WorldWideScience

Sample records for ring type events

  1. Extreme Drought Events Revealed in Amazon Tree Ring Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a center of deep atmospheric convection and thus acts as a major engine for global hydrologic circulation. Yet despite its significance, a full understanding of Amazon rainfall variability remains elusive due to a poor historical record of climate. Temperate tree rings have been used extensively to reconstruct climate over the last thousand years, however less attention has been given to the application of dendrochronology in tropical regions, in large part due to a lower frequency of tree species known to produce annual rings. Here we present a tree ring record of drought extremes from the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru over the last 190 years. We confirm that tree ring growth in species Cedrela odorata is annual and show it to be well correlated with wet season precipitation. This correlation is used to identify extreme dry (and wet) events that have occurred in the past. We focus on drought events identified in the record as drought frequency is expected to increase over the Amazon in a warming climate. The Cedrela chronology records historic Amazon droughts of the 20th century previously identified in the literature and extends the record of drought for this region to the year 1816. Our analysis shows that there has been an increase in the frequency of extreme drought (mean recurrence interval = 5-6 years) since the turn of the 20th century and both Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing mechanisms are implicated.

  2. Plasma density measurement with ring-type cutoff probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.W.; You, S.J.; Na, B.K.; Kim, J.H.; Shin, Y.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Oh, W.Y.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a cutoff probe with a ring-type detection tip enclosing a bar-type radiation tip. A comparative study between a proposed ring-type cutoff (RTC) probe and a conventional bar-type cutoff (BTC) probe showed that the RTC probe solved the problem of the BTC probe, the large measurement uncertainty of the electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma source. This improved characteristics of the RTC probe might have originated from the geometrical structure of the RTC probe concerning the monopole antennae radiation. This proposed cutoff probe can be expected to expand the applicable diagnostic range and to enhance the sensitivity of the cutoff probe. - Highlights: ► A cutoff probe with a ring type detection tip is proposed. ► Comparative experiment and simulation were conducted. ► The proposed probe showed a small uncertainty of measured plasma density. ► Improved characteristics might be originated from the geometrical structure

  3. Modeling and analysis on ring-type piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shine-Tzong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents an electromechanical model for a ring-type piezoelectric transformer (PT). To establish this model, vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric ring with free boundary conditions are analyzed in advance. Based on the vibration analysis of the piezoelectric ring, the operating frequency and vibration mode of the PT are chosen. Then, electromechanical equations of motion for the PT are derived based on Hamilton's principle, which can be used to simulate the coupled electromechanical system for the transformer. Such as voltage stepup ratio, input impedance, output impedance, input power, output power, and efficiency are calculated by the equations. The optimal load resistance and the maximum efficiency for the PT will be presented in this paper. Experiments also were conducted to verify the theoretical analysis, and a good agreement was obtained.

  4. Imidazolopiperazines (IPZ) kill both rings and dormant rings in wild type and K13 artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Laurent; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Lim, Michelle Yi-Xiu; Ang, Xiaoman; Selva, Jeremy J; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Nguon, Chea; Dondorp, Arjen M; Bonamy, Ghislain M C; Diagana, Thierry T; Bifani, Pablo

    2018-03-12

    Artemisinin (ART) resistance has spread through Southeast Asia, posing serious threat to the control and elimination of malaria. ART resistance has been associated with mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch-13 ( Pfk13 ) propeller domain. Phenotypically, ART resistance is defined as delayed parasite clearance in patients' due to the reduced susceptibility of early ring-stage parasites to the active metabolite of ART dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Early rings can enter a state of quiescence upon DHA exposure and resume growth in its absence. These quiescent rings are referred to as dormant rings or DHA-pretreated rings (called here dormant rings). The imidazolopiperazine (IPZ) is a novel class of antimalarial drugs, which has demonstrated efficacy in early clinical trials. Here, we characterized the stage of action of IPZ GNF179 and evaluated its activity against rings and dormant rings in wild type and ART resistant parasites. Unlike DHA, GNF179 does not induce dormancy. We show that GNF179 is more rapidly cidal against schizonts than ring and trophozoite stages. However, with 12 hours exposure, the compound effectively kills rings and dormant rings of both susceptible and ART resistant parasites within 72 hours. We further demonstrate that in combination with ART, GNF179 effectively prevent recrudescence of dormant rings including those bearing pfk13 propeller mutations. Copyright © 2018 Dembele et al.

  5. Centauro- and anti-Centauro-type events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, M.; Mikuta-Martinis, V.; Svarc, A.; Crnugelj, J.

    1995-01-01

    Assuming that leading particles in high-energy hadronic and nuclear collisions become sources of a classical pion field, we show that the direct production of pions favors Centauro (mainly charged) events and that the production of pions through the ρ-type channel favors anti-Centauro (mainly neutral) events. We also observe a strong negative neutral-charged correlation in both cases

  6. Hartman effect in a Kane-type semiconductor quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmaktepe, S

    2007-01-01

    The Hartman effect for a tunnelling particle implies that group delay time is independent of the opaque barrier width. In the present study, the tunnelling delay time in the transmission mode is studied taking into account the real band structure of an InSb-type semiconductor quantum ring and compared with that of a parabolic band structure. The system considered in this study consists of a circular loop in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm flux. It is shown that while tunnelling through an opaque barrier, the group delay time for a given incident energy becomes independent of the barrier thickness as well as the magnitude of the flux

  7. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  8. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen eNovak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE. These conditions are associated with decreased growth of trees and their increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings is responsive to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, cambial cell division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may stop during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR, which can link tree-ring anatomy to the occurrence of extreme events. A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis, a widespread tree species in the Mediterranean basin, was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites throughout its distribution range. Binomial logistic regression analysis of 2595 MR series determined that MR increased in frequency with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of southeastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Further regression analysis indicated that the relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature was non-linear. In this first determination of climatic influences on MR, the formation of MR was most strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature above 10°C from previous October till current February and total precipitation below 50 mm from previous September till current May. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a

  9. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis – The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A.; Longares, Luis A.; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  10. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis - The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A; Longares, Luis A; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  11. The terminal Eocene event - Formation of a ring system around the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the formation of a ring system about the earth by particles and debris related to the North American strewn tektite field is responsible for the terminal Eocene event of 34 million years ago, in which severe climatic changes accompanied by widespread biological extinctions occurred. Botanical data is cited which implies a 20-C decrease in winter temperature with no change in summer temperature, and evidence of the correlation of the North American tektite fall, which is estimated to have a total mass of 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 10th tons, with the disappearance of five of the most abundant species of radiolaria is presented. The possible connection between the tektites and climatic change is argued to result from the screening of sunlight by an equatorial ring of trapped particles of extraterrestrial origin in geocentric orbit which would cut off sunlight only in the winter months. Such a ring, located at a distance of between 1.5 and 2.5 earth radii (the Roche limit) is estimated to have a lifetime of a few million years.

  12. Development of an Acoustic Levitation Linear Transportation System Based on a Ring-Type Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gilles P L; Andrade, Marco A B; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

    2017-05-01

    A linear acoustic levitation transportation system based on a ring-type vibrator is presented. The system is composed by two 21-kHz Langevin transducers connected to a ring-shaped structure formed by two semicircular sections and two flat plates. In this system, a flexural standing wave is generated along the ring structure, producing an acoustic standing wave between the vibrating ring and a plane reflector located at a distance of approximately a half wavelength from the ring. The acoustic standing wave in air has a series of pressure nodes, where small particles can be levitated and transported. The ring-type transportation system was designed and analyzed by using the finite element method. Additionally, a prototype was built and the acoustic levitation and transport of a small polystyrene particle was demonstrated.

  13. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemen Novak; Martin de Luis; Miguel A. Saz; Luis A. Longares; Roberto Serrano-Notivoli; Josep Raventos; Katarina Cufar; Jozica Gricar; Alfredo Di Filippo; Gianluca Piovesan; Cyrille B.K. Rathgeber; Andreas Papadopoulos; Kevin T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of...

  14. Tracing footprints of environmental events in tree ring chemistry using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Dagistan

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental effects on tree-ring chemistry. It is known that industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, acid rain and similar events can cause substantial changes in soil chemistry. Establishing whether a particular group of trees is sensitive to these changes in soil environment and registers them in the elemental chemistry of contemporary growth rings is the over-riding goal of any Dendrochemistry research. In this study, elemental concentrations were measured in tree-ring samples of absolutely dated eleven modern forest trees, grown in the Mediterranean region, Turkey, collected and dated by the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology laboratory at Cornell University. Correlations between measured elemental concentrations in the tree-ring samples were analyzed using statistical tests to answer two questions. Does the current concentration of a particular element depend on any other element within the tree? And, are there any elements showing correlated abnormal concentration changes across the majority of the trees? Based on the detailed analysis results, the low mobility of sodium and bromine, positive correlations between calcium, zinc and manganese, positive correlations between trace elements lanthanum, samarium, antimony, and gold within tree-rings were recognized. Moreover, zinc, lanthanum, samarium and bromine showed strong, positive correlations among the trees and were identified as possible environmental signature elements. New Dendrochemistry information found in this study would be also useful in explaining tree physiology and elemental chemistry in Pinus nigra species grown in Turkey. Elemental concentrations in tree-ring samples were measured using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC). Through this study, advanced methodologies for methodological, computational and

  15. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palviainen, Tanja; Tuuva, Tuure; Leinonen, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n + -type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p + /n/n + detector structure with an n + guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software

  16. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palviainen, Tanja [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)]. E-mail: tanja.palviainen@lut.fi; Tuuva, Tuure [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Leinonen, Kari [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2007-04-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n{sup +}-type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p{sup +}/n/n{sup +} detector structure with an n{sup +} guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software.

  17. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Taijiang; Shi, Hongyan; Liang, Xiong; Luo, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manufacture method for a sandwich structure Ultrasonic Motor (USM) and experiment. Two pieces of rotor clamped on a stator, and a stainless steel disk-spring is bonded on the hollow rotor disk to provide the press by a nut assembled on the shaft. The stator is made of a double-side Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) which is sawed out the ring in the center and connected on the board with three legs. On each side of the ring surface, there are electrodes connected at the same position via through hole. The three layer drive circuit for sine, cosine, and ground signal is connected on the board through each leg. There are many piezoelectric components (PZT) bonded between two electrodes and fill soldering tin on each electrode. Then PZT is welded on PCB by reflow soldering. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of PZT surface makes sure the surface contacts with rotor evenly. The welding process can also be completed by Surface Mounted Technology (SMT). A prototype motor is manufactured by this method. Two B03 model shapes of the stator are obtained by the finite element analysis and the optimal frequency of the motor is 56.375 kHz measured by impedance instrument. The theoretical analysis is conducted for the relationship between the revolving speed of the USM and thickness of stator ring, number of the travelling waves, PZT amplitude, frequency and the other parameters. The experiment result shows that the maximum revolving speed is 116 RPM and the maximum torque is 25 N mm, when the actuate voltage is 200 VAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A new type of ion injection event observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Woch, J.; Shapshak, M.; Elphinstone, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report on the observation of a new type of ion injection event observed by Viking spacecraft several degrees equatorward of the cusp. Its signature seems considerably different than previously reported events such as flux transfer events or impulsive or transient magnetosheath plasma injection events. It consists of low energy ions, as the pattern drops sharply above 100 to 200 eV

  19. Type II GaSb quantum ring solar cells under concentrated sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Che-Pin; Hsu, Shun-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Yen; Chang, Ching-Wen; Tu, Li-Wei; Chen, Kun-Cheng; Lay, Tsong-Sheng; Lin, Chien-Chung

    2014-03-10

    A type II GaSb quantum ring solar cell is fabricated and measured under the concentrated sunlight. The external quantum efficiency confirms the extended absorption from the quantum rings at long wavelength coinciding with the photoluminescence results. The short-circuit current of the quantum ring devices is 5.1% to 9.9% more than the GaAs reference's under various concentrations. While the quantum ring solar cell does not exceed its GaAs counterpart in efficiency under one-sun, the recovery of the open-circuit voltages at higher concentration helps to reverse the situation. A slightly higher efficiency (10.31% vs. 10.29%) is reported for the quantum ring device against the GaAs one.

  20. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  1. Frequency-domain analysis of resonant-type ring magnet power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.S.; Reiniger, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    For fast-cycling synchrotrons, resonant-type ring magnet power supplies are commonly used to provide a dc-biased ac excitation for the ring magnets. Up to the present, this power supply system has been analyzed using simplified analytical approximation, namely assuming the resonant frequency of the ring magnet network is fixed and equal to the accelerator frequency. This paper presents a frequency-domain analysis technique for a more accurate analysis of resonant-type ring magnet power supplies. This approach identifies that, with the variation of the resonant frequency, the operating conditions of the power supply changes quite dramatically because of the high Q value of the resonant network. The analytical results are verified, using both experimental results and simulation results

  2. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  3. Matrix and reservoir-type multipurpose vaginal rings for controlled release of dapivirine and levonorgestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Peter; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Major, Ian; Murphy, Diarmaid J; Kumar, Sandeep; Holt, Jonathon; Brimer, Andrew; Blanda, Wendy; Devlin, Brid; Malcolm, R Karl

    2016-09-10

    A matrix-type silicone elastomer vaginal ring providing 28-day continuous release of dapivirine (DPV) - a lead candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) microbicide compound - has recently demonstrated moderate levels of protection in two Phase III clinical studies. Here, next-generation matrix and reservoir-type silicone elastomer vaginal rings are reported for the first time offering simultaneous and continuous in vitro release of DPV and the contraceptive progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) over a period of between 60 and 180days. For matrix-type vaginal rings comprising initial drug loadings of 100, 150 or 200mg DPV and 0, 16 or 32mg LNG, Day 1 daily DPV release values were between 4132 and 6113μg while Day 60 values ranged from 284 to 454μg. Daily LNG release ranged from 129 to 684μg on Day 1 and 2-91μg on Day 60. Core-type rings comprising one or two drug-loaded cores provided extended duration of in vitro release out to 180days, and maintained daily drug release rates within much narrower windows (either 75-131μg/day or 37-66μg/day for DPV, and either 96-150μg/day or 37-57μg/day for LNG, depending on core ring configuration and ignoring initial lag release effect for LNG) compared with matrix-type rings. The data support the continued development of these devices as multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) for HIV prevention and long-acting contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vibrational Characteristics of ring-type ultrasonic motor stator using ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Paik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seung Ho; Park, Ki Jun; Wang, Young Sung

    2001-01-01

    A stator of ring-type ultrasonic motor composed of the piezoelectric ceramic and the elastic metal was made to generate the travelling wave. Vibrational behavior of the stator was simulated by a finite element analysis using ATILA program and was measured by the electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) method. The resonance frequencies and vibration modes were analysed depending upon the comparison between the finite element analysis and ESPI measurement. The optimal vibration mode and frequency was estimated to be 7th resonant mode which was corresponded to the measured frequency of 39 KHz. It could be concluded that this fabricated stator can be applied for ring-type ultrasonic motor.

  5. Molecular architecture of the N-type ATPase rotor ring from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sarah; Wilkes, Martin; Mills, Deryck J; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Meier, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The genome of the highly infectious bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei harbors an atp operon that encodes an N-type rotary ATPase, in addition to an operon for a regular F-type rotary ATPase. The molecular architecture of N-type ATPases is unknown and their biochemical properties and cellular functions are largely unexplored. We studied the B. pseudomallei N 1 N o -type ATPase and investigated the structure and ion specificity of its membrane-embedded c-ring rotor by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. Of several amphiphilic compounds tested for solubilizing the complex, the choice of the low-density, low-CMC detergent LDAO was optimal in terms of map quality and resolution. The cryoEM map of the c-ring at 6.1 Å resolution reveals a heptadecameric oligomer with a molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Biochemical measurements indicate that the c 17 ring is H + specific, demonstrating that the ATPase is proton-coupled. The c 17 ring stoichiometry results in a very high ion-to-ATP ratio of 5.7. We propose that this N-ATPase is a highly efficient proton pump that helps these melioidosis-causing bacteria to survive in the hostile, acidic environment of phagosomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Photocapacitance study of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, M. C.; Botha, J. R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Carrington, P. J.; Krier, A. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-07

    In this study, the density of states associated with the localization of holes in GaSb/GaAs quantum rings are determined by the energy selective charging of the quantum ring distribution. The authors show, using conventional photocapacitance measurements, that the excess charge accumulated within the type-II nanostructures increases with increasing excitation energies for photon energies above 0.9 eV. Optical excitation between the localized hole states and the conduction band is therefore not limited to the Γ(k = 0) point, with pseudo-monochromatic light charging all states lying within the photon energy selected. The energy distribution of the quantum ring states could consequently be accurately related from the excitation dependence of the integrated photocapacitance. The resulting band of localized hole states is shown to be well described by a narrow distribution centered 407 meV above the GaAs valence band maximum.

  7. Chromaticity correction in the TRISTAN phase I main ring with two types of insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yingzhi; Egawa, Kazumi.

    1984-07-01

    The TRISTAN main ring now under construction has four insertions. Besides the normal modes in which the four insertions have the same optics, the TRISTAN main ring will be operated in somewhat more complicated configurations with insertions having different optics. This report will consider chromaticity corrections using six families of sextupoles for the TRISTAN main ring with two different insertion types; opposite insertions have the same optics. The strength of correcting sextupoles is determined mainly using the W-correction method. The program PATRICIA is used to track the trajectories of test particles over 800 turns. The results show that the correction scheme adopted allows adequately large amplitudes of betatron and synchrotron oscillations. (author)

  8. A Risk Assessment System with Automatic Extraction of Event Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Philippe; Delavallade, Thomas; Nakamura, Takuya; Sandor, Agnes; Tarsitano, Cedric; Voyatzi, Stavroula

    In this article we describe the joint effort of experts in linguistics, information extraction and risk assessment to integrate EventSpotter, an automatic event extraction engine, into ADAC, an automated early warning system. By detecting as early as possible weak signals of emerging risks ADAC provides a dynamic synthetic picture of situations involving risk. The ADAC system calculates risk on the basis of fuzzy logic rules operated on a template graph whose leaves are event types. EventSpotter is based on a general purpose natural language dependency parser, XIP, enhanced with domain-specific lexical resources (Lexicon-Grammar). Its role is to automatically feed the leaves with input data.

  9. Review of events at large pool-type irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E.A. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Large pool-type gamma irradiators are used in applications such as the ''cold'' sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, and recent changes in federal regulations make it possible they will be used extensively in the preservation of foodstuffs. Because of this possible large increase in the use of irradiators, the Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards was interested in knowing what events had occurred at irradiators. The event data would be used as background in developing new regulations on irradiators. Therefore, AEOD began a study of the operating experience at large, wet source storage gamma irradiators. The scope of the study was to assess all available operating information on large (≥ 250,000 curie), pool-type irradiators licensed by both the NRC and the Agreement States, and events at foreign facilities. The study found that about 0.12 events have been reported per irradiator-year. Most of these events were precursor events, in that there was no evidence of damage to the radioactive sources or degradation in the level of safety of the facility. Events with more significant impacts had a reported frequency of about 0.01 event per irradiator-year. However, the actual rate of occurrence of events of concern to the staff may be higher because there are few specific reporting requirements for events at irradiators. It is suggested that during development of a regulation for large pool-type irradiators consideration be given to specifying requirements for: reporting breakdowns in access control systems; periodic inspection of the source movement and suspension system; systems to detect source leakage and product contamination; allowable pool leakage; and feedback of information on operational events involving safety-important systems

  10. Modeling of a ring rosen-type piezoelectric transformer by Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Clément; Pigache, Francois; Erhart, Jiří

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of a ring Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer. The developed model is based on a Hamiltonian approach, enabling to obtain main parameters and performance evaluation for the first radial vibratory modes. Methodology is detailed, and final results, both the input admittance and the electric potential distribution on the surface of the secondary part, are compared with numerical and experimental ones for discussion and validation.

  11. Use of tree-ring chemistry to document historical ground-water contamination events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The annual growth rings of tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) appear to preserve a chemical record of ground-water contamination at a landfill in Maryland. Zones of elevated iron and chlorine concentrations in growth rings from trees immediately downgradient from the landfill are closely correlated temporally with activities in the landfill expected to generate iron and chloride contamination in the ground water. Successively later iron peaks in trees increasingly distant from the landfill along the general direction of ground-water flow imply movement of iron-contaminated ground water away from the landfill. The historical velocity of iron movement (2 to 9 m/yr) and chloride movement (at least 40 m/yr) in ground water at the site was estimated from element-concentration trends of trees at successive distances from the landfill. The tree-ring-derived chloride-transport velocity approximates the known ground-water velocity (30 to 80 m/yr). A minimum horizontal hydraulic conductivity (0.01 to .02 cm/s) calculated from chloride velocity agrees well with values derived from aquifer tests (about 0.07 cm/s) and from ground-water modeling results (0.009 to 0.04 cm/s).

  12. Development and evaluation of accelerated drug release testing methods for a matrix-type intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externbrink, Anna; Eggenreich, Karin; Eder, Simone; Mohr, Stefan; Nickisch, Klaus; Klein, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated drug release testing is a valuable quality control tool for long-acting non-oral extended release formulations. Currently, several intravaginal ring candidates designed for the long-term delivery of steroids or anti-infective drugs are being in the developing pipeline. The present article addresses the demand for accelerated drug release methods for these formulations. We describe the development and evaluation of accelerated release methods for a steroid releasing matrix-type intravaginal ring. The drug release properties of the formulation were evaluated under real-time and accelerated test conditions. Under real-time test conditions drug release from the intravaginal ring was strongly affected by the steroid solubility in the release medium. Under sufficient sink conditions that were provided in release media containing surfactants drug release was Fickian diffusion driven. Both temperature and hydro-organic dissolution media were successfully employed to accelerate drug release from the formulation. Drug release could be further increased by combining the temperature effect with the application of a hydro-organic release medium. The formulation continued to exhibit a diffusion controlled release kinetic under the investigated accelerated conditions. Moreover, the accelerated methods were able to differentiate between different prototypes of the intravaginal ring that exhibited different release profiles under real-time test conditions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that both temperature and hydro-organic release media are valid parameters for accelerating drug release from the intravaginal ring. Variation of either a single or both parameters yielded release profiles that correlated well with real-time release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two types of defective RNAs arising from the tomato black ring virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Borodynko, Natasza; Figlerowicz, Marek; Pospieszny, Henryk

    2012-03-01

    Short defective RNAs (D-RNAs) associated with tomato black ring virus (TBRV) were isolated, cloned and sequenced. As a result, two types of D-RNAs associated with different TBRV isolates were identified. Both types were derived from RNA1. The first one contained sequences from the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) and from the 5' region of a single large open reading frame. The second one included a portion of the coding region for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase flanked by a short fragment of the 5' UTR and the entire 3' UTR. The possible nature and origin of these RNA species is discussed.

  14. SUPERNOVA 2003ie WAS LIKELY A FAINT TYPE IIP EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sergeev, Sergey G., E-mail: iair.arcavi@weizmann.ac.il [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    We present new photometric observations of supernova (SN) 2003ie starting one month before discovery, obtained serendipitously while observing its host galaxy. With only a weak upper limit derived on the mass of its progenitor (<25 M{sub Sun }) from previous pre-explosion studies, this event could be a potential exception to the ''red supergiant (RSG) problem'' (the lack of high-mass RSGs exploding as Type IIP SNe). However, this is true only if SN2003ie was a Type IIP event, something which has never been determined. Using recently derived core-collapse SN light-curve templates, as well as by comparison to other known SNe, we find that SN2003ie was indeed a likely Type IIP event. However, with a plateau magnitude of {approx} - 15.5 mag, it is found to be a member of the faint Type IIP class. Previous members of this class have been shown to arise from relatively low-mass progenitors (<12 M{sub Sun }). It therefore seems unlikely that this SN had a massive RSG progenitor. The use of core-collapse SN light-curve templates is shown to be helpful in classifying SNe with sparse coverage. These templates are likely to become more robust as large homogeneous samples of core-collapse events are collected.

  15. Confidence limits for Neyman type A-distributed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morand, J.; Deperas-Standylo, J.; Urbanik, W.; Moss, R.; Hachem, S.; Sauerwein, W.; Wojcik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Neyman type A distribution, a generalised, 'contagious' Poisson distribution, finds application in a number of disciplines such as biology, physics and economy. In radiation biology, it best describes the distribution of chromosomal aberrations in cells that were exposed to neutrons, alpha radiations or heavy ions. Intriguingly, no method has been developed for the calculation of confidence limits (CLs) of Neyman type A-distributed events. Here, an algorithm to calculate the 95% CL of Neyman type A-distributed events is presented. Although it has been developed in response to the requirements of radiation biology, it can find application in other fields of research. The algorithm has been implemented in a PC-based computer program that can be downloaded, free of charge, from www.pu.kielce.pl/ibiol/neta. (authors)

  16. Confidence limits for Neyman type A-distributed events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Josselin; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Urbanik, Witold; Moss, Raymond; Hachem, Sabet; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The Neyman type A distribution, a generalised, 'contagious' Poisson distribution, finds application in a number of disciplines such as biology, physics and economy. In radiation biology, it best describes the distribution of chromosomal aberrations in cells that were exposed to neutrons, alpha radiations or heavy ions. Intriguingly, no method has been developed for the calculation of confidence limits (CLs) of Neyman type A-distributed events. Here, an algorithm to calculate the 95% CL of Neyman type A-distributed events is presented. Although it has been developed in response to the requirements of radiation biology, it can find application in other fields of research. The algorithm has been implemented in a PC-based computer program that can be downloaded, free of charge, from www.pu.kielce.pl/ibiol/neta.

  17. Dose evaluation in occupationally exposed workers through dosimeters ring and wrist type with an anthropomorphic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, R.; Gastelo, E.; Paucar, R.; Tolentino, D.; Herrera, J.; Armas, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the Nuclear Medicine service of the Clinica San Pablo (Peru), the occupationally exposed workers carried out the preparation and administration of radiopharmaceuticals to patients, so it is vital to measure the equivalent dose to the hands during the procedures in order to optimize the exposure to the ionizing radiation and execute the Radiological Safety Regulation (D.S. No. 009-97-Em) and the standard IR 002.2012 of radiation protection and safety in nuclear medicine. In this paper was designed and built a hand anthropomorphic phantom made of paraffin following the description given for the standard man, later were placed dosimeters ring and wrist type UD-807 model, Panasonic brand. Then we proceeded to irradiate using vial containers of Tc-99 and I-131. The obtained results showed the difference between the equivalent dose obtained among the ring and wrist dosimeter also getting a dose of 153 mSv /year when working with 99m Tc and of 61 mSv /year when working with iodine-131. Was also demonstrated that the ring dosimeter shows the average dose received in the hand with less dispersion. It was found that under the national regulation on Requirements of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety in Medicine article 63, indicates that higher doses of 150 mSv /year the occupationally exposed workers should have hand dosimetry. Finally the individual dose limit of 500 mSv /year in extremities can be overcome if adequate radiation protection standards do not apply. (author)

  18. Storage ring free electron laser, pulse propagation effects and microwave type instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Mezi, L.; Renieri, A.; Migliorati, M.

    2000-01-01

    It has been developed a dynamical model accounting for the storage Ring Free Electron Laser evolution including pulse propagation effects and e-beam instabilities of microwave type. It has been analyzed the general conditions under which the on set of the laser may switch off the instability and focus everybody attention on the interplay between cavity mismatch, laser pulsed behavior and e-beam instability dynamics. Particular attention is also devoted to the laser operation in near threshold conditions, namely at an intracavity level just enough to counteract the instability, that show in this region new and interesting effects arises [it

  19. A novel method of flat YBCO rings development for shield-type superconducting fault current limiters fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Hosseini, Mehdi; Vakilian, Mehdi; Fardmanesh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    A method has been proposed for flat YBCO ring Fabrication. A prototype SFCL with proposed design has been fabricated using the rings. J c characteristics of the rings are measured using an innovative method. The application of flat superconductor rings has been investigated in the structure of inductive shield-type high temperature superconducting fault current limiters, HT c -SFCL. A laboratory scale inductive shield-type HT c -SFCL has been designed and fabricated using flat superconductor rings. The fabrication process has been fully presented. YBCO powder has been used for the fabrication of superconductor rings. This fabrication process, being quite innovative, is introduced completely. The method of the trapped field measurement has been used for the critical current density measurement of the fabricated superconductor rings. The device with nominal current of 2 A was tested in a 30 V circuit. The SFCL successfully limited the fault currents of up to 10 times the nominal current to an approximately fixed value of 3 A. The voltage-current characteristic of the fabricated prototype has also been obtained and has shown compatibility with the fault current limitation results.

  20. Simulation of a resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells and energy storage chokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.S.; Blackmore, E.W.; Reiniger, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    For the TRIUMF KAON Factory Booster Ring, a resonant-type magnet power supply has been proposed for the dipole magnet excitation. The Booster Ring magnet power supply system based on resonant circuits, coupled with distributed energy make-up networks, is a complex system, sensitive to many system parameters. When multiple resonant cells, each with its own energy make-up network, are connected in a ring, it is very difficult to derive closed-form solutions to determine the operating conditions of the power supply system. A meaningful way to understand and analyze such a complex system is to use a simulation tool. This paper presents the analysis of operating conditions of the resonant-type ring magnet power supply with multiple resonant cells, using the circuit simulation tool, SPICE. The focus of the study is on the effect of circuit parameter variations in energy storage chokes

  1. Orientation factor and number of fibers at failure plane in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Kim, H.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the probabilistic distributions of fibers in ring-type steel fiber reinforced concrete, the orientation factor and the number of ring-type steel fibers crossing the failure plane were theoretically derived as a function of fiber geometry, specimen dimensions, and fiber volume fraction. A total number of 24 specimens were tested incorporating different fiber types, specimen geometry, and fiber volume fractions of 0.2% and 0.4%: 5 beams and 5 panels containing straight steel fibers; and 6 beams and 8 panels containing ring-type steel fibers. Measurements were made to assess the number of fibers at fractured surfaces of steel fiber reinforced concrete. The developed theoretical expressions reasonably predicted the orientation factor and the number of ring-type steel fibers at failure plane: the average and the standard deviation for the ratios of the test to theory were 1.03 and 0.26, respectively. Theoretical investigations and comparisons were made for the values of orientation factor and the number of fibers at failure plane for straight steel fibers and ring-type steel fibers.

  2. Acoustic Levitation Transportation of Small Objects Using a Ring-type Vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gilles P. L.; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Silva, Eḿílio C. N.

    A new device for noncontact transportation of small solid objects is presented here. Ultrasonic flexural vibrations are generated along the ring shaped vibrator using two Langevin transducers and by using a reflector parallel to the vibrator, small particles are trapped at the nodal points of the resulting acoustic standing wave. The particles are then moved by generating a traveling wave along the vibrator, which can be done by modulating the vibration amplitude of the transducers. The working principle of the traveling wave along the vibrator has been modeled by the superposition of two orthogonal standing waves, and the position of the particles can be predicted by using finite element analysis of the vibrator and the resulting acoustic field. A prototype consisting of a 3 mm thick, 220 mm long, 50 mm wide and 52 mm radius aluminum ring-type vibrator and a reflector of the same length and width was built and small polystyrene spheres have been successfully transported along the straight parts of the vibrator.

  3. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  4. Carrier extraction behaviour in type II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hiromi; James, Juanita; Carrington, Peter J; Marshall, Andrew R J; Krier, Anthony; Wagener, Magnus C; Botha, Johannes R

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of quantum dot (QD) or quantum ring (QR) nanostructures into GaAs single-junction solar cells has shown enhanced photo-response above the GaAs absorption edge, because of sub-bandgap photon absorption. However, to further improve solar cell performance a better understanding of the mechanisms of photogenerated carrier extraction from QDs and QRs is needed. In this work we have used a direct excitation technique to study type II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells using a 1064 nm infrared laser, which enables us to excite electron–hole pairs directly within the GaSb QRs without exciting the GaAs host material. Temperature and laser intensity dependence of the current–voltage characteristics revealed that the thermionic emission process produced the dominant contribution to the photocurrent and accounts for 98.9% of total photocurrent at 0 V and 300 K. Although the tunnelling process gives only a low contribution to the photocurrent, an enhancement of the tunnelling current was clearly observed when an external electric field was applied. (paper)

  5. New type of transformation of a 1,2,4-triazine ring to pyrazine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, S.G.; Charushin, V.N.; Chupakhin, O.N.

    1987-01-01

    We have discovered a new type of transformation of a triazine ring in which the l-ethyl-1,2,4-triazine cation participates. It has been established that the cation reacts at 20 0 C with ortho-phenylenediamine (in methylene chloride) and 5,6-diaminopyrimidin-4-one (in 9:1 ethanol-DMF) with the formation of quinoxaline (yield 43%) and pteridin-4-one (yield 23%). This transformation is based on the susceptibility of the cation to bi-addition of nucleophiles and proceeds via cyclic adducts which are then aromatized on account of separation of 3-morpholinoamidrazone. The reaction products were identified by comparison of their melting points and spectroscopic characteristics (NMR, mass-spectra) with those of samples whose structure is definitely known

  6. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Speicher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts. The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles.

  7. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the contribution of task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants are analysed in order to establish a strategy for reducing the human-related unplanned reactor trips. Classification systems for the task types, error modes, and cognitive functions are developed or adopted from the currently available taxonomies, and the relevant information is extracted from the event reports or judged on the basis of an event description. According to the analyses from this study, the contributions of the task types are as follows: corrective maintenance (25.7%), planned maintenance (22.8%), planned operation (19.8%), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9%), response to a transient (9.9%), and design/manufacturing/installation (6.9%). According to the analysis of the error modes, error modes such as control failure (22.2%), wrong object (18.5%), omission (14.8%), wrong action (11.1%), and inadequate (8.3%) take up about 75% of the total unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved in the events indicated that the planning function had the highest contribution (46.7%) to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips. This analysis concludes that in order to significantly reduce human-induced or human-related unplanned reactor trips, an aide system (in support of maintenance personnel) for evaluating possible (negative) impacts of planned actions or erroneous actions as well as an appropriate human error prediction technique, should be developed

  9. Task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, the contribution of task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants are analysed in order to establish a strategy for reducing the human-related unplanned reactor trips. Classification systems for the task types, error modes, and cognitive functions are developed or adopted from the currently available taxonomies, and the relevant information is extracted from the event reports or judged on the basis of an event description. According to the analyses from this study, the contributions of the task types are as follows: corrective maintenance (25.7%), planned maintenance (22.8%), planned operation (19.8%), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9%), response to a transient (9.9%), and design/manufacturing/installation (6.9%). According to the analysis of the error modes, error modes such as control failure (22.2%), wrong object (18.5%), omission (14.8%), wrong action (11.1%), and inadequate (8.3%) take up about 75% of the total unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved in the events indicated that the planning function had the highest contribution (46.7%) to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips. This analysis concludes that in order to significantly reduce human-induced or human-related unplanned reactor trips, an aide system (in support of maintenance personnel) for evaluating possible (negative) impacts of planned actions or erroneous actions as well as an appropriate human error prediction technique, should be developed.

  10. Storage ring free electron laser, pulse propagation effects and microwave type instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G.; Mezi, L.; Renieri, A. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Migliorati, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    2000-07-01

    It has been developed a dynamical model accounting for the storage Ring Free Electron Laser evolution including pulse propagation effects and e-beam instabilities of microwave type. It has been analyzed the general conditions under which the on set of the laser may switch off the instability and focus everybody attention on the interplay between cavity mismatch, laser pulsed behavior and e-beam instability dynamics. Particular attention is also devoted to the laser operation in near threshold conditions, namely at an intracavity level just enough to counteract the instability, that show in this region new and interesting effects arises. [Italian] Si sviluppa un modello dinamico per la descrizione dell'evoluzione di un laser ad elettroni liberi in anello di accumulazione con l'inclusione di effetti di propagazione d'impulso e di instabilita' a microonda. Si analizzano le condizioni per le quali l'instaurarsi dell'operazione laser puo' spegnere l'instabilita' e si focalizza l'attenzione sulla connessione fra desincronismo della cavita', comportamento pulsato del laser e comportamento instabile del fascio di elettroni: si analizza in particolare l'operazione laser quando il guadagno e' prossimo alle perdite della cavita' e si osservano effetti particolarmente interessanti.

  11. Simulation of magnetization and levitation properties of arrays of ring-shaped type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun, E-mail: linxj8686@163.com; Huang, Chenguang; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A strong magnetic coupling appears if the gap between the superconducting rings is small. • The saturation magnetization of superconducting rings is related to the radial gap but independent of the vertical gap. • The array of rings in a non-uniform field experiences a levitation force, which increases with increasing height or thickness of the rings. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the magnetic and mechanical properties of arrays of superconducting rings arranged in axial, radial, and matrix configurations under different magnetic fields. In terms of the Bean's critical state model and the minimum magnetic energy method, the dependences of the magnetization and levitation behaviors on the geometry, number, and gap of the superconducting rings are obtained. The results show that when the applied field is spatially uniform, the magnetic property of the superconducting array is associated with the gaps between the rings. For the case of small gaps, the entire array becomes not easy to be fully penetrated by the induced currents, and the magnetic field profiles of which are almost the same as ones in a single large ring. If the superconducting array is fully penetrated, its saturation magnetization value is affected by the radial interval and, however, is almost independent of the vertical separation. When the applied field produced by a cylindrical permanent magnet is nonuniform, the superconducting array will be subjected to a levitation force. The levitation force increases monotonically and finally reaches a saturation value with increasing height or thickness of the rings, and such saturation value is closely related to the inner radius of the array.

  12. Type II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot/ring stacks with extended photoresponse for efficient solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrington, Peter James, E-mail: p.carrington@lancaster.ac.uk [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Mahajumi, Abu Syed [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Wagener, Magnus C.; Botha, Johannes Reinhardt [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Zhuang Qian; Krier, Anthony [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of GaAs based p-i-n solar cells containing 5 and 10 layers of type II GaSb quantum rings grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Solar cells containing quantum rings show improved efficiency at longer wavelengths into the near-IR extending up to 1500 nm and show enhanced short-circuit current under 1 sun illumination compared to a GaAs control cell. A reduction in the open-circuit voltage is observed due to the build-up of internal strain. The MBE growth, formation and photoluminescence of single and stacked layers of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings are also presented.

  13. Type II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot/ring stacks with extended photoresponse for efficient solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, Peter James; Mahajumi, Abu Syed; Wagener, Magnus C.; Botha, Johannes Reinhardt; Zhuang Qian; Krier, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of GaAs based p–i–n solar cells containing 5 and 10 layers of type II GaSb quantum rings grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Solar cells containing quantum rings show improved efficiency at longer wavelengths into the near-IR extending up to 1500 nm and show enhanced short-circuit current under 1 sun illumination compared to a GaAs control cell. A reduction in the open-circuit voltage is observed due to the build-up of internal strain. The MBE growth, formation and photoluminescence of single and stacked layers of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings are also presented.

  14. Modelling dust rings in early-type galaxies through a sequence of radiative transfer simulations and 2D image fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfini, P.; González-Martín, O.; Fritz, J.; Bitsakis, T.; Bruzual, G.; Sodi, B. Cervantes

    2018-05-01

    A large fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) host prominent dust features, and central dust rings are arguably the most interesting among them. We present here `Lord Of The Rings' (LOTR), a new methodology which allows to integrate the extinction by dust rings in a 2D fitting modelling of the surface brightness distribution. Our pipeline acts in two steps, first using the surface fitting software GALFIT to determine the unabsorbed stellar emission, and then adopting the radiative transfer code SKIRT to apply dust extinction. We apply our technique to NGC 4552 and NGC 4494, two nearby ETGs. We show that the extinction by a dust ring can mimic, in a surface brightness profile, a central point source (e.g. an unresolved nuclear stellar cluster or an active galactic nucleus; AGN) superimposed to a `core' (i.e. a central flattening of the stellar light commonly observed in massive ETGs). We discuss how properly accounting for dust features is of paramount importance to derive correct fluxes especially for low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). We suggest that the geometries of dust features are strictly connected with how relaxed is the gravitational potential, i.e. with the evolutionary stage of the host galaxy. Additionally, we find hints that the dust mass contained in the ring relates to the AGN activity.

  15. Increased risk of severe hypoglycemic events with increasing frequency of non-severe hypoglycemic events in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sreenan, Seamus

    2014-07-15

    Severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and costs. However, the more common non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHEs) are less well explored. We investigated the association between reported frequency of NSHEs and SHEs among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the PREDICTIVE study.

  16. FLANGE: a computer program for the analysis of flanged joints with ring-type gaskets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; O'Hara, F.M. Jr.; Moore, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    The computer program FLANGE was written to calculate not only the stresses due to moment loads on the flange ring but also stresses due to internal pressure; stresses due to a temperature difference between the hub and ring; and stresses due to the variations in bolt load that result from pressure, hub-ring temperature gradient, and/or bolt-ring temperature difference. The program FLANGE is applicable to tapered-hub, straight, and blind flanges. The analysis method is based on the differential equations for thin plates and shells. The stresses due to moment loading calculated by the two methods are essentially identical for identical boundary conditions. A description of the general model of flanges used in the theoretical development of the computer code is provided. The actual mathematical expressions for calculating stresses and displacements due to moment and pressure loads are derived. Example calculations, listings, and flowcharts of the program and its subroutines are included as appendices

  17. Comparison of electrical performances of two n-in-p detectors with different implant type of guard ring by TCAD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekheldi, Mohammed; Oussalah, Slimane; Lounis, Abdenour; Brihi, Nourredine

    This paper presents a preliminary comparative study for two different guard rings structures in the purpose of evaluating their electrical performances. The two structures are based on the n-in-p technology with different implant type of guard rings. I-V characteristics have been simulated using Silvaco/ATLAS software for both structures and compared for various parameters of substrate, guard ring and oxide. Simulation results show that the shape of leakage current is almost the same in all simulations but in terms of breakdown voltage, n-in-p structure with n-type guard rings ensures high voltage stability.

  18. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, I.A., E-mail: igor_sar@li.ru; Vadivasova, T.E., E-mail: vadivasovate@yandex.ru; Bukh, A.V., E-mail: buh.andrey@yandex.ru; Strelkova, G.I., E-mail: strelkovagi@info.sgu.ru; Anishchenko, V.S., E-mail: wadim@info.sgu.ru

    2017-04-25

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied. - Highlights: • Dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime is studied. • A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network. • The region of existence of new structures has been explored when varying the coupling parameters.

  19. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Bukh, A. V.; Strelkova, G. I.; Anishchenko, V. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied.

  20. Structure and origin of Australian ring and dome features with reference to the search for asteroid impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Ring, dome and crater features on the Australian continent and shelf include (A) 38 structures of confirmed or probable asteroid and meteorite impact origin and (B) numerous buried and exposed ring, dome and crater features of undefined origin. A large number of the latter include structural and geophysical elements consistent with impact structures, pending test by field investigations and/or drilling. This paper documents and briefly describes 43 ring and dome features with the aim of appraising their similarities and differences from those of impact structures. Discrimination between impact structures and igneous plugs, volcanic caldera and salt domes require field work and/or drilling. Where crater-like morphological patterns intersect pre-existing linear structural features and contain central morphological highs and unique thrust and fault patterns an impact connection needs to tested in the field. Hints of potential buried impact structures may be furnished by single or multi-ring TMI patterns, circular TMI quiet zones, corresponding gravity patterns, low velocity and non-reflective seismic zones.

  1. Diffuse-type Gastric Mucinous and Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma in a Captive California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, C-S; Li, W-T; Jeng, C-R; Pang, V F; Chang, H-W

    2018-04-01

    An adult female California king snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) housed in Taipei Zoo was presented with a 2-week history of anorexia, fatigue and abdominal swelling. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a gastric mass with two circular perforations and multiple mottled white to beige protuberances along the mucosal surface. Histologically, the gastric mass showed an invasive, transmural growth of epithelial cells arranged in nests, lobules, acini and sheets in the mucosa and submucosa that progressively transformed into signet ring cells in the muscularis externa and subserosa. All of the neoplastic cells expressed pan-cytokeratin immunohistochemically. Based on the World Health Organization histological criteria, a diagnosis of diffuse-type gastric mucinous and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma was made. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Coagulant Type Influence on Removal Efficiency of 5- and 6-Ring Pahs During Water Coagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results on investigation of the removal efficiency of selected 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene from water during coagulation and sedimentation process. Two pre-hydrolyzed aluminum coagulants: PAX XL 19H and FLOKOR 105V were chosen for research. Process was carried out at optimum process parameters: rapid-mixing - 3 min at the rotational speed of 200 rpm, slow mixing - 10 min at 30 rpm, sedimentation - 60 min. The removal effectiveness was dependant on coagulant type and its composition. Better results in the removal of 5-and 6-ring PAHs were obtained after application of FLOKOR 105V (lower aluminum content than after using PAX XL 19H.

  3. Comparison of electrical performances of two n-in-p detectors with different implant type of guard ring by TCAD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mekheldi

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary comparative study for two different guard rings structures in the purpose of evaluating their electrical performances. The two structures are based on the n-in-p technology with different implant type of guard rings. I–V characteristics have been simulated using Silvaco/ATLAS software for both structures and compared for various parameters of substrate, guard ring and oxide. Simulation results show that the shape of leakage current is almost the same in all simulations but in terms of breakdown voltage, n-in-p structure with n-type guard rings ensures high voltage stability. Keywords: Breakdown voltage, Guard ring, n-in-p silicon detector, TCAD simulation

  4. New intraocular pressure measurement method using reflected pneumatic pressure from cornea deformed by air puff of ring-type nozzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Seo, Yeong Ho; Kim, Byeong Hee

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a non-contact type intraocular pressure (IOP) measuring system using reflected pneumatic pressure is proposed to overcome the disadvantages of existing measurement systems. A ring-type nozzle, a key component in the proposed system, is designed via computational fluid analysis. It predicts the reflected pneumatic pressure based on the nozzle exit angle and inner and outer diameters of the nozzle, which are 30°, 7 mm, and 9 mm, respectively. Performance evaluation is conducted using artificial eyes fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane with the specifications of human eyes. The IOP of the fabricated artificial eyes is adjusted to 10, 30, and 50 mm Hg, and the reflected pneumatic pressure is measured as a function of the distance between the ring-type nozzle and artificial eye. The measured reflected pneumatic pressure is high when the measurement distance is short and eye pressure is low. The cornea of an artificial eye is significantly deformed at a low IOP, and the applied pneumatic pressure is more concentrated in front of the ring-type nozzle because of the deformed cornea. Thus, the reflected pneumatic pressure at a low IOP has more inflows into the pressure sensor inserted inside the nozzle. The sensitivity of the output based on the IOP at measurement distances between 3-5 mm is -0.0027, -0.0022, -0.0018, -0.0015, and -0.0012. Sensitivity decreases as the measurement distance increases. In addition, the reflected pneumatic pressure owing to the misalignment at the measurement distances of 3-5 mm is not affected within a range of 0.5 mm. Therefore, the measurement range is acceptable up to a 1 mm diameter from the center of an artificial eye. However, the accuracy gradually decreases as the reflected pneumatic pressure from a misalignment of 1 mm or more decreases by 26% or more.

  5. Type D personality, cardiac events, and impaired quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Psychological distress has been associated with the pathogenesis and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about the determinants of distress as a coronary risk factor. Although it has become unfashionable to focus on personality factors since research on Type A behaviour...

  6. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  7. Porphyrin-phospholipid interaction and ring metallation depending on the phospholipid polar head type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana P; Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Zaniquelli, Maria E D

    2010-10-01

    The interaction between a hydrophobically modified 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-tetradecyl-pyridyl) porphyrin and three phospholipids: two negatively charged, DMPA (the sodium salt of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidyl acid) and DMPG (the sodium salt of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)]) and a zwitterionic DMPC (dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine), were studied by means of surface pressure isotherms and spectroscopic methods. The interaction results in partial or total metallation of the porphyrin with zinc ions in the presence of negatively charged phospholipids, as attested by UV-vis and luminescence spectroscopy of the transferred films. In the presence of the zwitterionic phospholipid no insertion of zinc ion in the porphyrin ring is detected. These results are relevant for the understanding of photosensitizer-lipid-carrier binding for use in photodynamic therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Positron ring system using Anger-type detectors. Progress report for period ending December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.

    1984-08-01

    A single-ring positron camera consisting of six position-sensitive single-crystal detectors has been constructed, and its performance has been evaluated for a variety of applications. The major factors limiting its performance have been established, and methods to overcome some of these limitations have been explored. At low data rates, a spatial resolution of 6.5 mm full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) has been measured in the final reconstructed image, and at high data rates a spatial resolution below 8 mm FWHM has been achieved. Initial problems in imaging extended objects have been overcome through careful normalization of the data and by using an iterative reconstruction algorithm which is insensitive to the missing data due to the gaps between the detectors. 10 figures

  9. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  10. Analyzing THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type Metonymies from the Perspective of Negative Evaluative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Arimitsu

    Full Text Available This paper has two objectives. First, by analyzing THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies, this paper points out that it is mainly negative events that are expressed by this type of metonymy. Second, this paper reveals the motivations of those THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies that express negative events. Metonymies are widely investigated along with the views of Lakoff and Johnson (1980, and their oppositional semantic aspects are pointed out by Voßhagen (1999. However, none of the previous studies focused on the nature of THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies from the perspective of negative evaluation, euphemism, and politeness. "Let's not let Thailand become another Vietnam" expresses the Vietnam War and all the tragedies behind it. Speakers refrain from expressing negative evaluative aspects from a euphemistic perspective and try to behave politely through hiding the exact expression, and listeners can also easily understand THE PLACE FOR THE EVENT-type metonymies that express negative events, since negative events are much more highly marked and intensified, as well as more prominent, than are positive ones.

  11. Tree-ring based reconstruction of the seasonal timing, major events and origin of rockfall on a case-study slope in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Schneuwly

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tree-ring analysis has been used to reconstruct 22 years of rockfall behavior on an active rockfall slope near Saas Balen (Swiss Alps. We analyzed 32 severely injured trees (L. decidua, P. abies and P. cembra and investigated cross-sections of 154 wounds.

    The intra-annual position of callus tissue and of tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts was determined in order to reconstruct the seasonality of past rockfall events. Results indicate strong intra- and inter-annual variations of rockfall activity, with a peak (76% observed in the dormant season (early October – end of May. Within the growth season, rockfall regularly occurs between the end of May and mid July (21.4%, whereas events later in the season appear to be quite rare (2.6%. Findings suggest that rockfall activity at the study site is driven by annual thawing processes and the circulation of melt water in preexisting fissures. Data also indicate that 43% of all rockfall events occurred in 1995, when two major precipitation events are recorded in nearby meteorological stations. Finally, data on impact angles are in very good agreement with the geomorphic situation in the field.

  12. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, R T; White, S M; Ray, P S; Kaiser, M L

    2015-01-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena. (paper)

  13. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena.

  14. Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Michel; Pouliot, Louise; Routhier, Danielle; Vrakas, Georgia; McGirr, Alexander; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The first objective was to identify the provoking events of suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type disorder, and to assess the humiliation component of these events. The second objective was to verify if quality of care during childhood is a vulnerability factor for suicide in patients with schizophrenia or schizoid-type…

  15. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  16. Manufacture of rings of 08Kh18N10T sheet for internal structures of WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojta, A.; Nitka, B.

    1984-01-01

    Technology is presented of the manufacture of rings for the jacket, shaft, core catcher and shaft bottom of WWER-440 reactors produced by Vitkovice Steel Works. The rings are manufactured from sheets of austenitic steel 08Kh18N10T. The materials and technology problems are discussed of sheet production, ring welding technology and annealing following welding. The plastic properties are assessed of the welded joints and problems are outlined of ring production for WWER-1000 reactors. (B.S.)

  17. High precision measurements of 16O12C17O using a new type of cavity ring down spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daëron, M.; Stoltmann, T.; Kassi, S.; Burkhart, J.; Kerstel, E.

    2016-12-01

    Laser absorption techniques for the measurement of isotopologue abundances in gases have been dripping into the geoscientific community over the past decade. In the field of carbon dioxide such instruments have mostly been restricted to measurements of the most abundant stable isotopologues. Distinct advantages of CRDS techniques are non-destructiveness and the ability to resolve isobaric isotopologues. The determination of low-abundance isotopologues is predominantly limited by the linewidth of the probing laser, laser jitter, laser drift and system stability. Here we present first measurements of 16O12C17O abundances using a new type of ultra-precise cavity ring down spectrometer. By the use of Optical Feedback Frequency Stabilization, we achieved a laser line width in the sub-kHz regime with a frequency drift of less than 20 Hz/s. A tight coupling with an ultra-stable ring down cavity combined with a frequency tuning mechanism which enables us to arbitrarily position spectral points (Burkart et al., 2013) allowed us to demonstrate a single-scan (2 minutes) precision of 40 ppm on the determination of the 16O12C17O abundance. These promising results imply that routine, direct, high-precision measurements of 17O-anomalies in CO2 using this non-destructive method are in reach. References:Burkart J, Romanini D, Kassi S; Optical feedback stabilized laser tuned by single-sideband modulation; Optical Letters 12:2062-2063 (2013)

  18. A computer interface for processing multi-parameter data of multiple event types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Ogata, H.

    1980-01-01

    A logic circuit called a 'Raw Data Processor (RDP)' which functions as an interface between ADCs and the PDP-11 computer has been developed at RCNP, Osaka University for general use. It enables data processing simultaneously for numbers of events of various types up to 16, and an arbitrary combination of ADCs of any number up to 14 can be assigned to each event type by means of a pinboard matrix. The details of the RDP and its application are described. (orig.)

  19. Importance of photoperiods in determining temporal pattern of annual testicular events in rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, S K; Dey, M

    1992-01-01

    Male rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were transferred to a long photoperiod (LP; LD 16:8) or a short photoperiod (SP; LD 8:16) for 45 or 90 days on four dates corresponding to the beginnings of different reproductive phases in an annual testicular cycle, and testicular responsiveness was evaluated by comparison with the testicular volume, weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, and germ cell profiles of birds in a natural photoperiod (NP). Exposure of birds to LP during the progressive phase (November) led to precocious maturation of testes after 45 days, but induced regression at 90 days. After showing retarded gametogenic functions at 45 days, parallel (November) SP birds exhibited an accelerated rate of germ cell formation at day 90. During the prebreeding phase (January), there were no remarkable differences in any features of testes among NP. LP, and SP birds at 45 days, but gonadal involution in LP parakeets and active spermatogenesis in SP birds occurred after 90 days. The testes did not show any response to LP or SP for 45 and 90 days when the birds were transferred to altered photoperiods during the breeding (March) and preparatory (June) phases, indicating that the parakeets were photorefractory for at least 6 months (March through September). The results also suggest that initiation and termination of seasonal gametogenic activity in parakeets are possibly functions of endogenous rhythmicity or extraphotoperiodic environmental factors. Duration of light may have certain influences on the attainment of annual peak in spermatogenesis, but in all probability the species has a low photoperiod threshold for induction of testicular growth.

  20. Radial cracks and fracture mechanism of radially oriented ring 2:17 type SmCo magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jianjun; Pan Dean; Zhou Hao; Yin Fuzheng; Tao Siwu; Zhang Shengen; Qu Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    Radially oriented ring 2:17 type SmCo magnets have different microstructure in the radial direction (easy magnetization) and axial direction (hard magnetization). The structure of the cross-section in radial direction is close-packed atomic plane, which shows cellular microstructure. The microstructure of the cross-section in axial direction consists of a mixture of rhombic microstructure and parallel lamella phases. So the magnets have obvious anisotropy of thermal expansion in different directions. The difference of the thermal expansion coefficients reaches the maximum value at 830-860 deg. C, which leads to radial cracks during quenching. The magnets have high brittlement because there are fewer slip systems in crystal structure. The fracture is brittle cleavage fracture.

  1. Type II solar radio bursts, interplanetary shocks, and energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane, H.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Using the ISEE 3 radio astronomy experiment data we have identified 37 interplanetary type II bursts in the period 1978 September to 1981 December. We lists these events and the associated phenomena. The events are preceded by intense, soft X-ray events with long decay times and type II or type IV bursts, or both, at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range appears as a fast drift radio feature which we refer to as a shock associated radio event. The shock associated event is an important diagnostic for the presence of a strong shock and particle acceleration. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. Our results support other studies which indicate that energetic soalr particles detected at 1 A.U. are generatd by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients. The transients are fast: i.e., velocities greater than 500 km s -1

  2. SN2-type ring opening of substituted-N-tosylaziridines with zinc (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion proceeds via an SN2-type pathway and the partial racemization of the starting substrate and the product was effectively .... 95:5, flow rate = 1.0 mL/min; tR 1: 25.33 min (minor), ... 2D (1H-1H COSY) and D2O exchange experiments in.

  3. Absorption enhancement in type-II coupled quantum rings due to existence of quasi-bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chi-Ti; Lin, Shih-Yen; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2018-02-01

    The absorption of type-II nanostructures is often weaker than type-I counterpart due to spatially separated electrons and holes. We model the bound-to-continuum absorption of type-II quantum rings (QRs) using a multiband source-radiation approach using the retarded Green function in the cylindrical coordinate system. The selection rules due to the circular symmetry for allowed transitions of absorption are utilized. The bound-tocontinuum absorptions of type-II GaSb coupled and uncoupled QRs embedded in GaAs matrix are compared here. The GaSb QRs act as energy barriers for electrons but potential wells for holes. For the coupled QR structure, the region sandwiched between two QRs forms a potential reservoir of quasi-bound electrons. Electrons in these states, though look like bound ones, would ultimately tunnel out of the reservoir through barriers. Multiband perfectly-matched layers are introduced to model the tunneling of quasi-bound states into open space. Resonance peaks are observed on the absorption spectra of type-II coupled QRs due to the formation of quasi-bound states in conduction bands, but no resonance exist in the uncoupled QR. The tunneling time of these metastable states can be extracted from the resonance and is in the order of ten femtoseconds. Absorption of coupled QRs is significantly enhanced as compared to that of uncoupled ones in certain spectral windows of interest. These features may improve the performance of photon detectors and photovoltaic devices based on type-II semiconductor nanostructures.

  4. Enhanced Attention to Speaking Faces Versus Other Event Types Emerges Gradually Across Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Todd, James Torrence; Castellanos, Irina; Sorondo, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of attention to dynamic faces vs. objects providing synchronous audiovisual vs. silent visual stimulation was assessed in a large sample of infants. Maintaining attention to the faces and voices of people speaking is critical for perceptual, cognitive, social, and language development. However, no studies have systematically assessed when, if, or how attention to speaking faces emerges and changes across infancy. Two measures of attention maintenance, habituation time (HT) and look-away rate (LAR), were derived from cross-sectional data of 2- to 8-month-old infants (N = 801). Results indicated that attention to audiovisual faces and voices was maintained across age, whereas attention to each of the other event types (audiovisual objects, silent dynamic faces, silent dynamic objects) declined across age. This reveals a gradually emerging advantage in attention maintenance (longer habituation times, lower look-away rates) for audiovisual speaking faces compared with the other three event types. At 2 months, infants showed no attentional advantage for faces (with greater attention to audiovisual than to visual events), at 3 months, they attended more to dynamic faces than objects (in the presence or absence of voices), and by 4 to 5 and 6 to 8 months significantly greater attention emerged to temporally coordinated faces and voices of people speaking compared with all other event types. Our results indicate that selective attention to coordinated faces and voices over other event types emerges gradually across infancy, likely as a function of experience with multimodal, redundant stimulation from person and object events. PMID:27786526

  5. Coronal mass ejections, type II radio bursts, and solar energetic particle events in the SOHO era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopalswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the extensive and uniform data on coronal mass ejections (CMEs, solar energetic particle (SEP events, and type II radio bursts during the SOHO era, we discuss how the CME properties such as speed, width and solar-source longitude decide whether CMEs are associated with type II radio bursts and SEP events. We discuss why some radio-quiet CMEs are associated with small SEP events while some radio-loud CMEs are not associated with SEP events. We conclude that either some fast and wide CMEs do not drive shocks or they drive weak shocks that do not produce significant levels of particle acceleration. We also infer that the Alfvén speed in the corona and near-Sun interplanetary medium ranges from <200 km/s to ~1600 km/s. Radio-quiet fast and wide CMEs are also poor SEP producers and the association rate of type II bursts and SEP events steadily increases with CME speed and width (i.e. energy. If we consider western hemispheric CMEs, the SEP association rate increases linearly from ~30% for 800 km/s CMEs to 100% for ≥1800 km/s. Essentially all type II bursts in the decametre-hectometric (DH wavelength range are associated with SEP events once the source location on the Sun is taken into account. This is a significant result for space weather applications, because if a CME originating from the western hemisphere is accompanied by a DH type II burst, there is a high probability that it will produce an SEP event.

  6. Bulk and surface event identification in p-type germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. T.; Li, H. B.; Wong, H. T.; Agartioglu, M.; Chen, J. H.; Jia, L. P.; Jiang, H.; Li, J.; Lin, F. K.; Lin, S. T.; Liu, S. K.; Ma, J. L.; Sevda, B.; Sharma, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Sonay, A.; Yang, S. W.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.

    2018-04-01

    The p-type point-contact germanium detectors have been adopted for light dark matter WIMP searches and the studies of low energy neutrino physics. These detectors exhibit anomalous behavior to events located at the surface layer. The previous spectral shape method to identify these surface events from the bulk signals relies on spectral shape assumptions and the use of external calibration sources. We report an improved method in separating them by taking the ratios among different categories of in situ event samples as calibration sources. Data from CDEX-1 and TEXONO experiments are re-examined using the ratio method. Results are shown to be consistent with the spectral shape method.

  7. A new index for identifying different types of El Niño Modoki events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tan, Wei; Wang, Chunzai

    2018-04-01

    El Niño Modoki events can be further classified into El Niño Modoki I and II in terms of their opposite impacts on southern China rainfall (Wang and Wang, J Clim 26:1322-1338, 2013) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode (Wang and Wang, Clim Dyn 42:991-1005, 2014). The present paper develops an index to identify the types of El Niño events. The El Niño Modoki II (MII) index is defined as the leading principle component of multivariate empirical orthogonal function analysis of the normalized El Niño Modoki index, Niño4 index and 850 hPa relative vorticity anomalies averaged near the Philippine Sea during autumn. The MII index exhibits dominant variations on interannual (2-3 and 4-5 years) and decadal (10-20 years) timescales. El Niño Modoki II events can be well identified by using the MII index value being larger than 1 standard deviation. Further analyses and numerical model experiments confirm that the MII index can portray the major oceanic and atmospheric features of El Niño Modoki II events. The constructed MII index along with previous ENSO indices can be used for classifying and identifying all types of El Niño events. Because of distinct impacts induced by different types of El Niño events, the implication of the present study is that climate prediction and future climate projection under global warming can be improved by using the MII index and other indices to identify the types of El Niño events.

  8. Theoretical analysis of the influence of chelate-ring size and vicinal effects on electronic circular dichroism spectra of cobalt(III) EDDA-type complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai; Wang, Yuekui; Jia, Jie; Feng, Lixia; Zhang, Chunxia; Liu, Linlin

    2013-06-20

    To assess the contributions of configurational and vicinal effects as well as chelate-ring size to rotational strengths, the geometries of a series of cobalt(III) complexes [Co(EDDA-type)(L)](±) with the tetradentate EDDA-type ligands, EDDA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), DMEDDA (N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), DEEDDA (N,N'-diethylethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate), and a bidentate ancillary ligand L (L = ethylenediamine, oxalate, carbonate, (S)-alanine, and malonate) in aqueous solution have been optimized at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Based on the optimized geometries, the excitation energies and oscillator and rotational strengths have been calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method with the same functional and basis set. The calculated circular dichroism (CD) curves are in excellent agreement with the observed ones except for some small red or blue shifts in peak wavelengths. For the influence of chelate-ring size of the bidentate ligands on the CD intensities, a qualitative analysis together with the quantitative TDDFT calculation reveal that it depends on the symmetry of the cobalt-EDDA backbone. For the s-cis-isomers, the influence is negligible due to the perturbation is symmetric. For the uns-cis-isomers, the perturbation is unsymmetric. Since a small ring size means a large perturbation, this leads to the integral CD intensities decreasing with increasing the chelate ring size. The vicinal effects of asymmetric nitrogens incorporate both the substitutent effects and conformational relaxation effects, with the former being dominant. By analyzing the contributions of chiral arrays to rotational strengths, we found that the part of contributions dominated by the S-type chiral nitrogens could be considered as a good measure for the vicinal effects of chiral nitrogens. In addition, we found that the twist form (δ/λ) of the backbone ethylenediamine ring (E-ring) of the coordinated EDDA-type

  9. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  10. A Study on Fatigue Design Automation of Plug- and Ring-type Gas-welded Joints of STS301L Taking Welded Residual Stress into Account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung yeb; Yun, Ki Ho

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fatigue design method for plug- and ring-type gas-welded joints, which takes into account the effects of welding residual stress. To develop this method, we simulated the gas-welding process by performing nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) To validate the FEA results, numerically calculated residual stresses in the gas welds were then compared with experimental results obtained by the hole-drilling method. To evaluate the fatigue strength of plug- and ring-type gas-welded joints influenced by welding residual stresses, the use of stress amplitude (σ a )R, which includes the welding residual stress in gas welds, is proposed (σ a )R on the basis of a modified Goodman equation that includes the residual stress effects. Using the stress amplitude (σ a )R at the hot spot point of gas weld, the relations obtained as the fatigue test results for plug and ring type gas welded joints having various dimensions and shapes were systematically rearranged to obtain the (σ a )R-N f relationship. It was found that more systematic and accurate evaluation of the fatigue strength of plug- and ring-type gas-welded joints can be achieved by using (σ a )R

  11. Study on leakage rates of high temperature water from wet-type transport casks for spent fuel. Pt. 2. Leakage rates from a scratch on O-ring surface and narrow wires adhering to O-ring surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, R.; Aritomi, M.; Sudi, A.; Kohketsu, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A programme for enhancement of fuel burnup has been promoted in Japan as part of the sophisticated programme for light water reactors to reduce the fuel cost and the amount of spent fuel. As part of this fuel programme, a new wet-type transport cask has been developed to transport the high burnup fuels efficiently. The purpose of this work is to clarify the margin of safety in the evaluation of the release rate of radioactive materials from the wet-type transport cask into the environment and to establish a practical evaluation method for leakage rates on leak behaviour of high temperature water from the casks. In this paper, leakage rates of water under high pressures and at high temperatures are investigated from two kinds of leak path model. One is a disc with a scratch on the surface which simulates a defect on the seal surface of the O-ring flange and the other is narrow stainless steel wires installed on the O-ring surface which simulates hair adhering to the O-ring surface. From the results, an evaluation method for the leakage rate of water under high pressure and at high temperature from a non-circular leak path and multiple leak paths is proposed. (author)

  12. Fast reactor fuel pin behavior analyses in a LOF type transient event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Kaito, Takeji; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kenya

    2013-06-01

    In order to evaluate integrity limiting parameters of fuel pins during fast reactor core transient events, such as fuel center line temperature and cladding maximum temperature, fuel pin behavior calculations were made using the fast reactor fuel pin performance code CEDAR. The temperature histories of fuel pins during a loss of flow (LOF) type transient events was calculated based on Ross and Stoute type gap conductance model and constant gap conductance model, which is used in a core transient calculation code like HIPRAC. The calculated maximum temperatures of cladding and adjacent coolant channel were lower in the case with Ross and Stoute type model than in the case of constant gap conductance model due to the dynamic change of gap conductance of former case. It is indicated that core transient calculations with constant gap conductance give conservative cladding and coolant temperatures than that with Ross and Stoute type gap conductance model which is thought to be realistic. (author)

  13. Extreme wildfire events are linked to global-change-type droughts in the northern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Julien; Curt, Thomas; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Moron, Vincent; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2018-03-01

    Increasing drought conditions under global warming are expected to alter the frequency and distribution of large and high-intensity wildfires. However, our understanding of the impact of increasing drought on extreme wildfires events remains incomplete. Here, we analyzed the weather conditions associated with the extreme wildfires events that occurred in Mediterranean France during the exceptionally dry summers of 2003 and 2016. We identified that these fires were related to two distinct shifts in the fire weather space towards fire weather conditions that had not been explored before and resulting from specific interactions between different types of drought and different fire weather types. In 2016, a long-lasting press drought intensified wind-driven fires. In 2003, a hot drought combining a heat wave with a press drought intensified heat-induced fires. Our findings highlight that increasing drought conditions projected by climate change scenarios might affect the dryness of fuel compartments and lead to a higher frequency of extremes wildfires events.

  14. Analysis on the anisotropic electromechanical properties of lead magnoniobate titanate single crystal for ring type ultrasonic motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work discussed the optimized cut of single crystal lead magnoniobate titanate (PMNT for use of ring type travelling wave ultrasonic motors (USMs, according to anisotropic analysis on electromechanical properties. The selection criterion of crystal orientation relies on the circular uniformity of the induced travelling wave amplitude on the stator surface. By calculating the equivalent elastic coefficient c11 and lateral piezoelectric constant d31, the optimal crystal orientations were proposed for PMNT single crystals poled along different directions. For single crystal poled along c directions, the optimal orientation lies along [001]c with d31=-1335pC/N and k31=0.87. The crystallographic orientation [025]c is the optimized orientation for single crystals poled along c direction with d31=199pC/N and k31=0.55. The optimal orientation of 1R configuration is [332¯]c with a large enhancement of d31 = 1201 and k31=0.92.

  15. The TubR-centromere complex adopts a double-ring segrosome structure in Type III partition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, Bárbara; Martín-González, Alejandro; Carrasco, Carolina; Hernández-Arriaga, Ana M; Ruíz-Quero, Rubén; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Oliva, María A

    2018-05-14

    In prokaryotes, the centromere is a specialized segment of DNA that promotes the assembly of the segrosome upon binding of the Centromere Binding Protein (CBP). The segrosome structure exposes a specific surface for the interaction of the CBP with the motor protein that mediates DNA movement during cell division. Additionally, the CBP usually controls the transcriptional regulation of the segregation system as a cell cycle checkpoint. Correct segrosome functioning is therefore indispensable for accurate DNA segregation. Here, we combine biochemical reconstruction and structural and biophysical analysis to bring light to the architecture of the segrosome complex in Type III partition systems. We present the particular features of the centromere site, tubC, of the model system encoded in Clostridium botulinum prophage c-st. We find that the split centromere site contains two different iterons involved in the binding and spreading of the CBP, TubR. The resulting nucleoprotein complex consists of a novel double-ring structure that covers part of the predicted promoter. Single molecule data provides a mechanism for the formation of the segrosome structure based on DNA bending and unwinding upon TubR binding.

  16. Empagliflozin and Cerebrovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at High Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinman, Bernard; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Lachin, John M; Wanner, Christoph; Fitchett, David; Kohler, Sven; Mattheus, Michaela; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik; Albers, Gregory W; Diener, Hans Christoph

    2017-05-01

    In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients), empagliflozin added to standard of care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, driven by a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, with no significant difference between empagliflozin and placebo in risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. In a modified intent-to-treat analysis, the hazard ratio for stroke was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.56; P =0.26). We further investigated cerebrovascular events. Patients were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo; 7020 patients were treated. Median observation time was 3.1 years. The numeric difference in stroke between empagliflozin and placebo in the modified intent-to-treat analysis was primarily because of 18 patients in the empagliflozin group with a first event >90 days after last intake of study drug (versus 3 on placebo). In a sensitivity analysis based on events during treatment or ≤90 days after last dose of drug, the hazard ratio for stroke with empagliflozin versus placebo was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.45; P =0.60). There were no differences in risk of recurrent, fatal, or disabling strokes, or transient ischemic attack, with empagliflozin versus placebo. Patients with the largest increases in hematocrit or largest decreases in systolic blood pressure did not have an increased risk of stroke. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk, there was no significant difference in the risk of cerebrovascular events with empagliflozin versus placebo. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01131676. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Type of gambling as an independent risk factor for suicidal events in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with pathological gambling have an increased risk for suicidal events. Additionally, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders is high among pathological gamblers. This study analyzes whether the type of gambling is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently from comorbidity. Participants were recruited in 4 different ways: via random telephone sample from the general population, via individual invitation for study participation in gambling locations, through various media and the distribution of a leaflet in various settings, and via inpatient treatment facilities for pathological gambling. The final sample included 442 participants with a lifetime diagnosis of pathological gambling. A standardized clinical interview was conducted. High financial losses were associated with suicidal events (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11, 3.37]), as were mood disorders (OR = 7.70, 95% CI, [4.44, 13.37]) and female gender (OR = 2.52, 95% CI, [1.20, 5.28]). Gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars was associated with increased odds of suicidal events (OR = 2.94, 95% CI, [1.38, 6.24]). Other types of gambling, such as casino games or betting on sports, or the number of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were not associated independently with suicidal events. Our findings suggest that gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently of comorbidity. This result shows that the type of gambling needs to be considered as a relevant factor in gambling research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Emerging risk – Conceptual definition and a relation to black swan type of events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flage, R.; Aven, T.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of emerging risk has gained increasing attention in recent years. The term has an intuitive appeal and meaning but a consistent and agreed definition is missing. We perform an in-depth analysis of this concept, in particular its relation to black swan type of events, and show that these can be considered meaningful and complementary concepts by relating emerging risk to known unknowns and black swans to unknown knowns, unknown unknowns and a subset of known knowns. The former is consistent with saying that we face emerging risk related to an activity when the background knowledge is weak but contains indications/justified beliefs that a new type of event (new in the context of that activity) could occur in the future and potentially have severe consequences to something humans value. The weak background knowledge among other things results in difficulty specifying consequences and possibly also in fully specifying the event itself; i.e. in difficulty specifying scenarios. Here knowledge becomes the key concept for both emerging risk and black swan type of events, allowing for taking into consideration time dynamics since knowledge develops over time. Some implications of our findings in terms of risk assessment and risk management are pointed out. - Highlights: • We perform an in-depth analysis of the concept of emerging risk. • Emerging risk and black swan type of events are shown to be complementary concepts. • We propose a definition of emerging risk where knowledge becomes the key term. • Some implications for risk assessment and risk management are pointed out.

  19. Prediction of First Cardiovascular Disease Event in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The Steno Type 1 Risk Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistisen, Dorte; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Hansen, Christian Stevns; Hulman, Adam; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Bech-Nielsen, Henning; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2016-03-15

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), but they are currently undertreated. There are no risk scores used on a regular basis in clinical practice for assessing the risk of CVD in type 1 diabetes mellitus. From 4306 clinically diagnosed adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, we developed a prediction model for estimating the risk of first fatal or nonfatal CVD event (ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease). Detailed clinical data including lifestyle factors were linked to event data from validated national registers. The risk prediction model was developed by using a 2-stage approach. First, a nonparametric, data-driven approach was used to identify potentially informative risk factors and interactions (random forest and survival tree analysis). Second, based on results from the first step, Poisson regression analysis was used to derive the final model. The final CVD prediction model was externally validated in a different population of 2119 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. During a median follow-up of 6.8 years (interquartile range, 2.9-10.9) a total of 793 (18.4%) patients developed CVD. The final prediction model included age, sex, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, smoking, and exercise. Discrimination was excellent for a 5-year CVD event with a C-statistic of 0.826 (95% confidence interval, 0.807-0.845) in the derivation data and a C-statistic of 0.803 (95% confidence interval, 0.767-0.839) in the validation data. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed good calibration (P>0.05) in both cohorts. This high-performing CVD risk model allows for the implementation of decision rules in a clinical setting. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Hydro-geomorphologic events in Portugal and its association with Circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Rebelo, Luís; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Zêzere, José L.

    2017-04-01

    Floods and landslides correspond to the most hazardous weather driven natural disasters in Portugal. A recent improvement on their characterization has been achieved with the gathering of basic information on past floods and landslides that caused social consequences in Portugal for the period 1865-2015 through the DISASTER database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database was built under the assumption that strong social impacts of floods and landslides are sufficient relevant to be reported consistently by national and regional newspapers. The DISASTER database contains detailed information on the location, date of occurrence and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of each individual hydro-geomorphologic case (1677 flood cases and 292 landslide cases). These hydro-geomorphologic disaster cases are grouped in a restrict number of DISASTER events that were selected according to the following criteria: a set of at least 3 DISASTER cases sharing the same trigger in time (with no more than 3 days without cases), which have a widespread spatial extension related to the triggering mechanism and a certain magnitude. In total, the DISASTER database includes 134 events (3.7 average days of duration) that generated high social impacts in Portugal (962 fatalities and 40878 homeless people). Each DISASTER event was characterized with the following attributes: hydro-geomorphologic event type (e.g landslides, floods, flash floods, urban floods); date of occurrence (year, month and days); duration in days; spatial location in GIS; number of fatalities, injured, evacuated and homeless people; and weather type responsible for triggering the event. The atmospheric forcing at different time scales is the main trigger for the hydro-meteorological DISASTER events occurred in Portugal. In this regard there is an urge for a more systematic assessment of the weather types associated to flood and landslide damaging events to correctly

  1. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  2. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blanton, Paul [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bobbitt, John H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  3. The rings of Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.; Mink, D.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the observation of five brief occultations of the star SAO 158687 which occurred both before and after its occultation by Uranus on March 10, 1977. The events were observed with a three-channel occultation photometer, attached to a 91-cm telescope. The observations indicate that at least five rings encircle the planet Uranus. Possible reasons for the narrowness of the Uranus rings are discussed.

  4. Association of Types of Life Events with Depressive Symptoms among Puerto Rican Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Jaschek

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the association between four types of adverse life events (family environment, separation, social adversity, and death and the development of depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. This was a secondary analysis using three waves (2000-2004 of interview data from the Boricua Youth Study of 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth residing in New York and Puerto Rico with no depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 977. Depressive symptoms increased with an increase in social adversity, separation, death, and death events. Youth support from parents was a significant protective factor for all adverse events and parent coping was a protective factor in social adversity events. Relying on standard diagnostic tools is ideal to identify youth meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of depression but not useful to detect youth who present with subclinical levels of depression. Youth with sub-clinical levels of depression will not get treated and are at increased risk of developing depression later in life. Adverse life events are potentially relevant to use in conjunction with other screening tools to identify Puerto Rican youth who have subclinical depression and are at risk of developing depression in later adolescence.

  5. Unified Symmetry of Nonholonomic System of Non-Chetaev's Type in Event Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qibao; Li Yuancheng; Wang Jing; Xia Lili

    2007-01-01

    The unified symmetry of a nonholonomic system of non-Chetaev's type in event space under infinitesimal transformations of group is studied. Firstly, the differential equations of motion of the system are given. Secondly, the definition and the criterion of the unified symmetry for the system are obtained. Thirdly, a new conserved quantity, besides the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, is deduced from the unified symmetry of a nonholonomic system of non-Chetaev's type. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  6. Influence of time of placement of investments for burnout and the type of rings being used on the casting accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shabir A; Naqash, Talib Amin; Padmanabhan, T V; Subramanium; Lambodaran; Nazir, Shazana

    2014-03-01

    The sole objective of casting procedure is to provide a metallic duplication of missing tooth structure, with as great accuracy as possible. The ability to produce well fitting castings require strict adherence to certain fundamentals. A study was undertaken to comparatively evaluate the effect on casting accuracy by subjecting the invested wax patterns to burnout after different time intervals. The effect on casting accuracy using metal ring into a pre heated burnout furnace and using split ring was also carried. The readings obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis.

  7. Effects of the Amount and Type of Diol Ring Openers on the Properties of Oligolactide Acrylates for UV-Curable Printing Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Kulsiriswad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to synthesize low viscosity oligolactide acrylates for UV-curable inks from oligolactide diols. Firstly, low molecular weight oligolactide diols were prepared by ring opening reaction of L-lactide with diols. Oligolactide acrylates were then synthesized by functionalizing the oligolactide diols with acrylic acid. In this study, three diol ring openers having short and long alkyl chain length were used to investigate the effects of the amount and type of diols on the properties of the oligolactide acrylates. The obtained oligomers were characterized, and the viscosities of oligolactide acrylates were measured. Results showed that oligolactide acrylates were successfully synthesized in all cases of ring openers, as confirmed by 1H-NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An increase in the alkyl chain length of the ring openers resulted in oligomers with lower viscosity and a decrease in Tg. Following that, the obtained oligolactide acrylates were employed for the formulation of UV-curable screen printing inks and their properties were investigated. Results showed that the inks formulated from oligomers with lower molecular weight exhibited better ink flow. Additionally, all ink films cured by UV radiation were very flexible with excellent adhesion, high impact resistance, and excellent water resistance.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of second-generation open-type PET ''single-ring OpenPET'' implemented with DOI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouch, Shoko; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, we are developing OpenPET, an open-type positron emission tomography (PET) geometry with a physically open space, which allows easy access to the patient during PET studies. Our first-generation OpenPET system, dual-ring OpenPET, which consisted of two detector rings, could provide an extended axial field of view (FOV) including the open space. However, for applications such as in-beam PET to monitor the dose distribution in situ during particle therapy, higher sensitivity concentrated on the irradiation field is required rather than a wide FOV. In this report, we propose a second-generation OpenPET geometry, single-ring OpenPET, which can efficiently improve sensitivity while providing the required open space. When the proposed geometry was realized with block detectors, position-dependent degradation of the spatial resolution was expected because it was necessary to arrange the detector blocks in ellipsoidal rings stacked and shifted relative to one another. However, we found by Monte Carlo simulation that the use of depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors made it feasible to achieve uniform spatial resolution in the FOV. (author)

  9. The clinical application of head-ring type posture pad used for prone position in performing the placement of central venous catheter in patients with tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meiqian; Wang Chunmei; Chen Feiyin; Zhang Lubing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to observe the effectiveness of head-ring type posture pad used for prone position in performing the procedure of peripheral insertion of central catheter (PICC) via the dorsal forearm vein in patients with neoplasm. Methods: A total of 80 consecutive tumor patients were randomly divided into two groups. PICC was carried out in all patients in prone position. In control group (n=38) PICC was performed with patient's head inclining to one side, while in study group (n=42) PICC was performed with the help of head-ring type pad to keep the patient in comfortable posture. The comfortableness, breathing rhythm, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and the change of heart rate during the procedure were observed. The results were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The results is study group were much better than those in control group. Statistically significant difference in the comfortableness, breathing rhythm, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and heart rate existed between the two groups. Conclusion: The head-ring type posture pad used for prone position can make the patients more comfortable in performing peripheral insertion of central venous catheter via the dorsal forearm vein. (authors)

  10. Effects of Sex and Event Type on Head Impact in Collegiate Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T. Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of head impact in sports are of growing interest for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, but the burden of head impact in collegiate soccer is still unknown. Purpose: To quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate soccer using wearable accelerometers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Mastoid patch accelerometers were used to quantify head impact in soccer, examining differences in head impact as a function of sex and event type (practice vs game). Seven female and 14 male collegiate soccer players wore mastoid patch accelerometers that measured head impacts during team events. Data were summarized for each athletic exposure, and statistical analyses evaluated the mean number of impacts, mean peak linear acceleration, mean peak rotational acceleration, and cumulative linear and rotational acceleration, each grouped by sex and event type. Results: There were no differences in the frequency or severity of head impacts between men’s and women’s soccer practices. For men’s soccer, games resulted in 285% more head impacts than practices, but there were no event-type differences in mean impact severity. Men’s soccer games resulted in more head impacts than practices across nearly all measured impact severities, which also resulted in men’s soccer games producing a greater cumulative impact burden. Conclusion: Similar to other sports, men’s soccer games have a greater impact burden when compared with practices, and this effect is driven by the quantity rather than severity of head impacts. In contrast, there were no differences in the quantity or severity of head impacts in men’s and women’s soccer practices. These data could prompt discussions of practical concern to collegiate soccer, such as understanding sex differences in head impact and whether games disproportionately contribute to an athlete’s head impact burden. PMID:28491885

  11. Atmospheric dust events in central Asia: Relationship to wind, soil type, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Lei, Jiaqiang

    2017-06-01

    Xinjiang Province in northwest China is one of the most important source regions of atmospheric dust in the world. Spatial-temporal characteristics of dust events in the province were investigated by time series analysis of annual dust event frequency and meteorological data collected at 101 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2007. Blowing dust frequency (BDF) and dust storm frequency (DSF) decreased with time in North, South, and East Xinjiang whereas floating dust frequency (FDF) decreased with time only in South and East Xinjiang. Dust concentrations were lower in North than in South Xinjiang and decreased with time in East Xinjiang. Wind significantly influenced the temporal trend in FDF, BDF, and DSF in South Xinjiang and DSF in North Xinjiang. Frequency of dust events was smaller by an order of magnitude in North (10.9 d yr-1) than in South Xinjiang (111.3 d yr-1), possibly due in part to higher annual precipitation in North Xinjiang. Floating dust was most frequently observed in East and South Xinjiang, while blowing dust was most frequently observed in North Xinjiang. The high frequency of floating dust in East and South Xinjiang is likely due to the enclosed terrain that characterizes these regions. Land use and soil type also influenced dust events. Although climate influences frequency of dust events, the occurrence of these events may be reduced most effectively by imposing better land management practices in deciduous forests or orchards characterized by saline soils in respectively North and East Xinjiang and meadows characterized by Guanyu soils in South Xinjiang.

  12. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...

  13. Timing of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization: Relation to Appalachian orogenic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; van der Pluijm, B.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Although Mississippi Valley-type deposits in Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks of the Appalachian orogen are commonly interpreted to have been precipitated by basinal brines, the timing of brine migration remains poorly known. Late Paleozoic K-Ar isotopic ages on authigenic K-feldspar, which is widespread in Appalachian carbonate rocks, as well as evidence of paleomagnetic overprints of similar age, have focused attention on the possibility that these Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed as a result of late Paleozoic deformation. Geologic and geochemical similarities among most of these deposits, from Georgia to Newfoundland, including unusually high sphalerite/galena ratios, isotopically heavy sulfur, and relatively nonradiogenic lead, suggest that they are coeval. Sphalerite sand that parallels host-rock layering in many of the deposits indicates that mineralization occurred before regional deformation. Although the late Paleozoic age of deformation in the southern Appalachians provides little constraint on the age of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, deformation of these deposits in the Newfoundland Appalachians is early to middle Paleozoic in age. Thus, if Ordovician-hosted, Appalachian Mississippi Valley-type deposits are coeval, they must have formed by middle Paleozoic time and cannot be the product of a late Paleozoic fluid-expulsion event. This hypothesis has important implications for basin evolution, fluid events, and remagnetization in the Appalachians.

  14. Genome wide identification of aberrant alternative splicing events in myotonic dystrophy type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Alessandra; Greco, Simona; Fasanaro, Pasquale; Bugiardini, Enrico; Cardani, Rosanna; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Manteiga, Jose M Garcia; Riba, Michela; Cittaro, Davide; Stupka, Elia; Meola, Giovanni; Martelli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a genetic, autosomal dominant disease due to expansion of tetraplet (CCTG) repetitions in the first intron of the ZNF9/CNBP gene. DM2 is a multisystemic disorder affecting the skeletal muscle, the heart, the eye and the endocrine system. According to the proposed pathological mechanism, the expanded tetraplets have an RNA toxic effect, disrupting the splicing of many mRNAs. Thus, the identification of aberrantly spliced transcripts is instrumental for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the disease. The aim of this study was the identification of new aberrant alternative splicing events in DM2 patients. By genome wide analysis of 10 DM2 patients and 10 controls (CTR), we identified 273 alternative spliced exons in 218 genes. While many aberrant splicing events were already identified in the past, most were new. A subset of these events was validated by qPCR assays in 19 DM2 and 15 CTR subjects. To gain insight into the molecular pathways involving the identified aberrantly spliced genes, we performed a bioinformatics analysis with Ingenuity system. This analysis indicated a deregulation of development, cell survival, metabolism, calcium signaling and contractility. In conclusion, our genome wide analysis provided a database of aberrant splicing events in the skeletal muscle of DM2 patients. The affected genes are involved in numerous pathways and networks important for muscle physio-pathology, suggesting that the identified variants may contribute to DM2 pathogenesis.

  15. Atmospheric washout of radioactive aerosol for different types of precipitation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is widely used in many applications such as medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, where the beneficial aspect of radiation exposure is obvious. However, the exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation may also have some negative effects on human health. After the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident measured deposition patterns did not match to patterns predicted by atmospheric transport models used in decision support systems. It was suggested that one reason for these discrepancies might be that these models do not differentiate between deposition by rain and snow. Up to now much effort has been spent on the theoretical and experimental investigation of the washout of atmospheric aerosol particles by rain. In contrast, only limited knowledge is available on the washout efficiency of snow, due to the complexity of the process. Therefore, the aim of the presented work was to analyze wet deposition of aerosol particles and particle bound radionuclides in different types of precipitation events. The thesis focused on below-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles in a size range from 10 nm to 510 nm in solid phase precipitation events. It is based on measurements of natural precipitation and natural aerosol particle concentration that were performed in the free atmosphere, at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus. For this purpose, a method was developed to characterize and classify precipitation events, which goes beyond the common differentiation between liquid, mixed and solid phase precipitation. The method included use of a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD), that was adapted for the detection of mixed and solid phase hydrometeors (e.g. snowflakes). A new matching algorithm, that was developed for this thesis, allowed detection of solid, mixed and liquid phase hydrometeors with a maximum dimension larger than 0.5 mm. On the basis of shape and velocity descriptors, a classification algorithm that differentiates between three

  16. Atmospheric washout of radioactive aerosol for different types of precipitation events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Felix

    2015-12-15

    Ionizing radiation is widely used in many applications such as medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, where the beneficial aspect of radiation exposure is obvious. However, the exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation may also have some negative effects on human health. After the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident measured deposition patterns did not match to patterns predicted by atmospheric transport models used in decision support systems. It was suggested that one reason for these discrepancies might be that these models do not differentiate between deposition by rain and snow. Up to now much effort has been spent on the theoretical and experimental investigation of the washout of atmospheric aerosol particles by rain. In contrast, only limited knowledge is available on the washout efficiency of snow, due to the complexity of the process. Therefore, the aim of the presented work was to analyze wet deposition of aerosol particles and particle bound radionuclides in different types of precipitation events. The thesis focused on below-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles in a size range from 10 nm to 510 nm in solid phase precipitation events. It is based on measurements of natural precipitation and natural aerosol particle concentration that were performed in the free atmosphere, at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus. For this purpose, a method was developed to characterize and classify precipitation events, which goes beyond the common differentiation between liquid, mixed and solid phase precipitation. The method included use of a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD), that was adapted for the detection of mixed and solid phase hydrometeors (e.g. snowflakes). A new matching algorithm, that was developed for this thesis, allowed detection of solid, mixed and liquid phase hydrometeors with a maximum dimension larger than 0.5 mm. On the basis of shape and velocity descriptors, a classification algorithm that differentiates between three

  17. Arenal-type pyroclastic flows: A probabilistic event tree risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, Anthony F.

    2006-09-01

    A quantitative hazard-specific scenario-modelling risk analysis is performed at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica for the newly recognised Arenal-type pyroclastic flow (ATPF) phenomenon using an event tree framework. These flows are generated by the sudden depressurisation and fragmentation of an active basaltic andesite lava pool as a result of a partial collapse of the crater wall. The deposits of this type of flow include angular blocks and juvenile clasts, which are rarely found in other types of pyroclastic flow. An event tree analysis (ETA) is a useful tool and framework in which to analyse and graphically present the probabilities of the occurrence of many possible events in a complex system. Four event trees are created in the analysis, three of which are extended to investigate the varying individual risk faced by three generic representatives of the surrounding community: a resident, a worker, and a tourist. The raw numerical risk estimates determined by the ETA are converted into a set of linguistic expressions (i.e. VERY HIGH, HIGH, MODERATE etc.) using an established risk classification scale. Three individually tailored semi-quantitative risk maps are then created from a set of risk conversion tables to show how the risk varies for each individual in different areas around the volcano. In some cases, by relocating from the north to the south, the level of risk can be reduced by up to three classes. While the individual risk maps may be broadly applicable, and therefore of interest to the general community, the risk maps and associated probability values generated in the ETA are intended to be used by trained professionals and government agencies to evaluate the risk and effectively manage the long-term development of infrastructure and habitation. With the addition of fresh monitoring data, the combination of both long- and short-term event trees would provide a comprehensive and consistent method of risk analysis (both during and pre-crisis), and as such

  18. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  19. SplicingTypesAnno: annotating and quantifying alternative splicing events for RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Zuo, Fenghua; Ru, Yuanbin; Guo, Jiqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Sablok, Gaurav

    2015-04-01

    Alternative splicing plays a key role in the regulation of the central dogma. Four major types of alternative splicing have been classified as intron retention, exon skipping, alternative 5 splice sites or alternative donor sites, and alternative 3 splice sites or alternative acceptor sites. A few algorithms have been developed to detect splice junctions from RNA-Seq reads. However, there are few tools targeting at the major alternative splicing types at the exon/intron level. This type of analysis may reveal subtle, yet important events of alternative splicing, and thus help gain deeper understanding of the mechanism of alternative splicing. This paper describes a user-friendly R package, extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. SplicingTypesAnno can: (1) provide annotation for major alternative splicing at exon/intron level. By comparing the annotation from GTF/GFF file, it identifies the novel alternative splicing sites; (2) offer a convenient two-level analysis: genome-scale annotation for users with high performance computing environment, and gene-scale annotation for users with personal computers; (3) generate a user-friendly web report and additional BED files for IGV visualization. SplicingTypesAnno is a user-friendly R package for extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types at exon/intron level for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. It is publically available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/splicingtypes/files/ or http://genome.sdau.edu.cn/research/software/SplicingTypesAnno.html. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Bridgehead Substitution and Ring Annelation on the Photophysical Properties of Polycyclic DBO-Type Azoalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Waldemar; Nikolaus, Achim; Sauer, Jürgen

    1999-05-14

    The photophysical data for the polycyclic, bridgehead-substituted derivatives 1-10 of the photoreluctant diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) are presented. Substitution on the bridgehead positions with radical-stabilizing substituents enhances the photoreactivity (Phi(r)) and decreases the fluorescence quantum yields (Phi(f)) and lifetimes (tau) compared to the parent DBO. The annelated rings have no influence on the photoreactivity, except when steric interactions with an alpha substituent hinder the optimal radical-stabilizing conformation. The fused rings and some of the bridgehead substituents reduce the solvent-induced quenching of the singlet-excited azo chromophore by steric shielding of the azo group and, thus, increase the fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes.

  1. On the Onset Frequency of Metric Type II Radio Bursts and the Longitudinal Extent of the Associated SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, P. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Thakur, N.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent study Gopalswamy et al. (2017, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., Proc. 16th AIAC) found that the ground level enhancements (GLEs), regular solar energetic particle (SEP) events and filament eruption (FE) associated SEP events have distinct average starting frequencies of the associated type II bursts, although the distributions overlap. They also found that the initial acceleration of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with the three groups were distinct. Based on these earlier results emphasizing a hierarchical relationship of CME kinematics and SEP events, we studied the possible dependence between the longitudinal spread of the SEP events and the onset frequency of metric type II. The studied >25 MeV SEP events are from the list of Richardson et al. (2014, Sol. Phys. 289) covering the first seven years of the STEREO mission. However, our preliminary results show only a weak correlation between the extent of the SEP event and the onset frequency of the metric type II radio burst.

  2. Temporal characteristics of rainfall events under three climate types in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolšak, Domen; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-10-01

    Temporal rainfall distribution can often have significant influence on other hydrological processes such as runoff generation or rainfall interception. High-frequency rainfall data from 30 stations in Slovenia were analysed in order to improve the knowledge about the temporal rainfall distribution within a rainfall event. Using the pre-processed rainfall data Huff curves were determined and the binary shape code (BSC) methodology was applied. Although Slovenia covers only about 20,000 km2, results indicate large temporal and spatial variability in the precipitation pattern of the analysed stations, which is in agreement with the different Slovenian climate types: sub-Mediterranean, temperate continental, and mountain climate. Statistically significant correlation was identified between the most frequent BSC types, mean annual precipitation, and rainfall erosivity for individual rainfall stations. Moreover, different temporal rainfall distributions were observed for rainfall events with shorter duration (less than 12 h) than those with longer duration (more than 24 h). Using the analysis of the Huff curves it was shown that the variability in the Huff curves decreases with increasing rainfall duration. Thus, it seems that for shorter duration convective storms a more diverse temporal rainfall distribution can be expected than for the longer duration frontal precipitation where temporal rainfall distribution shows less variability.

  3. C3HC4-type RING finger protein NbZFP1 is involved in growth and fruit development in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Wu

    Full Text Available C3HC4-type RING finger proteins constitute a large family in the plant kingdom and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, a C3HC4-type zinc finger gene was isolated from Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 24-kDa protein with 191 amino acids containing one typical C3HC4-type zinc finger domain; this gene was named NbZFP1. Transient expression of pGDG-NbZFP1 demonstrated that NbZFP1 was localized to the chloroplast, especially in the chloroplasts of cells surrounding leaf stomata. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS analysis indicated that silencing of NbZFP1 hampered fruit development, although the height of the plants was normal. An overexpression construct was then designed and transferred into Nicotiana benthamiana, and PCR and Southern blot showed that the NbZFP1 gene was successfully integrated into the Nicotiana benthamiana genome. The transgenic lines showed typical compactness, with a short internode length and sturdy stems. This is the first report describing the function of a C3HC4-type RING finger protein in tobacco.

  4. Event segmentation and seven types of narrative discontinuity in popular movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James E

    2014-06-01

    Using a sample of 24 movies I investigate narrative shifts in location, characters, and time frame that do and do not align with viewer segmentations of events (scenes and subscenes) in popular movies. Taken independently these dimensions create eight categories, seven of change and one of nonchange. Data show that the more dimensions that are changed the more viewers agree on their segmentations, although the nonadditive variations across the seven change types are large and systematic. Dissolves aid segmentation but over the last 70 years they have been used less and less by filmmakers, except for two infrequent shift types. Locations and characters are strongly yoked, jointly accounting for most narrative shifts. There are also interactions of shift types over the 70-year span and across genres, as well as differences that affect the scale of the establishing shot in a new scene. In addition, several aspects of the narratives of individual movies affect the distributions of shift types. Together these results suggest that there are at least four different signatures of narrative shifts to be found in popular movies - general patterns across time, patterns of historical change, genre-specific patterns, and film-specific patterns. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Frequency and Type of Traumatic Events in Children and Adolescents with a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sabine; Wolf, Saskia; Tutus, Dunja; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The risk for children and adolescents to be exposed to a potentially traumatic event (PTE) is high. The present study examines the frequency of PTEs in children and adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the type of index trauma, and its relation to PTSD symptom severity and gender. A clinical sample of 159 children and adolescents between 7-16 years was assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). All reported PTEs from the checklist were analyzed according to frequency. The index events were categorized according to the following categories: cause (random vs. intentional), relation to offender (intrafamilial vs. extrafamilial), patient's role (victim, witness or vicarious traumatization), and type of PTE (physical or sexual violence). Relation between categories and PTSD symptom severity and sex were analyzed with inferential statistics. On average participants reported five PTEs, most frequently physical violence without weapons (57.9%), loss of loved person through death (45.9%), and sexual abuse/assaults (44%). The most frequent index traumata were intentional (76.7%). Regarding trauma type, there was a significant difference concerning higher symptom severity in children and adolescents who experienced sexual abuse/assault compared to physical violence (t=-1.913(109), p=0.05). A significantly higher symptom severity was found for girls compared to boys for the trauma categories extrafamilial offender (z=-2,27, p=0.02), victim (z=-2,11, p=0,04), and sexual abuse/assault (z=-2,43, p=0,01). Clinical and diagnostic implications are discussed in relation to the amendments of PTSD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5.

  6. Multi-detector row computed tomographic evaluation of a rare type of complete vascular ring: Double aortic arch with atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Ying Ying; Fu, Ching Yun; Wei, Hao Ji; Tsai, I Chen; Chen, Clayton Chi Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (China)

    2013-10-15

    Double aortic arch with an atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery was diagnosed with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in two children with dysphagia. This rare type of complete vascular ring is clinically important because it may be confused with right aortic arch in mirror imaging. Anatomic details of this rare type of complete vascular ring demonstrated on MDCT facilitated appropriate surgical treatment.

  7. Complications and Adverse Events of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing 3 Graft Types for ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Nicholas; Barber, Rhamona; Chan, Denise; Paolucci, Elizabeth Oddone

    2016-05-01

    Complications/adverse events of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery are underreported, despite pooled level 1 data in systematic reviews. All adverse events/complications occurring within a 2-year postoperative period after primary ACL reconstruction, as part of a large randomized clinical trial (RCT), were identified and described. Prospective, double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients and the independent trained examiner were blinded to treatment allocation. University-based orthopedic referral practice. Three hundred thirty patients (14-50 years; 183 males) with isolated ACL deficiency were intraoperatively randomized to ACL reconstruction with 1 autograft type. Graft harvest and arthroscopic portal incisions were identical. Patients were equally distributed to patellar tendon (PT), quadruple-stranded hamstring tendon (HT), and double-bundle (DB) hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. Adverse events/complications were patient reported, documented, and diagnoses confirmed. Two major complications occurred: pulmonary embolism and septic arthritis. Twenty-four patients (7.3%) required repeat surgery, including 25 separate operations: PT = 7 (6.4%), HT = 9 (8.2%), and DB = 8 (7.3%). Repeat surgery was performed for meniscal tears (3.6%; n = 12), intra-articular scarring (2.7%; n = 9), chondral pathology (0.6%; n = 2), and wound dehiscence (0.3%; n = 1). Other complications included wound problems, sensory nerve damage, muscle tendon injury, tibial periostitis, and suspected meniscal tears and chondral lesions. Overall, more complications occurred in the HT/DB groups (PT = 24; HT = 31; DB = 45), but more PT patients complained of moderate or severe kneeling pain (PT = 17; HT = 9; DB = 4) at 2 years. Overall, ACL reconstructive surgery is safe. Major complications were uncommon. Secondary surgery was necessary 7.3% of the time for complications/adverse events (excluding graft reinjury or revisions) within the first 2 years. Level 1 (therapeutic studies

  8. Confined states of individual type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum rings studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Rainer; Eisele, Holger; Lenz, Andrea; Ivanova, Lena; Vossebürger, Vivien; Warming, Till; Bimberg, Dieter; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Dähne, Mario

    2010-10-13

    Combined cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy results reveal the interplay between the atomic structure of ring-shaped GaSb quantum dots in GaAs and the corresponding electronic properties. Hole confinement energies between 0.2 and 0.3 eV and a type-II conduction band offset of 0.1 eV are directly obtained from the data. Additionally, the hole occupancy of quantum dot states and spatially separated Coulomb-bound electron states are observed in the tunneling spectra.

  9. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  10. Coordinated research programme on safety of RBMK type NPPs in relation to external events. V. 1. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of progress reports which have been submitted within the scope of the CRP on safety of RBMK type NPPs in relation to external events including seismic related papers and man-induced events (explosions and airplane crash). It includes papers concerned with experience related to RBMK equipment testing and calculations of seismic resistance, soil-structure interactions analysis, safety assurance, aircraft impact qualification and other external events for RBMK type NPP, seismic stability of NPPs in Eastern Europe, probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact, dynamic analysis of NPPs, screening of external hazards for NPP

  11. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  12. Formation of Radio Type II Bursts During a Multiple Coronal Mass Ejection Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Firas; Pohjolainen, Silja; Valtonen, Eino

    2017-12-01

    We study the solar event on 27 September 2001 that consisted of three consecutive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originating from the same active region, which were associated with several periods of radio type II burst emission at decameter-hectometer (DH) wavelengths. Our analysis shows that the first radio burst originated from a low-density environment, formed in the wake of the first, slow CME. The frequency-drift of the burst suggests a low-speed burst driver, or that the shock was not propagating along the large density gradient. There is also evidence of band-splitting within this emission lane. The origin of the first shock remains unclear, as several alternative scenarios exist. The second shock showed separate periods of enhanced radio emission. This shock could have originated from a CME bow shock, caused by the fast and accelerating second or third CME. However, a shock at CME flanks is also possible, as the density depletion caused by the three CMEs would have affected the emission frequencies and hence the radio source heights could have been lower than usual. The last type II burst period showed enhanced emission in a wider bandwidth, which was most probably due to the CME-CME interaction. Only one shock that could reliably be associated with the investigated CMEs was observed to arrive near Earth.

  13. Anatase nanoparticles surface modified with fused ring salicylate-type ligands (1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acids): A combined DFT and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savić, Tatjana D.; Čomor, Mirjana I.; Abazović, Nadica D.; Šaponjić, Zoran V.; Marinović-Cincović, Milena T. [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Veljković, Dušan Ž.; Zarić, Snežana D. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11058 Belgrade (Serbia); Janković, Ivana A., E-mail: ivanaj@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Formation of the charge-transfer complexes results in a red shift of the TiO{sub 2} absorption. • Extended aromatic ring systems reduce the effective bang gap. • For the CT complexes formed stability constants in the order 10{sup 3} M{sup −1} were determined. • Binding was found to be through bidentate binuclear-bridging complexes. • Ligands interact with different active sites on the TiO{sub 2} surface that express energetic heterogeneity. - Abstract: Sensitization of TiO{sub 2} crystals and nanoparticles with appropriately chosen organic molecules can lead to a significant shift of their absorption threshold from the UV to the visible, thus improving the absorption of the solar spectrum as well as the efficiency of photocatalytic and photovoltaic devices. Herein, the surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} particles (45 Å) with salicylate-type ligands consisting of an extended aromatic ring system, specifically 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, was found to alter the optical properties of nanoparticles in a similar way to salicylic acid. From both absorption measurements and steady-state quenching measurements of modifier fluorescence upon binding to TiO{sub 2} in methanol/water = 90/10 solutions, stability constants in the order of 10{sup 3} M{sup −1} have been determined at pH 2. Fluorescence lifetime measurements, in the presence and absence of colloidal TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, indicated that the fluorescence quenching process is primarily static quenching, thus proving the formation of a nonfluorescent charge-transfer (CT) complex. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal stability of CT-complexes was investigated by using TPD analysis (TG/DTA/MS). Quantum chemical calculations on model systems using density functional theory (DFT) were performed to obtain the vibrational frequencies of charge transfer complexes, and the calculated values were compared

  14. Childhood traumatic events and types of auditory verbal hallucinations in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that childhood trauma might be associated with higher severity of positive symptoms in patients with psychosis and higher incidence of psychotic experiences in non-clinical populations. However, it remains unknown whether the history of childhood trauma might be associated with particular types of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). We assessed childhood trauma using the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 94 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. Lifetime psychopathology was evaluated using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist, while symptoms on the day of assessment were examined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Based on ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with and without the history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. FES(+) patients had significantly higher total number of AVH types and Schneiderian first-rank AVH as well as significantly higher PANSS P3 item score (hallucinatory behavior) in comparison with FES(-) patients. They experienced significantly more frequently third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices. These differences remained significant after controlling for education, PANSS depression factor score and chlorpromazine equivalent. Linear regression analysis revealed that the total number of AVH types was predicted by sexual abuse score after controlling for above mentioned confounders. This effect was significant only in females. Our results indicate that the history of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, is associated with higher number AVH in females but not in males. Third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices, representing Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, might be particularly related to childhood traumatic events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients after an acute coronary event : The Diacourse-ACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to define the clinical profile and difficulties encountered by type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event (ACE), to develop and evaluate a tailored supportive intervention for type 2 diabetes patients with a first ACE and to examine diabetes-related

  16. Type and Timing of Negative Life Events Are Associated with Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Nishikawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated an association between negative life events (NLEs in childhood and resilience/posttraumatic growth (PTG with regard to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. We hypothesized that the type and timing of NLEs interact to influence mental health in the general youth population. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the effects of NLE timing and intensity on current depressive symptoms, and to determine the direct and indirect effects of NLEs/resilience on PTG and depression among non-clinical adolescents. Data were collected from 1,038 high-school students across seven high schools in Fukui, Japan, during their freshman and sophomore years (648 boys and 390 girls, mean age = 15.71, SD = 0.524. Respondents completed a set of questionnaires designed to evaluate the type and timing of NLEs, depressive and traumatic symptoms, and PTG. Cluster analysis was used to divide participants into three groups based on outcomes: “cluster 1” (n = 631, for whom depressive scores were significantly lower than other two subgroups (p < 0.05, for both; “cluster 2” (n = 52, for whom levels of current and past perceived stress associated with NLEs were significantly higher than those of the other two subgroups (p < 0.05, for both; “cluster 3” (n = 374, for whom perceived stress at the time of NLE was significantly higher than that of participants in the cluster 1 (p < 0.05 group, but not the cluster 2 group. Our findings indicated that exposure to NLEs at a younger age resulted in stronger negative outcomes and that NLE timing and intensity were associated with PTG and current symptoms of depression. Furthermore, path analysis demonstrated that associations between perceived stress at the time of NLEs were direct and indirect predictors of current depression via PTG and that posttraumatic stress symptom and PTG mediate the association between NLEs/trait-resiliency and current

  17. High-cadence observations of spicular-type events on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetye, J.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E.; Nelson, C. J.; Kuridze, D.; Henriques, V.; Woeger, F.; Ray, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Chromospheric observations taken at high-cadence and high-spatial resolution show a range of spicule-like features, including Type-I, Type-II (as well as rapid blue-shifted excursions (RBEs) and rapid red-shifted excursions (RREs) which are thought to be on-disk counterparts of Type-II spicules) and those which seem to appear within a few seconds, which if interpreted as flows would imply mass flow velocities in excess of 1000 km s-1. Aims: This article seeks to quantify and study rapidly appearing spicular-type events. We also compare the multi-object multi-frame blind deconvolution (MOMFBD) and speckle reconstruction techniques to understand if these spicules are more favourably observed using a particular technique. Methods: We use spectral imaging observations taken with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. Data was sampled at multiple positions within the Hα line profile for both an on-disk and limb location. Results: The data is host to numerous rapidly appearing features which are observed at different locations within the Hα line profile. The feature's durations vary between 10-20 s and lengths around 3500 km. Sometimes, a time delay in their appearance between the blue and red wings of 3-5 s is evident, whereas, sometimes they are near simultaneous. In some instances, features are observed to fade and then re-emerge at the same location several tens of seconds later. Conclusions: We provide the first statistical analysis of these spicules and suggest that these observations can be interpreted as the line-of-sight (LOS) movement of highly dynamic spicules moving in and out of the narrow 60 mÅ transmission filter that is used to observe in different parts of the Hα line profile. The LOS velocity component of the observed fast chromospheric features, manifested as Doppler shifts, are responsible for their appearance in the red and blue wings of Hα line. Additional work involving data at other

  18. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of climatic events and the eruption of the Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru, 1600 AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study of pointer years of numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama) could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 yr. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths) and 34 positive (representing maximum growths), the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation was found to be the most limiting factor for the growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, these pointer years and intervals are not evenly distributed throughout time. Both in the first half of the 17th and in the second half of 20th, they were more frequent and more extreme and these periods are the most notable for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. The interval 1600-1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. We infer that this special minimum annual increase was the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of Southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  19. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  20. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  1. Establishing precursor events for stress corrosion cracking initiation in type 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.U.F.; Raja, V.S.; Roychowdhury, S.; Kain, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish slip band emergence, due to localized deformation, as a precursor event for SCC initiation in type 304L SS. The unidirectional tensile loading was used for straining flat tensile specimen, less than 10% strain, in air, 0.5 M NaCl + 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 and boiling water reactor (BWR) simulated environment (288 C. degrees, 10 MPa). The surface features were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (including electron backscattered diffraction-EBSD) and atomic force microscopy. The study shows that with increase in strain level, during unidirectional slow strain rate test (SSRT), average slip band height increases in air and the attack on slip lines occurs in acidified chloride environment. In BWR simulated environment, preferential oxidation on slip lines and initiation of a few cracks on some of the slip lines are observed. Based on the observation, the study suggests slip bands, formed due to localized deformation, to act as a precursor for SCC initiation. (authors)

  2. PROGNOSTIC QUALITY OF MOTOR AND MORPHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN RELATION TO TRACK AND FIELD EVENTS OF SPRINT AND JUMPING TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Idrizović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the impact of motor manifestations and morphological features on the quality in the realization of track and field events of sprint and jumping type was the main issue of this research. The aim of the paper was to establish the impact of the ap- plied predictor systems of variables, motor and morphological ones, on the criteria va- riables, the results in track and field events: long jump and 60m sprint event. The results obtained in this research lead to the conclusion that this type of track and field events, or the quality of their realization in the motor sense mostly depends on the locomotive complexes of similar structure. However, in the morphological sense, such impact is va- riable.

  3. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  4. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  5. A Catalog of Moment Tensors and Source-type Characterization for Small Events at Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizuri, C. R.; Tape, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a catalog of full seismic moment tensors for 63 events from Uturuncu volcano in Bolivia. The events were recorded during 2011-2012 in the PLUTONS seismic array of 24 broadband stations. Most events had magnitudes between 0.5 and 2.0 and did not generate discernible surface waves; the largest event was Mw 2.8. For each event we computed the misfit between observed and synthetic waveforms, and we also used first-motion polarity measurements to reduce the number of possible solutions. Each moment tensor solution was obtained using a grid search over the six-dimensional space of moment tensors. For each event we characterize the variation of moment tensor source type by plotting the misfit function in eigenvalue space, represented by a lune. We plot the optimal solutions for the 63 events on the lune in order to identify three subsets of the catalog: (1) a set of isotropic events, (2) a set of tensional crack events, and (3) a swarm of events southeast of the volcanic center that appear to be double couples. The occurrence of positively isotropic events is consistent with other published results from volcanic and geothermal regions. Several of these previous results, as well as our results, cannot be interpreted within the context of either an oblique opening crack or a crack-plus-double-couple model; instead they require a multiple-process source model. Our study emphasizes the importance of characterizing uncertainties for full moment tensors, and it provides strong support for isotropic events at Uturuncu volcano.

  6. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of climatic events and the eruption of the Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru, 1600 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Génova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of pointer years of numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 yr. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths and 34 positive (representing maximum growths, the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation was found to be the most limiting factor for the growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, these pointer years and intervals are not evenly distributed throughout time. Both in the first half of the 17th and in the second half of 20th, they were more frequent and more extreme and these periods are the most notable for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. The interval 1600–1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. We infer that this special minimum annual increase was the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of Southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  7. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of volcanic eruptions (Huaynaputina, Peru, 1600 AC) and other climatic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génova, M.

    2011-12-01

    The study of pointer years based on the numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama) could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 years. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths) and 34 positive (representing maximum growths), the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation has been the most incident factor in the general variability of growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, the data show that there has been variability over the centuries in the distribution of the frequencies of pointer years and intervals. The first half of the 17th century, together with the second half of the 20th century, constitute the two most notable periods for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. This variability was sufficiently notable to affirm that, both in the 17th and 20th centuries, the macroclimatic anomalies that affected growth were more frequent and more extreme than in the other two centuries analysed. The period 1600-1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. It is possible to infer that these phenomena are the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of central and southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  8. Treament of Tibial Plateau Schatzker Type VI Fractures with the Ilizarov Technique Using Ring External Fixators Across the Knee: A Retrospective Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IR Ranatunga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective review of 18 patients with tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type VI. These cases were performed in our medical centre from January 2003 to December 2004. The Ilizarov technique (Russian technique using the ring external fixator was the technique performed. Articular reconstruction and joint alignment were achieved with traction and olive wires with washers. One case required percutaneous elevation of the articular surface and bone grafting through a cortical window. Average clinical union was achieved within 4 months of trauma. Mean final knee flexion was 85°, which is compatible with walking. All patients successfully returned to their previous occupations. In conclusion, the Ilizarov technique has been shown to be a good option and a viable tool in the management of these complex and unstable injuries.

  9. Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease Events in Men Compared to Women by Menopause Type and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Cushman, Mary; Khodneva, Yulia; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Judd, Suzanne; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Howard, Virginia J; Safford, Monika M

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether type of menopause affects sex differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) events and whether the impact is similar in blacks and whites. Methods and Results Participants were enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort between 2003 and 2007 without CHD at baseline (n=23 086). Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard of incident nonfatal CHD (definite or probable myocardial infarction) and acute CHD death, adjusting for age, age at last menstrual period menopause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31, 0.66) and surgical menopause (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.99) had a reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to white men. Black women in natural menopause (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47, 1.03), but not surgical menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.51, 1.29), had a marginally reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to black men. Women had lower risk of acute CHD death than men regardless of their menopause type and race. Conclusions Sex differences in the risk of incident CHD events were larger among whites than blacks and varied by type of menopause. Women consistently had a lower risk of incident CHD death than men, but the magnitude of sex differences was greater in whites than blacks for nonfatal events, regardless of menopause type. PMID:26133958

  10. Pyrimidine-pyridine ring interconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der H.C.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses the pyrimidine-to-pyridine ring transformation and pyridine-to-pyrimidine ring transformation. In nucleophile-induced pyrimidine-to-pyridine rearrangements, two types of reactions can be distinguished depending on the structure of the nucleophile: (1) reactions in which the

  11. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  12. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Raj, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity

  13. Cardiovascular safety of linagliptin in type 2 diabetes: a comprehensive patient-level pooled analysis of prospectively adjudicated cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Marx, Nikolaus; Neubacher, Dietmar; Seck, Thomas; Patel, Sanjay; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2015-05-21

    The cardiovascular (CV) safety of linagliptin was evaluated in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Pre-specified patient-level pooled analysis of all available double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, ≥ 12 weeks' duration (19 trials, 9459 subjects) of linagliptin versus placebo/active treatment. Primary end point: composite of prospectively adjudicated CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina (4P-MACE). Hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) was also evaluated; adjudication of CHF was introduced during the phase 3 program (8 trials; 3314 subjects). 4P-MACE was assessed in placebo-controlled trials (subgroup of 18 trials; 7746 subjects). Investigator-reported events suggestive of CHF from 24 placebo-controlled trials (including trials 4P-MACE incidence rates: 13.4 per 1000 patient-years, linagliptin (60 events), 18.9, total comparators (62 events); overall hazard ratio (HR), 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.12). HR for adjudicated hospitalization for CHF (n = 21): 1.04 (0.43-2.47). For placebo-controlled trials, 4P-MACE incidence rates: 14.9 per 1000 patient-years, linagliptin (43 events), 16.4, total comparators (29 events); overall HR, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.68-1.75). Occurrence of investigator-reported events suggestive of CHF was low for linagliptin- (26 events, 0.5%; serious: 16 events, 0.3%) and placebo-treated (8 events, 0.2%; serious: 6 events, 0.2%) patients. Linagliptin is not associated with increased CV risk versus pooled active comparators or placebo in patients with T2DM.

  14. Disentangling the effect of illness perceptions on health status in people with type 2 diabetes after an acute coronary event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Rimke Cathelijne; Kasteleyn, Marise Jeannine; Heijmans, Monique Johanna; de Leeuw, Elke; Schellevis, François Georges; Rijken, Mieke; Rutten, Guy Emile

    2018-03-02

    Chronically ill patients such as people with type 2 diabetes develop perceptions of their illness, which will influence their coping behaviour. Perceptions are formed once a health threat has been recognised. Many people with type 2 diabetes suffer from multimorbidity, for example the combination with cardiovascular disease. Perceptions of one illness may influence perceptions of the other condition. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention in type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event on change in illness perceptions and whether this mediates the intervention effect on health status. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a RCT. Two hundred one participants were randomised (1:1 ratio) to the intervention (n = 101, three home visits) or control group (n = 100). Outcome variables were diabetes and acute coronary event perceptions, assessed with the two separate Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaires (BIPQs); and health status (Euroqol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS)). The intervention effect was analysed using ANCOVA. Linear regression analyses were used to assess whether illness perceptions mediated the intervention effect on health status. A positive intervention effect was found on the BIPQ diabetes items coherence and treatment control (F = 8.19, p = 0.005; F = 14.01, p effect was found on the other BIPQ diabetes items consequence, personal control, identity, illness concern and emotional representation. Regarding the acute coronary event, a positive intervention effect on treatment control was found (F = 7.81, p = 0.006). No intervention effect was found on the other items of the acute coronary event BIPQ. Better diabetes coherence was associated with improved health status, whereas perceiving more treatment control was not. The mediating effect of the diabetes perception 'coherence' on health status was not significant. Targeting illness perceptions of people with

  15. Prevalent Rate of Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Event in Korean Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsLaboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.ResultsNonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.ConclusionThe results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.

  16. Event-based computer simulation model of aspect-type experiments strictly satisfying Einstein's locality conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, Hans; De Raedt, Koen; Michielsen, Kristel; Keimpema, Koenraad; Miyashita, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohtn experiments with photons, we construct an event-based simulation model in which every essential element in the ideal experiment has a counterpart. The model satisfies Einstein's criterion of local causality and does not rely on concepts of quantum and

  17. Modeling extreme (Carrington-type) space weather events using three-dimensional MHD code simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Glocer, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure and systems. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made towards the modeling of space weather events. Three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, and have played a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for existing global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events that have a ground footprint comparable (or larger) to the Carrington superstorm. Results are presented for an initial simulation run with ``very extreme'' constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated ground induced geoelectric field to such extreme driving conditions. We also discuss the results and what they might mean for the accuracy of the simulations. The model is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in earth conductors such as power transmission grids.

  18. Modeling extreme "Carrington-type" space weather events using three-dimensional global MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst˜=-1600 nT.

  19. Are Centauro events a manifestation of an unusual type of phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predazzi, E.; Beldiaga, I.; Curado, E.M.F.

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that the Centauro events found in cosmic rays by the brazilian-japonese collaboration could be the manifestation of an unusual phase transition in which a new ordered phase of quarks separated from antiquarks takes place at extremely high densities. This new phase should then be followed by yet another disordered phase which might correspond to freeing the quark components. (author) [pt

  20. Preparation of Ultra Low-κ Porous SiOCH Films from Ring-Type Siloxane with Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Side Chains by Spin-On Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Xiao, Yang; Chi, Zhang; Qing-Qing, Sun; Sai-Sheng, Xu; Li-Feng, Zhang; Yu, Shi; Shi-Jin, Ding; Wei, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-low-dielectric-constant (ultra low-k, or ULK) porous SiOCH film is prepared using a single ring-type siloxane precursor of the 2,4,6,8-tetravinyl-2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane by means of spin-on deposition, followed by crosslinking reactions between the precursor monomers under UV irradiation. The as-prepared film has an ultra low k of 2.41 at 1 MHz due to incorporation of pores and hydrocarbon crosslinkages, a leakage current density of 9.86 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at 1 MV/cm, as well as a breakdown field strength of ∼1.5 MV/cm. Further, annealing at 300°C results in lower k (i.e., 1.94 at 1 MHz), smaller leakage current density (2.96 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at 1 MV/cm) and higher breakdown field strength (about 3.5 MV/cm), which are likely caused by the short-ranged structural rearrangement and reduction of defects in the film. Finally, the mechanical properties and surface morphology of films are also evaluated after different temperature annealing. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. The group study of diagnostic efficacy of cerebro-vascular disease by I-123 IMP SPECT images obtained with ring type SPECT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Matsumoto, Toru

    1991-01-01

    We performed two image reading experiments in order to investigate the diagnostic capability of I-123 IMP SPECT obtained by the ring type SPECT scanner in cerebro-vascular disease. Fourteen physicians diagnosed SPECT images of 55 cases with reference to clinical neurological information, first without brain XCT images and second with XCT images. Each physician detected perfusion defects and redistributions of I-123 IMP and assigned a confidence level of abnormality for these SPECT findings by means of five rating method. From results obtained by ROC analysis, we concluded as follows. (1) Generally, I-123 IMP SPECT is a stable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease and the image reading of XCT had no effects on the diagnosis of SPECT on the whole of physician. (2) However, there were unnegligible differences among individuals in the detectability of findings and the effect of XCT image reading. (3) Detectability of redistribution of I-123 IMP was lower than that of perfusion defect and inter-observer variation in the diagnostic performance for redistribution was larger than that of perfusion defect. The results suggest that it is necessary to standardize diagnostic criteria among physicians for redistribution of I-123 IMP. (author)

  2. Maximal potential patent foramen diameter does not correlate with the type or frequency of the neurologic event prior to closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Shelby; Brown, Kimberly; Qureshi, Athar M; Latson, Larry A

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed our data on patients undergoing transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure to determine if the maximal potential PFO diameter (MPPD) by balloon sizing correlates with important clinical characteristics in this population. We defined stroke as a focal neurologic deficit lasting >24 h, or focal deficit of shorter duration associated with permanent MRI/CT changes consistent with a focal infarction. Parameters analyzed included age, gender, anticoagulation, hypertension, smoking, MRI/CT findings and MPPD at catheterization. We specifically analyzed the type of neurologic event (stroke/transient ischemic attack, TIA), and number of recorded preceding clinical neurologic events. In 216 consecutive patients, 167 suffered a stroke. MRI/CT changes consistent with one or more embolic events were seen in 156 patients; 49 had a clinical TIA. There was no significant difference in MPPD between stroke (11.0 +/- 3.6 mm) and TIA groups (10.9 +/- 3.9 mm; 95% confidence interval for difference: -1.33 to 1.00). MPPD did not differ between MRI/CT-positive vs. -negative strokes, and had no correlation with the number of identified pre-closure clinical neurologic events. Continued investigation is needed to determine whether other PFO characteristics, or other anatomic/physiologic parameters, may be useful to identify patients at high risk for cryptogenic stroke/TIA, even before they have their first neurologic event. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Predicting ground contact events for a continuum of gait types: An application of targeted machine learning using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed

    2016-05-01

    An ongoing challenge in the application of gait analysis to clinical settings is the standardized detection of temporal events, with unobtrusive and cost-effective equipment, for a wide range of gait types. The purpose of the current study was to investigate a targeted machine learning approach for the prediction of timing for foot strike (or initial contact) and toe-off, using only kinematics for walking, forefoot running, and heel-toe running. Data were categorized by gait type and split into a training set (∼30%) and a validation set (∼70%). A principal component analysis was performed, and separate linear models were trained and validated for foot strike and toe-off, using ground reaction force data as a gold-standard for event timing. Results indicate the model predicted both foot strike and toe-off timing to within 20ms of the gold-standard for more than 95% of cases in walking and running gaits. The machine learning approach continues to provide robust timing predictions for clinical use, and may offer a flexible methodology to handle new events and gait types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Denollet, Johan; Thorsson, Bolli; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Halldorsdottir, Sigrun; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D

    2013-04-01

    Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing CAD, and previous cardiac events. Cross-sectional study in the general Icelandic population. A random sample of 4753 individuals (mean age 49.1 ± 12.0 years; 49% men) from the REFINE-Reykjavik study completed assessments for Type D personality and conventional CAD risk factors. Ten-year risk of developing CAD was estimated with the Icelandic risk calculator. Type D personality (22% of sample) was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension (35 vs. 31%, p = 0.009), but less use of hypertension medication (58 vs. 65%, p = 0.013) in hypertensives, more diabetes (6 vs. 4%, p = 0.023), wider waist circumference (p = 0.007), and elevated body mass index (p = 0.025) and blood lipids (p lifestyle-related CAD risk factors, a higher estimated risk of developing CAD, and higher incidence of previous cardiac events. Unhealthy lifestyles may partly explain the adverse cardiovascular effect of Type D personality.

  5. Ring recognition in the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S.; Ososkov, G.; Hoehne, C.

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms of ring recognition, a standalone ring finder (using only RICH information) and an algorithm based on the information from vertex tracks are described. The fake ring problem and its solution using a set of two-dimensional cuts or an artificial neural network are discussed. Results of a comparative study are given. All developed algorithms were tested on large statistics of simulated events and were then included into the CBM framework for common use

  6. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  7. Response of the ionospheric electron density to different types of seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. He

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The electron density data recorded by the Langmuir Probe Instrument (ISL, Instrument Sonde de Langmuir onboard the DEMETER satellite have been collected for nearly 4 yr (during 2006–2009 to perform a statistical analysis. During this time, more than 7000 earthquakes with a magnitude larger than or equal to 5.0 occurred all over the world. For the statistical studies, all these events have been divided into various categories on the basis of the seismic information, including Southern or Northern Hemisphere earthquakes, inland or sea earthquakes, earthquakes at different magnitude levels, earthquakes at different depth levels, isolated events and all events. To distinguish the pre-earthquake anomalies from the possible ionospheric anomalies related to the geomagnetic activity, the data were filtered with the Kp index. The statistical results obviously show that the electron density increases close to the epicentres both in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, but the position of the anomaly is slightly shifted to the north in the Northern Hemisphere and to the south in the Southern Hemisphere. The electron density related to both inland and sea earthquakes presents an anomaly approximately close to the epicentres, but the anomaly for sea earthquakes is more significant than for inland earthquakes. The intensity of the anomalies is enhanced when the magnitude increases and is reduced when the depth increases. A similar anomaly can also be seen in the statistical results concerning the isolated earthquakes. All these statistical results can help to better understand the preparation process of the earthquakes and their influence up to the ionospheric levels.

  8. Automated Testing Techniques for Event-Driven and Dynamically Typed Software Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Christoffer Quist

    techniques to address each of the challenges. We present a new methodology that extends the error detection capabilities of existing, manually written Android test suites. In the context of JavaScript web applications, we present practical race detectors for detecting AJAX and initialization races......, and a technique that can prevent event race errors by restricting the nondeterminism. Finally, we present a notion of test completeness for dynamic languages, along with a hybrid static/dynamic analysis framework that approximates test completeness, and demonstrate the usefulness of test completeness facts...

  9. Payload charging events in the mesosphere and their impact on Langmuir type electric probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bekkeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sounding rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range in the ECOMA campaign in December 2010. The aim was to study the evolution of meteoric smoke particles during a major meteor shower. Of the various instruments onboard the rocket payload, this paper presents the data from a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe (m-NLP and a charged dust detector. The payload floating potential, as observed using the m-NLP instrument, shows charging events on two of the three flights. These charging events cannot be explained using a simple charging model, and have implications towards the use of fixed bias Langmuir probes on sounding rockets investigating mesospheric altitudes. We show that for a reliable use of a single fixed bias Langmuir probe as a high spatial resolution relative density measurement, each payload should also carry an additional instrument to measure payload floating potential, and an instrument that is immune to spacecraft charging and measures absolute plasma density.

  10. Does the type of event influence how user interactions evolve on Twitter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena del Val

    Full Text Available The number of people using on-line social networks as a new way of communication is continually increasing. The messages that a user writes in these networks and his/her interactions with other users leave a digital trace that is recorded. Thanks to this fact and the use of network theory, the analysis of messages, user interactions, and the complex structures that emerge is greatly facilitated. In addition, information generated in on-line social networks is labeled temporarily, which makes it possible to go a step further analyzing the dynamics of the interaction patterns. In this article, we present an analysis of the evolution of user interactions that take place in television, socio-political, conference, and keynote events on Twitter. Interactions have been modeled as networks that are annotated with the time markers. We study changes in the structural properties at both the network level and the node level. As a result of this analysis, we have detected patterns of network evolution and common structural features as well as differences among the events.

  11. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-01

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants

  12. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-15

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants.

  13. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the peninsula (i.e., cyclonic, anticyclonic and directional). These large-scale patterns were first defined for the observed climate (1960-2013), allowing for an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the peninsula using rainfall data from 209 weather observatories. The same methodology was then applied to assess how the defined weather types will be presented in future climate simulations (under RCP45 and RCP85 emission scenarios) and to explore their probable dependency with rainfall characteristics. In this regard, daily simulated SLP derived from an ensemble of 12 climate models within the CMIP5 project were used for two future time-slices (2035-2060 and 2075-2100). Our findings indicate that the cyclonic (C) type represented the most frequent classification with 69.2% of days, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also found that the main circulation features influencing winter (spring) rainfall across the peninsula are the strong influence of the anticyclonic (easterly and southeasterly) air masses. Generally, the role of airflows originating from the Indian Ocean is larger than those of the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. The trend results of defined weather types show that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions tend to decrease (increase). This picture is likely to continue during the 21st century. The only exception corresponds to the summer season. Here, understanding the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula can be important for the understanding of climatic variability and thus developing circulation-based downscaling methods in this region.

  14. Elevation of urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein after cardiac catheterization related to cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamijo-Ikemori A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atsuko Kamijo-Ikemori,1,3 Nobuyuki Hashimoto,2 Takeshi Sugaya,1 Katsuomi Matsui,1 Mikako Hisamichi,1 Yugo Shibagaki,1 Fumihiko Miyake,2 Kenjiro Kimura1 1Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Anatomy, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Purpose: Contrast medium (CM induces tubular hypoxia via endothelial damage due to direct cytotoxicity or viscosity. Urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP increases along with tubular hypoxia and may be a detector of systemic circulation injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of detecting increases in urinary L-FABP levels due to administration of CM, as a prognostic biomarker for cardiovascular disease in patients without occurrence of CM-induced nephropathy undergoing cardiac catheterization procedure (CCP. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal analyses of the relationship between urinary L-FABP levels and occurrence of cardiovascular events were performed (n=29. Urinary L-FABP was measured by ELISA before CCP, and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after CCP. Results: Urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher at 12 hours (P<0.05 and 24 hours (P<0.005 after CCP compared with before CCP, only in the patients with occurrence of cardiovascular events (n=17, but not in those without cardiovascular events (n=12. The parameter with the largest area under the curve (0.816 for predicting the occurrence of cardiovascular events was the change in urinary L-FABP at 24 hours after CCP. The difference in urinary L-FABP levels (ΔL-FABP ≥11.0 µg/g creatinine between before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP was a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 4.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.27–19.13; P=0.021. Conclusion: Measurement of urinary L-FABP before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction may be an important indicator for risk

  15. Effect of Plasmid Design and Type of Integration Event on Recombinant Protein Expression in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas; Gebbie, Leigh; Palfreyman, Robin W; Speight, Robert

    2018-03-15

    Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella phaffii ) is one of the most common eukaryotic expression systems for heterologous protein production. Expression cassettes are typically integrated in the genome to obtain stable expression strains. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae , where short overhangs are sufficient to target highly specific integration, long overhangs are more efficient in P. pastoris and ectopic integration of foreign DNA can occur. Here, we aimed to elucidate the influence of ectopic integration by high-throughput screening of >700 transformants and whole-genome sequencing of 27 transformants. Different vector designs and linearization approaches were used to mimic the most common integration events targeted in P. pastoris Fluorescence of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter protein was highly uniform among transformants when the expression cassettes were correctly integrated in the targeted locus. Surprisingly, most nonspecifically integrated transformants showed highly uniform expression that was comparable to specific integration, suggesting that nonspecific integration does not necessarily influence expression. However, a few clones (integrated cassettes showed a greater variation spanning a 25-fold range, surpassing specifically integrated reference strains up to 6-fold. High-expression strains showed a correlation between increased gene copy numbers and high reporter protein fluorescence levels. Our results suggest that for comparing expression levels between strains, the integration locus can be neglected as long as a sufficient numbers of transformed strains are compared. For expression optimization of highly expressible proteins, increasing copy number appears to be the dominant positive influence rather than the integration locus, genomic rearrangements, deletions, or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). IMPORTANCE Yeasts are commonly used as biotechnological production hosts for proteins and metabolites. In the yeast

  16. Memory for emotional events: The role of time of testing and type of test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Goergen Brust

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of emotion on memory performance is widely debated in the scientific literature. In the present paper, the relation between emotion and memory was addressed in three experiments using the Slideshow Procedure. In the first experiment, 128 participants’ memory was tested for one of two versions of the Procedure (arousal or neutral through free recall. In the second experiment, 75 participants were asked to recall the information of the arousal version immediately after or one week after watching it. In the third experiment, 75 participants watched the arousal version and answered either a free recall or a recognition test one week after. The results suggested that memory for arousal events is better when tested immediately after the stimuli using free recall.

  17. Sequential Events in the Irreversible Thermal Denaturation of Human Brain-Type Creatine Kinase by Spectroscopic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Song Gao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-cooperative or sequential events which occur during protein thermal denaturation are closely correlated with protein folding, stability, and physiological functions. In this research, the sequential events of human brain-type creatine kinase (hBBCK thermal denaturation were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, CD, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. DSC experiments revealed that the thermal denaturation of hBBCK was calorimetrically irreversible. The existence of several endothermic peaks suggested that the denaturation involved stepwise conformational changes, which were further verified by the discrepancy in the transition curves obtained from various spectroscopic probes. During heating, the disruption of the active site structure occurred prior to the secondary and tertiary structural changes. The thermal unfolding and aggregation of hBBCK was found to occur through sequential events. This is quite different from that of muscle-type CK (MMCK. The results herein suggest that BBCK and MMCK undergo quite dissimilar thermal unfolding pathways, although they are highly conserved in the primary and tertiary structures. A minor difference in structure might endow the isoenzymes dissimilar local stabilities in structure, which further contribute to isoenzyme-specific thermal stabilities.

  18. Is the bell ringing?

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before.   Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...

  19. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.

  20. Dynamical behavior of a rumor transmission model with Holling-type II functional response in emergency event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liang'an; Jiang, Jiehui; Gong, Sixing; He, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Rumor transmission has become an important issue in emergency event. In this paper, a rumor transmission model with Holling-type II functional response was proposed, which provides excellent explanations of the scientific knowledge effect with rumor spreading. By a global analysis of the model and studying the stability of the rumor-free equilibrium and the rumor-endemic equilibrium, we found that the number of infective individuals equal to zero or positive integer as time went on. A numerical simulation is carried out to illustrate the feasibility of our main results. The results will provide the theoretical support to rumor control in emergency event and also provide decision makers references for the public opinions management.

  1. Kayser-Fleischer Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Contacts Lab Tracker/Copper Calculator Stories Programs & Research ... About Everything you need to know about Wilson Disease Kayser-Fleischer Rings Definition Kayser-Fleischer Ring: Clinical sign. Brownish-yellow ring visible around the corneo- ...

  2. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank synoptic-scale events and their relation to Weather Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.; Añel, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Several methods have been developed to rank meteorological events in terms of severity, social impact or economic impacts. These classifications are not always objective since they depend of several factors, for instance, the observation network is biased towards the densely populated urban areas against rural or oceanic areas. It is also very important to note that not all rare synoptic-scale meteorological events attract significant media attention. In this work we use a comprehensive method of classifying synoptic-scale events adapted from Hart and Grumm, 2001, to the European region (30N-60N, 30W-15E). The main motivation behind this method is that the more unusual the event (a cold outbreak, a heat wave, or a flood), for a given region, the higher ranked it must be. To do so, we use four basic meteorological variables (Height, Temperature, Wind and Specific Humidity) from NCEP reanalysis dataset over the range of 1000hPa to 200hPa at a daily basis from 1948 to 2004. The climatology used embraces the 1961-1990 period. For each variable, the analysis of raking climatological anomalies was computed taking into account the daily normalized departure from climatology at different levels. For each day (from 1948 to 2004) we have four anomaly measures, one for each variable, and another, a combined where the anomaly (total anomaly) is the average of the anomaly of the four variables. Results will be analyzed on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. Seasonal trends and variability will also be shown. In addition, and given the extent of the database, the expected return periods associated with the anomalies are revealed. Moreover, we also use an automated version of the Lamb weather type (WT) classification scheme (Jones et al, 1993) adapted for the Galicia area (Northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula) by Lorenzo et al (2008) in order to compute the daily local circulation regimes in this area. By combining the corresponding daily WT with the five anomaly

  3. ASSOCIATIVE RINGS SOLVED AS LIE RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Smirnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has proved that an associative ring which is solvable of a n- class as a Lie ring has a nilpotent ideal of the nilpotent class not more than 3×10n–2  and a corresponding quotient ring satisfies an identity [[x1, x2, [x3, x4

  4. Detection of a Type IIn Supernova in Optical Follow-up Observations of IceCube Neutrino Events

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.degrees 2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0...

  5. Minimal Gromov-Witten rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyjalkowski, V V

    2008-01-01

    We construct an abstract theory of Gromov-Witten invariants of genus 0 for quantum minimal Fano varieties (a minimal class of varieties which is natural from the quantum cohomological viewpoint). Namely, we consider the minimal Gromov-Witten ring: a commutative algebra whose generators and relations are of the form used in the Gromov-Witten theory of Fano varieties (of unspecified dimension). The Gromov-Witten theory of any quantum minimal variety is a homomorphism from this ring to C. We prove an abstract reconstruction theorem which says that this ring is isomorphic to the free commutative ring generated by 'prime two-pointed invariants'. We also find solutions of the differential equation of type DN for a Fano variety of dimension N in terms of the generating series of one-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants

  6. Quality indicators of preventable adverse drug events in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Linda Aagaard

    associated with HbA1c monitoring and treatment was determined using logistic regression. The fourth step in the model was a health economic evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of shifting patients from inadequate to adequate medical treatment. The database used for the AMI indicator study formed...... the database for this study. Five post AMI treatment scenarios were analysed, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios calculated. Results: The systematic literature review (Article 1) revealed that preventable adverse drug The systematic literature review (Article 1) revealed that preventable adverse drug......, that from a public health care systems' point of view, providing intensive cardioprotective treatment according to already accepted guidelines to type 2 diabetes patients is cost-effective. The HbA1c study demonstrated how diabetes-related hospital admissions are frequent, and how preventable adverse drug...

  7. Ring Confidential Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Noether

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.

  8. Gastrointestinal Adverse Events of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Chai, Sanbao; Yang, Jun; Cai, Ting; Xu, Yang; Yang, Zhirong; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Linong; Sun, Feng; Zhan, Siyan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors on gastrointestinal adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception through April 28, 2016. Randomized controlled trials that compared dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor-based therapies with placebo and other hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetes were included. The duration of studies was at least 4 weeks. A total of 165 randomized controlled trials and 122,072 patients were included in the study. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors did not increase the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events after the treatment with alogliptin (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59-1.15), linagliptin (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.92-1.35), saxagliptin (OR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80-1.15), sitagliptin (OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.64-1.14), teneligliptin (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.81-2.77), and vildagliptin (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63-1.01) compared with placebo. Compared with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors significantly decreased the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events with alogliptin (OR = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44), linagliptin (OR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74), saxagliptin (OR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.17-0.46), sitagliptin (OR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.17-0.35), and vildagliptin (OR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.18-0.41). Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors were not associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal adverse events relative to metformin and α-glucosidase inhibitors, respectively. The network meta-analysis found that compared with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, metformin, and α-glucosidase inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors are associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  10. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  11. Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on in-hospital-mortality after major cardiovascular events in Spain (2002-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Lopez-de-Andrés, Ana

    2017-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus has long been associated with cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the higher burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors reported in high-income countries is offset by a more widespread use of preventive measures and revascularization or other invasive procedures. The aim of this investigation is to describe trends in number of cases and outcomes, in-hospital mortality (IHM) and length of hospital stay (LHS), of hospital admissions for major cardiovascular events between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and matched non-diabetes patients. Retrospective study using National Hospital Discharge Database, analyzed in 4 years 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, in Spain. We included patients (≥ 40 years old) with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, aortic aneurysm and dissection and acute lower limb ischemia in people with T2DM. Cases were matched with controls (without T2DM) by ICD-9-CM codes, sex, age, province of residence and year. We selected 130,011 matched couples (50,427 with myocardial infarction, 60,236 with stroke, 2599 with aortic aneurysm and dissection and 16,749 with acute lower limb ischemia. Among T2DM patients we found increasing numbers of admissions overtime for stroke (10,794 in 2002 vs 17,559 in 2014), aortic aneurysm and dissection (390 vs 841) and acute lower limb ischemia (3854 vs. 4548). People were progressively older (except for myocardial infarction), had more comorbidities (especially T2DM patients), and were more frequently coded overtime for cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, obesity, hypertension, lipid disorders) and renal diseases. LHS and IHM declined overtime, though IHM only did it significantly in T2DM patients. Multivariable adjustment showed that T2DM patients had a significantly 15% higher mortality rate during admission for myocardial infarction, a 6% higher mortality for stroke, and a 6% higher mortality rate for "all cardiovascular events combined", than non

  12. Event-related brain potential correlates of words' emotional valence irrespective of arousal and type of task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuny, Javier; Jiménez-Ortega, Laura; Casado, Pilar; Fondevila, Sabela; Muñoz, Francisco; Hernández-Gutiérrez, David; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2018-03-23

    Many Event-Related brain Potential (ERP) experiments have explored how the two main dimensions of emotion, arousal and valence, affect linguistic processing. However, the heterogeneity of experimental paradigms and materials has led to mixed results. In the present study, we aim to clarify words' emotional valence effects on ERP when arousal is controlled, and determine whether these effects may vary as a function of the type of task performed. For these purposes, we designed an ERP experiment with the valence of words manipulated, and arousal equated across valences. The participants performed two types of task: in one, they had to read aloud each word, written in black on a white background; in the other, they had to name the color of the ink in which each word was written. The results showed the main effects of valence irrespective of task, and no interaction between valence and task. The most marked effects of valence were in response to negative words, which elicited an Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) and a Late Positive Complex (LPC). Our results suggest that, when arousal is controlled, the cognitive information in negative words triggers a 'negativity bias', these being the only words able to elicit emotion-related ERP modulations. Moreover, these modulations are largely unaffected by the types of task explored here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes: comparison with nondiabetic individuals without and with prior cardiovascular disease. 10-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, A.E.; Bos, G.; Vegt, F. de; Kostense, P.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian

  14. Cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes : comparison with nondiabetic individuals without and with prior cardiovascular disease. 10-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Annemarie; Bos, Griët; de Vegt, Femmie; Kostense, Piet J; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J; Bouter, Lex M; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    AIMS: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian

  15. Cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes: comparison with nondiabetic individuals without and with prior cardiovascular disease - 10-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, A.; Bos, G.; de Vegt, F.; Kostense, P.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. Methods and results: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian

  16. Accumulation of Major Life Events in Childhood and Adult Life and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Masters Pedersen

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the accumulation of major life events (MLE in childhood and adulthood, in both the private and working domains, on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Furthermore, we aimed to test the possible interaction between childhood and adult MLE and to investigate modification of these associations by educational attainment.The study was based on 4,761 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study free of diabetes at baseline and followed for 10 years. MLE were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3 or more events. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and family history of diabetes were used to estimate the association between MLE and T2DM.In childhood, experiencing 3 or more MLE was associated with a 69% higher risk of developing T2DM (Odds Ratio (OR 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.60, 3.27. The accumulation of MLE in adult private (p-trend = 0.016 and work life (p-trend = 0.049 was associated with risk of T2DM in a dose response manner. There was no evidence that experiencing MLE in both childhood and adult life was more strongly associated with T2DM than experiencing events at only one time point. There was some evidence that being simultaneously exposed to childhood MLE and short education (OR 2.28; 95% C.I. 1.45, 3.59 and work MLE and short education (OR 2.86; 95% C.I. 1.62, 5.03 was associated with higher risk of T2DM, as the joint effects were greater than the sum of their individual effects.Findings from this study suggest that the accumulation of MLE in childhood, private adult life and work life, respectively, are risk factors for developing T2DM.

  17. Generation of stable mixed-compact-toroid rings by inducing plasma currents in strong E rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Taggart, D.P.; Parker, M.R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the RECE-Christa device, hybrid-type compact toroid rings are generated by inducing large toroidal plasma currents I rho in strong electron rings using a thin induction coil positioned along the ring axis. Starting from field-reversal values δ ο = 50 - 120 percent of the original pure fast-electron ring, the induced plasma current I rho raises δ to a maximum value of up to 240 percent with I rho contributing more than 50 percent of the total ring current. Quite interestingly, the generated hybrid compact toroid configurations appear gross-stable during the full I rho pulse length (half-amplitude width about 100 μs)

  18. Early disrupted neurovascular coupling and changed event level hemodynamic response function in type 2 diabetes: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João V; Pereira, João M S; Quendera, Bruno; Raimundo, Miguel; Moreno, Carolina; Gomes, Leonor; Carrilho, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients develop vascular complications and have increased risk for neurophysiological impairment. Vascular pathophysiology may alter the blood flow regulation in cerebral microvasculature, affecting neurovascular coupling. Reduced fMRI signal can result from decreased neuronal activation or disrupted neurovascular coupling. The uncertainty about pathophysiological mechanisms (neurodegenerative, vascular, or both) underlying brain function impairments remains. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated if the hemodynamic response function (HRF) in lesion-free brains of patients is altered by measuring BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent) response to visual motion stimuli. We used a standard block design to examine the BOLD response and an event-related deconvolution approach. Importantly, the latter allowed for the first time to directly extract the true shape of HRF without any assumption and probe neurovascular coupling, using performance-matched stimuli. We discovered a change in HRF in early stages of diabetes. T2DM patients show significantly different fMRI response profiles. Our visual paradigm therefore demonstrated impaired neurovascular coupling in intact brain tissue. This implies that functional studies in T2DM require the definition of HRF, only achievable with deconvolution in event-related experiments. Further investigation of the mechanisms underlying impaired neurovascular coupling is needed to understand and potentially prevent the progression of brain function decrements in diabetes.

  19. A novel conversion of C(19)-diterpenoid alkaloids into aconane-type diterpenes with eight-membered ring system via skeletal rearrangement of corresponding diazonium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Wang, Feng-Peng

    2009-03-01

    A new and efficient approach toward the conversion of C(19)-diterpenoid alkaloids into diterpenes with [6+8+5+6] ring system is reported. Treatment of imines 5, 14, and 24 derived from the C(19)-diterpenoid alkaloids with NaNO(2)-NaOAc-HOAc afforded a series of novel rearrangement diterpenes 6-8, 15-19, and 25-27, respectively. The lactone 11 was obtained in 41% yield by treating 5 with NaNO(2)-HBr-Br(2). The formation of diazonium intermediate is postulated, which was subsequently subjected to skeletal rearrangement, leading to the enlargement of B ring. All the new compounds were isolated and fully characterized.

  20. Financial difficulties but not other types of recent negative life events show strong interactions with 5-HTTLPR genotype in the development of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, X; Eszlari, N; Kovacs, D; Anderson, I M; Deakin, J F W; Juhasz, G; Bagdy, G

    2016-05-03

    Several studies indicate that 5-HTTLPR mediates the effect of childhood adversity in the development of depression, while results are contradictory for recent negative life events. For childhood adversity the interaction with genotype is strongest for sexual abuse, but not for other types of childhood maltreatment; however, possible interactions with specific recent life events have not been investigated separately. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of four distinct types of recent life events in the development of depressive symptoms in a large community sample. Interaction between different types of recent life events measured by the List of Threatening Experiences and the 5-HTTLPR genotype on current depression measured by the depression subscale and additional items of the Brief Symptom Inventory was investigated in 2588 subjects in Manchester and Budapest. Only a nominal interaction was found between life events overall and 5-HTTLPR on depression, which failed to survive correction for multiple testing. However, subcategorising life events into four categories showed a robust interaction between financial difficulties and the 5-HTTLPR genotype, and a weaker interaction in the case of illness/injury. No interaction effect for the other two life event categories was present. We investigated a general non-representative sample in a cross-sectional approach. Depressive symptoms and life event evaluations were self-reported. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism showed a differential interaction pattern with different types of recent life events, with the strongest interaction effects of financial difficulties on depressive symptoms. This specificity of interaction with only particular types of life events may help to explain previous contradictory findings.

  1. Substitution of matrices over rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    For a given commutative ring with an identity element, we define and study the substitution of a matrix with entries in into a matrix polynomial or rational function over . A Bezout-type remainder theorem and a "partial-substitution rule" are derived and used to obtain a number of results. The

  2. Collective effects in isochronous storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Kim, K.-J.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the collective instabilities in isochronous storage rings using a linac-type analysis. Simple criteria for avoiding the longitudinal and transverse instabilities are developed by employing a two-particle model. Numerical examples show that these conditions do not impose serious performance restrictions for two of the currently proposed isochronous storage rings

  3. Adherence in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus correlates with treatment satisfaction but not with adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrychova T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tereza Hendrychova,1 Magda Vytrisalova,1 Alena Smahelova,2 Jiri Vlcek,1 Ales Antonin Kubena1 1Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Diabetes Center, Department of Gerontology and Metabolism, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Purpose: Diabetes self-care and self-monitoring adherence has a positive effect on the metabolic control of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the adherence to self-care recommendations and to identify its correlates in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: One hundred and eleven patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in an observational cross-sectional study conducted at the Diabetes Center of the University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Diabetes self-care adherence was measured by the Self Care Inventory-Revised, and treatment satisfaction by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire-status version. Additional data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and medical records. The Mann–Whitney test, Spearman correlations, and multiple linear regressions were used in the statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of patients was 42.4 years; 59.5% of them were females and 53.2% of all patients used an insulin pump. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c was 66.2 ± 15.3 mmol/mol and the mean insulin dosage was 0.6 ± 0.3 IU insulin/kg/day. The number of hypoglycemic episodes (including severe that patients had in the last month before taking the survey was 3.6 ± 3.2. Self-care adherence was associated with treatment satisfaction (0.495; P = 0.004 along with frequency of self-monitoring of before meal blood glucose (0.267; P = 0.003. It was not associated with the incidence of hypoglycemic events or any other insulin therapy-related problems

  4. Dose evaluation in occupationally exposed workers through dosimeters ring and wrist type with an anthropomorphic phantom; Evaluacion de la dosis en trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a traves de dosimetros tipo anillo y de muneca con un fantoma antropomorfico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, R.; Gastelo, E. [Univesidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Huamachuco, Lambayeque (Peru); Paucar, R.; Tolentino, D.; Herrera, J. [Complejo Hospitalario San Pablo, Lima (Peru); Armas, D., E-mail: fispalma@hotmail.com [Consorcio Proxtronics del Pacifico S. A. C., Cal. Manuela Estacio Mza. D1-2 Lote 13, San Miguel, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    In the Nuclear Medicine service of the Clinica San Pablo (Peru), the occupationally exposed workers carried out the preparation and administration of radiopharmaceuticals to patients, so it is vital to measure the equivalent dose to the hands during the procedures in order to optimize the exposure to the ionizing radiation and execute the Radiological Safety Regulation (D.S. No. 009-97-Em) and the standard IR 002.2012 of radiation protection and safety in nuclear medicine. In this paper was designed and built a hand anthropomorphic phantom made of paraffin following the description given for the standard man, later were placed dosimeters ring and wrist type UD-807 model, Panasonic brand. Then we proceeded to irradiate using vial containers of Tc-99 and I-131. The obtained results showed the difference between the equivalent dose obtained among the ring and wrist dosimeter also getting a dose of 153 mSv /year when working with {sup 99m}Tc and of 61 mSv /year when working with iodine-131. Was also demonstrated that the ring dosimeter shows the average dose received in the hand with less dispersion. It was found that under the national regulation on Requirements of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety in Medicine article 63, indicates that higher doses of 150 mSv /year the occupationally exposed workers should have hand dosimetry. Finally the individual dose limit of 500 mSv /year in extremities can be overcome if adequate radiation protection standards do not apply. (author)

  5. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  6. The Rates of Type I X-ray Bursts from Transients Observed with RXTE: Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, R. A.; Lin, D.; Cooper, R. L.; Narayan, R.

    2005-12-01

    We measure the rates of type I X-ray bursts from a likely complete sample of 37 non-pulsing Galactic X-ray transients observed with the RXTE ASM during 1996-2004. Our strategy is to test the prevailing paradigms for these sources, which are well-categorized in the literature as either neutron-star systems or black hole candidates. Burst rates are measured as a function of the bolometric luminosity, and the results are compared with burst models for neutron stars and for heavy compact objects with a solid surface. We use augmented versions of the models developed by Narayan & Heyl (2002; 2003). For a given mass, we consider a range of conditions in both the radius and the temperature at the boundary below the accretion layer. We find 135 type I bursts in 3.7 Ms of PCA light curves for the neutron-star group, and the burst rate function is generally consistent with the model predictions for bursts from accreting neutron stars. On the other hand, none of the (20) bursts candidates passed spectral criteria for type I bursts in 6.5 Ms of PCA light curves for black-hole binaries and candidates. The burst function upper limits are inconsistent with the predictions of the burst model for heavy compact objects with a solid surface. The consistency probability is found to be below 10-7 for dynamical black-hole binaries, falling to below 10-13 for the additional exposures of black-hole candidates. These results provide indirect evidence that black holes do have event horizons. This research was supported, in part, by NASA science programs.

  7. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  8. Rings in drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

    2014-07-24

    We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond.

  9. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  10. Envelope conformational changes induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 attachment inhibitors prevent CD4 binding and downstream entry events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsu-Tso; Fan, Li; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; McAuliffe, Brian; Li, Chang-Ben; Yamanaka, Gregory; Zhou, Nannan; Fang, Hua; Dicker, Ira; Dalterio, Richard; Gong, Yi-Fei; Wang, Tao; Yin, Zhiwei; Ueda, Yasutsugu; Matiskella, John; Kadow, John; Clapham, Paul; Robinson, James; Colonno, Richard; Lin, Pin-Fang

    2006-04-01

    BMS-488043 is a small-molecule human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD4 attachment inhibitor with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The compound inhibits soluble CD4 (sCD4) binding to the 11 distinct HIV envelope gp120 proteins surveyed. Binding of BMS-488043 and that of sCD4 to gp120 are mutually exclusive, since increased concentrations of one can completely block the binding of the other without affecting the maximal gp120 binding capacity. Similarly, BMS-488043 inhibited virion envelope trimers from binding to sCD4-immunoglobulin G (IgG), with decreasing inhibition as the sCD4-IgG concentration increased, and BMS-488043 blocked the sCD4-induced exposure of the gp41 groove in virions. In both virion binding assays, BMS-488043 was active only when added prior to sCD4. Collectively, these results indicate that obstruction of gp120-sCD4 interactions is the primary inhibition mechanism of this compound and that compound interaction with envelope must precede CD4 binding. By three independent approaches, BMS-488043 was further shown to induce conformational changes within gp120 in both the CD4 and CCR5 binding regions. These changes likely prevent gp120-CD4 interactions and downstream entry events. However, BMS-488043 could only partially inhibit CD4 binding to an HIV variant containing a specific envelope truncation and altered gp120 conformation, despite effectively inhibiting the pseudotyped virus infection. Taken together, BMS-488043 inhibits viral entry primarily through altering the envelope conformation and preventing CD4 binding, and other downstream entry events could also be inhibited as a result of these induced conformational changes.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of sulfonylurea and metformin monotherapy on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, Christianne L; Hung, Adriana M; Greevy, Robert A; Grijalva, Carlos G; Liu, Xulei; Murff, Harvey J; Elasy, Tom A; Griffin, Marie R

    2012-11-06

    The effects of sulfonylureas and metformin on outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes are not well-characterized. To compare the effects of sulfonylureas and metformin on CVD outcomes (acute myocardial infarction and stroke) or death. Retrospective cohort study. National Veterans Health Administration databases linked to Medicare files. Veterans who initiated metformin or sulfonylurea therapy for diabetes. Patients with chronic kidney disease or serious medical illness were excluded. Composite outcome of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction or stroke, or death, adjusted for baseline demographic characteristics; medications; cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and serum creatinine levels; blood pressure; body mass index; health care utilization; and comorbid conditions. Among 253 690 patients initiating treatment (98 665 with sulfonylurea therapy and 155 025 with metformin therapy), crude rates of the composite outcome were 18.2 per 1000 person-years in sulfonylurea users and 10.4 per 1000 person-years in metformin users (adjusted incidence rate difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.4 to 3.0] more CVD events with sulfonylureas per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.21 [CI, 1.13 to 1.30]). Results were consistent for both glyburide (aHR, 1.26 [CI, 1.16 to 1.37]) and glipizide (aHR, 1.15 [CI, 1.06 to 1.26]) in subgroups by CVD history, age, body mass index, and albuminuria; in a propensity score-matched cohort analysis; and in sensitivity analyses. Most of the veterans in the study population were white men; data on women and minority groups were limited but reflective of the Veterans Health Administration population. Use of sulfonylureas compared with metformin for initial treatment of diabetes was associated with an increased hazard of CVD events or death. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  13. Paleo-event data standards for dendrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; P. Brewer; W. Gross

    2017-01-01

    Extreme environmental events, such as storm winds, landslides, insect infestations, and wildfire, cause loss of life, resources, and human infrastructure. Disaster riskreduction analysis can be improved with information about past frequency, intensity, and spatial patterns of extreme events. Tree-ring analyses can provide such information: tree rings reflect events as...

  14. Post- and peritraumatic stress in disaster survivors: an explorative study about the influence of individual and event characteristics across different types of disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Examination of existing research on posttraumatic adjustment after disasters suggests that survivors’ posttraumatic stress levels might be better understood by investigating the influence of the characteristics of the event experienced on how people thought and felt, during the event as well as afterwards. Objective : To compare survivors’ perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions across different types of disasters. Additionally, to investigate individual and event characteristics. Design : In a European multi-centre study, 102 survivors of different disasters terror attack, flood, fire and collapse of a building were interviewed about their responses during the event. Survivors’ perceived posttraumatic stress levels were assessed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Peritraumatic emotional stress and risk perception were rated retrospectively. Influences of individual characteristics, such as socio-demographic data, and event characteristics, such as time and exposure factors, on post- and peritraumatic outcomes were analyzed. Results : Levels of reported post- and peritraumatic outcomes differed significantly between types of disasters. Type of disaster was a significant predictor of all three outcome variables but the factors gender, education, time since event, injuries and fatalities were only significant for certain outcomes. Conclusion : Results support the hypothesis that there are differences in perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions after experiencing different types of disasters. However, it should be noted that these findings were not only explained by the type of disaster itself but also by individual and event characteristics. As the study followed an explorative approach, further research paths are discussed to better understand the relationships between variables.

  15. Wear Analysis of Top Piston Ring to Reduce Top Ring Reversal Bore Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ilanthirayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The piston rings are the most important part in engine which controls the lubricating oil consumption and blowby of the gases. The lubricating film of oil is provided to seal of gases towards crankcase and also to give smooth friction free translatory motion between rings and liner. Of the three rings present top ring is more crucial as it does the main work of restricting gases downwards the crankcase. Boundary lubrication is present at the Top dead centre (TDC and Bottom dead centre (BDC of the liner surface. In addition to this, top ring is exposed to high temperature gases which makes the oil present near the top ring to get evaporated and decreasing its viscosity, making metal-metal contact most of the time. Due to this at TDC, excess wear happens on the liner which is termed as Top ring reversal bore wear. The wear rate depends upon many parameters such as lubrication condition, viscosity index, contact type, normal forces acting on ring, geometry of ring face, surface roughness, material property. The present work explores the wear depth for different geometries of barrel ring using Finite Element model with the help of Archard wear law and the same is validated through experimentation. The study reveals that Asymmetric barrel rings have less contact pressure which in turn reduces the wear at Top dead centre.

  16. Definition of herpes simplex virus type 1 helper activities for adeno-associated virus early replication events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Alazard-Dany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as Adenovirus or Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1; whereas, in the absence of a helper virus, it establishes a latent infection. Previous studies demonstrated that the ternary HSV-1 helicase/primase (HP complex (UL5/8/52 and the single-stranded DNA-Binding Protein (ICP8 were sufficient to induce AAV-2 replication in transfected cells. We independently showed that, in the context of a latent AAV-2 infection, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein was able to activate rep gene expression. The present study was conducted to integrate these observations and to further explore the requirement of other HSV-1 proteins during early AAV replication steps, i.e. rep gene expression and AAV DNA replication. Using a cellular model that mimics AAV latency and composite constructs coding for various sets of HSV-1 genes, we first confirmed the role of ICP0 for rep gene expression and demonstrated a synergistic effect of ICP4 and, to a lesser extent, ICP22. Conversely, ICP27 displayed an inhibitory effect. Second, our analyses showed that the effect of ICP0, ICP4, and ICP22 on rep gene expression was essential for the onset of AAV DNA replication in conjunction with the HP complex and ICP8. Third, and most importantly, we demonstrated that the HSV-1 DNA polymerase complex (UL30/UL42 was critical to enhance AAV DNA replication to a significant level in transfected cells and that its catalytic activity was involved in this process. Altogether, this work represents the first comprehensive study recapitulating the series of early events taking place during HSV-1-induced AAV replication.

  17. Lineage extinction and replacement in dengue type 1 virus populations are due to stochastic events rather than to natural selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing Myat Thu; Lowry, Kym; Jiang Limin; Thaung Hlaing; Holmes, Edward C.; Aaskov, John

    2005-01-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, two clades (B and C; genotype I) of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) appeared in Myanmar (Burma) that were new to that location. Between 1998 and 2000, a third clade (A; genotype III) of DENV-1, which had been circulating at that locality for at least 25 years, became extinct. These changes preceded the largest outbreak of dengue recorded in Myanmar, in 2001, in which more than 95% of viruses recovered from patients were DENV-1, but where the incidence of severe disease was much less than in previous years. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genomes indicated that the two new clades of DENV-1 did not arise from the, now extinct, clade A viruses nor was the extinction of this clade due to differences in the fitness of the viral populations. Since the extinction occurred during an inter-epidemic period, we suggest that it was due to a stochastic event attributable to the low rate of virus transmission in this interval

  18. Cognition and event-related potentials in adult-onset non-demented myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Arai, M; Harada, M; Hozumi, A; Hirata, K

    2012-02-01

    To clarify the cognitive and event-related potentials (ERPs) profiles of adult-onset genetically-proven non-demented myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Fourteen DM1 patients and matched 14 normal controls were enrolled. DM1 patients were compared with normal controls, using a variety of neuropsychological tests; an auditory "oddball" counting paradigm for the ERPs, and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). For patients, ERPs and neuropsychological parameters were correlated with CTG repeat size, duration of illness, grip strength, and arterial blood gas analysis. Frontal lobe dysfunction, prolonged N1 latency, and attenuated N2/P3 amplitudes were observed in DM1. Longer CTG repeat size was associated with fewer categories achieved on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Greater grip strength was associated with better scores on color-word "interference" of Stroop test. P3 latency was negatively correlated with PaO(2). LORETA revealed significant hypoactivities at the orbitofrontal and medial temporal lobe, cingulate, and insula. There was no correlation between ERPs and CTG expansion. Adult-onset non-demented DM1 presented frontal lobe dysfunction. Absence of correlations between CTG repeat size and objective ERP parameters suggested CTG expansion in lymphocytes does not directly contribute to cognitive dysfunction. CTG expansion in lymphocytes does not directly contribute to cognitive dysfunction of adult-onset non-demented DM1. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards renewed health economic simulation of type 2 diabetes: risk equations for first and second cardiovascular events from Swedish register data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Predicting the risk of future events is an essential part of health economic simulation models. In pursuit of this goal, the current study aims to predict the risk of developing first and second acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, non-acute ischaemic heart disease, and stroke after diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes, using data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Register data on 29,034 patients with type 2 diabetes were analysed over five years of follow up (baseline 2003. To develop and validate the risk equations, the sample was randomly divided into training (75% and test (25% subsamples. The Weibull proportional hazard model was used to estimate the coefficients of the risk equations, and these were validated in both the training and the test samples. RESULTS: In total, 4,547 first and 2,418 second events were observed during the five years of follow up. Experiencing a first event substantially elevated the risk of subsequent events. There were heterogeneities in the effects of covariates within as well as between events; for example, while for females the hazard ratio of having a first acute myocardial infarction was 0.79 (0.70-0.90, the hazard ratio of a second was 1.21 (0.98-1.48. The hazards of second events decreased as the time since first events elapsed. The equations showed adequate calibration and discrimination (C statistics range: 0.70-0.84 in test samples. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of health economic simulation models of type 2 diabetes can be improved by ensuring that they account for the heterogeneous effects of covariates on the risk of first and second cardiovascular events. Thus it is important to extend such models by including risk equations for second cardiovascular events.

  20. The impact of level of education on vascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from the ADVANCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, J I; Zoungas, S; Woodward, M; Neal, B; Harrap, S; Poulter, N; Marre, M; Williams, B; Chalmers, J; Hillis, G S

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between educational level and the risk of all-cause mortality is well established, whereas the association with vascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes is not well described. Any association may reflect a link with common cardiovascular or lifestyle-based risk factors. The relationships between the highest level of educational attainment and major cardiovascular events, microvascular complications and all-cause mortality were explored in a cohort of 11,140 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Completion of formal education before the age of 16 was categorized as a low level of education. Regional differences between Asia, East Europe and Established Market Economies were also assessed. During a median of 5years of follow up, 1031 (9%) patients died, 1147 (10%) experienced a major cardiovascular event and 1136 (10%) a microvascular event. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and risk factors, individuals with lower education had an increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio (HR) 1.31, 95% CI 1.16-1.48, peducation was weakest in Established Market Economies and strongest in East Europe. A low level of education is associated with an increased risk of vascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes, independently of common lifestyle associated cardiovascular risk factors. The effect size varies between geographical regions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Single-event phenomena on recent semiconductor devices. Charge-type multiple-bit upsets in high integrated memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Akiko; Shindou, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Norio; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Sumio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Hirao, Toshio; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2001-01-01

    High integrated memories are used in solid state data recorder (SSDR) of the satellite for accumulating observation data. Single event upset phenomena which turn over an accumulated data in the memory cells are caused by heavy ion incidence. Studies on single-bit upset and multiple-bit upset phenomena in the high integrated memory cells are in progress recently. 16 Mbit DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memories) and 64 Mbit DRAM are irradiated by heavy ion species, such as iodine, bromine and nickel, in comparison with the irradiation damage in the cosmic environment. Data written on the memory devices are read out after the irradiation. The memory cells in three kinds of states, all of charged state, all of discharged state, and an alternative state of charge and discharge, are irradiated for sorting out error modes caused by heavy ion incidence. The soft error in a single memory cells is known as a turn over from charged state to discharged state. Electrons in electron-hole pair generated by heavy ion incidence are captured in a diffusion region between capacitor electrodes of semiconductor. The charged states in the capacitor electrodes before the irradiation are neutralized and changed to the discharged states. According to high integration of the memories, many of the cells are affected by a single ion incidence. The multiple-bit upsets, however, are generated in the memory cells of discharged state before the irradiation, also. The charge-type multiple-bit upsets is considered as that error data are written on the DRAM during refresh cycle of a sense-up circuit and a pre-charge circuit which control the DRAM. (M. Suetake)

  2. Types, frequencies, and burden of nonspecific adverse events of drugs: analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Alfred; Golmard, Clara; Pham, Emilie; Iordache, Laura; Deville, Laure; Faure, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Scarce studies analyzing adverse event (AE) data from randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) of selected illnesses suggested that a substantial proportion of collected AEs are unrelated to the drug taken. This study analyzed the nonspecific AEs occurring with active-drug exposure in RPCCTs for a large range of medical conditions. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials published in five prominent medical journals during 2006-2012 were searched. Only trials that evaluated orally or parenterally administered active drugs versus placebo in a head-to-head setting were selected. For AEs reported from ≥10 RPCCTs, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine the relationship between AE rates in placebo and active-drug recipients. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute proportions of nonspecific AEs, which were truncated at a maximum of 100%, in active-drug recipients. We included 231 trials addressing various medical domains or healthy participants. For the 88 analyzed AE variables, AE rates for placebo and active-drug recipients were in general strongly correlated (r > 0.50) or very strongly correlated (r > 0.80). The pooled proportions of nonspecific AEs for the active-drug recipients were 96.8% (95%CI: 95.5-98.1) for any AEs, 100% (97.9-100) for serious AEs, and 77.7% (72.7-83.2) for drug-related AEs. Results were similar for individual medical domains and healthy participants. The pooled proportion of nonspecificity of 82 system organ class and individual AE types ranged from 38% to 100%. The large proportion of nonspecific AEs reported in active-drug recipients of RPCCTs, including serious and drug-related AEs, highlights the limitations of clinical trial data to determine the tolerability of drugs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Relationships of different types of event to cardiovascular death in trials of antihypertensive treatment: an aid to definition of total cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Antonella; Arfè, Andrea; Corrao, Giovanni; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Guidelines for management of cardiovascular diseases stratify absolute cardiovascular risk into categories with a high-risk threshold defined at a 20% cardiovascular events risk in 10 years, but it is unclear whether only major events or the Framingham-extended definition should be considered. The 2013 ESH-ESC hypertension guidelines, instead, define cardiovascular risk as a risk of cardiovascular death in 10 years, as in the SCORE model, setting the threshold for high risk at the 5% level. It would be therefore convenient to know the quantitative relationship between the risks of the different outcomes adopted by the different guidelines, especially because some outcome definitions include serious nonfatal cardiovascular events relevant in cardiovascular prevention. We have therefore analysed these relationships in trials of antihypertensive therapy as an aid to defining total cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Sixty-one trials were identified, and 51 retained for analysis of the relationship of cardiovascular death to the incidence of all-cause death, major cardiovascular events and inclusive (Framingham) cardiovascular events. The relationship between cardiovascular death rates and each type of event rates was explored by fitting flexible regression models. The included trials provided 15164 cardiovascular deaths and 1674427 patient-years. The relation of each event rate to cardiovascular death rate was best explained by a model considering the logarithm of each event rate as a dependent variable and the logarithm of cardiovascular death rate as a predictor. Mean patients' age and treatment were also predictors, but to a minor extent. The increase of the incidence rates of all types of events was less steep the higher the CV death rate: the rate ratios of all-cause death to cardiovascular death were 2.2, 1.9 and 1.8 at low-moderate (cardiovascular death hypertensive patients whose cardiovascular death risk is calculated by the SCORE model.

  4. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy CF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available R Karl Malcolm, Susan M Fetherston, Clare F McCoy, Peter Boyd, Ian MajorSchool of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.Keywords: controlled release, sustained release, antiretroviral, dapivirine, SILCS diaphragm, silicone elastomer, thermoplastic

  5. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  6. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  7. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  8. Search for hadronic events with low thrust and an isolated lepton with the CELLO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroha, H.

    1987-08-01

    Using the CELLO detector at the PETRA e + e - -storage ring, a search for hadronic events with low thrust and an isolated lepton has been carried out. The rate of such events and the thrust distribution of inclusive lepton events show no evidence for a threshold of new sources of inclusive lepton events at the highest PETRA energies. The CELLO data thus do not support the observations of the MARK-J and JADE collaborations of an excess of muon events of this type at √s > 46.3 GeV. (orig.)

  9. Physics of quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.

  10. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients with an acute coronary event after discharge from hospital: design and development of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.; Gorter, K.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Rijken, M.; Nijpels, G.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with an acute coronary event (ACE) experience decreased quality of life and increased distress. According to the American Diabetes Association, discharge from the hospital is a time of increased distress for all patients. Tailored support specific to

  11. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients with an acute coronary event after discharge from hospital - design and development of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.; Gorter, K.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Rijken, M.; Nijpels, G.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with an acute coronary event (ACE) experience decreased quality of life and increased distress. According to the American Diabetes Association, discharge from the hospital is a time of increased distress for all patients. Tailored support specific to

  12. Characterization of heterocyclic rings through quantum chemical topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark Z; Popelier, Paul L A

    2013-07-22

    Five-membered rings are found in a myriad of molecules important in a wide range of areas such as catalysis, nutrition, and drug and agrochemical design. Systematic insight into their largely unexplored chemical space benefits from first principle calculations presented here. This study comprehensively investigates a grand total of 764 different rings, all geometry optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level, from the perspective of Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT). For the first time, a 3D space of local topological properties was introduced, in order to characterize rings compactly. This space is called RCP space, after the so-called ring critical point. This space is analogous to BCP space, named after the bond critical point, which compactly and successfully characterizes a chemical bond. The relative positions of the rings in RCP space are determined by the nature of the ring scaffold, such as the heteroatoms within the ring or the number of π-bonds. The summed atomic QCT charges of the five ring atoms revealed five features (number and type of heteroatom, number of π-bonds, substituent and substitution site) that dictate a ring's net charge. Each feature independently contributes toward a ring's net charge. Each substituent has its own distinct and systematic effect on the ring's net charge, irrespective of the ring scaffold. Therefore, this work proves the possibility of designing a ring with specific properties by fine-tuning it through manipulation of these five features.

  13. The dynamic relationship between current and previous severe hypoglycemic events: a lagged dependent variable analysis among patients with type 2 diabetes who have initiated basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michael L; Li, Qian; Wintfeld, Neil S; Lee, Yuan-Chi; Sorli, Christopher; Huang, Joanna C

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have found episodes of severe hypoglycemia (SH) to be serially dependent. Those studies, however, only considered the impact of a single (index) event on future risk; few have analyzed SH risk as it evolves over time in the presence (or absence) of continuing events. The objective of this study was to determine the dynamic risks of SH events conditional on preceding SH events among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have initiated basal insulin. We used an electronic health records database from the United States that included encounter and laboratory data and clinical notes on T2D patients who initiated basal insulin therapy between 2008 and 2011 and to identify SH events. We used a repeated-measures lagged dependent variable logistic regression model to estimate the impact of SH in one quarter on the risk of SH in the next quarter. We identified 7235 patients with T2D who initiated basal insulin. Patients who experienced ≥1 SH event during any quarter were more likely to have ≥1 SH event during the subsequent quarter than those who did not (predicted probabilities of 7.4% and 1.0%, respectively; p history of SH before starting basal insulin (predicted probabilities of 1.0% and 3.2%, respectively; p history of SH during the titration period (predicted probabilities of 1.1% and 2.8%, respectively; p history of SH events and therefore the value of preventing one SH event may be substantial. These results can inform patient care by providing clinicians with dynamic data on a patient's risk of SH, which in turn can facilitate appropriate adjustment of the risk-benefit ratio for individualized patient care. These results should, however, be interpreted in light of the key limitations of our study: not all SH events may have been captured or coded in the database, data on filled prescriptions were not available, we were unable to adjust for basal insulin dose, and the post-titration follow-up period could have divided into time units other

  14. A search for hadronic events with low thrust and an isolated lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, H.J.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Dainton, J.B.; Fenner, H.; Field, J.H.; Franke, G.; Meyer, J.; Schroeder, V.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zimmermann, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Buttar, C.; Campbell, A.J.; Hendry, D.; McCurrach, G.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Ahme, J.; Blobel, V.; Feindt, M.; Harjes, J.; Peters, J.H.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kroha, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Shooshtari, G.; Wiedenmann, W.; Davier, M.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Janot, P.; Journe, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Spadafora, A.; Veillet, J.J.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Lavagne, Y.; Ould Saada, F.; Zacek, J.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Klatchko, A.; Levy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Using the CELLO detector at the PETRA e + e - storage ring a search for hadronic events with low thrust and an isolated lepton has been carried out. The rate of such events and the thrust distribution of inclusive lepton events show no evidence for a threshold of new sources of inclusive lepton events at the highest PETRA energies. For √s > 46.3 GeV we observe one muon event of the above type, compared to an expectation of 0.8±0.2 events from lower energy data. We do not observe any electron event of this class at the highest PETRA energies. The CELLO data thus do not support the observations of the MARK-J and JADE collaborations of an excess of muon events of the above type at √s > 46.3 GeV. (orig.)

  15. EBT ring physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers

  16. Inelastic neutron scattering from superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic neutron scattering by superconducting rings is derived taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic field generated by the superconducting current. Calculations of the scattering cross section are carried out for cold neutrons and thin film rings from type-II superconductors with the magnetic fields not exceeding the first critical field.

  17. Mechanical improvement of metal reinforcement rings for a finite ring-shaped superconducting bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Zhou, You-He

    2018-03-01

    As a key technique, reinforcement of type-II superconducting bulks with metal rings can efficiently improve their mechanical properties to enhance the maximum trapped field. In this paper, we study the magnetostrictive and fracture behaviors of a finite superconducting ring bulk reinforced by three typical reinforcing structures composed of metal rings during the magnetizing process by means of the minimization of magnetic energy and the finite element method. After a field-dependent critical current density is adopted, the magnetostriction, pinning-induced stress, and crack tip stress intensity factor are calculated considering the demagnetization effects. The results show that the mechanical properties of the ring bulk are strongly dependent on the reinforcing structure and the material and geometrical parameters of the metal rings. Introducing the metal ring can significantly reduce the hoop stress, and the reduction effect by internal reinforcement is much improved relative to external reinforcement. By comparison, bilateral reinforcement seems to be the best candidate structure. Only when the metal rings have particular Young's modulus and radial thickness will they contribute to improve the mechanical properties the most. In addition, if an edge crack is pre-existing in the ring bulk, the presence of metal rings can effectively avoid crack propagation since it reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor by nearly one order of magnitude.

  18. Ring faults and ring dikes around the Orientale basin on the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Head, James W; Johnson, Brandon; Keane, James T; Kiefer, Walter S; McGovern, Patrick J; Neumann, Gregory A; Wieczorek, Mark A; Zuber, Maria T

    2018-08-01

    The Orientale basin is the youngest and best-preserved multiring impact basin on the Moon, having experienced only modest modification by subsequent impacts and volcanism. Orientale is often treated as the type example of a multiring basin, with three prominent rings outside of the inner depression: the Inner Rook Montes, the Outer Rook Montes, and the Cordillera. Here we use gravity data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to reveal the subsurface structure of Orientale and its ring system. Gradients of the gravity data reveal a continuous ring dike intruded into the Outer Rook along the plane of the fault associated with the ring scarp. The volume of this ring dike is ~18 times greater than the volume of all extrusive mare deposits associated with the basin. The gravity gradient signature of the Cordillera ring indicates an offset along the fault across a shallow density interface, interpreted to be the base of the low-density ejecta blanket. Both gravity gradients and crustal thickness models indicate that the edge of the central cavity is shifted inward relative to the equivalent Inner Rook ring at the surface. Models of the deep basin structure show inflections along the crust-mantle interface at both the Outer Rook and Cordillera rings, indicating that the basin ring faults extend from the surface to at least the base of the crust. Fault dips range from 13-22° for the Cordillera fault in the northeastern quadrant, to 90° for the Outer Rook in the northwestern quadrant. The fault dips for both outer rings are lowest in the northeast, possibly due to the effects of either the direction of projectile motion or regional gradients in pre-impact crustal thickness. Similar ring dikes and ring faults are observed around the majority of lunar basins.

  19. Eventual sport performance level: What about the role of type of sport, perception of critical life events, and practice quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toering, Tynke

    2017-01-01

    The target article describes an interesting study, which provides some challenging findings regarding athletes' pathway to excellence. The suggested links between critical life events, need for success, personal characteristics, and eventual performance level make sense from a psychodynamic perspective. This commentary will discuss some critical points related to the application of the findings in talent identification and -development programs. These are (1) the possible effect of the selection of participants on the results (including the impact of dependence on others for team sport athletes and the opportunity for multiple medal attainment), (2) a lack of detail in the description of how the athletes approached the critical life events (the perception of an event may contribute more to development than the event itself), and (3) a lack of detail in the description of the practice process throughout development. Some interesting differences were found in the motivation for and approach to practice, but little detail was given about what the athletes exactly were doing at the time. The concept of self-regulated learning may be useful in explaining how super-elite athletes action their goals through quality practice. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On the Laurent polynomial rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.

    1985-02-01

    We describe some properties of the Laurent polynomial rings in a finite number of indeterminates over a commutative unitary ring. We study some subrings of the Laurent polynomial rings. We finally obtain two cancellation properties. (author)

  1. Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Associated with Ketosis Events in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalange, Nandu; Aldhouse, Natalie Valerie Jane; Kitchen, Helen; Howard, Daniel; Tutkunkardas, Deniz; Håkan-Bloch, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic state associated with insulin deficiency. Untreated, it develops into diabetic ketoacidosis, a significant contributor to mortality and morbidity in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Little is understood about how patients utilize healthcare resources during ketosis events. This study aimed to identify and quantify healthcare resource utilization and provide estimates of associated costs of ketosis events in T1DM, treated unaided or with healthcare professional (HCP) assistance in the UK. Qualitative interviews with adult patients, pediatric carers, and HCPs identified resources used by patients/carers during ketosis events. An online quantitative survey was then used to quantify patients/carers resource use during their/their child's most recent ketosis event, and HCPs estimated patient resource uptake to corroborate the findings. Associated costs estimated from UK data sources were applied to the survey results to calculate the cost of ketosis events in adults and children. Quantitative survey responses from 93 adults, 76 carers, and 52 HCPs were analyzed. Patients and carers monitored ketosis during and following the event with ketone strips and additional glucose strips, and administered treatment comprising insulin and pump set changes where appropriate. Additionally, patients/carers accessed phone services and many received follow-up medical appointments. In total, 70% (n = 65) of adult and 66% (n = 50) of pediatric ketosis events were managed at home, for which resource use costs per event were £23.87 and £38.00 respectively. Remaining events were treated in NHS facilities costing £217.57 per adult and £352.92 per child. Weighted averages identified that ketosis events cost £81.98 per adult and £142.97 per child. Indirect costs from work productivity loss increase these figures to £225.11 per adult and £256.88 per child. Healthcare resource use for ketosis events is high in adults and children with T1DM and

  2. Occurrences of flares with type II and IV radio events in interacting sunspot groups in the course of revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimes, J.; Krivsky, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using data from 11-year solar cycle No. 20, it was found that flares with type II radio bursts are more than twice as frequent and flares with type IV bursts nearly twice as frequent in sunspot groups which developed close to each other or which merged in the course of revolutions than in isolated sunspot groups. With both types the occurrence of these flares is concentrated in the revolution of the so-called sunspot group interaction (their approximation, merging). (author)

  3. Assessing the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of steam generators in a CANDU-6 type NPP in the event of MSSV blockage on the open-setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, Elena

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at achieving an analysis regarding the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of a CANDU-6 type NPP in the event of the blockage on open-setting of an MSSV (Main Steam Safety Valve) for steam relief from steam generators. The systems studied are main steam and feedwater mixture in the secondary circuit, particularly being analyzed the behaviour of the steam generators as well as the primary heat transfer and the control system of heavy water pressure and inventory in the primary system. One supposes that the MSSV blockage occurs directly after its opening in the event of an accident that led to the a steam pressure rise in the steam generators up to the threshold value of MSSV o penning. The analysis was applied to two events of initiation which lead to MSSV o penning, namely a Class IV loss of electric supply and loss of vacuum in turbine condenser. In the simulation of the events selected for analysis a long elapse of time is supposed (3600 seconds) and no operator intervention while the NPP is operating at rating power and equilibrium fuel regime. Each of the two events were analyzed for two distinct sets of conditions of event initiation and evolution. The study was focussed on the behaviour of NPP, particularly of the steam generators, and on the estimation of the amount of water in the secondary circuit released into the atmosphere during the event. The analysis is of deterministic type and supplies information required by the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applied to nuclear facilities in establishing the operation procedures and documentation. The analysis was based on design data for a CANDU-6 NPP and the HYDN3 code for thermal-hydraulic computation in CANDU type NPPs. In the paper there are presented the analysis, methodology, models, hypotheses and the input data as well as the analyzed cases. Within the computing code some models were developed to allow simulating the event sequences chosen for analyses. The results are plotted and

  4. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  5. Faithfully quadratic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, M

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the authors extend the classical algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields to diagonal quadratic forms with invertible entries over broad classes of commutative, unitary rings where -1 is not a sum of squares and 2 is invertible. They accomplish this by: (1) Extending the classical notion of matrix isometry of forms to a suitable notion of T-isometry, where T is a preorder of the given ring, A, or T = A^2. (2) Introducing in this context three axioms expressing simple properties of (value) representation of elements of the ring by quadratic forms, well-known to hold in

  6. Correction magnets for the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James T Volk et al.

    2003-01-01

    In the commissioning of the Fermilab Recycler ring the need for higher order corrector magnets in the regions near beam transfers was discovered. Three types of permanent magnet skew quadrupoles, and two types of permanent magnet sextupoles were designed and built. This paper describes the need for these magnets, the design, assembly, and magnetic measurements

  7. Association of Type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svansdóttir, E.; Denollet, J.; Thorsson, B.; Gudnason, T.; Halldorsdottir, S.; Gudnason, V.; van den Broek, K.C.; Karlsson, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing

  8. Delayed charge recovery discrimination of passivated surface alpha events in P-type point-contact detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszko, J.; Majorana Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using arrays of high-purity germanium detectors. If observed, this process would demonstrate that lepton number is not a conserved quantity in nature, with implications for grand-unification and for explaining the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles. In the Majorana Demonstrator, events have been observed that are consistent with energy-degraded alphas originating on the passivated surface, leading to a potential background contribution in the region-of-interest for neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, it is also observed that when energy deposition occurs very close to the passivated surface, charges drift through the bulk onto that surface, and then drift along it with greatly reduced mobility. This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of these events and the development of a filter that can identify the occurrence of this delayed charge recovery, allowing for the efficient rejection of passivated surface alpha events in analysis.

  9. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor of cardiovascular events in subjects with atrial fibrillation: a community-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Nakamura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a significant public health issue due to its high prevalence in the general population, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV events including systemic thrombo-embolism, heart failure, and coronary artery disease. The relationship between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP and CV risk in real world AF subjects remains unknown. METHODS: The subject of the study (n = 228; mean age = 69 years was unselected individuals with AF in a community-based population (n = 15,394; AF prevalence rate = 1.5%. The CV event free rate within each BNP tertile was estimated, and Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the relative risk of the onset of CV events among the tertiles. The prognostic ability of BNP was compared to an established risk score for embolic events (CHADS2 score. In addition, to determine the usefulness of BNP as a predictor in addition to CHADS2 score, we calculated Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI indices. RESULTS: During the follow-up period 58 subjects experienced CV events (52 per 1,000 person-years. The event-free ratio was significantly lower in the highest tertile (p < 0.02. After adjustment for established CV risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR of the highest tertile was significantly higher than that of the lowest tertile (HR = 2.38; p < 0.02. The predictive abilities of plasma BNP in terms of sensitivity and specificity for general CV events were comparable to those of CHADS2 score. Adding BNP to the CHADS2 score only model improved the NRI (0.319; p < 0.05 and the IDI (0.046; p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Plasma BNP is a valuable biomarker both singly or in combination with an established scoring system for assessing general CV risk including stroke, heart failure and acute coronary syndrome in real-world AF subjects.

  10. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  11. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  12. Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five-year cardiac events above and beyond concurrent symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2006-01-01

    Psychological stress and type D personality have been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis, but little is known about their relative effect on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). "Type D" refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression...... of these emotions in social interactions. We investigated the relative effect of stress and type D personality on prognosis at 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 337 patients with CHD who participated in cardiac rehabilitation filled in the General Health Questionnaire (psychological stress) and the Type D personality.......001) were related to an increased risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event after adjusting for gender, age, and biomedical risk factors. Multivariate analysis yielded left ventricular ejection fraction...

  13. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  14. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  15. Carbon-14 in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, W.F.; Suess, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate how reliably the carbon 14 content of tree rings reflects that of atmospheric carbon dioxide, two types of determinations were carried out: (1) carbon 14 determinations in annual rings from the beginning of this century until 1974 and (2) carbon 14 determinations in synchronous wood from the North American bristlecone pine and from European oak trees, dendrochronologically dated to have grown in the third and fourth century B.C. The first series of measurements showed that bomb-produced radiocarbon was incorporated in wood at a time when it was converted from sapwood to heartwood, whenever radiocarbon from bomb testing was present in the atmosphere. The second series showed that wood more than 2000 years old and grown on two different continents at different altitudes had, within the limits of experimental error, the same radiocarbon content. This work and other experimental evidence, obtained in part by other laboratories, show that tree rings reflect the average radiocarbon content of global atmospheric carbon dioxide accurately within several parts per mil. In rare cases, deviations of up to 10 parts per thousand may be possible. This means that a typical single radiocarbon date for wood or charcoal possesses an intrinsic uncertainty (viz., an estimated ''one-sigma error'' in addition to all the other errors) of the order of +-50 years. This intrinsic uncertainty is independent of the absolute age of the sample. More accurate dates can, in principle, be obtained by the so-called method of ''wiggle matching.''

  16. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  17. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  18. Multivariate Prediction Equations for HbA1c Lowering, Weight Change, and Hypoglycemic Events Associated with Insulin Rescue Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Informing Economic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Michael; Asseburg, Christian; Nilsson, Andreas; Johnsson, Kristina; Kartman, Bernt

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is chronic and progressive and the cost-effectiveness of new treatment interventions must be established over long time horizons. Given the limited durability of drugs, assumptions regarding downstream rescue medication can drive results. Especially for insulin, for which treatment effects and adverse events are known to depend on patient characteristics, this can be problematic for health economic evaluation involving modeling. To estimate parsimonious multivariate equations of treatment effects and hypoglycemic event risks for use in parameterizing insulin rescue therapy in model-based cost-effectiveness analysis. Clinical evidence for insulin use in T2DM was identified in PubMed and from published reviews and meta-analyses. Study and patient characteristics and treatment effects and adverse event rates were extracted and the data used to estimate parsimonious treatment effect and hypoglycemic event risk equations using multivariate regression analysis. Data from 91 studies featuring 171 usable study arms were identified, mostly for premix and basal insulin types. Multivariate prediction equations for glycated hemoglobin A 1c lowering and weight change were estimated separately for insulin-naive and insulin-experienced patients. Goodness of fit (R 2 ) for both outcomes were generally good, ranging from 0.44 to 0.84. Multivariate prediction equations for symptomatic, nocturnal, and severe hypoglycemic events were also estimated, though considerable heterogeneity in definitions limits their usefulness. Parsimonious and robust multivariate prediction equations were estimated for glycated hemoglobin A 1c and weight change, separately for insulin-naive and insulin-experienced patients. Using these in economic simulation modeling in T2DM can improve realism and flexibility in modeling insulin rescue medication. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Some Aspects of Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Herstein, IN

    2011-01-01

    S. Amitsur: Associative rings with identities.- I.N. Herstein: Topics in ring theory.- N. Jacobson: Representation theory of Jordan algebras.- I. Kaplansky: The theory of homological dimension.- D. Buchsbaum: Complexes in local ring theory.- P.H. Cohn: Two topics in ring theory.- A.W. Goldie: Non-commutative localisation.

  20. Ring correlations in random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Thorpe, M F

    2016-12-01

    We examine the correlations between rings in random network glasses in two dimensions as a function of their separation. Initially, we use the topological separation (measured by the number of intervening rings), but this leads to pseudo-long-range correlations due to a lack of topological charge neutrality in the shells surrounding a central ring. This effect is associated with the noncircular nature of the shells. It is, therefore, necessary to use the geometrical distance between ring centers. Hence we find a generalization of the Aboav-Weaire law out to larger distances, with the correlations between rings decaying away when two rings are more than about three rings apart.

  1. Bad Days Don't End When the School Bell Rings: The Lingering Effects of Negative School Events on Children's Mood, Self-Esteem, and Perceptions of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Barbara J.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2007-01-01

    Each day for five days, 79 fifth-grade children reported on events that occurred at school and they and their parents described their interactions with each other each evening. Consistent with previous research, it was found that on days when children reported more academic or peer problems during the day at school, they later described more…

  2. Conceptual design considerations for providing hook-up type schemes for tracking beyond design basis events (BDBE) for 700 MWe PHWR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vhora, S.F.; Inder Jit; Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    A broad review of major nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl reveals that provision of access to the reactor core for cooling purpose had to be made from outside the reactor building by tunneling. Also the NAPS fire incident could be mitigated once the fire water injection to the steam generators could be ensured. In this case the boiler room which was outside the primary containment was accessible relatively easily for mitigation after the initial period. Both of the above had accident scenarios which can be termed Beyond Design Basis (BDBE) since the accident initiation/scenario did not fit into the events under postulated initiating events (PIES) or Design Basis Events (DBEs). These accidents or events reveal that some sort of access to the core or the components inside the Reactor building becomes necessary. It is also to be noted that manual intervention beyond the initial period of half an hour or earlier in the Emergency operating procedure (EOP) is inevitably called for as a recovery action in order to mitigate the severity and minimize long term consequences. This paper attempts to discuss the type of concepts which can give access to the core or associated systems which can then provide continued heat sink. The discussions would include the criteria for design of such concepts and give examples of such concepts already implemented and proposes schemes to be implemented in the 700 MWe Project. (author)

  3. Genomic Investigation Reveals Highly Conserved, Mosaic, Recombination Events Associated with Capsular Switching among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Sequence Type (ST)-11 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-07-03

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningococcal disease globally. Sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex (cc11) is a hypervirulent meningococcal lineage historically associated with serogroup C capsule and is believed to have acquired the W capsule through a C to W capsular switching event. We studied the sequence of capsule gene cluster (cps) and adjoining genomic regions of 524 invasive W cc11 strains isolated globally. We identified recombination breakpoints corresponding to two distinct recombination events within W cc11: A 8.4-kb recombinant region likely acquired from W cc22 including the sialic acid/glycosyl-transferase gene, csw resulted in a C→W change in capsular phenotype and a 13.7-kb recombinant segment likely acquired from Y cc23 lineage includes 4.5 kb of cps genes and 8.2 kb downstream of the cps cluster resulting in allelic changes in capsule translocation genes. A vast majority of W cc11 strains (497/524, 94.8%) retain both recombination events as evidenced by sharing identical or very closely related capsular allelic profiles. These data suggest that the W cc11 capsular switch involved two separate recombination events and that current global W cc11 meningococcal disease is caused by strains bearing this mosaic capsular switch. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. N : P Stoichiometry in a Forested Runoff during Storm Events: Comparisons with Regions and Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered the most important limiting elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. however, very few studies have focused on which is from forested streams, a bridge between these two systems. To fill this gap, we examined the concentrations of dissolved N and P in storm waters from forested watersheds of five regions in Japan, to characterize nutrient limitation and its potential controlling factors. First, dissolved N and P concentrations and the N : P ratio on forested streams were higher during storm events relative to baseflow conditions. Second, significantly higher dissolved inorganic N concentrations were found in storm waters from evergreen coniferous forest streams than those from deciduous broadleaf forest streams in Aichi, Kochi, Mie, Nagano, and with the exception of Tokyo. Finally, almost all the N : P ratios in the storm water were generally higher than 34, implying that the storm water should be P-limited, especially for Tokyo.

  5. N : P stoichiometry in a forested runoff during storm events: comparisons with regions and vegetation types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lanlan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered the most important limiting elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. however, very few studies have focused on which is from forested streams, a bridge between these two systems. To fill this gap, we examined the concentrations of dissolved N and P in storm waters from forested watersheds of five regions in Japan, to characterize nutrient limitation and its potential controlling factors. First, dissolved N and P concentrations and the N : P ratio on forested streams were higher during storm events relative to baseflow conditions. Second, significantly higher dissolved inorganic N concentrations were found in storm waters from evergreen coniferous forest streams than those from deciduous broadleaf forest streams in Aichi, Kochi, Mie, Nagano, and with the exception of Tokyo. Finally, almost all the N : P ratios in the storm water were generally higher than 34, implying that the storm water should be P-limited, especially for Tokyo.

  6. Type B investigation of the iridium contamination event at the High Flux Isotope Reactor on September 7, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    On the title date, at ORNL, area radiation alarms sounded during a routine transfer of a shielding cask (containing 60 Ci 192 Ir) from the HFIR pool side to a transport truck. Small amounts of Ir were released from the cask onto the reactor bay floor. The floor was cleaned, and the cask was shipped to a hot cell at Building 3047 on Oct. 3, 1993. The event was caused by rupture of one of the Ir target rods after it was loaded into the cask for normal transport operations; the rupture was the result of steam generation in the target rod soon after it was placed in the cask (water had entered the target rod through a tiny defect in a weld while it was in the reactor under pressure). While the target rods were in the reactor and reactor pool, there was sufficient cooling to prevent steam generation; when the target rod was loaded into the dry transport cask, the temperature increased enough to result in boiling of the trapped water and produced high enough pressure to result in rupture. The escaping steam ejected some of the Ir pellets. The event was reported as Occurrence Report Number ORO--MMES-X10HFIR-1993-0030, dated Sept. 8, 1993. Analysis indicated that the following conditions were probable causes: less than adequate welding procedures, practices, or techniques, material controls, or inspection methods, or combination thereof, could have led to weld defects, affecting the integrity of target rod IR-75; less than adequate secondary containment in the cask allowed Ir pellets to escape

  7. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, changes in Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification index (NRI were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-β1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes increased the AUC to 0.803 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092-0.149] and 0.113 [0.093-0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model. The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028-0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model. Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013-0.038] compared to the basic model, 0.845 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028-0.059] compared to the basic model and 0.851 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003-0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of multiple

  8. Mapping Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Pilorz, S. H.; Deau, E.

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and quick temperature responses are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid, coherent particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias (Ferrari et al. 2005). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded millions of spectra of Saturn's rings since its arrival at Saturn in 2004 (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 (16.7 and 1000 µm) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks in this wavelength range. FP1 spectra can be used to infer ring temperatures. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by the solar radiation absorbed by its constituent particles. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off. As a result, ring particles cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  9. The Rings of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Filacchione, G.; Marouf, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    One could become an expert on Saturn's iconic rings pretty easily in the early 1970s, as very little was known about them beyond the distinction between the A, B, and C rings, and the Cassini Division or "gap" between rings A and B (Alexander, 1962; Bobrov, 1970). Water ice was discovered spectroscopically on the ring particle surfaces, and radar and microwave emission observations proved that the particles must be centimeters to meters in size, consisting primarily, not just superficially, of water ice (Pollack, 1975). While a 2:1 orbital resonance with Mimas had long been suspected of having something to do with the Cassini Division, computers of the time were unable to model the subtle dynamical effects that we now know to dominate ring structure. This innocent state of affairs was exploded by the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981. Spectacular images revealed filigree structure and odd regional color variations, and exquisitely detailed radial profiles of fluctuating particle abundance were obtained from the first stellar and radio occultations, having resolution almost at the scale of single particles. Voyager-era understanding was reviewed by Cuzzi et al. (1984) and Esposito et al. (1984). While the Voyager data kept ring scientists busy for decades, planning which led to the monumentally successful NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini mission, which arrived in 2004, had been under way even before Voyager got to Saturn. A review of pre-Cassini knowledge of Saturn's Rings can be found in Orton et al. (2009). This chapter will build on recent topical and process-specific reviews that treat the gamut of ring phenomena and its underlying physics in considerable detail (Colwell et al., 2009; Cuzzi et al., 2009; Horányi et al., 2009; Schmidt et al., 2009; Esposito, 2010; Tiscareno, 2013b; Esposito, 2014). We will follow and extend the general organization of Cuzzi et al. (2010), the most recent general discussion of Saturn's rings. For brevity and the benefit of the

  10. Recent applications of ring-rearrangement metathesis in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM involves multiple metathesis processes such as ring-opening metathesis (ROM/ring-closing metathesis (RCM in a one-pot operation to generate complex targets. RRM delivers complex frameworks that are difficult to assemble by conventional methods. The noteworthy point about this type of protocol is multi-bond formation and it is an atom economic process. In this review, we have covered literature that appeared during the last seven years (2008–2014.

  11. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping; Zhang Lin-Xi

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond (S 2 )/(Nb 2 ) and the shape factor (δ*) depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type. With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity C v , and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas—liquid—solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  12. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  13. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  14. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  15. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Almost ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  17. Causes of ring-related leg injuries in birds - evidence and recommendations from four field studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Griesser

    Full Text Available One of the main techniques for recognizing individuals in avian field research is marking birds with plastic and metal leg rings. However, in some species individuals may react negatively to rings, causing leg injuries and, in extreme cases, the loss of a foot or limb. Here, we report problems that arise from ringing and illustrate solutions based on field data from Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla (2 populations, Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus and Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus. We encountered three problems caused by plastic rings: inflammations triggered by material accumulating under the ring (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens, contact inflammations as a consequence of plastic rings touching the foot or tibio-tarsal joint (Brown Thornbills, and toes or the foot getting trapped in partly unwrapped flat-band colour rings (Siberian Jays. Metal rings caused two problems: the edges of aluminium rings bent inwards if mounted on top of each other (Brown Thornbills, and too small a ring size led to inflammation (Purple-crowned Fairy-wrens. We overcame these problems by changing the ringing technique (using different ring types or larger rings, or using different adhesive. Additionally, we developed and tested a novel, simple technique of gluing plastic rings onto metal rings in Brown Thornbills. A review of studies reporting ring injuries (N = 23 showed that small birds (35 g tend to get rings stuck over their feet. We give methodological advice on how these problems can be avoided, and suggest a ringing hazard index to compare the impact of ringing in terms of injury on different bird species. Finally, to facilitate improvements in ringing techniques, we encourage online deposition of information regarding ringing injuries of birds at a website hosted by the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING.

  18. RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho). A new structure type with five- and six-membered rings as building units in a gold network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Birgit; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho) intermetallic compounds were synthesized by melting the elements in sealed tantalum tubes. They exhibit a new structure type which was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and refined from single crystal diffraction data: Cmcm, a = 736.9(2), b = 1489.4(2), c = 1330.4(3) pm, wR2 = 0.0371, 1184 F{sup 2} values and 55 variables for Y{sub 3}Au{sub 4.92}Zn{sub 1.08} and a = 739.0(1), b = 1495.8(2), c = 1339.2(2) pm, wR2 = 0.0325, 1410 F{sup 2} values and 54 variables for Tb{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn. The network consists of five- and six-membered gold rings in puckered conformations. Atoms of the rare earth elements are placed within the cavities of this network where every third cavity is filled by a Zn{sub 2} dumbbell. The structure is discussed in detail and compared with the gold substructure of Hf{sub 7}Au{sub 10}.

  19. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  20. The covariant chiral ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-23

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T{sup 4}, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  1. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...

  2. The Saturnian rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1975-09-01

    The structure of the Saturnian rings is traditionally believed to be due to resonances caused by Mimas (and possibly other satellites). It is shown that both theoretical and observational evidence rule out this interpretation. The increased observational accuracy on one hand and the increased understanding of the cosmogonic processes on the other makes it possible to explain the structure of the ring system as a product of condensation from a partially corotating plasma. In certain respects the agreement between theory and observations is about 1%. (Auth.)

  3. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  4. The relationship between event-related potentials, stress perception and personality type in patients with multiple sclerosis without cognitive impairment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewska-Prosół, Marta; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kotas, Roman; Bańkowski, Tomasz; Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna; Podemski, Ryszard

    2018-06-08

    The clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) can vary significantly among patients and is affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Among these, stress and personality type have been gaining more attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of event-related potentials (ERPs) with regards to stress perception and personality type, as well as cognitive performance in MS patients. The study group consisted of 30 MS patients and 26 healthy controls. Auditory ERPs were performed in both groups, including an analysis of P300 and N200 response parameters. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used in the MS group to measure the perception of stress. The D-type Scale (DS14) scale was used to determine the features of Type D personality, characterized by social inhibition and negative affectivity. The score on the PSS corresponded with a moderate or high level of stress perception in 63% of MS patients, while 23% of patients presented with a Type D personality. P300 latencies were significantly longer (p = 0.001), N200 amplitudes were significantly higher (p = 0.004), and N200 latencies were longer in MS patients than in the controls. Strong positive correlations were found between N200 and P300 amplitudes, as well as between the DS14 and PSS results. Most MS patients experience moderate to severe stress. ERP abnormalities were found in MS patients who did not have overt cognitive impairment and showed correlations with stress levels and negative affectivity. Event-related potentials may be useful in assessing the influence of stress and emotions on the course of MS.

  5. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase

  6. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase

  7. Position Ring System using Anger Type Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel S. Karp, principal investigator

    2004-12-14

    The overall objective of our project was to develop PET scanners and imaging techniques that achieve high performance and excellent image quality. Our approach was based upon 3-D imaging (no septa) with position-sensitive Anger-logic detectors, whereby the encoding ratio of resolution elements to number of photo-multiplier tube channels is very high. This design led to a series of PET systems that emphasized cost-effectiveness and practicality in a clinical environment.

  8. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  9. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G.; Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N.; Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O'Shea, V.; French, M.; Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A.; Schomaker, R.

    1998-01-01

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C 4 F 10 gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  10. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Barber, G.; Duane, A.; John, M.; Miller, D.G.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Department of Nuclear Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O`Shea, V. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Schomaker, R. [Delft Electronic Products BV, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    1998-07-11

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  11. Storage ring at HIE-ISOLDE Technical design report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieser, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Raabe, R.; Blaum, K.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Butler, P. A.; Wenander, F.; Woods, P. J.; Aliotta, M.; Andreyev, A.; Artemyev, A.; Atanasov, D.; Aumann, T.; Balabanski, D.; Barzakh, A.; Batist, L.; Bernardes, A. -P.; Bernhardt, D.; Billowes, J.; Bishop, S.; Borge, M.; Borzov, I.; Boston, A. J.; Brandau, C.; Catford, W.; Catherall, R.; Cederkall, J.; Cullen, D.; Davinson, T.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dracoulis, G.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Egelhof, P.; Estrade, A.; Fischer, D.; Flanagan, K.; Fraile, L.; Fraser, M. A.; Freeman, S. J.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Greenlees, P.; Grisenti, R. E.; Habs, D.; von Hahn, R.; Hagmann, S.; Hausmann, M.; He, J. J.; Heil, M.; Huyse, M.; Jenkins, D.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Joss, D. T.; Kadi, Y.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kay, B. P.; Kiselev, O.; Kluge, H. -J.; Kowalska, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kreim, S.; Kroell, T.; Kurcewicz, J.; Labiche, M.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lestinsky, M.; Lotay, G.; Ma, X. W.; Marta, M.; Meng, J.; Muecher, D.; Mukha, I.; Mueller, A.; Murphy, A. St J.; Neyens, G.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Page, R. D.; Pasini, M.; Petridis, N.; Pietralla, N.; Pfuetzner, M.; Podolyak, Z.; Regan, P.; Reed, M. W.; Reifarth, R.; Reiter, P.; Repnow, R.; Riisager, K.; Rubio, B.; Sanjari, M. S.; Savin, D. W.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schippers, S.; Schneider, D.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Shubina, D.; Siesling, E.; Simon, H.; Simpson, J.; Smith, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Steck, M.; Stora, T.; Stoehlker, T.; Sun, B.; Surzhykov, A.; Suzaki, F.; Tarasov, O.; Trotsenko, S.; Tu, X. L.; Van Duppen, P.; Volpe, C.; Voulot, D.; Walker, P. M.; Wildner, E.; Winckler, N.; Winters, D. F. A.; Wolf, A.; Xu, H. S.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zuber, K.; Bosch, F.M.

    We propose to install a storage ring at an ISOL-type radioactive beam facility for the first time. Specifically, we intend to setup the heavy-ion, low-energy ring TSR at the HIE-ISOLDE facility in CERN, Geneva. Such a facility will provide a capability for experiments with stored secondary beams

  12. Congenital constriction ring syndrome of the limbs: A prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the upper limb malformations involved 42 digits; in the lower limb malformations involved 33 toes, one foot and fi ve legs. Four main types of lesions were found: constriction rings, intrauterine amputations, acrosyndactyly, and simple syndactyly. Conclusion: Congenital constriction ring syndrome is of uncertain aetiology ...

  13. Ring opening of epoxides with C-nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Sadia; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad

    2016-11-01

    Ring opening of epoxides has been an area of interest for organic chemists, owing to their reactivity toward nucleophiles. Such reactions yield important products depending on the type of nucleophiles used. This review article covers the synthetic approaches (1991-2015) used for the ring opening of epoxides via carbon nucleophiles.

  14. Finite-Horizon $H_\\infty $ Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Redundant Channels via An Observer-Type Event-Triggered Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenying; Wang, Zidong; Ho, Daniel W C

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the finite-horizon consensus problem for a class of discrete time-varying multiagent systems with external disturbances and missing measurements. To improve the communication reliability, redundant channels are introduced and the corresponding protocol is constructed for the information transmission over redundant channels. An event-triggered scheme is adopted to determine whether the information of agents should be transmitted to their neighbors. Subsequently, an observer-type event-triggered control protocol is proposed based on the latest received neighbors' information. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design a time-varying controller based on the observed information to achieve the consensus performance in a finite horizon. By utilizing a constrained recursive Riccati difference equation approach, some sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the consensus performance, and the controller parameters are also designed. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the desired reliability of redundant channels and the effectiveness of the event-triggered control protocol.

  15. Flushing Ring for EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earwood, L.

    1985-01-01

    Removing debris more quickly lowers cutting time. Operation, cutting oil and pressurized air supplied to ring placed around workpiece. Air forces oil through small holes and agitates oil as it flows over workpiece. High flow rate and agitation dislodge and remove debris. Electrical discharge removes material from workpiece faster.

  16. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  17. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  18. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  19. Ring magnetron ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A ring magnetron D - charge exchange ionizer has been built and tested. An H - current of 500 μA was extracted with an estimated H 0 density in the ionizer of 10 12 cm -3 . This exceeds the performance of ionizers presently in use on polarized H - sources. The ionizer will soon be tested with a polarized atomic beam

  20. Algebras, rings and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Kirichenko, V V

    Provides both the classical aspects of the theory of groups and their representations as well as a general introduction to the modern theory of representations, including the representations of quivers and finite partially ordered sets. This volume provides the theory of semiprime Noetherian semiperfect and semidistributive rings.

  1. Lattices for antiproton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1984-01-01

    After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)

  2. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between

  3. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  4. The natural oscillation of two types of ENSO events based on analyses of CMIP5 model control runs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Su, Jingzhi; Zhu, Congwen

    2014-07-01

    The eastern- and central-Pacific El Niño-Southern Oscillation (EP- and CP-ENSO) have been found to be dominant in the tropical Pacific Ocean, and are characterized by interannual and decadal oscillation, respectively. In the present study, we defined the EP- and CP-ENSO modes by singular value decomposition (SVD) between SST and sea level pressure (SLP) anomalous fields. We evaluated the natural features of these two types of ENSO modes as simulated by the pre-industrial control runs of 20 models involved in phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The results suggested that all the models show good skill in simulating the SST and SLP anomaly dipolar structures for the EP-ENSO mode, but only 12 exhibit good performance in simulating the tripolar CP-ENSO modes. Wavelet analysis suggested that the ensemble principal components in these 12 models exhibit an interannual and multi-decadal oscillation related to the EP- and CP-ENSO, respectively. Since there are no changes in external forcing in the pre-industrial control runs, such a result implies that the decadal oscillation of CP-ENSO is possibly a result of natural climate variability rather than external forcing.

  5. Weather Typing-Based Flood Frequency Analysis Verified for Exceptional Historical Events of Past 500 Years Along the Meuse River

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Niel, J.; Demarée, G.; Willems, P.

    2017-10-01

    Governments, policy makers, and water managers are pushed by recent socioeconomic developments such as population growth and increased urbanization inclusive of occupation of floodplains to impose very stringent regulations on the design of hydrological structures. These structures need to withstand storms with return periods typically ranging between 1,250 and 10,000 years. Such quantification involves extrapolations of systematically measured instrumental data, possibly complemented by quantitative and/or qualitative historical data and paleoflood data. The accuracy of the extrapolations is, however, highly unclear in practice. In order to evaluate extreme river peak flow extrapolation and accuracy, we studied historical and instrumental data of the past 500 years along the Meuse River. We moreover propose an alternative method for the estimation of the extreme value distribution of river peak flows, based on weather types derived by sea level pressure reconstructions. This approach results in a more accurate estimation of the tail of the distribution, where current methods are underestimating the design levels related to extreme high return periods. The design flood for a 1,250 year return period is estimated at 4,800 m3 s-1 for the proposed method, compared with 3,450 and 3,900 m3 s-1 for a traditional method and a previous study.

  6. FUZZY RINGS AND ITS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyati Karyati

    2017-01-01

      One of algebraic structure that involves a binary operation is a group that is defined  an un empty set (classical with an associative binary operation, it has identity elements and each element has an inverse. In the structure of the group known as the term subgroup, normal subgroup, subgroup and factor group homomorphism and its properties. Classical algebraic structure is developed to algebraic structure fuzzy by the researchers as an example semi group fuzzy and fuzzy group after fuzzy sets is introduced by L. A. Zadeh at 1965. It is inspired of writing about semi group fuzzy and group of fuzzy, a research on the algebraic structure of the ring is held with reviewing ring fuzzy, ideal ring fuzzy, homomorphism ring fuzzy and quotient ring fuzzy with its properties. The results of this study are obtained fuzzy properties of the ring, ring ideal properties fuzzy, properties of fuzzy ring homomorphism and properties of fuzzy quotient ring by utilizing a subset of a subset level  and strong level  as well as image and pre-image homomorphism fuzzy ring.   Keywords: fuzzy ring, subset level, homomorphism fuzzy ring, fuzzy quotient ring

  7. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  8. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  9. Glycaemic control and prevalence of hypoglycaemic events in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Ljiljana; Mitrović, Katarina; Todorović, Sladjana; Vuković, Rade; Milenković, Tatjana; Zdravković, Dragan

    2014-09-01

    An ideal insulin regimen for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) should be physiological, flexibile and predictable, protecting against hypoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of insulin analogues on glycaemic control and the occurance of hypoglycaemic episodes in children and adolescents with T1DM. The study group consisted of 151 children and adolescents (90 boys, 61 girls) treated with human insulins for at least 12 months before introducing insulin analogues. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I consisted of 72 (47.7%) patients treated with three injections of regular human insulin before meals and long-acting analogue (RHI/LA), and the group II of 79 (52.30%) patients treated with a combination of rapid-acting and long-acting analogue (RA/LA). The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes were assessed at the beginning of therapy with insulin analogues, and after 6 and 12 months. The mean HbA1c was significantly lower in the group I (RHI/LA) after 6 months (9.15% vs 8.20%, p < 0.001) and after 12 months (9.15% vs 8.13%, p < 0.001) as well as in the group II (RA/LA) after 6 months (9.40% vs 8.240%, p < 0.001) and after 12 months of insulin analogues treatment (9.40% vs 8.38%, p < 0.001). The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly lower in both groups after 6 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 4.2% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001), and after 12 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 1.4% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001). Significantly better HbA1c values and lower risk of severe hypoglycaemia were established in children and adolescents with T1DM treated with insulin analogues.

  10. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  11. Soil-structural interaction analysis of RBMK type NPP for seismic event. Progress report. From 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the project is to assess the structural behavior and safety capacity of a RBMK-1000 MW Main Building Complex under critical combination of loads including seismic events. This project is part of the Coordinated Research Program carried out by International Atomic Energy Agency on safety of RBMK Type Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in Relation to External Events. The nuclear power plant considered for this study is the Sosnovy Bor NPP, located near St.Petersburg, Russia. The Soviet standard design RBMK-1000 MW type units installed in Sosnovy Bor NPP were originally designed for a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) with a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.1 g. The relevant response spectra are not available for reference and assessment. The new international requirements for nuclear power plants in operation require site specific seismic hazard studies as a basis for the definition of a Review Level Earthquake (RLE) for reassessment of the structures and safety related equipment Ell - As the RLE site specific seismic data is still not available, the RLE earthquake spectra for Kozloduy NPP scaled to PGA=0.1 g were used in this study. This value is intentionally chosen for comparison purposes. The Russian design requirements (if design floor response spectra are available) will be compared with the international regulations. The scope of the study is to perform a Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) seismic response analysis of the referenced RBMK-11000 MW. Main Building Complex to evaluate the effect on the structural response of a greater than design earthquake. The analysis is focused on a realistic assessment of the structural response to a potentially higher earthquake level instead of a conservative design type analysis. Special attention is paid on the seismic response of the sub-structures in the safe shutdown path, as well as on the locations of the heavy equipment

  12. Design of low energy ring(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, Antoine

    During the last two years, several upgrades of the initial baseline scenario were studied with the aim of increasing the average intensity of ion beams in the accelerator chain of the Beta Beam complex. This is the reason why the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) specifications were reconsidered many times [1], [2], [3].General considerations on the optical design were presented at the Beta Beam Task Meetings held at CERN and at Saclay in 2005 [4]. More detailed beam optics studies were performed during the next months. Lattices, RF system parameters, multi-turn injection scheme, fast extraction, closed orbit correction and chromaticity correction systems were proposed for different versions of the RCS [5], [6], [7].Finally, the RCS specifications have stabilized in November 2006 after the fourth Beta Beam Task Meeting when it was decided to fix the maximum magnetic rigidity of ion beams to 14.47 T.m (3.5 GeV equivalent proton energy) and to adopt a ring physical radius of 40 m in order to facilitate injectio...

  13. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A means is provided for recording more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient, using positron emission tomography. Separate rings of detectors are used to construct every odd-numbered slice, and coincident events that occur between adjacent rings of detectors provide a center or even-numbered slice. Detector rings are offset with respect to one another by half the angular separation of the detectors, allowing an image to be reconstructed from the central slice without the necessity of physically rotating the detector array while accumulating data

  14. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  15. Impact of metabolic syndrome and its components on cardiovascular disease event rates in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to placebo in the field randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Russell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with the metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD events.We aimed to establish whether CVD event rates were influenced by the metabolic syndrome as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and to determine which component(s of the metabolic syndrome (MS conferred the highest cardiovascular risk in in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes allocated to placebo in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD trial. Research design and methods We determined the influence of MS variables, as defined by NCEP ATPIII, IDF and WHO, on CVD risk over 5 years, after adjustment for CVD, sex, HbA1c, creatinine, and age, and interactions between the MS variables in a Cox proportional-hazards model. Results About 80% had hypertension, and about half had other features of the metabolic syndrome (IDF, ATPIII. There was no difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome variables between those with and without CVD at study entry. The WHO definition identified those at higher CVD risk across both sexes, all ages, and in those without prior CVD, while the ATPIII definition predicted risk only in those aged over 65 years and in men but not in women. Patients meeting the IDF definition did not have higher risk than those without IDF MS. CVD risk was strongly influenced by prior CVD, sex, age (particularly in women, baseline HbA1c, renal dysfunction, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (low HDL-c, triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/L. The combination of low HDL-c and marked hypertriglyceridemia (> 2.3 mmol/L increased CVD risk by 41%. Baseline systolic blood pressure increased risk by 16% per 10 mmHg in those with no prior CVD, but had no effect in those with CVD. In those without prior CVD, increasing numbers of

  16. Study on a metal pushing V-belt type CVT. Numerical analysis for belt tension distribution in brands of a ring at steady state; Kinzoku V belt wo mochiita CVT ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekiso belt (steel ring) no dendo kiko kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T; Kuwabara, S [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanehara, S [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The power transmitting mechanisms for laminated belts were studied to analyze belt tension in each band of the ring of metal V-belts. A numerical model consisting of linear springs and frictional elements was proposed. The present model was experimentally proved. It is revealed based on the numerical results that each band shares the ring tension equally when the coefficients of friction for bands and a pulley are the same while the first band must support more when the coefficients of friction between two bands are lower than that between a saddle surface of the block and the inner band. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Almagest, a new trackless ring finding algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch

    2014-12-01

    A fast ring finding algorithm is a crucial point to allow the use of RICH in on-line trigger selection. The present algorithms are either too slow (with respect to the incoming data rate) or need the information coming from a tracking system. Digital image techniques, assuming limited computing power (as for example Hough transform), are not perfectly robust for what concerns the noise immunity. We present a novel technique based on Ptolemy's theorem for multi-ring pattern recognition. Starting from purely geometrical considerations, this algorithm (also known as “Almagest”) allows fast and trackless rings reconstruction, with spatial resolution comparable with other offline techniques. Almagest is particularly suitable for parallel implementation on multi-cores machines. Preliminary tests on GPUs (multi-cores video card processors) show that, thanks to an execution time smaller than 10 μs per event, this algorithm could be employed for on-line selection in trigger systems. The user case of the NA62 RICH trigger, based on GPU, will be discussed. - Highlights: • A new algorithm for fast multiple ring searching in RICH detectors is presented. • The Almagest algorithm exploits the computing power of Graphics processers (GPUs). • A preliminary implementation for on-line triggering in the NA62 experiment shows encouraging results.

  18. High Resolution Typing by Whole Genome Mapping Enables Discrimination of LA-MRSA (CC398) Strains and Identification of Transmission Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thijs; Verkade, Erwin; van Luit, Martijn; Pot, Bruno; Vauterin, Paul; Burggrave, Ronald; Savelkoul, Paul; Kluytmans, Jan; Schouls, Leo

    2013-01-01

    After its emergence in 2003, a livestock-associated (LA-)MRSA clade (CC398) has caused an impressive increase in the number of isolates submitted for the Dutch national MRSA surveillance and now comprises 40% of all isolates. The currently used molecular typing techniques have limited discriminatory power for this MRSA clade, which hampers studies on the origin and transmission routes. Recently, a new molecular analysis technique named whole genome mapping was introduced. This method creates high-resolution, ordered whole genome restriction maps that may have potential for strain typing. In this study, we assessed and validated the capability of whole genome mapping to differentiate LA-MRSA isolates. Multiple validation experiments showed that whole genome mapping produced highly reproducible results. Assessment of the technique on two well-documented MRSA outbreaks showed that whole genome mapping was able to confirm one outbreak, but revealed major differences between the maps of a second, indicating that not all isolates belonged to this outbreak. Whole genome mapping of LA-MRSA isolates that were epidemiologically unlinked provided a much higher discriminatory power than spa-typing or MLVA. In contrast, maps created from LA-MRSA isolates obtained during a proven LA-MRSA outbreak were nearly indistinguishable showing that transmission of LA-MRSA can be detected by whole genome mapping. Finally, whole genome maps of LA-MRSA isolates originating from two unrelated veterinarians and their household members showed that veterinarians may carry and transmit different LA-MRSA strains at the same time. No such conclusions could be drawn based spa-typing and MLVA. Although PFGE seems to be suitable for molecular typing of LA-MRSA, WGM provides a much higher discriminatory power. Furthermore, whole genome mapping can provide a comparison with other maps within 2 days after the bacterial culture is received, making it suitable to investigate transmission events and

  19. Cardiac Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy parameter predicts cardiac and cerebrovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients without structural heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yufu, Kunio; Takahashi, Naohiko; Okada, Norihiro; Shinohara, Tetsuji; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Hara, Masahide; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Saikawa, Tetsunori

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) scintigraphy is an established method of assessment of cardiovascular sympathetic function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term cardiovascular predictive value of cardiac 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy parameters in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients without structural heart disease. Cardiac 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy in 108 patients with type 2 diabetes who did not have structural heart disease, was evaluated. The washout rate (WR) was considered enhanced if it was ≥40%. Accurate follow-up information for 4.6 years was obtained in 54 enhanced WR patients (27 male; mean age, 61±11 years) and in 54 sex- and age-matched preserved WR patients (27 male; mean age, 61±10 years). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were investigated. During follow-up, 10 enhanced WR patients developed MACCE including cardiac death, coronary revascularization, stroke, and congestive heart failure, while MACCE occurred in only 3 male patients. The Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that enhanced WR patients had higher incidence of MACCE than those with preserved WR (P 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy at baseline has long-term cardiovascular predictive value in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes without structural heart disease. (author)

  20. Ultrasound analysis of gray-scale median value of carotid plaques is a useful reference index for cerebro-cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kyoko; Okuya, Shigeru; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Kimie; Nagao, Yuko; Nomiyama, Ryuta; Takeda, Komei; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of plaque echogenicity, the gray-scale median (GSM), were shown to correlate inversely with risk factors for cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a potential predictor of CVD risk. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of carotid plaque GSM values and EPA/AA ratios in atherosclerotic diabetics. A total of 84 type 2 diabetics with carotid artery plaques were enrolled. On admission, platelet aggregation and lipid profiles, including EPA and AA, were examined. Using ultrasound, mean intima media thickness and plaque score were measured in carotid arteries. Plaque echogenicity was evaluated using computer-assisted quantification of GSM. The patients were then further observed for approximately 3 years. Gray-scale median was found to be a good marker of CVD events. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, GSM <32 and plaque score ≥5 were significantly associated with past history and onset of CVD during the follow-up period, the odds ratios being 7.730 (P = 0.014) and 4.601 (P = 0.046), respectively. EPA/AA showed a significant correlation with GSM (P = 0.012) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.039), and an inverse correlation with platelet aggregation (P = 0.046) and triglyceride (P = 0.020). Although most patients with CVD had both low GSM and low EPA/AA values, an association of EPA/AA with CVD events could not be statistically confirmed. The present results suggest the GSM value to be useful as a reference index for CVD events in high-risk atherosclerotic diabetics. Associations of the EPA/AA ratio with known CVD risk factors warrant a larger and more extensive study to show the usefulness of this parameter.

  1. Age, renal dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and antihyperglycemic treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: findings from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events Italian Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solini, Anna; Penno, Giuseppe; Bonora, Enzo; Fondelli, Cecilia; Orsi, Emanuela; Trevisan, Roberto; Vedovato, Monica; Cavalot, Franco; Cignarelli, Mauro; Morano, Susanna; Ferrannini, Ele; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    To assess the distribution of antihyperglycemic treatments according to age and renal function and its relationship with cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cross-sectional analysis. Nineteen hospital-based diabetes mellitus clinics in 2007 and 2008. Fifteen thousand seven hundred thirty-three individuals with T2DM from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. Current antihyperglycemic treatments were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Albuminuria was measured using immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry. Prevalence of major acute cardiovascular events was calculated according to age quartiles, treatments, and categories of eGFR (1 = ≥90; 2 = 60-89; 3 = 30-59; and 4 = metformin or glitazones fell; percentage taking sulphonylureas and repaglinide rose, and percentage taking insulin remained stable. In eGFR categories 3 and 4, use of metformin was 41.4% and 14.5%, respectively, and that of sulphonylureas was 34.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Inappropriate prescription of these agents, especially sulphonylureas, increased with age. Metformin was independently associated with lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease for any age quartile and eGFR category than all other treatments. In real-life conditions, use of agents that are not recommended in elderly adults with diabetes mellitus with moderate to severe renal impairment is frequent, but metformin is associated with lower cardiovascular event rates even in these individuals. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Electronic de-multipliers II (ring-shape systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.

    1948-09-01

    This report describes a new type of ring-shape fast electronic counter (de-multiplier) with a resolution capacity equivalent to the one made by Regener (Rev. of Scientific Instruments USA 1946, 17, 180-89) but requiring two-times less electronic valves. This report follows the general description of electronic de-multipliers made by J. Ailloud (CEA--001). The ring comprises 5 flip-flop circuits with two valves each. The different elements of the ring are calculated with enough details to allow the transfer of this calculation to different valve types. (J.S.)

  3. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Roderick [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  4. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  5. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  6. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  7. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. RING STAR FORMATION RATES IN BARRED AND NONBARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouchy, R. D.; Buta, R. J.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonbarred ringed galaxies are relatively normal galaxies showing bright rings of star formation in spite of lacking a strong bar. This morphology is interesting because it is generally accepted that a typical galactic disk ring forms when material collects near a resonance, set up by the pattern speed of a bar or bar-like perturbation. Our goal in this paper is to examine whether the star formation properties of rings are related to the strength of a bar or, in the absence of a bar, to the non-axisymmetric gravity potential in general. For this purpose, we obtained Hα emission line images and calculated the line fluxes and star formation rates (SFRs) for 16 nonbarred SA galaxies and four weakly barred SAB galaxies with rings. For comparison, we combine our new observations with a re-analysis of previously published data on five SA, seven SAB, and 15 SB galaxies with rings, three of which are duplicates from our sample. With these data, we examine what role a bar may play in the star formation process in rings. Compared to barred ringed galaxies, we find that the inner ring SFRs and Hα+[N II] equivalent widths in nonbarred ringed galaxies show a similar range and trend with absolute blue magnitude, revised Hubble type, and other parameters. On the whole, the star formation properties of inner rings, excluding the distribution of H II regions, are independent of the ring shapes and the bar strength in our small samples. We confirm that the deprojected axis ratios of inner rings correlate with maximum relative gravitational force Q g ; however, if we consider all rings, a better correlation is found when a local bar forcing at the radius of the ring, Q r , is used. Individual cases are described and other correlations are discussed. By studying the physical properties of these galaxies, we hope to gain a better understanding of their placement in the scheme of the Hubble sequence and how they formed rings without the driving force of a bar.

  9. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  10. Ring-constrained Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Karras, Panagiotis; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    . This new operation has important applications in decision support, e.g., placing recycling stations at fair locations between restaurants and residential complexes. Clearly, RCJ is defined based on a geometric constraint but not on distances between points. Thus, our operation is fundamentally different......We introduce a novel spatial join operator, the ring-constrained join (RCJ). Given two sets P and Q of spatial points, the result of RCJ consists of pairs (p, q) (where p ε P, q ε Q) satisfying an intuitive geometric constraint: the smallest circle enclosing p and q contains no other points in P, Q...

  11. Femtoslicing in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat

    2005-01-01

    The generation of ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses by laser-induced energy modulation of electrons and their subsequent transverse displacement, now dubbed "femtoslicing," was demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. More recently, a femtoslicing user facility was commissioned at the BESSY storage ring in Berlin, and another project is in progress at the Swiss Light Source. The paper reviews the principle of femtoslicing, its merits and shortcomings, as well as the variations of its technical implementation. Various diagnostics techniques to detect successful laser-electron interaction are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  12. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Chemical Composition Based Aerosol Optical Properties According to Size Distribution and Mixture Types during Smog and Asian Dust Events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Um, Junshik; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.

  15. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  16. Role of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and N-Terminal Prohormone BNP as Predictors of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With a Recent Coronary Event and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsk, Emil; Claggett, Brian; Pfeffer, Marc A; Diaz, Rafael; Dickstein, Kenneth; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Lawson, Francesca C; Lewis, Eldrin F; Maggioni, Aldo P; McMurray, John J V; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Riddle, Matthew C; Solomon, Scott D; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Køber, Lars

    2017-05-29

    Natriuretic peptides are recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure, but less is known about their prognostic importance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We sought to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could enhance risk prediction of a broad range of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus were prospectively enrolled in the ELIXA trial (n=5525, follow-up time 26 months). Best risk models were constructed from relevant baseline variables with and without BNP/NT-proBNP. C statistics, Net Reclassification Index, and Integrated Discrimination Index were analyzed to estimate the value of adding BNP or NT-proBNP to best risk models. Overall, BNP and NT-proBNP were the most important predictors of all outcomes examined, irrespective of history of heart failure or any prior cardiovascular disease. BNP significantly improved C statistics when added to risk models for each outcome examined, the strongest increments being in death (0.77-0.82, P type 2 diabetes mellitus, BNP and NT-proBNP were powerful predictors of cardiovascular outcomes beyond heart failure and death, ie, were also predictive of MI and stroke. Natriuretic peptides added as much predictive information about death as all other conventional variables combined. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01147250. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.

  18. Patient awareness of stent type, risk of cardiac events, and symptoms of myocardial infarction among PCI patients: a missed educational opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Alexis A; Hafiz, Abdul Moiz; Naidu, Srihari S; Marzo, Kevin P

    2011-04-01

     Timely and successful treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) requires accurate recognition by the patient of the signs and symptoms. As patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain at risk for cardiac events, it is important that they have a basic understanding of their cardiac status.  We surveyed 80 consecutive patients following elective PCI using a simple multiple-choice questionnaire. Type of stent (bare metal or drug-eluting), how they perceive the procedure would affect their cardiovascular health, their perceived risk of a future MI, and whether they recalled specific education on how to recognize symptoms of an MI were queried.  45% (n = 36) of patients were unaware of stent type. 10% stated PCI was performed to relieve symptoms of angina, 30% (n = 24) stated it would prevent MI, 56.3% (n = 45) stated that it would both prevent MI and reduce symptoms of angina, while 3.8% stated it would do neither. 86.3% (n = 69) stated they remained at risk for MI despite the procedure. However, 42.5% (n = 34) of patients did not perceive to have received specific education on the signs and symptoms of MI during their hospital stay.  Patient understanding of stent type, expected cardiovascular outcomes, and recognition of MI post-PCI appears low in the real-world setting. A systematic approach to post-PCI education should be incorporated into routine care, in order to capitalize on the educational opportunity afforded by this high risk population. ©2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. NRL ion ring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Drobot, A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Marsh, S.J.; Pasour, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment is under way to form a storng proton ring using the 200 ka, 1.2 MeV, 50 nsec hollow proton beam recently generated at NRL. The 5 m long magnetic field configuration consists of a magnetic cusp, a compressing magnetic field, a gate field and a magnetic mirror. The midplane value of the magnetic mirror is such that the major radius of the ring will be about 10 cm. The degree of field reversal that will be achieved with 5 x 10 16 protons per pulse from the existing beam depends upon the field reversal is possible with the 600 kA proton beam that would be generated from the low inductance coaxial triode coupled to the upgraded Gamble II generator. The propagation and trapping of an intense proton beam in the experimental magnetic field configuration is investigated numerically. The results show that the self magnetic has a very pronounced effect on the dynamics of the gyrating protons

  20. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  1. Magnetization of two coupled rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y; Luck, J M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the persistent currents and magnetization of a mesoscopic system consisting of two clean metallic rings sharing a single contact point in a magnetic field. Many novel features with respect to the single-ring geometry are underlined, including the explicit dependence of wavefunctions on the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes, the complex pattern of two-fold and three-fold degeneracies, the key role of length and flux commensurability, and in the case of commensurate ring lengths the occurrence of idle levels which do not carry any current. Spin-orbit interactions, induced by the electric fields of charged wires threading the rings, give rise to a peculiar version of the Aharonov-Casher effect where, unlike for a single ring, spin is not conserved. Remarkably enough, this can only be realized when the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes in both rings are neither integer nor half-integer multiples of the flux quantum

  2. Polar ring galaxies in the Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Ido; Funes, José G.; Brosch, Noah

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of 16 candidate polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) identified by the Galaxy Zoo project in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base. Deep images of five galaxies are available in the SDSS Stripe82 data base, while to reach similar depth we observed the remaining galaxies with the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We derive integrated magnitudes and u-r colours for the host and ring components and show continuum-subtracted Hα+[N II] images for seven objects. We present a basic morphological and environmental analysis of the galaxies and discuss their properties in comparison with other types of early-type galaxies. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow a kinematic confirmation of the nature of these systems and a more detailed analysis of their stellar populations.

  3. The role of forest type on throughfall during extreme precipitation events - A comparison of methods using data from the Pohorje mountains (NE Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhar, Urša; Simončič, Primož

    2013-04-01

    highest in the spruce stands, ranging from 78 % to 96 % of the bulk precipitation. In mixed spruce-beech stands seasonal throughfall ranged from 76 % to 96 % of the of the bulk precipitation, respectively. Seasonal stemflow on beech trees was 4 to 5 % of the bulk precipitation. An illustration using half-hourly throughfall data during extreme precipitation events also showed small differences in throughfall intensities among the coniferous and mixed deciduous-coniferous stands. The implementation of hydrology-oriented sylvicultural measures via a more accurate prediction of the impacts of tree species conversion on throughfall in this type of alpine forest is discussed.

  4. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  5. Eddy current inspection of stationary blade rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywosz, K.J.; Hastings, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary turbine blade rings in a US power plant have experienced chloride-induced cracking. Failure analysis determined two types of cracking mechanisms: corrosion fatigue cracking confined to the leading edge of the outer shroud; and stress corrosion cracking present all over the blade surface. Fluorescent dye penetrant is typically used to detect and size cracks. However, it requires cleaning the blade rings by sandblasting to obtain reliable inspection results. Sand blasting in turn requires sealing the lower half of the turbine housing to prevent sand from contaminating the rest of the power plant components. Furthermore, both the penetrant examination and the removal of the sand are time consuming and costly. An alternative NDE technique is desirable which requires no pre-cleaning of the blade and a quick go/no-go inspection with the capability of estimating the crack length. This paper presents an innovative eddy current technique which meets the desired objectives by incorporating the use of specially designed contoured scanners equipped with an array of pancake coils. A set of eddy current pancake coils housed in three different scanners is used to manually scan and inspect the convex side of the stationary blade rings. The pancake coils are operated in a transmit/receive mode using two separate eddy current instruments. This paper presents the inspection concept, including scanner and probe designs, and test results from the various stages of multiple blade rings

  6. Vortex formation in narrow ferromagnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaeui, M; Vaz, C A F; Lopez-Diaz, L; Bland, J A C

    2003-01-01

    The high-symmetry ring geometry is shown to exhibit a wide range of intriguing magnetostatic and magnetodynamic properties, which we survey in this topical review. We consider first the patterning and deposition techniques, which are used to fabricate ring structures (diameters between 0.1 and 2 μm) and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages. The results of direct nanoscale imaging of the novel magnetization configurations present in rings with different geometrical parameters (including discs) are discussed. These results give valuable insight into the influence of the magnetic anisotropies governing the magnetic states. The different types of domain walls that arise are compared quantitatively to micromagnetic simulations. The magnetodynamic switching between the different magnetic states is described in detail. In particular we elaborate on the different geometry-dependent magnetic switchings, since the different transitions occurring allow us to determine which energy terms govern the reversal process. We discuss a process by which fast (sub-ns) and controlled switching can be achieved, therefore making rings an attractive geometry for applications, in addition to studying fundamental issues of nanomagnetism. (topical review)

  7. Monopole-antimonopole and vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory supports the existence of monopoles, antimonopoles, and vortex rings. In this paper, we would like to present new exact static antimonopole-monopole-antimonopole (A-M-A) configurations. The net magnetic charge of these configurations is always -1, while the net magnetic charge at the origin is always +1 for all positive integer values of the solution's parameter m. However, when m increases beyond 1, vortex rings appear coexisting with these AMA configurations. The number of vortex rings increases proportionally with the value of m. They are located in space where the Higgs field vanishes along rings. We also show that a single-point singularity in the Higgs field does not necessarily correspond to a structureless 1-monopole at the origin but to a zero-size monopole-antimonopole-monopole (MAM) structure when the solution's parameter m is odd. This monopole is the Wu-Yang-type monopole and it possesses the Dirac string potential in the Abelian gauge. These exact solutions are a different kind of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) solutions as they satisfy the first-order Bogomol'nyi equation but possess infinite energy due to a point singularity at the origin of the coordinate axes. They are all axially symmetrical about the z-axis

  8. Many missing rings in old Canary pines can be related with age, fires and traditional uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Génova, M.; Santana, C.; Martínez, B.

    2017-11-01

    Aim and area of study: In the present paper we estimated the age of four monumental Pinus canariensis of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) by means of tree-ring analysis. Many tree-ring series have been accurately studied and many missing rings have been determined. Material and methods: The trees were dead and the samples analysed were big disks. We measured numerous radii and crossdated the individual tree-ring series, paying particular attention to the existence and location of missing rings. We have distinguished between missing outer rings (MORs) and missing inner rings (MIRs) and analysed the possible causes of both. Main results: We determined an average of 8.8% total missing rings (MRs) for these long-lived trees, with a maximum of 96 MRs in a series of over 500. We have tried to establish a tree-ring chronology on Gran Canaria Island, also having the tree-ring series from Inagua site, but the long individual tree-ring series analysed do not crossdate between them. Research highlights: We consider the Canary pine a species hard to conducting dendroecological studies, especially if the samples come from managed old trees, in which a large amount of known and potentially unknown missing rings can hampered dating. Even knowing the difficulties involved in dendrochronological analyses of P. canariensis, we can confirm that it is a long-lived species, which can grow to over 500 years, and some of whose growth changes could be associated with certain historical and ecological events.

  9. Many missing rings in old Canary pines can be related with age, fires and traditional uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Génova, M.; Santana, C.; Martínez, B.

    2017-01-01

    Aim and area of study: In the present paper we estimated the age of four monumental Pinus canariensis of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) by means of tree-ring analysis. Many tree-ring series have been accurately studied and many missing rings have been determined. Material and methods: The trees were dead and the samples analysed were big disks. We measured numerous radii and crossdated the individual tree-ring series, paying particular attention to the existence and location of missing rings. We have distinguished between missing outer rings (MORs) and missing inner rings (MIRs) and analysed the possible causes of both. Main results: We determined an average of 8.8% total missing rings (MRs) for these long-lived trees, with a maximum of 96 MRs in a series of over 500. We have tried to establish a tree-ring chronology on Gran Canaria Island, also having the tree-ring series from Inagua site, but the long individual tree-ring series analysed do not crossdate between them. Research highlights: We consider the Canary pine a species hard to conducting dendroecological studies, especially if the samples come from managed old trees, in which a large amount of known and potentially unknown missing rings can hampered dating. Even knowing the difficulties involved in dendrochronological analyses of P. canariensis, we can confirm that it is a long-lived species, which can grow to over 500 years, and some of whose growth changes could be associated with certain historical and ecological events

  10. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  11. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.

    2005-09-01

    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  12. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  13. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  14. Acceleration of magnetized plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    One scheme is considered, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focussing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force F/sub a/ = kappa U/sub m//R (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  15. Ground Movement in SSRL Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunikumar, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Users of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) are being affected by diurnal motion of the synchrotron's storage ring, which undergoes structural changes due to outdoor temperature fluctuations. In order to minimize the effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, especially on the vertical motion of the ring floor, scientists at SSRL tried three approaches: painting the storage ring white, covering the asphalt in the middle of the ring with highly reflective Mylar and installing Mylar on a portion of the ring roof and walls. Vertical motion in the storage ring is measured by a Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS), which calculates the relative height of water in a pipe that extends around the ring. The 24-hr amplitude of the floor motion was determined using spectral analysis of HLS data, and the ratio of this amplitude before and after each experiment was used to quantitatively determine the efficacy of each approach. The results of this analysis showed that the Mylar did not have any significant effect on floor motion, although the whitewash project did yield a reduction in overall HLS variation of 15 percent. However, further analysis showed that the reduction can largely be attributed to a few local changes rather than an overall reduction in floor motion around the ring. Future work will consist of identifying and selectively insulating these local regions in order to find the driving force behind diurnal floor motion in the storage ring.

  16. ring og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, B.; Rattleff, Pernille; Høyrup, S.

    State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen.......State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen....

  17. Rotating ring-ring electrode theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kellyb, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  18. The Rotating Ring-Ring Electrode. Theory and Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kelly, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  19. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  20. First law of black ring thermodynamics in higher dimensional Chern-Simons gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogatko, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The physical process version and the equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with Chern-Simons term were derived. This theory constitutes the simplest generalization of the five-dimensional one admitting a stationary black ring solution. The equilibrium state version of the first law of black ring mechanics was achieved by choosing any cross section of the event horizon to the future of the bifurcation surface

  1. Controllable continuous evolution of electronic states in a single quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk; Laroze, David

    2018-02-01

    An intense terahertz laser field is shown to have a profound effect on the electronic and optical properties of quantum rings where the isotropic and anisotropic quantum rings can now be treated on equal footing. We have demonstrated that in isotropic quantum rings the laser field creates unusual Aharonov-Bohm oscillations that are usually expected in anisotropic rings. Furthermore, we have shown that intense laser fields can restore the isotropic physical properties in anisotropic quantum rings. In principle, all types of anisotropies (structural, effective masses, defects, etc.) can evolve as in isotropic rings in our present approach. Most importantly, we have found a continuous evolution of the energy spectra and intraband optical characteristics of structurally anisotropic quantum rings to those of isotropic rings in a controlled manner with the help of a laser field.

  2. Damping rings for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, John M; Zimmermann, Frank; Owen, H

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Linear Colider (CLIC) is designed to operate at 3 TeV centre-of-mass energy with a total luminosity of 10^35 cm^-2 s^-1. The overall system design leads to extremely demanding requirements on the bunch trains injected into the main libac at frequency of 100 Hz. In particular, the emittances of the intense bunches have to be about an order of magnitude smaller than presently achieved. We describe our approach to finding a damping ring design capable of meeting these requirements. Besides lattice design, emittance and damping rate considerations, a number of scattering and instability effects have to be incorporated into the optimisation of parameters. Among these, intra-bem scattering and the electron cloud effect are two of the most significant.

  3. Does the sun ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaak, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    The work of various groups, which have been investigating the possibility of measuring the periodicities of solar oscillations in an attempt to test theoretical models of the sun, is reported. In particular the observation of small velocity oscillations of the surface layers of the sun that permits the measurement of the sound waves (or phonons) in the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Oscillations with periods of 2.65 h, 58 and 40 min and amplitudes of 2.7, 0.8 and 0.7 ms -1 respectively are reported. Support for a periodicity at about 2.65 h from a number of other groups using other measuring techniques are considered. It is felt that the most probable interpretation of the observed solar oscillations is that the sun is a resonator which is ringing. (UK)

  4. Modulation of cognitive control levels via manipulation of saccade trial-type probability assessed with event-related BOLD fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control supports flexible behavior adapted to meet current goals and can be modeled through investigation of saccade tasks with varying cognitive demands. Basic prosaccades (rapid glances toward a newly appearing stimulus) are supported by neural circuitry, including occipital and posterior parietal cortex, frontal and supplementary eye fields, and basal ganglia. These trials can be contrasted with complex antisaccades (glances toward the mirror image location of a stimulus), which are characterized by greater functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the aforementioned regions and recruitment of additional regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current study manipulated the cognitive demands of these saccade tasks by presenting three rapid event-related runs of mixed saccades with a varying probability of antisaccade vs. prosaccade trials (25, 50, or 75%). Behavioral results showed an effect of trial-type probability on reaction time, with slower responses in runs with a high antisaccade probability. Imaging results exhibited an effect of probability in bilateral pre- and postcentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Additionally, the interaction between saccade trial type and probability revealed a strong probability effect for prosaccade trials, showing a linear increase in activation parallel to antisaccade probability in bilateral temporal/occipital, posterior parietal, medial frontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, antisaccade trials showed elevated activation across all runs. Overall, this study demonstrated that improbable performance of a typically simple prosaccade task led to augmented BOLD signal to support changing cognitive control demands, resulting in activation levels similar to the more complex antisaccade task. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Treatment Discontinuation and Clinical Events in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated with Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors or NPH Insulin as Third-Line Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. Moura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, in terms of effectiveness and safety for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 not controlled on metformin and sulfonylureas. Methods. A retrospective cohort study of individuals with DM2 newly dispensed with either DPP-4 inhibitors or NPH as third-line therapy, after metformin and sulfonylurea. Treatment discontinuation, macrovascular outcomes, and hypoglycemia were compared using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for sex, age, year of cohort entry, place of residence, hypertension, past history of hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, comorbidities, and number of visits to emergency departments, outpatient physician, and hospitalizations. Results. Treatment discontinuation and hypoglycemia occurred more frequently with NPH than with DPP-4 inhibitor users. In the adjusted Cox model, the use of NPH compared to that of DPP-4 inhibitors was associated with a higher risk of discontinuation (HR: 1.33; 95% CI 1.27–1.40 and hypoglycemia (HR: 2.98; 95% CI 2.72–3.28. Risk of cardiovascular events was similar across groups. Conclusions. This real-world analysis suggests that DM2 patients initiating third-line therapy with NPH have poorer control of diabetes when compared to DPP-4 inhibitor initiators.

  6. Ring-shaped lesions in the CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazner, E.; Steinhoff, H.; Wende, S.; Mauersberger, W.

    1978-01-01

    Computerised tomography has really opened new dimensions for the diagnosis of various intracranial space-occupying lesions. However, during the last years we had to learn how difficult it can be to evaluate a certain CT finding correctly. Especially the group of ring-type lesions still pose some unsolved problems even if clinical information available in the individual case is considered. The ring blush is a nonspecific finding which occurs in primary and metastatic neoplasms, abscess, infarction, certain stages of intracerebral hematomas and even after neurosurgical operations. The ring blush is caused partly by breakdown of the blood brain barrier, partly by hypervascular pathologic tissue or by both factors. (orig.) [de

  7. Inelastic magnetic scattering of polarized neutrons by a superconducting ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A. I.

    2011-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of cold neutrons by a ring leads to quantum jumps of a superconducting current which correspond to a decrease in the fluxoid quantum number by one or several units while the change in the ring energy is transferred to the kinetic energy of the scattered neutron. The scattering cross sections of transversely polarized neutrons have been calculated for a thin type-II superconductor ring, the thickness of which is smaller than the field penetration depth but larger than the electron mean free path.

  8. Limb malformations with associated congenital constriction rings in two unrelated Egyptian males, one with a disorganization-like spectrum and the other with a probable distinct type of septo-optic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtamy, Samia A; Aglan, Mona S; Ashour, Adel M; El-Badry, Tarek H

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we describe two unrelated Egyptian male infants with limb malformations and constriction rings. The first case is developing normally but has severe limb anomalies, congenital constriction rings, scoliosis because of vertebral anomalies, a left accessory nipple, a small tumor-like swelling on his lower back with tiny skin tubular appendages, a hypoplastic scrotum, and an anchored penis. The second case is developmentally delayed with limb malformations, congenital constriction rings, a lumbar myelomeningeocele, hemangioma, and tiny tubular skin appendages on the back. The patient also had bilateral optic atrophy. The constellation of features in our patients cannot be fully explained by the amniotic disruption complex. The first patient may represent an additional case of the human homolog of the mouse disorganization mutant. The presence of bilateral optic atrophy in the second case, although without an absent septum pellucidum nor other brain anomalies resembles the infrequently reported disorder of septo-optic dysplasia with limb anomalies. Both cases were sporadic and could be caused by a new dominant mutation because of the high paternal age of case 1 and the history of paternal occupational exposure to heat for both fathers. We draw attention to the phenotypic overlap between the disorganization-like syndrome and septo-optic dysplasia with limb anomalies.

  9. Electron-muon coincidences in proton-proton collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A G; Darriulat, Pierre; Eggert, K; Hungerbühler, V; Jenni, Peter; Lapuyade, C; Modis, T; Pérez, P; Renshall, H; Richter, Burton; Smadja, G; Strauss, J; Strolin, P; Tarnopolsky, G J; Teiger, J; Tur, C; Vialle, J P; Zaccone, Henri; Zallo, A; Zylberstejn, A

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment carried out at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings with a highly selective electron spectrometer system and a magnetized iron filter to detect muons, the authors have observed 32+or-16 dilepton events of the type p+p to mu /sup +or-/+e/sup -or+/+... The integrated luminosity of the experiment was (2.0+or-0.1)*10/sup 37/ cm /sup -2/, and the over-all detection efficiency 0.14+or-0.07. Interpreting this signal as due to charmed meson-pair production, the authors estimate a model-dependent acceptance of 6.5*10/sup -5/ per event, and a cross-section sigma (p+p to D+D+...)=(18+or-9) mu b, with a scale uncertainty of 50% due to the detection efficiency. (9 refs).

  10. How Jupiter's Ring Was Discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, James; Kerr, Richard

    1985-01-01

    "Rings" (by astronomer James Elliot and science writer Richard Kerr) is a nontechnical book about the discovery and exploration of ring systems from the time of Galileo to the era of the Voyager spacecraft. One of this book's chapters is presented. (JN)

  11. An event database for rotational seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvermoser, Johannes; Hadziioannou, Celine; Hable, Sarah; Chow, Bryant; Krischer, Lion; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    The ring laser sensor (G-ring) located at Wettzell, Germany, routinely observes earthquake-induced rotational ground motions around a vertical axis since its installation in 2003. Here we present results from a recently installed event database which is the first that will provide ring laser event data in an open access format. Based on the GCMT event catalogue and some search criteria, seismograms from the ring laser and the collocated broadband seismometer are extracted and processed. The ObsPy-based processing scheme generates plots showing waveform fits between rotation rate and transverse acceleration and extracts characteristic wavefield parameters such as peak ground motions, noise levels, Love wave phase velocities and waveform coherence. For each event, these parameters are stored in a text file (json dictionary) which is easily readable and accessible on the website. The database contains >10000 events starting in 2007 (Mw>4.5). It is updated daily and therefore provides recent events at a time lag of max. 24 hours. The user interface allows to filter events for epoch, magnitude, and source area, whereupon the events are displayed on a zoomable world map. We investigate how well the rotational motions are compatible with the expectations from the surface wave magnitude scale. In addition, the website offers some python source code examples for downloading and processing the openly accessible waveforms.

  12. Hemoglobin stability in patients with anemia, CKD, and type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the TREAT (Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy) placebo arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skali, Hicham; Lin, Julie; Pfeffer, Marc A; Chen, Chao-Yin; Cooper, Mark E; McMurray, John J V; Nissenson, Allen R; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rossert, Jerome; Parfrey, Patrick S; Scott-Douglas, Nairne W; Singh, Ajay K; Toto, Robert; Uno, Hajime; Ivanovich, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Sparse data are available about the natural history of hemoglobin (Hb) level trends in contemporary patients with anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We intended to describe Hb level trends over time with no or minimal administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Prospective clinical trial cohort. 2,019 individuals with type 2 diabetes, moderate anemia, and CKD from the placebo arm of the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) followed up for 2.3 years with an average of 32 monthly Hb level determinations per patient. Darbepoetin alfa was administered only if Hb level decreased to protocol-directed doses of darbepoetin alfa received due to an Hb level decrease to protocol-directed darbepoetin alfa. The other patients received 1 (16%), 2-4 (16%), or 5 or more (13%) doses of darbepoetin alfa. Those who received no darbepoetin alfa doses had higher baseline Hb levels, higher estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs), less proteinuria, and lower ferritin and transferrin saturation values. On average, Hb levels were stable or increased in all groups. Compared with individuals who received no darbepoetin alfa, those who received 5 or more doses were more likely to receive intravenous iron therapy and blood transfusions and progress to renal replacement therapy, but were not at higher risk of death. The strongest predictors of requiring 5 or more doses of darbepoetin alfa were lower baseline Hb level, lower eGFR, and higher proteinuria level. Post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of a specific population with diabetes, anemia, and non-dialysis-dependent CKD. In the TREAT placebo arm, Hb levels were stable with no or minimal protocol-directed darbepoetin alfa during 2.3 years of follow-up. Most patients with moderate anemia, non-dialysis-dependent CKD, and type 2 diabetes are able to maintain a stable Hb level without implementing long-term erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy. Copyright © 2013

  13. Binomial Rings: Axiomatisation, Transfer and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xantcha, Qimh Richey

    2011-01-01

    Hall's binomial rings, rings with binomial coefficients, are given an axiomatisation and proved identical to the numerical rings studied by Ekedahl. The Binomial Transfer Principle is established, enabling combinatorial proofs of algebraical identities. The finitely generated binomial rings are completely classified. An application to modules over binomial rings is given.

  14. Transitioning Traditions: Rectifying an Ontario Camp's Indian Council Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Council Ring has always been a very special event, remembered fondly by generations of campers. Taylor Statten Camps (TSC) are not the only camps to cherish such an activity. Across Canada there are dozens of camps that have supported "Indian" assemblies in the past, but a select few still do. Most organizations abandoned them during the…

  15. An iterative method for the analysis of Cherenkov rings in the HERA-B RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staric, M.; Krizan, P.

    1999-01-01

    A new method is presented for the analysis of data recorded with a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter. The method, an iterative sorting of hits on the photon detector, is particularly useful for events where rings overlap considerably. The algorithm was tested on simulated data for the HERA-B experiment

  16. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  17. Ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.-H.

    1982-01-01

    Using strict selection criteria, the author and colleagues have searched for ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. 15 WR ring nebulae are identified in the Galaxy, 9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and none in the small Magellanic Cloud. The morphology and kinematics of these 24 nebulae have subsequently been observed to study their nature. These nebulae and their references are listed and a correlation between spectral and nebular types is presented. (Auth.)

  18. Beam-plasma interaction in a synchrotron-cooler ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itahashi, T.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a plasma target installed in the synchrotron-cooler ring in order to study the beam-plasma interaction. Various types of beam diagnostic devices and precise techniques developed for stochastic cooling and rf-stacking in the storage ring would be a powerful tool to approach the problems concerning the plasma behavior induced by the beam, such as plasma lens effect, anomalous stopping power and plasma instability. (author)

  19. FACT. Multivariate extraction of muon ring images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethe, Maximilian; Temme, Fabian; Buss, Jens [Experimentelle Physik 5b, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, muon ring images are an important event class for instrument calibration and monitoring of its properties. In this talk, a multivariate approach will be presented, that is well suited for real time extraction of muons from data streams of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT). FACT, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is located on the Canary Island of La Palma and is the first IACT to use Silicon Photomultipliers for detecting the Cherenkov photons of extensive air showers. In case of FACT, the extracted muon events are used to calculate the time resolution of the camera. In addition, the effect of the mirror alignment in May 2014 on properties of detected muons is investigated. Muon candidates are identified with a random forest classification algorithm. The performance of the classifier is evaluated for different sets of image parameters in order to compare the gain in performance with the computational costs of their calculation.

  20. Experimentqal and analytical study on thermocracking of alumina ceramic ring in a mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, M.; Matsuda, K.; Kaneta, M.

    1994-04-01

    A mechanism of thermocracking, which occurs in an alumina ceramic ring of a mechanical face seal, is proposed based on experimental and analytical results. Methods for its prevention are also discussed. The experiments were conducted using an external type mechanical face seal composed of a carbon ring and three kinds of alumina ceramic rings, with distilled water as the liquid to be sealed. By using a layer of gold vacuum deposited onto the surface of the ceramic ring as a part of a DC circuit, the moment of crack initiation was identified. The thermal stresses produced in the ceramic ring by frictional heating were calculated using finite element analysis.

  1. Evaluation of ring impedance of the Photon Factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, T.; Izawa, M.; Tokumoto, S.; Hori, Y.; Sakanaka, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kobayakawa, H.

    1992-05-01

    The loss parameters of the ducts in the Photon Factory (PF) storage ring were evaluated using the wire method and the code TBCI. Both the measurement and the calculation were done for a different bunch length (σ) ranging from 23 to 80 ps. The PF ring impedance was estimated to be |Z/n|=3.2 Ω using the broadband impedance model. The major contribution to the impedance comes from the bellows and the gate valve sections. Improvements of these components will lower the ring impedance by half. (author)

  2. Timing of False Ring Formation in Pinus halepensis and Arbutus unedo in Southern Italy: Outlook from an Analysis of Xylogenesis and Tree-Ring Chronologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Balzano, Angela; Čufar, Katarina; Aronne, Giovanna; Gričar, Jožica; Merela, Maks; Battipaglia, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean tree rings are characterized by intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) due to partly climate-driven cambial activity. IADFs are used as structural signals to gain information on relations between environmental conditions and eco-physiological processes during xylogenesis, with intra-annual resolution. To reach an unbiased synchronization of the IADF position within tree rings and seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, it is necessary to know the timing of cambial activity and wood formation, which are species- and site-specific processes. We applied the microcoring technique to analyze xylogenesis in Pinus halepensis and Arbutus unedo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study xylogenesis in a hardwood species forming frequent IADFs. Both species co-occur at a site in southern Italy characterized by a Mediterranean climate. To facilitate tree-ring dating and identification of IADFs, we performed traditional dendroecological analysis. We analyzed xylogenesis during summer, which is considered a constraint for xylogenesis and a trigger for IADF formation. We followed the different phases of cell development in the current wood increment with the aim of evaluating whether and which type of IADFs were formed. We additionally analyzed the same phases again in September and in winter to verify the possible formation of IADFs in fall and whether cell production and differentiation was completed by the end of the calendar year. Both species formed the same type of IADFs (earlywood-like cells within latewood), due to temporary growth restoration triggered by rain events during the period of summer drought. At the end of the calendar year, no cells in the phases of enlargement and secondary cell wall deposition occurred. A. unedo was more sensitive than P. halepensis because IADFs were formed earlier in the season and were more frequent in the tree-ring series. The dendro-anatomical approach, combining analysis of tree-ring

  3. TIMING OF FALSE RING FORMATION IN PINUS HALEPENSIS AND ARBUTUS UNEDO IN SOUTHERN ITALY: OUTLOOK FROM AN ANALYSIS OF XYLOGENESIS AND TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eDe Micco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean tree rings are characterized by Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs due to partly climate-driven cambial activity. IADFs are used as structural signals to gain information on relations between environmental conditions and eco-physiological processes during xylogenesis, with intra-annual resolution.To reach an unbiased synchronization of the IADF position within tree rings and seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, it is necessary to know the timing of cambial activity and wood formation, which are species- and site-specific processes.We applied the microcoring technique to analyze xylogenesis in Pinus halepensis and Arbutus unedo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study xylogenesis in a hardwood species forming frequent IADFs. Both species co-occur at a site in southern Italy characterized by a Mediterranean climate. To facilitate tree-ring dating and identification of IADFs, we performed traditional dendroecological analysis. We analyzed xylogenesis during summer, which is considered a constraint for xylogenesis and a trigger for IADF formation. We followed the different phases of cell development in the current wood increment with the aim of evaluating whether and which type of IADFs were formed. We additionally analyzed the same phases again in September and in winter to verify the possible formation of IADFs in fall and whether cell production and differentiation was completed by the end of the calendar year.Both species formed the same type of IADFs (earlywood-like cells within latewood, due to temporary growth restoration triggered by rain events during the period of summer drought. At the end of the calendar year, no cells in the phases of enlargement and secondary cell wall deposition occurred. A. unedo was more sensitive than P. halepensis because IADFs were formed earlier in the season and were more frequent in the tree-ring series.The dendro-anatomical approach, combining

  4. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  5. Hubble again views Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Saturn's magnificent ring system is seen tilted edge-on -- for the second time this year -- in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture taken on August 10, 1995, when the planet was 895 million miles (1,440 million kilometers) away. Hubble snapped the image as Earth sped back across Saturn's ring plane to the sunlit side of the rings. Last May 22, Earth dipped below the ring plane, giving observers a brief look at the backlit side of the rings. Ring-plane crossing events occur approximately every 15 years. Earthbound observers won't have as good a view until the year 2038. Several of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are from left to right, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Mimas. 'The Hubble data shows numerous faint satellites close to the bright rings, but it will take a couple of months to precisely identify them,' according to Steve Larson (University of Arizona). During the May ring plane crossing, Hubble detected two, and possibly four, new moons orbiting Saturn. These new observations also provide a better view of the faint E ring, 'to help determine the size of particles and whether they will pose a collision hazard to the Cassini spacecraft,' said Larson. The picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in wide field mode. This image is a composite view, where a long exposure of the faint rings has been combined with a shorter exposure of Saturn's disk to bring out more detail. When viewed edge-on, the rings are so dim they almost disappear because they are very thin -- probably less than a mile thick.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  6. Tinkering at the main-ring lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-08-23

    To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

  7. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  8. The Ring Current Response to Solar and Interplanetary Storm Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Bingham, S.; Kronberg, E. A.; Gkioulidou, M.; Huang, C. L.; Farrugia, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The ring current responds differently to the different solar and interplanetary storm drivers such as coronal mass injections, (CME's), corotating interaction regions (CIR's), high-speed streamers and other structures. The resulting changes in the ring current particle pressure, in turn, change the global magnetic field, controlling the transport of the radiation belts. To quantitatively determine the field changes during a storm throughout the magnetosphere, it is necessary to understand the transport, sources and losses of the particles that contribute to the ring current. Because the measured ring current energy spectra depend not only on local processes, but also on the history of the ions along their entire drift path, measurements of ring current energy spectra at two or more locations can be used to strongly constrain the time dependent magnetic and electric fields. In this study we use data predominantly from the Cluster and the Van Allen Probes, covering more than a full solar cycle (from 2001 to 2014). For the period 2001-2012, the Cluster CODIF and RAPID measurements of the inner magnetosphere are the primary data set used to monitor the storm time ring current variability. After 2012, the Cluster data set complements the data from the Van Allen Probes HOPE and RBSPICE instruments, providing additional measurements from different MLT and L shells. Selected storms from this periods, allow us to study the ring current dynamics and pressure changes, as a function of L shell, magnetic local time, and the type of interplanetary disturbances.

  9. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  10. Quantum Fourier Transform Over Galois Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Galois rings are regarded as "building blocks" of a finite commutative ring with identity. There have been many papers on classical error correction codes over Galois rings published. As an important warm-up before exploring quantum algorithms and quantum error correction codes over Galois rings, we study the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Galois rings and prove it can be efficiently preformed on a quantum computer. The properties of the QFT over Galois rings lead to the quantum algorit...

  11. Bird feeders may sustain feral Rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri in temperate Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Clergeau , Philippe; Vergnes , Alan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The Rose-ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri, a bird species of subtropical origin, has established feral populations in temperate Europe. We analysed the feeding habits of Rose-ringed parakeets near Paris, France, in order to assess if food provided by humans might contribute to the success of this invasive bird species. We considered 87 feeding events performed during 2002 -2007 and 247 feeding events performed during March -November 2008. We recorded the consumption ...

  12. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  13. Researches on the Piston Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehihara, Keikiti

    1944-01-01

    In internal combustion engines, steam engines, air compressors, and so forth, the piston ring plays an important role. Especially, the recent development of Diesel engines which require a high compression pressure for their working, makes, nowadays, the packing action of the piston ring far more important than ever. Though a number of papers have been published in regard to researches on the problem of the piston ring, none has yet dealt with an exact measurement of pressure exerted on the cylinder wall at any given point of the ring. The only paper that can be traced on this subject so far is Mr. Nakagawa's report on the determination of the relative distribution of pressure on the cylinder wall, but the measuring method adopted therein appears to need further consideration. No exact idea has yet been obtained as to how the obturation of gas between the piston and cylinder, the frictional resistance of the piston, and the wear of the cylinder wall are affected by the intensity and the distribution of the radial pressure of the piston ring. Consequently, the author has endeavored, by employing an apparatus of his own invention, to get an exact determination of the pressure distribution of the piston ring. By means of a newly devised ring tester, to which piezoelectricity of quartz was applied, the distribution of the radial pressure of many sample rings on the market was accurately determined. Since many famous piston rings show very irregular pressure distribution, the author investigated and achieved a manufacturing process of the piston ring which will exert uniform pressure on the cylinder wall. Temperature effects on the configuration and on the mean spring power have also been studied. Further, the tests were performed to ascertain how the gas tightness of the piston ring may be affected by the number or spring power. The researches as to the frictional resistance between the piston ring and the cylinder wall were carried out, too. The procedure of study, and

  14. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  15. Distributively generated matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    It is known that if R is a near ring with identity then (I,+) is abelian if (I + ,+) is abelian and (I,+) is abelian if (I*,+) is abelian [S.J. Abbasi, J.D.P. Meldrum, 1991]. This paper extends these results. We show that if R is a distributively generated near ring with identity then (I,+) is included in Z(R), the center of R, if (I + ,+) is included in Z(M n (R)), the center of matrix near ring M n (R). Furthermore (I,+) is included in Z(R) if (I*,+) is included in Z(M n (R)). (author). 5 refs

  16. SMARANDACHE NON-ASSOCIATIVE RINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2002-01-01

    An associative ring is just realized or built using reals or complex; finite or infinite by defining two binary operations on it. But on the contrary when we want to define or study or even introduce a non-associative ring we need two separate algebraic structures say a commutative ring with 1 (or a field) together with a loop or a groupoid or a vector space or a linear algebra. The two non-associative well-known algebras viz. Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are mainly built using a vecto...

  17. Influence of educational attainments on long term glucose control and morbid events in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving integrated care from 15 China urban communities: The Beijing Community Diabetes Study 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Ran; Yuan, Shen-Yuan; Fu, Han-Jing; Wan, Gang; Zhu, Liang-Xiang; Yuan, Ming-Xia; Lv, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Du, Xue-Ping; Li, Yu-Ling; Ji, Yu; Zhou, Li; Li, Yue

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of educational attainment on glucose control and morbid events in patients with type 2 diabetes in Beijing communities. In this prospective multi-center study, 2866 type 2 diabetes patients receiving integrated care from 15 Beijing urban communities were investigated. Educational attainment was categorized into three levels: low, medium, and high. After a 42-month management, glucose control parameters and morbid events were analyzed. At baseline, the percentages of patients with good glucose control (HbA1c ≤ 7.0%) in the low, medium and high educational groups were 49.09%, 54.82% and 62.59%, respectively (Peducational group (7.51 ± 2.05 mmol/l and 7.20 ± 1.27%, respectively). Percentages of patients with good glucose control in the three groups were 49.6%, 55.83% and 67.23%, respectively, and the incidences of combined morbid events were 4.5%, 2.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that educational level was related to the incidence of combined morbid events (medium level, HR=0.572; high level, HR=0.351; PEducational level was associated with long-term glucose control, and seemed to be related to the incidence of combined morbid events in people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective Tree-ring Models: A Novel Method for Reconstructing Streamflow Using Tree Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foard, M. B.; Nelson, A. S.; Harley, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Surface water is among the most instrumental and vulnerable resources in the Northwest United States (NW). Recent observations show that overall water quantity is declining in streams across the region, while extreme flooding events occur more frequently. Historical streamflow models inform probabilities of extreme flow events (flood or drought) by describing frequency and duration of past events. There are numerous examples of tree-rings being utilized to reconstruct streamflow in the NW. These models confirm that tree-rings are highly accurate at predicting streamflow, however there are many nuances that limit their applicability through time and space. For example, most models predict streamflow from hydrologically altered rivers (e.g. dammed, channelized) which may hinder our ability to predict natural prehistoric flow. They also have a tendency to over/under-predict extreme flow events. Moreover, they often neglect to capture the changing relationships between tree-growth and streamflow over time and space. To address these limitations, we utilized national tree-ring and streamflow archives to investigate the relationships between the growth of multiple coniferous species and free-flowing streams across the NW using novel species-and site-specific streamflow models - a term we coined"selective tree-ring models." Correlation function analysis and regression modeling were used to evaluate the strengths and directions of the flow-growth relationships. Species with significant relationships in the same direction were identified as strong candidates for selective models. Temporal and spatial patterns of these relationships were examined using running correlations and inverse distance weighting interpolation, respectively. Our early results indicate that (1) species adapted to extreme climates (e.g. hot-dry, cold-wet) exhibit the most consistent relationships across space, (2) these relationships weaken in locations with mild climatic variability, and (3) some

  19. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Vishay Si7414DN n-Type TrenchFET(Registered Trademark) Power MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Casey, M. C.; Campola, M. A.; Phan, A. M.; Wilcox, E. P.; Topper, A. D.; Ladbury, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study was being undertaken to determine the single event effect susceptibility of the commercial Vishay 60-V TrenchFET power MOSFET. Heavy-ion testing was conducted at the Texas AM University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility (TAMU) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory BASE Cyclotron Facility (LBNL). In addition, initial 200-MeV proton testing was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Francis H. Burr Proton Beam Therapy Center. Testing was performed to evaluate this device for single-event effects from lower-LET, lighter ions relevant to higher risk tolerant space missions.

  20. Seeking for toroidal event horizons from initially stationary BH configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Marcelo; Lousto, Carlos; Zlochower, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    We construct and evolve non-rotating vacuum initial data with a ring singularity, based on a simple extension of the standard Brill-Lindquist multiple BH initial data, and search for event horizons with spatial slices that are toroidal when the ring radius is sufficiently large. While evolutions of the ring singularity are not numerically feasible for large radii, we find some evidence, based on configurations of multiple BHs arranged in a ring, that this configuration leads to singular limit where the horizon width has zero size, possibly indicating the presence of a naked singularity, when the radius of the ring is sufficiently large. This is in agreement with previous studies that have found that there is no apparent horizon surrounding the ring singularity when the ring's radius is larger than about twice its mass.

  1. Separating rings detection in fuel channels of Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Otero, P.A.; Schmidt, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The design specifications of Embalse Nuclear Power Plants (CANDU Type Reactor 600Mw) define the positions to be taken by 4 separating rings of the fuel channels. Experience has demonstrated the displacement possibility of the above mentioned rings. It means a risk of contact between pressure tube and calandria tube. In order to determine the position of separating rings, an inspection system based on Eddy Currents technique was developed by CNEA personnel. Detection is performed through two special probes operating according the ''emitter-receiver'' principle. Obtained signals and its relative position are recorded in a video tape and registered in paper. The probe is telecommanded by an automatic equipment. In this paper the construction and calibration of the detection equipment is described, as well as the propulsion. Final results are also outlined in the inspection carried out in November 1986 when an effective displacement of separating rings was verified from its design position in most of the inspected tubes

  2. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  3. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  4. Cosmic rings from colliding galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitton, S

    1976-11-18

    Research on two ring galaxies has led to the proposal of an interaction model to account for the rings. It is envisaged that this class of galaxy is created when a compact galaxy crashes through the disc of a spiral galaxy. The results of a spectroscopic investigation of the galaxy known as the Cartwheel and of another ring galaxy 11 NZ 4 are discussed. The general picture of ring galaxies which emerges from these studies of a massive starry nucleus with a necklace of emitting gas and some spokes and along the spin axis of the wheel a small companion galaxy that is devoid of interstellar gas. An explanation of these properties is considered.

  5. Ring lasers - a brief history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Used these days in inertial navigation, ring lasers are also used in recording the tiniest variations in the Earth's spin, as well in detecting earthquakes and even the drift of continents. How did it all begin?

  6. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  7. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  8. Synlig læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Introduktionen af John Hatties synlig læring i den danske skoleverden møder stadig meget kritik. Mange lærere og pædagoger oplever synlig læring som en tornado, der vil opsuge og ødelægge deres særlige danske udgave af den kontinentale dannelsestænkning, didaktik og pædagogik. Spørgsmålet er om...

  9. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  10. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  11. Electrically charged dilatonic black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunduri, Hari K.; Lucietti, James

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling

  12. Low emittance electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    Low-emittance electron (positron) beams are essential for synchrotron light sources, linear collider damping rings, and circular Crab Waist colliders. In this review, the principles and methods of emittance minimization are discussed, prospects for developing relativistic electron storage rings with small beam phase volume are assessed, and problems related to emittance minimization are examined together with their possible solutions. The special features and engineering implementation aspects of various facilities are briefly reviewed.

  13. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Tree-ring analysis of winter climate variability and ENSO in Mediterranean California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Univ. of Colorado, Boulder

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using tree-ring data as a proxy for regional precipitation and ENSO events in the Mediterranean region of California is explored. A transect of moisture-sensitive tree-ring sites, extending from southwestern to north-central California, documents regional patterns of winter precipitation and replicates the regional response to ENSO events in the 20. century. Proxy records of ENSO were used with the tree-ring data to examine precipitation/ENSO patterns in the 18. and 19. centuries. Results suggest some temporal and spatial variability in the regional precipitation response to ENSO over the last three centuries

  15. Conceptual design of a linac-stretcher ring to obtain a 2-gev continuous electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Khoe, T.K.; Mavrogenes, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain a high duty factor, >100 /mu/A 2-Gev electron beam, a linac-stretcher ring system was designed. The system is an attractive option because it draws heavily on the existing accelerator technology. The linac-stretcher ring consists of a 2-Gev SLAC-type pulsed linac which injects into a storage ring. In between linac pulses, the stored electron beam is to extract resonantly. This design differs from those discussed recently in several important respects. The storage ring includes an rf system whose purpose is to control the beam orbit and rate of extraction from the ring. With an rf system in the ring, the injection scheme consists of a few turns of synchronous transfers of beam between the linac and storage ring. 4 refs

  16. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  17. Aerosol optical characteristics and their vertical distributions under enhanced haze pollution events: effect of the regional transport of different aerosol types over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianze; Che, Huizheng; Qi, Bing; Wang, Yaqiang; Dong, Yunsheng; Xia, Xiangao; Wang, Hong; Gui, Ke; Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Hujia; Ma, Qianli; Du, Rongguang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-03-01

    The climatological variation of aerosol properties and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during 2013-2015 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region were investigated by employing ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and CE-318 sun-photometer observations. Combining Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite products, enhanced haze pollution events affected by different types of aerosol over the YRD region were analyzed through vertical structures, spatial distributions, backward trajectories, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model. The results show that aerosols in the YRD are dominated by fine-mode particles, except in March. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) in June and September is higher due to high single scattering albedo (SSA) from hygroscopic growth, but it is lower in July and August due to wet deposition from precipitation. The PBL height (PBLH) is greater (means ranging from 1.23 to 1.84 km) and more variable in the warmer months of March to August, due to the stronger diurnal cycle and exchange of heat. Northern fine-mode pollutants are brought to the YRD at a height of 1.5 km. The SSA increases, blocking the radiation to the surface, and cooling the surface, thereby weakening turbulence, lowering the PBL, and in turn accelerating the accumulation of pollutants, creating a feedback to the cooling effect. Originated from the deserts in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, long-range transported dust masses are seen at heights of about 2 km over the YRD region with an SSA440 nm below 0.84, which heat air and raise the PBL, accelerating the diffusion of dust particles. Regional transport from biomass-burning spots to the south of the YRD region bring mixed aerosol particles at a height below 1.5 km, resulting in an SSA440 nm below 0.89. During the winter, the accumulation of the local emission layer is facilitated by stable weather conditions

  18. Aerosol optical characteristics and their vertical distributions under enhanced haze pollution events: effect of the regional transport of different aerosol types over eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The climatological variation of aerosol properties and the planetary boundary layer (PBL during 2013–2015 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region were investigated by employing ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL and CE-318 sun-photometer observations. Combining Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO satellite products, enhanced haze pollution events affected by different types of aerosol over the YRD region were analyzed through vertical structures, spatial distributions, backward trajectories, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF model. The results show that aerosols in the YRD are dominated by fine-mode particles, except in March. The aerosol optical depth (AOD in June and September is higher due to high single scattering albedo (SSA from hygroscopic growth, but it is lower in July and August due to wet deposition from precipitation. The PBL height (PBLH is greater (means ranging from 1.23 to 1.84 km and more variable in the warmer months of March to August, due to the stronger diurnal cycle and exchange of heat. Northern fine-mode pollutants are brought to the YRD at a height of 1.5 km. The SSA increases, blocking the radiation to the surface, and cooling the surface, thereby weakening turbulence, lowering the PBL, and in turn accelerating the accumulation of pollutants, creating a feedback to the cooling effect. Originated from the deserts in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, long-range transported dust masses are seen at heights of about 2 km over the YRD region with an SSA440 nm below 0.84, which heat air and raise the PBL, accelerating the diffusion of dust particles. Regional transport from biomass-burning spots to the south of the YRD region bring mixed aerosol particles at a height below 1.5 km, resulting in an SSA440 nm below 0.89. During the winter, the accumulation of the local emission layer is facilitated by

  19. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  20. Analysis of axial behavior of three piece oil control ring; Kumiawase oil ring no jikuhoko kyodo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Y; Fujimura, K; Hitosugi, H [Nippon Piston Ring Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    It is considered that the reduction of oil control ring tension is a major problem in reducing the friction-loss of internal combustion engines. The authors have successfully developed a calculating method for the axial behavior prediction of a three piece type oil control ring as a method used in reduction of lube-oil consumption when lower tension ring is used. By means of the method, the authors found that the effect in reduction of lube-oil consumption was able to be expected by optimizing design parameters of the oil ring, the tension and the seating tab angle of expander-spacer, and the gas pressure on the 3rd land. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Kusuoka, Hideo; Izumi, Tohru; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients ≥50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness ≥1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of ≥30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and ≥14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  2. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu [Osaka University, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Izumi, Tohru [Kitasato University, Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Sagamihara (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Medicine, Ohtsu (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Juntendo University, Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shimamoto, Kazuaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yamada, Nobuhiro [University of Tsukuba, Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawara-machi, Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients {>=}50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness {>=}1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of {>=}30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and {>=}14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  3. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  4. Associations of HbA1c and educational level with risk of cardiovascular events in 32 871 drug-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes: a cohort study in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    ?stgren, C J; Sundstr?m, J; Svennblad, B; Lohm, L; Nilsson, P M; Johansson, G

    2013-01-01

    Aims To explore the association of HbA1c and educational level with risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A cohort of 32 871 patients with Type 2 diabetes aged 35 years and older identified by extracting data from electronic patient records for all patients who had a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes and had glucose-lowering agents prescribed between 1999 and 2009 at 84 primary care centres in Sweden. Associations of mean HbA1c levels and educational...

  5. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  6. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  7. Study for ILC Damping Ring at KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, J.W.; Fukuma, H.; Kanazawa, K.I.; Koiso, H.; Masuzawa, M.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Y.; Oide, Katsunobu; Suetsugu, Y.; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    ILC damping ring consists of very low emittance electron and positron storage rings. It is necessary for ILC damping ring to study electron cloud effects in such low emittance positron ring. We propose a low emittance operation of KEKB to study the effects.

  8. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  9. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  10. Structure and dynamics of ringed galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In many spiral and SO galaxies, single or multiple ring structures are visible in the disk. These inner rings (r), outer rings (R), and nuclear rings (nr) were investigated by means of morphology, photometry, and spectroscopy in order to provide basic data on a long neglected phenomenon. The metric properties of each ring are investigated and found to correlate with the structure of the parent galaxy. When properly calibrated, inner rings in barred (SB) systems can be used as geometric extragalactic distance indicators to distances in excess of 100 Mpc. Other statistics are presented that confirm previous indications that the rings have preferred shapes, relative sizes, and orientations with respect to bars. A survey is made of the less homogeneous non-barred (SA) ringed systems, and the causes of the inhomogeneity are isolated. It is shown that rings can be identified in multiple-ring SA systems that are exactly analogous to those in barred spirals

  11. Pure subrings of the rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    Pure subrings of finite rank in the Z-adic completion of the ring of integers and in its homomorphic images are considered. Certain properties of these rings are studied (existence of an identity element, decomposability into a direct sum of essentially indecomposable ideals, condition for embeddability into a csp-ring, etc.). Additive groups of these rings and conditions under which these rings are subrings of algebraic number fields are described. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  12. Optical bistability of optical fiber ring doped by Erbium and quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, S.; Tofighi, S.; Bahrampour, A.; Sajad, B.; Shahshahani, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical analysis of the steady state behavior of the optical bistability in an optical fiber ring doped by Erbium and quantum dots is presented. The up and down switching power is calculated and the dependence of the switching power on different fiber ring parameters is investigated. The switching power for this type of optical bistability device is obtained much lower than the fiber ring which its half length is doped by Erbium ion.

  13. Aligning the Goldmann tonometer tip by means of the "precontact whitish rings".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, E Z

    1999-01-01

    A set of whitish rings observed before contact is made during Goldmann-type applanation tonometry can help simplify and speed the examination. The orientation and size of the rings are useful both in aligning the tonometer and in estimating the distance remaining before contact is made. Relying on these whitish rings can also avoid some of the shear-related damage exerted on the corneal epithelium from alignment movements of the tonometer tip after contact with the cornea has been made.

  14. Breakaway frictions of dynamic O-rings in mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tom; Kay, Peter

    1993-05-01

    Breakaway friction of a dynamic O-ring affects the mechanical seal's response to large axial shaft movement and face wear. However, little data exist to help designers. Therefore, a test rig was developed to measure breakaway friction. The research quantitatively shows the effects of lubrication with silicone grease and a change of surface finish. By using the Taguchi statistical experimental design method, the significance of test parameters was evaluated with a minimum number of tests. It was found that fluid pressure, dwell time, and O-ring percentage squeeze affect O-ring breakaway friction more than the O-ring cross sectional diameter and axial sliding speed within the range of values tested. The authors showed that breakaway friction increased linearly with pressure. However, O-rings made of different materials had significantly different increase rates, even if they had nominally the same durometer hardness. Breakaway friction also increased with logarithm of dwell time. Again, the increase rate depended strongly on the specific O-ring material tested. These observations led the authors to believe that the typical approach of generalizing data based on generic polymer type and durometer was inappropriate.

  15. Primitivity and weak distributivity in near rings and matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    This paper shows the structure of matrix near ring constructed over a weakly distributive and primative near ring. It is proved that a weakly distributive primitive near ring is a ring and the matrix near rings constructed over it is also a bag. (author). 14 refs

  16. Ring wormholes via duality rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Gibbons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy–Voorhees–Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than −c4/4G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.

  17. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  18. Thermal hydraulic characteristics of the pool-type FBR 'ARES' eliminating intermediate heat-transfer system. 2. Transient characteristics in representative events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Izumi; Yoshida, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    An innovative plant concept (ARES), which eliminates intermediate heat-transfer system, was proposed in order to reduce the construction cost of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). In the present study, representative events of the ARES were picked up and plant transient analysis was conducted in order to reveal the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the ARES. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) The core was sufficiently cooled without sodium boiling in an event of mis-operation of the siphon break system. (2) The disturbances of the SG transfer to the core within about 30 seconds in a event of the feed water increasing. This transition period is less than half that of the conventional LMFBR. However, the transient characteristics of the ARES are very similar to those of the conventional LMFBR. Based on these results, it is only necessary to consider the short transition period in order to design the control system. (3) Based on the results of the calculation of a total blackout accident, it is concluded that the use of the SG-side cooling together is profitable in order to satisfy the design safety criteria in design basis events. In the case of full natural-circulation cooling, the use of the SG-side cooling together is profitable in order to satisfy the design safety criteria. (author)

  19. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

    2002-01-01

    In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

  20. Dapagliflozin Compared to DPP-4 inhibitors is Associated with Lower Risk of Cardiovascular Events and All-cause Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Patients (CVD-REAL Nordic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F; Nyström, Thomas; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the sodium glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor (SGLT-2i) dapagliflozin versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) regarding risk associations of MACE (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke or cardiovascular [CV] mortality), hospital events for heart failure (HHF), ...

  1. Effects of Everyday Life Events on Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagon Dynamics in Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion–Treated Type 1 Diabetes: Collection of Clinical Data for Glucose Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Finan, Daniel Aaron; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2012-01-01

    metabolism, we designed and conducted a clinical study.Methods: Patients with insulin pump–treated T1D were recruited to perform everyday life events on two separate days. During the study, patients wore their insulin pumps and, in addition, a continuous glucose monitor and an activity monitor to estimate...

  2. Conceptual design of a moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A design of a prototype Moving-Ring Reactor has been completed. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically field-reversed plasma (''compact toroids''). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three ''burn stations''. Separator coils and a slight axial guide-field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for one third of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power. The first wall and tritium breeding blanket designs make credible use of helium cooling, SiC and Li 2 O to minimize structural radioactivity. ''Hands-on'' maintenance is possible on all reactor components outside the blanket. The first wall and blanket are designed to shut the reactor down passively in the event of a loss-of-coolant or loss-of-flow accident. Helium removes heat from the first wall, blanket and shield, and is used in a closed-cycle gas turbine to produce electricity. Energy residing in the plasma ring at the end of the burn is recovered via magnetic expansion. Electrostatic direct conversion is not used in this design. The reactor produces a constant net power of 99 MW(e). (author)

  3. The influence of baseline risk on the relation between HbA1c and risk for new cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Sophie H; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Nathoe, Hendrik M W; de Borst, Gert Jan; Kappelle, Jaap L; Visseren, Frank L J; Westerink, Jan

    2016-07-19

    Strict glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes has proven to have microvascular benefits while the effects on CVD and mortality are less clear, especially in high risk patients. Whether strict glycaemic control would reduce the risk of future CVD or mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-existing CVD, is unknown. This study aims to evaluate whether the relation between baseline HbA1c and new cardiovascular events or mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is modified by baseline vascular risk. A cohort of 1096 patients with type 2 diabetes and CVD from the Second Manifestations of ARTerial Disease (SMART) study was followed. The relation between HbA1c at baseline and future vascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and vascular mortality) and all-cause mortality was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard analyses in a population that was stratified for baseline risk for vascular events as calculated with the SMART risk score. The mean follow-up duration was 6.9 years for all-cause mortality and 6.4 years for vascular events, in which period 243 and 223 cases were reported, respectively. A 1 % increase in HbA1c was associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.06-1.31). This association was also found in the highest SMART risk quartile (HR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.11-1.60). There was no relation between HbA1c and the occurrence of cardiovascular events during follow-up (HR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.91-1.16). The interaction term between HbA1c and SMART risk score was not significantly related to any of the outcomes. In patients with type 2 diabetes and CVD, HbA1c is related to the risk of all-cause mortality, but not to the risk of cardiovascular events. The relation between HbA1c and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and vascular disease is not dependent on baseline vascular risk.

  4. A matrix problem over a discrete valuation ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavadskii, A G; Revitskaya, U S

    1999-01-01

    A flat matrix problem of mixed type (over a discrete valuation ring and its skew field of fractions) is considered which naturally arises in connection with several problems in the theory of integer-valued representations and in ring theory. For this problem, a criterion for module boundedness is proved, which is stated in terms of a pair of partially ordered sets (P(A),P(B)) associated with the pair of transforming algebras (A,B) defining the problem. The corresponding statement coincides in effect with the formulation of Kleiner's well-known finite-type criterion for representations of pairs of partially ordered sets over a field. The proof is based on a reduction (which uses the techniques of differentiation) to representations of semimaximal rings (tiled orders) and partially ordered sets

  5. Newborn exoplanet eyed for moons and rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers are staring at a nearby star in hopes of seeing a giant baby of a planet—perhaps accompanied by dust clouds, rings, or newborn moons—pass across its face. Last week, the newest and tiniest telescope joined the vigil, when the French-built PicSat rode into orbit on an Indian rocket. It will be able to continuously monitor the star, β Pictoris, until chances of seeing the once-in-20-year transit event diminish in a few months' time. Astronomers are fascinated by β Pictoris, a bright star just 63 light-years away, because it is a natural laboratory for how solar systems form given its age of only 24 million years—an infant in stellar terms.

  6. CMB lensing and giant rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  7. Proton storage ring summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.

    1977-10-01

    During the week of August 16, 1976 a Workshop was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) on the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNRF). Written contributions were solicited from each of the participants in the Workshop, and the contributions that were received are presented. The papers do not represent polished or necessarily complete work, but rather represent ''first cuts'' at their respective areas. Topics covered include: (1) background information on the storage ring; (2) WNRF design; (3) rf transient during filling; (4) rf capture; (5) beam bunch compression; (6) transverse space charge limits; (7) transverse resistive instability in the PSR; (8) longitudinal resistive instability; (9) synchrotron frequency splitting; (10) E Quintus Unum--off resonance; (11) first harmonic bunching in the storage ring; (12) kicker considerations; (13) beam extraction; (14) ferrite kicker magnets; and (15) E Quintus Unum: a possible ejection scheme

  8. New Main Ring control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond

  10. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  11. Comparison of disposable sutureless silicone ring and traditional metal ring in 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X-R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Guo Wu, Rui-Hua Wei, Ai-Hua Liu, Xiao-Xu Zhou, Guo-Ling Sun, Xiao-Rong LiTianjin Medical University Eye Center, Tianjin, ChinaBackground: The purpose of this prospective, interventional, comparative case series was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring for corneal contact lens stabilization during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery.Methods: We developed a ring consisting of a single silicone component with three footplates along the ring margin to fit cannulae for holding conventional contact lenses. Thirty eyes from 30 patients with cataract and vitreoretinal disease were included, and divided into two matched groups according to disease type and ring used. In Group A, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring (n = 15. In Group B, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a conventional metal lens ring (n = 15. The main outcome measures were: time required for vitrectomy preparation, rate of intraoperative corneal limbus bleeding, and limbus scar rate at the final follow-up visit.Results: Thirty cases were successfully completed. The average vitrectomy preparation time was less in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01, and the average preparation time saved was 3.94 minutes. None of the Group A patients had intraoperative bleeding or postoperative scarring, whereas all 15 Group B cases had bleeding and five had scarring. There was a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B for these complications (P ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: This report demonstrates the advantages of using a sutureless silicone ring during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Using this method could allow extra time for the surgeon to pay more attention to complex vitreoretinal procedures.Keywords: pars plana vitrectomy, contact lens, silicone ring, cataract surgery

  12. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  13. Superconducting proton ring for PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, E.

    1979-01-01

    A powerful new facility for colliding beam physics could be provided by adding a proton storage ring in the range of several hundred GeV to the electron-positron storage ring PETRA at DESY. This can be achieved in an economic way utilizing the PETRA tunnel and taking advantage of the higher magnetic fields of superconducting magnets which would be placed above or below the PETRA magnets. A central field of 4 Tesla in the bending magnets corresponds to a proton energy of 225 GeV. (orig.)

  14. The Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR

    OpenAIRE

    von Hahn, Robert; Becker, Arno; Berg, Felix; Blaum, Klaus; Breitenfeldt, Christian; Fadil, Hisham; Fellenberger, Florian; Froese, Michael; George, Sebastian; Göck, Jürgen; Grieser, Manfred; Grussie, Florian; Guerin, Elisabeth A.; Heber, Oded; Herwig, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion a...

  15. Supersymmetric rings in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Redi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of BPS string-like objects obtained by lifting monopole and dyon solutions of N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills theory to five dimensions. We present exact traveling wave solutions which preserve half of the supersymmetries. Upon compactification this leads to macroscopic BPS rings in four dimensions in field theory. Due to the fact that the strings effectively move in six dimensions the same procedure can also be used to obtain rings in five dimensions by using the hidden dimension

  16. Damping ring designs and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Decking, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    The luminosity performance of a future linear collider (LC) will depend critically on the performance of the damping rings. The design luminosities of the current LC proposals require rings with very short damping times, large acceptance, low equilibrium emittance and high beam intensity. We discuss the design strategies for lattices achieving the goals of dynamical stability, examine the challenges for alignment and coupling correction, and consider a variety of collective effects that threaten to limit beam quality. We put the design goals in context by referring to the experience of operating facilities, and outline the further research and development that is needed

  17. Laparoscopic appendicectomy using endo-ring applicator and fallope rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Iyoob V; Maliekkal, Joji I

    2009-01-01

    Wider adoption of laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) is limited by problems in securing the appendiceal base as well as the cost and the duration compared with the open procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a new method for securing the appendiceal base in LA, so as to make the entire procedure simpler and cheaper, and hence, more popular. Twenty-five patients who were candidates for appendicectomy (emergency as well as elective) and willing for the laparoscopic procedure were selected for this study. Ports used were 10 mm at the umbilicus, 5 mm at the lower right iliac fossa, and 10 mm at the left iliac fossa. Extremely friable, ruptured, or turgid organs of diameters larger than 8 mm were excluded from the study. The mesoappendix was divided close to the appendix by diathermy. Fallope rings were applied to the appendiceal base using a special ring applicator, and the appendix was divided and extracted through the lumen of the applicator. The procedure was successful in 23 (92%) cases, and the mean duration of the procedure was 20 minutes (15-32 minutes). There were no procedural complications seen during a median follow-up of two weeks. The equipment and rings were cheaper when compared with that of the standard methods of securing the base of the appendix. LA using fallope rings is a safe, simple, easy-to-learn, and economically viable method. (author)

  18. Parameters and design optimization of the ring piezoelectric ceramic transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Erhart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of the presented paper is the theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the transformation parameters for the new type of nonhomogeneously poled ring transformer. The input part is poled in the thickness direction and output part in the radial direction. Two transformer geometries are studied — the input part is at inner ring segment, or it is at the outer ring segment. The optimum electrode size aspect ratios have been found experimentally as d1∕D≈0.60−0.65 for the ring with aspect ratio d∕D=0.2. The fundamental as well as higher overtone resonances were studied for the transformation ratio, the optimum resistive load, efficiency and no-load transformation ratio. Higher overtones have better transformation parameters compared to the fundamental resonance. The new type ring transformer exhibits very high transformation ratios up to 200 under no-load and up to 13.4 under a high efficiency of 97% at the optimum load conditions of 10 kΩ. Strong electric field gradient at the output circuit is applicable for the electrical discharge generation.

  19. Dynamics of Ring Current and Electric Fields in the Inner Magnetosphere During Disturbed Periods: CRCM-BATS-R-US Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M.-C.; Pulkkinen, A.; Kuznetsova, M.; Moore, T. E.; Glocer, A.; Brandt, P. C.; Toth, G.; Rastaetter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present simulation results from a one-way coupled global MHD model (Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-Wind Roe-Type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US) and kinetic ring current models (Comprehensive Ring Current Model, CRCM, and Fok Ring Current, FokRC). The BATS-R-US provides the CRCM/FokRC with magnetic field information and plasma density/temperature at the polar CRCM/FokRC boundary. The CRCM uses an electric potential from the BATS-R-US ionospheric solver at the polar CRCM boundary in order to calculate the electric field pattern consistent with the CRCM pressure distribution. The FokRC electric field potential is taken from BATS-R-US ionospheric solver everywhere in the modeled region, and the effect of Region II currents is neglected. We show that for an idealized case with southward-northward-southward Bz IMF turning, CRCM-BATS-R-US reproduces well known features of inner magnetosphere electrodynamics: strong/weak convection under the southward/northward Bz; electric field shielding/overshielding/penetration effects; an injection during the substorm development; Subauroral Ion Drift or Polarization Jet (SAID/PJ) signature in the dusk sector. Furthermore, we find for the idealized case that SAID/PJ forms during the substorm growth phase, and that substorm injection has its own structure of field-aligned currents which resembles a substorm current wedge. For an actual event (12 August 2000 storm), we calculate ENA emissions and compare with Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration/High Energy Neutral Atom data. The CRCM-BATS-R-US reproduces both the global morphology of ring current and the fine structure of ring current injection. The FokRC-BATS-R-US shows the effect of a realistic description of Region II currents in ring current-MHD coupled models.

  20. Role of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and N-Terminal Prohormone BNP as Predictors of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With a Recent Coronary Event and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Claggett, Brian; Pfeffer, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    -terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could enhance risk prediction of a broad range of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus were...... being in death (0.77-0.82, Pdiabetes...

  1. Examination techniques for non-magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metala, M.J.; Kilpatrick, N.L.; Frank, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Until the introduction of 18Mn18Cr rings a few years ago, most non-magnetic steel rings for generator rotors were made from 18Mn5Cr alloy steel, which is highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of water. This, the latest in a series of papers on the subject of non-magnetic rings by the authors' company, provides a discussion of nondestructive examination of 18Mn5Cr rings for stress corrosion distress. With rings on the rotor, fluorescent penetrant, ultrasonic and special visual techniques are applied. With rings off the rotor, the fluorescent penetrant technique is used, with and without stress enhancement

  2. A Bell inequality for a class of multilocal ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Quantum networks with independent sources of entanglement (hidden variables) and nodes that execute joint quantum measurements can create strong quantum correlations spanning the breadth of the network. Understanding of these correlations has to the present been limited to standard Bell experiments with one source of shared randomness, bilocal arrangements having two local sources of shared randomness, and multilocal networks with tree topologies. We introduce here a class of quantum networks with ring topologies comprised of subsystems each with its own internally shared source of randomness. We prove a Bell inequality for these networks, and to demonstrate violations of this inequality, we focus on ring networks with three-qubit subsystems. Three qubits are capable of two non-equivalent types of entanglement, GHZ and W-type. For rings of any number N of three-qubit subsystems, our inequality is violated when the subsystems are each internally GHZ-entangled. This violation is consistently stronger when N is even. This quantitative even-odd difference for GHZ entanglement becomes extreme in the case of W-type entanglement. When the ring size N is even, the presence of W-type entanglement is successfully detected; when N is odd, the inequality consistently fails to detect its presence.

  3. Ring interconnection for distributed memory automation and computing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, V I [Inst. for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Problems of development of measurement, acquisition and central systems based on a distributed memory and a ring interface are discussed. It has been found that the RAM LINK-type protocol can be used for ringlet links in non-symmetrical distributed memory architecture multiprocessor system interaction. 5 refs.

  4. Ring diagrams and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ring diagrams at finite temperatures carry most infrared-singular parts among Feynman diagrams. Their effect to effective potentials are in general so significant that one must incorporate them as well as 1-loop diagrams. The author expresses these circumstances in some examples of supercooled phase transitions

  5. WR stars with ring nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that most of usually apparently single nitrogen WR stars with ring emission nebulae around them (WN + Neb) are a probable product of the evolution of a massive close binary with initial masses of components exceeding approximately 20 solar masses. (Auth.)

  6. Alignment for new Subaru ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Matsui, S.; Hashimoto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New SUBARU is a synchrotron light source being constructed at the SPring-8 site. The main facility is a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring that provides light beam in the region from VUV to soft X-ray using SPring-8's 1 GeV linac as an injector. The ring, with a circumference of about 119 meters, is composed of six bending cells. Each bending cell has two normal dipoles of 34 degree and one inverse dipole of -8 degree. The ring has six straight sections: two very long straight sections for a 11-m long undulator and an optical klystron, four short straight sections for a 2.3-m undulator, a super-conducting wiggler, rf cavity and injection, etc. The magnets of the storage ring are composed of 12 dipoles (BMs), 6 invert dipoles (BIs), 56 quadrupoles and 44 sextupoles, etc. For the magnet alignment, positions of the dipoles (the BMs and BIs) are determined by network survey method. The multipoles, which are mounted on girders between the dipoles, are aligned with a laser-CCD camera system. This article presents the methodology used to position the different components and particularly to assure the precise alignment of the multipoles. (authors)

  7. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  8. Ring laser frequency biasing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A ring laser cavity including a magnetically saturable member for differentially phase shifting the contradirectional waves propagating in the laser cavity, the phase shift being produced by the magneto-optic interaction occurring between the light waves and the magnetization in the cavity forming component as the light waves are reflected therefrom is described

  9. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  10. Progressiv læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    SAMMENFATNING I denne evalueringsrapport præsenterer Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling ved Aarhus Universitet (herefter NCK) og Rambøll Management Consulting (herefter Rambøll) den værktøjsspecifikke evaluering af Progressiv Læring som pædagogisk værktøj for de ni implementeringsskoler i s...

  11. Wands of the Black Ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2005), s. 1277-1287 ISSN 0001-7701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P017; GA AV ČR KJB1019403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : algebraic classification * Petrov classification * black ring Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2005

  12. Exercises in modules and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, TY

    2009-01-01

    This volume offers a compendium of exercises of varying degree of difficulty in the theory of modules and rings. All exercises are solved in full detail. Each section begins with an introduction giving the general background and the theoretical basis for the problems that follow.

  13. On commutativity theorems for rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. S. Abujabal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be an associative ring with unity. It is proved that if R satisfies the polynomial identity [xny−ymxn,x]=0(m>1,n≥1, then R is commutative. Two or more related results are also obtained.

  14. Safety and Efficacy of a Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV Prevention in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annalene; van Niekerk, Neliëtte; Kapiga, Saidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Gama, Cynthia; Gill, Katherine; Kamali, Anatoli; Kotze, Philip; Louw, Cheryl; Mabude, Zonke; Miti, Nokuthula; Kusemererwa, Sylvia; Tempelman, Hugo; Carstens, Hannelie; Devlin, Brid; Isaacs, Michelle; Malherbe, Mariëtte; Mans, Winel; Nuttall, Jeremy; Russell, Marisa; Ntshele, Smangaliso; Smit, Marlie; Solai, Leonard; Spence, Patrick; Steytler, John; Windle, Kathleen; Borremans, Maarten; Resseler, Sophie; Van Roey, Jens; Parys, Wim; Vangeneugden, Tony; Van Baelen, Ben; Rosenberg, Zeda

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains high among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of extended use of a vaginal ring containing dapivirine for the prevention of HIV infection in 1959 healthy, sexually active women, 18 to 45 years of age, from seven communities in South Africa and Uganda. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned participants in a 2:1 ratio to receive vaginal rings containing either 25 mg of dapivirine or placebo. Participants inserted the rings themselves every 4 weeks for up to 24 months. The primary efficacy end point was the rate of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion. A total of 77 participants in the dapivirine group underwent HIV-1 seroconversion during 1888 person-years of follow-up (4.1 seroconversions per 100 person-years), as compared with 56 in the placebo group who underwent HIV-1 seroconversion during 917 person-years of follow-up (6.1 seroconversions per 100 person-years). The incidence of HIV-1 infection was 31% lower in the dapivirine group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 0.99; P=0.04). There was no significant difference in efficacy of the dapivirine ring among women older than 21 years of age (hazard ratio for infection, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.97) and those 21 years of age or younger (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.60; P=0.43 for treatment-by-age interaction). Among participants with HIV-1 infection, nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations were detected in 14 of 77 participants in the dapivirine group (18.2%) and in 9 of 56 (16.1%) in the placebo group. Serious adverse events occurred more often in the dapivirine group (in 38 participants [2.9%]) than in the placebo group (in 6 [0.9%]). However, no clear pattern was identified. Among women in sub-Saharan Africa, the dapivirine ring was not associated with any safety concerns and was

  15. Early life disease programming during the preconception and prenatal period: making the link between stressful life events and type-1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of developing Type-1 diabetes among children who were exposed to maternal bereavement during the prenatal or 1-year preconception period. METHODS: We identified N = 1,548,746 singleton births born in Denmark between January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2004, and their next of kin. Altogether, 39,857 children were exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life. The main outcome of interest was hospitalization for type-1 diabetes (ICD 8: 249; ICD 10: E10. RESULTS: We found the strongest association for type-1 diabetes among children exposed to traumatic father or sibling deaths (aIRR: 2.03, 1.22-3.38; the association was mainly seen for girls (aIRR: 2.91, 1.61-5.26. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence to suggest that female fetuses exposed to severe prenatal stress are at increased risk for developing type-1 diabetes.

  16. Stress analysis of HLW containers. Preliminary ring test exercise Compas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes the series of experiments and associated calculations performed as the Compas preliminary ring test exercise. A number of mild steel rings, representative of sections through HLW containers, some notched and pre-cracked, were tested in compression right up to and beyond their ultimate load. The Compas project partners independently modelled the behaviour of these rings using their finite element codes. Four different ring types were tested, and each test was repeated three times. For three of the ring types, the three test repetitions gave identical results. The fourth ring, which was not modelled by the partners, had a 4 mm thick layer of weld metal deposited on its surface. The three tests on this ring did not give identical results and suggested that the effect of welding methods should be addressed at a later stage of the project. Fracture was not found to be a significant cause of ring failure. The results of the ring tests were compared with the partners predictions, and additionally some time was spent assessing where the use of the codes could be improved. This exercise showed that the partners codes have the ability to produce results within acceptable limits. Most codes were unable to model stable crack growth. There were indications that some codes would not be able to cope with a significantly more complex three-dimensional analysis

  17. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  18. Quantum versus thermally excited fluxoid transitions in a SQUID ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkijaervi, J.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of quantum tunneling as a mechanism for fluxoid transitions in a SQUID ring is carefully considered neglecting, however, dissipation arising from the quasiparticle current. The tunneling rates are compared with the thermally excited transition rates. The type of experiment Jackel et al. carried out in order to observe the thermal process is analyzed for observing the quantum tunneling. We find the expected result that the temperature at which the quantum process should begin to dominate depends essentially on ω 0 = 1/√LC of the ring. If an underdamped junction with C -13 F can be made the quantum tunneling temperature range should be easy to attain. (orig.)

  19. A Coaxial Vortex Ring Model for Vortex Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Blackmore, Denis; Brons, Morten; Goullet, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    A simple - yet plausible - model for B-type vortex breakdown flows is postulated; one that is based on the immersion of a pair of slender coaxial vortex rings in a swirling flow of an ideal fluid rotating around the axis of symmetry of the rings. It is shown that this model exhibits in the advection of passive fluid particles (kinematics) just about all of the characteristics that have been observed in what is now a substantial body of published research on the phenomenon of vortex breakdown....

  20. Cyclic and constacyclic codes over a non-chain ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Bayram

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider linear and especially cyclic codes over the non-chain ring $Z_{p}[v]/\\langle v^{p}-v\\rangle$ where $p$ is a prime. This is a generalization of the case $p=3.$ Further, in this work the structure of constacyclic codes are studied as well. This study takes advantage mainly from a Gray map which preserves the distance between codes over this ring and $p$-ary codes and moreover this map enlightens the structure of these codes. Furthermore, a MacWilliams type identity is presented together with some illustrative examples.

  1. Connections between Star Cluster Populations and Their Host Galaxy Nuclear Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; de Grijs, Richard; Ho, Luis C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear rings are excellent laboratories for probing diverse phenomena such as the formation and evolution of young massive star clusters and nuclear starbursts, as well as the secular evolution and dynamics of their host galaxies. We have compiled a sample of 17 galaxies with nuclear rings, which are well resolved by high-resolution Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging. For each nuclear ring, we identified the ring star cluster population, along with their physical properties (ages, masses, and extinction values). We also determined the integrated ring properties, including the average age, total stellar mass, and current star formation rate (SFR). We find that Sb-type galaxies tend to have the highest ring stellar mass fraction with respect to the host galaxy, and this parameter is correlated with the ring’s SFR surface density. The ring SFRs are correlated with their stellar masses, which is reminiscent of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. There are striking correlations between star-forming properties (i.e., SFR and SFR surface density) and nonaxisymmetric bar parameters, appearing to confirm previous inferences that strongly barred galaxies tend to have lower ring SFRs, although the ring star formation histories turn out to be significantly more complicated. Nuclear rings with higher stellar masses tend to be associated with lower cluster mass fractions, but there is no such relation for the ages of the rings. The two youngest nuclear rings in our sample, NGC 1512 and NGC 4314, which have the most extreme physical properties, represent the young extremity of the nuclear ring age distribution.

  2. Experience with a high-brightness storage ring: the NSLS 750 MeV vuv ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.

    1984-01-01

    The NSLS vuv ring is the first implementation of the proposals of R. Chasman and G.K. Green for a synchrotron radiation source with enhanced brightness: its lattice is a series of achromatic bends with two zero-gradient dipoles each, giving small damped emittance; and these bends are connected by straight sections with zero dispersion to accommodate wigglers and undulators without degrading the radiation damping properties of the ring. The virtues of the Chasman-Green lattice, its small betatron and synchrotron emittances, may be understood with some generality; e.g. the electron γm 0 c 2 energy and the number of achromatic bends M sets a lower limit on the betatron emittance of e/sub x/ > 7.7 x 10 -13 γ 2 /M meter-radians. There is strong interest in extrapolation of this type of lattice to 6 GeV and to 32 achromatic bends. The subject of this report is the progress toward achieving performance in the vuv ring limited by the radiation damping parameters optimized in its design. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Risk of Adverse Cardiac and Bleeding Events Following Cardiac and Noncardiac Surgery in Patients With Coronary Stent: How Important Is the Interplay Between Stent Type and Time From Stenting to Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Francesco; Belotti, Laura Maria Beatrice; Guastaroba, Paolo; Berardini, Alessandra; Rossini, Roberta; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Campo, Gianluca; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Tarantino, Fabio; Menozzi, Alberto; Varani, Elisabetta; Santarelli, Andrea; Tondi, Stefano; De Palma, Rossana; Rapezzi, Claudio; Marzocchi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology and consequences of surgery in patients with coronary stents are not clearly defined, as well as the impact of different stent types in relationship with timing of surgery. Among 39 362 patients with previous coronary stenting enrolled in a multicenter prospective registry and followed for 5 years, 13 128 patients underwent 17 226 surgical procedures. The cumulative incidence of surgery at 30 days, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years was 3.6%, 9.4%, 14.3%, and 40.0%, respectively, and of cardiac and noncardiac surgery was 0.8%, 2.1%, 2.6%, and 4.0% and 1.3%, 5.1%, 9.1%, and 31.7%, respectively. We assessed the incidence and the predictors of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and serious bleeding event within 30 days from surgery. Cardiac death occurred in 438 patients (2.5%), myocardial infarction in 256 (1.5%), and serious bleeding event in 1099 (6.4%). Surgery increased 1.58× the risk of cardiac death during follow-up. Along with other risk factors, the interplay between stent type and time from percutaneous coronary intervention to surgery was independently associated with cardiac death/myocardial infarction. In comparison with bare-metal stent implanted >12 months before surgery, old-generation drug-eluting stent was associated with higher risk of events at any time point. Conversely, new-generation drug-eluting stent showed similar safety as bare-metal stent >12 months and between 6 and 12 months and appeared trendly safer between 0 and 6 months. Surgery is frequent in patients with coronary stents and carries a considerable risk of ischemic and bleeding events. Ischemic risk is inversely related with time from percutaneous coronary intervention to surgery and is influenced by stent type. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Influences of two types of El Niño event on the Northwest Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SST anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wu, Qigang; Wu, Zepeng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the HadISST1 and NCEP datasets, we investigated the influences of the central Pacific El Niño event (CP-EL) and eastern Pacific El Niño event (EP-EL) on the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies of the Tropical Indian Ocean. Considering the remote effect of Indian Ocean warming, we also discussed the anticyclone anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which is very important for the South China precipitation and East Asian climate. Results show that during the El Niño developing year of EP-EL, cold SST anomalies appear and intensify in the east of tropical Indian Ocean. At the end of that autumn, all the cold SST anomaly events lead to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. Basin uniform warm SST anomalies exist in the Indian Ocean in the whole summer of EL decaying year for both CP-and EP-ELs. However, considering the statistical significance, more significant warm SST anomalies only appear in the North Indian Ocean among the June and August of EP-EL decaying year. For further research, EP-EL accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (EPI-EL) and CP El Niño accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (CPI-EL) events are classified. With the remote effects of Indian Ocean SST anomalies, the EPI-and CPI-ELs contribute quite differently to the Northwest Pacific. For the EPI-EL developing year, large-scale warm SST anomalies arise in the North Indian Ocean in May, and persist to the autumn of the El Niño decaying year. However, for the CPI-EL, weak warm SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean maintain to the El Niño decaying spring. Because of these different SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean, distinct zonal SST gradient, atmospheric anticyclone and precipitation anomalies emerge over the Northwest Pacific in the El Niño decaying years. Specifically, the large-scale North Indian Ocean warm SST anomalies during the EPI-EL decaying years, can persist to summer and force anomalous updrafts and rainfall over the North Indian Ocean. The atmospheric

  5. Perfect Lighting for Facial Photography in Aesthetic Surgery: Ring Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölen, Utku Can; Çınar, Selçuk

    2016-04-01

    Photography is indispensable for plastic surgery. On-camera flashes can result in bleached out detail and colour. This is why most of the plastic surgery clinics prefer studio lighting similar to professional photographers'. In this article, we want to share a simple alternative to studio lighting that does not need extra space: Ring light. We took five different photographs of the same person with five different camera and lighting settings: Smartphone and ring light; point and shoot camera and on-camera flash; point and shoot camera and studio lighting; digital single-lens reflex (DLSR) camera and studio lighting; DSLR and ring light. Then, those photographs were assessed objectively with an online survey of five questions answered by three distinct populations: plastic surgeons (n: 28), professional portrait photographers (n: 24) and patients (n: 22) who had facial aesthetic procedures. Compared to the on-camera flash, studio lighting better showed the wrinkles of the subject. The ring light facilitated the perception of the wrinkles by providing homogenous soft light in a circular shape rather than bursting flashes. The combination of a DSLR camera and ring light gave the oldest looking subject according to 64 % of responders. The DSLR camera and the studio lighting demonstrated the youngest looking subject according to 70 % of the responders. The majority of the responders (78 %) chose the combination of DSLR camera and ring light that exhibited the wrinkles the most. We suggest using a ring light to obtain well-lit photographs without loss of detail, with any type of cameras. However, smartphones must be avoided if standard pictures are desired. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  6. 21 CFR 870.3800 - Annuloplasty ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An annuloplasty ring is a rigid or flexible ring implanted around the mitral or tricuspid heart valve for reconstructive treatment of valvular insufficiency. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  7. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  8. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  9. Mathematical simulation of bearing ring grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, I. I.; Gorbunova, T. N.; Tumanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests the method of forming a solid finite element model of the bearing ring. Implementation of the model allowed one to evaluate the influence of the inner cylindrical surface grinding scheme on the ring shape error.

  10. Dynamics of long ring Raman fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergey V.; Melnikov, Leonid A.; Mazhirina, Yulia A.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical model for dynamics of long fiber ring Raman laser is proposed. The model is based on the transport equations and Courant-Isaacson-Rees numerical method. Different regimes of a long ring fiber Raman laser are investigated.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs. Prolonged seizure episodes known as non-convulsive status epilepticus also appear to be characteristic of ring chromosome ... K, Takahashi Y. Ring chromosome 20 and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. A new epileptic syndrome. Brain. 1997 Jun;120 ( ...

  12. Zn-Pb Ores of Mississippi Valley Type in the Lycksele-Storuman District, Northern Sweden: A Possible Rift-Related Cambrian Mineralisation Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Billström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic Zn-Pb deposits in the Lycksele-Storuman ore district, northern Sweden, are hosted by Paleoproterozoic basement near the margin of the Caledonian mountains. A paleogeographic reconstruction suggests that platform sediments, including Cambrian shales, overlaid the mineralised basement. The mineralisation type, containing sphalerite, galena, calcite and fluorite, is confined to veins and breccias and interpreted to be of Mississippi Valley Type (MVT style. There is no appreciable wall rock alteration. Fluid inclusion work reveals coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. Ore deposition is interpreted to have occurred during mixing of two fluids; a cool (

  13. Safety and availability of dapivirine (TMC120) delivered from an intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J; Variano, B; Coplan, P; Van Roey, J; Douville, K; Rosenberg, Z; Temmerman, M; Verstraelen, H; Van Bortel, L; Weyers, S; Mitchnick, M

    2009-05-01

    Vaginal delivery of 200 mg or 25 mg dapivirine from intravaginal rings (IVRs) was evaluated over a 7-day period in two phase 1 safety trials (IPM001 and IPM008, respectively) in a total of 25 healthy women 19 to 46 years of age. The IVR was generally safe and well tolerated with similar adverse events observed in the placebo and dapivirine groups. Across both studies, dapivirine concentrations in vaginal fluids measured at the introitus, cervix, and ring area were within the mean range of 0.7-7.1 microg/ml. Mean dapivirine concentrations in vaginal and cervical tissues on day 7 were 0.3-0.7 microg/g in IPM001 and 1.5-3.5 microg/g in IPM008. Mean plasma concentrations of dapivirine were Dapivirine from both IVRs was successfully distributed throughout the lower genital tract at concentrations >1000x the EC(50) against wild-type HIV-1 (LAI) in MT4 cells suggesting that IVR delivery of microbicides is a viable option meriting further study.

  14. Late Eocene rings around the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion of O'Keefe (1980) that the terminal Eocene event was caused by rings of tektite material encircling the earth is discussed. It is argued that the assumption that the tektites are of lunar volcanic origin is unwarranted and contrary to existing data, including the lack of lunar rocks of suitable composition, the lack of lunar rocks of the correct age, the lack of evidence that the North American tektites fell throughout a sedimentary rock column of a few million years, and the nondetection of a tektite with a measurable cosmic ray exposure age. Alternatively, it is suggested that the terminal Eocene event may be associated with volcanic ash, air-fall tuff and bentonite in the late Eocene. O'Keefe replies that the hypothesis of the terrestrial origin of the tektites conflicts with the laws of physics, for example in the glass structure and shaping of the tektites. Furthermore, evidence is cited for lunar rocks of the proper major-element composition and ages, and it is noted that the proposed solar Poynting-Robertson effect would account for the particle fall distributions and cosmic ray ages.

  15. The Hi-Ring DCN Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization......We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization...

  16. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  17. On P-coherent endomorphism rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of M R has a pseudokernel in add M R ; S is a left -coherent ring if and ...

  18. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing; Arcak, Murat; Salama, Khaled N.

    2010-01-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  19. Borgring: the discovery of a Viking Age ring fortress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodchild, Helen; Holm, Nanna; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2017-01-01

    -type ring fortress. Borgring is the first such monument to be found in Denmark in over six decades, and provides an opportunity to investigate a type-site of Viking Age military organisation and conflict. The authors argue that Borgring complements a varied group of fortification structures in late Viking...... Age Denmark, part of a military network close to contemporaneous European ideas of military kingship and defence....

  20. A joint model for repeated events of different types and multiple longitudinal outcomes with application to a follow-up study of patients after kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musoro, Jammbe Z.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the joint modeling strategy for the case of multiple longitudinal outcomes and repeated infections of different types over time, motivated by postkidney transplantation data. Our model comprises two parts linked by shared latent terms. On the one hand is a