    After 13 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn ended in a science-rich blaze of glory. Cassini returned its final bits of unique science data on September 15, 2017, as it plunged into Saturn's atmosphere satisfying planetary protection requirements. Cassini's Grand Finale covered a period of roughly five months and ended with the first time exploration of the region between the rings and planet.The final close flyby of Titan in late April 2017 propelled Cassini across Saturn’s main rings and into its Grand Finale orbits; 22 orbits that repeatedly dove between Saturn’s innermost rings and upper atmosphere making Cassini the first spacecraft to explore this region. The last orbit turned the spacecraft into the first Saturn upper atmospheric probe.The Grand Finale orbits provided highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and in-situ sampling of the ring particle composition, Saturn's atmosphere, plasma, and innermost radiation belts. The gravitational field was measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the deeper atmosphere, and mass of the rings. The magnetic field provided insight into the physical nature of the magnetic dynamo and structure of the internal magnetic field. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer sampled the upper atmosphere for molecules that escape the atmosphere in addition to molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer directly sampled the composition from different parts of the main rings for the first time. Fields and particles instruments directly measured the plasma environment between the rings and planet.Science highlights and new mysteries gleaned to date from the Grand Finale orbits will be discussed.The research described in this paper was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2017

  12. Densities and species composition of the avifauna of the Los Medanos WIPP site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, J.D.; Haydock, J.

    1981-01-01

    Data were gathered in various habitat types to determine annual fluctuations in species diversity and relative abundance, breeding densities, reproductive success of White-necked Ravens and Harris Hawks, fall and spring migrant species and to collect voucher specimens for the site. Four Emlen transects were surveyed in four habitat types during the summer of 1980. These transects were used monthly in May, June and July to determine densities of breeding and non-breeding birds. Active White-necked Raven and Harris Hawk nests were located by checking all conspicuous nests. The nests were checked several times during the nesting stage to determine nest success. During 1980, eleven new species and two new families were added to the list of birds seen on or near the WIPP site. The list now totals 133 species representing 38 families. White-necked Raven nesting success was slightly lower in 1980 than in 1979. Average clutch size in 1980 was 5.5, which is 3.5% less than in 1979 and 19% greater than in 1978. The average number of birds fledged per nest was surprisingly similar over the past three years despite fairly large climatic differences. Success of Harris Hawk nesting was very low in the autumn of 1980 due principally to bad weather. The overall density of breeding birds was lower in 1980 than in 1979 in all habitat types. The overall density was also lower in 1980 than in 1978 in all habitat types except mesquite-grassland. Many species showed larger year-to-year fluctuations in numbers. Mourning Dove density, for example, dropped from 76.9 to 11.2 individuals per square kilometer in the hummock-mesquite habitat. Voucher specimens have been collected for 69 of the 133 species seen on the Los Medanos site

  13. The invasive Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer outcompetes native birds in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

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    Martin Thibault

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are a major cause of biodiversity loss globally, but especially on islands where high species richness and levels of endemism accentuate their impacts. The Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer, a tropical passerine bird that has been introduced widely across locations of high conservation value, is considered an extreme pest. It is currently expanding its range in New Caledonia, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Decisive recommendations on management strategies are required urgently to inform local managers and policy makers, but they should be based on quantitative local evidence, not just on expert opinion. The Red-vented bulbul is widely blamed for its impacts on biodiversity, especially through competition. We used data from 2,472 point counts to explore the abundance relationships between the Red-vented bulbul and 14 other species of bird. Our results revealed a negative relationship between the occurrence of the bulbul and the mean abundance of nine species, all native (or endemic, n = 3 to the New Caledonia archipelago. In contrast, the abundance of other introduced species such as Acridotheres tristis (Common myna, Passer domesticus (House sparrow and Spilopelia chinensis (Spotted dove were not affected by the Red-vented bulbul. Moreover, temporal trends in the abundance of impacted species suggest that the Red-vented bulbul may cause niche contractions rather than mortality for native species in man-modified habitats. Monitoring and control of the Red-vented bulbul is recommended to prevent on-going impacts on native bird communities throughout New Caledonia, and its impact on native bird communities elsewhere should be quantified.

  14. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  15. Alex Woloch, Caratterizzazione e distribuzione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sostene Massimo Zangari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le opere narrative mostrano un’innata consapevolezza della tensione che deriva dalla necessità di distribuire l’attenzione su diversi personaggi in quantità disomogenee. L’autore si propone di creare un modello teorico per affrontare una serie di questioni legate alle scelte distribuzionali nel romanzo dell’Ottocento. Vengono introdotte le categorie di spazio-personaggio – l’incontro/scontro tra individuo rappresentato e spazio narrativo – e sistema-personaggi – la disposizione di personaggi multipli in una struttura narrativa. Le categorie intendono ovviare alla scissione che ha dominato la critica sul personaggio, divisa tra due posizioni antitetiche: da un lato chi ha ridotto il personaggio a mero accorgimento formale, dall’altro coloro i quali ne hanno enfatizzato l’aspetto referenziale e umano. L’intento delle categorie qui proposte è invece quello di recuperare la dialettica che lega questi due aspetti del personaggio finzionale. In particolare, mettere in evidenza come gli esiti strutturali del romanzo dipendano dal problema di rappresentare personaggi minori ridotti ai due principali paradigmi del bizzaro e del lavoratore. I meccanismi del romanzo e i disequilibri strutturali che derivano dall’incorporazione dei personaggi sono interpretati dall’autore come rispechiamento del difficile rapporto tra diseguaglianza e democrazia, che ha contrassegnato un secolo, l’Ottocento, dove alla mobilità sociale della borghesia faceva da contraltare la marginalizzazione delle classi subalterne. L’intervento si conclude con cenni al trattamento del personaggio nei lavori di Jane Austen, Dickens e Balzac.

  16. SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%, saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola (22%, and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti (15%. These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%, were infested with feather mites (43%, or presented both conditions (23%. No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.

  17. Defamation of Religions: A Vague and Overbroad Theory that Threatens Basic Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. Belnap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo è pubblicato con il permesso della Brigham Young University Law Review - dove è apparso nel vol. n. 2 del 2010 (Tribute to Professor Michael Goldsmith, alle pp. 101-148 - e dell‖Autrice, che ringraziamo sentitamente. SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. History of and Motivations for the OIC Defamation of Religions Resolutions - 2.a - The OIC Exerts a Concerted Effort to Protect Islam - 2.b - Terrorist Attacks and Danish Cartoons Raise the Stakes - 3. Defamation of Religions: A Permissible Restraint on Freedom of Speech and Expression? - 3.a - History, Basic Elements, and Contemporary Usage of Defamation - 3.b - Interaction Between Defamation of Religions and the Basic Human Rights Enumerated in Major International Instruments - 4. The Evolution of a Resolution - 4.a. 1999-2000: Beginnings - 4.b. 2001: A Pre-9/11 World - 4.c. 2002: Reactions to the Violent Backlash Against Muslims - 4.d. 2003-2004: Fluctuations in Support - 4.e. 2005: Intensification of a Campaign - 4.f. 2006-2007: The Move to the General Assembly - 4.g. 2008: Decreasing Margins of Support - 4.h. 2009: Current Resolution and Recommendations for Application - 5. Consequences of Accepting the Resolutions and Subsequent Enactment of Statutes Designed to Prevent Defamation of Religions - 5.a. Human Rights Committee - 5.b. The European Court of Human Rights - 5.c. Blasphemy, Incitement, and Hate Speech Laws and Their Enforcement - 5.d. Possible Future Statutes and Enforcement Under Defamation of Religions Theory - 6. Alternatives to Defamation of Religions in the U.N. Resolutions - 7. Conclusion.

  18. Giuseppe E. Sansone traduttore di lirica romanza medievale. Contributo per una storia della traduzione poetica in Italia

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    Speranza Cerullo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La traduzione di poesia medievale in Italia ha avuto notevole sviluppo negli ultimi venti anni, attraverso l’incremento dell’attività dei traduttori e la promozione di un confronto su questioni di ordine teorico o metodologico, strettamente legate al tema dell’attualizzazione del testo medievale. In questo quadro, il contributo di Giuseppe Sansone ha svolto un ruolo di primo rilievo, attraverso un’attività ininterrotta che conta la pubblicazione di scritti di indirizzo critico-teorico e di cinque antologie di lirica medievale di diversi ambiti linguistici – occitano, spagnolo, catalano, galego e, in misura minore, francese –, offrendo modelli e appunti di metodo nei quali competenze scientifiche e filologiche si coniugano con una sensibilità estetica d’autore, guidata dall’obiettivo primario di una rifondazione del testo poetico nella sua letterarietà, dove la traduzione in versi si propone come testo dotato di una propria autonomia estetica.Over the last twenty years the translation of medieval poetry in Italy has had considerable development due to the increased activity of the translators; besides, a debate on theoretical or methodological issues closely related to the theme of updating medieval texts has been promoted. In this context, the contribution of Giuseppe Sansone and his continuous activity has played a key role: he published critical-theoretical essays and five anthologies of medieval lyrics from different linguistic areas – Provençal, Spanish, Catalan, Galician and, to a lesser extent, French – thus offering models and methodological suggestions in which scientific and philological skills combine with aesthetic sensibility, driven from the primary method of re-founding the poetic text in its literary property, in which the verse translation is proposed as a text with its own aesthetic autonomy.

  19. Assessing breeding potential of peregrine falcons based on chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.elliott@ec.gc.ca; Miller, M.J. [Iolaire Ecological Consulting, 7899 Thrasher St., Mission, British Columbia, V2V 5H3 (Canada); Wilson, L.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) now breed successfully in most areas of North America from which they were previously extirpated. The loss during the mid-part of the last century of many of the world's peregrine populations was largely a consequence of impaired reproduction caused by the effects of DDE on eggshell quality and embryo hatchability. Population recovery has been attributed to re-introduction efforts, coupled with regulatory restrictions on the use of organochlorine pesticides. Peregrines have not returned to breed in some areas, such as the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. That region has been extensively planted in fruit orchards which were treated annually with DDT during the early 1950s to the 1970s. Ongoing contamination of avian species, including potential peregrine prey, inhabiting orchards has been documented. In response to an initiative to release peregrines around the city of Kelowna in the Okanagan Valley, we collected potential peregrine prey species and analyzed whole bodies for chlorinated hydrocarbon residues. We used a simple bioaccumulation model to predict concentrations of DDE in peregrine eggs using concentrations in prey and estimates of dietary makeup as input. Peregrines would be expected to breed successfully only if they fed on a diet primarily of doves. Feeding on as little as 10% of other species such as starlings, robins, gulls and magpies would produce DDE concentrations in peregrine eggs greater than the threshold of 15 mg/kg. We also estimated the critical concentration of DDE in total prey to be about 0.5 mg/kg, one half of the previous most conservative criterion for peregrine prey. Concentrations of dieldrin and PCBs in peregrine prey are less than suggested critical levels. - Based on the level of DDE contamination of prey items, it seems unlikely that peregrine falcons could breed successfully throughout most of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia.

  20. Pareto vs Simmel: residui ed emozioni

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    Silvia Fornari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A cento anni dalla pubblicazione del Trattato di sociologia generale (Pareto 1988 siamo a mantenere vivo ed attuale lo studio paretiano con una rilettura contemporanea del suo pensiero. Ricordato per la grande versatilità intellettuale dagli economisti, rimane lo scienziato rigoroso ed analitico i cui contributi sono ancora discussi a livello internazionale. Noi ne analizzeremo gli aspetti che l’hanno portato ad avvicinarsi all’approccio sociologico, con l’introduzione della nota distinzione dell’azione sociale: logica e non-logica. Una dicotomia utilizzata per dare conto dei cambiamenti sociali riguardanti le modalità d’azione degli uomini e delle donne. Com’è noto le azioni logiche sono quelle che riguardano comportamenti mossi da logicità e raziocinio, in cui vi è una diretta relazione causa-effetto, azioni oggetto di studio degli economisti, e di cui non si occupano i sociologi. Le azioni non-logiche riguardano tutte le tipologie di agire umano che rientrano nel novero delle scienze sociali, e che rappresentano la parte più ampia dell’agire sociale. Sono le azioni guidate dai sentimenti, dall’emotività, dalla superstizione, ecc., illustrate da Pareto nel Trattato di sociologia generale e in saggi successivi, dove riprende anche il concetto di eterogenesi dei fini, formulato per la prima volta da Giambattista Vico. Concetto secondo il quale la storia umana, pur conservando in potenza la realizzazione di certi fini, non è lineare e lungo il suo percorso evolutivo può accadere che l’uomo nel tentativo di raggiungere una finalità arrivi a conclusioni opposte. Pareto collega la definizione del filosofo napoletano alle tipologie di azione sociale e alla loro distinzione (logiche, non-logiche. L’eterogenesi dei fini per Pareto è dunque l’esito di un particolare tipo di azione non-logica dell’essere umano e della collettività.