WorldWideScience

Sample records for rilles rima ariadaeus

  1. Geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Wilson, Lionel

    1988-01-01

    Geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data on Rima Mozart are analyzed to study the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles. The results show that it is unlikely that a complete lava tube could have existed along the Rima Mozart rille. A total eruptive volume of 6372 cu km has been determined for an open channel or tube with an eruption rate of about 80,000 cu m/s and a duration of 947 days. Near-infrared spectral reflectance data and 2.8-cm and 70-cm radar observations indicate that volcanic activity was responsible for the formation of the rille and that pyroclastic deposits are present around Kathleen and Ann as well as at the base of the Apennines.

  2. Preliminary results of geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, C.R.; Hawke, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles, a study of Rima Mozart was conducted using a variety of geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data. The apparent source of this rille is located in a highlands unit of known composition and it is hypothesized that thermal and mechanical erosion played an important role in the formation of Rima Mozart. Excellent photographic, topographic, multispectral, and radar data exist for this rille. The preliminary results of an analysis of this data are presented. Photographic data indicates the presence of two volcanic source vents for Rima Mozart: Kathleen and Ann. It is suggested that Rima Mozart, like many other lunar sinuous rilles, was most likely formed by a combination of events. Rima Mozart does follow a pre-existing, dominant NW/SE structural trend suggesting the influence of structural features on the rille, however, the tectonic influence is not the sole source for the formation of the rille, as suggested by the presence of the two source vents and the spatter around Ann. It is suggested that the rille formation began with an explosive eruption at Kathleen which later calmed down to a pulsating, high volume, low-viscosity lava flow. The rapid effusion rate of the magma as well as its high temperature and turbid nature helped carve the sinuous rille into the fractured and structurally weak Apennine Bench Formation underneath. Similar eruptions and subsequent flows were also created at Ann and joined to the main channel by a NE-trending secondary rille

  3. Preliminary results of geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles, a study of Rima Mozart was conducted using a variety of geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data. The apparent source of this rille is located in a highlands unit of known composition and it is hypothesized that thermal and mechanical erosion played an important role in the formation of Rima Mozart. Excellent photographic, topographic, multispectral, and radar data exist for this rille. The preliminary results of an analysis of this data are presented. Photographic data indicates the presence of two volcanic source vents for Rima Mozart: Kathleen and Ann. It is suggested that Rima Mozart, like many other lunar sinuous rilles, was most likely formed by a combination of events. Rima Mozart does follow a pre-existing, dominant NW/SE structural trend suggesting the influence of structural features on the rille, however, the tectonic influence is not the sole source for the formation of the rille, as suggested by the presence of the two source vents and the spatter around Ann. It is suggested that the rille formation began with an explosive eruption at Kathleen which later calmed down to a pulsating, high volume, low-viscosity lava flow. The rapid effusion rate of the magma as well as its high temperature and turbid nature helped carve the sinuous rille into the fractured and structurally weak Apennine Bench Formation underneath. Similar eruptions and subsequent flows were also created at Ann and joined to the main channel by a NE-trending secondary rille.

  4. Interrill and rill erodibility in the northern andean highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baigorria, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information describing the physical processes causing soil erosion in the Andean Highlands, especially those related to interrill and rill erodibility factors. To assess how susceptible are soils to erosion in this region, field measurements of interrill (Ki) and rill

  5. Plot-slope soil erosion using 7Be measurement and rill fractal dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengbao; Yang Mingyi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intended to use 7 Be measurement and fractal theory to quantify soil erosion process on slope. The results showed that contribution rate of inter rill erosion was more than that of rill erosion during early stage of rainfall. When it rained, contribution rate of rill erosion began to be higher than inter rill erosion and become the main part of erosion during medium stage of rainfall. The trend of contribution rate of inter rill erosion was growing and the rill erosion was lowering during late stage of rainfall. Rill fractal dimension on the plot slope was almost growing larger during rainfall,growing quickly during early stage of rainfall and slowly during the late stage. Correlations was positive between rill fractal dimension and total erosion amount, also positive between rill fractal dimension and rill erosion. The correlations was positive between rill fractal dimension variation and total erosion amount, also was positive between rill fractal dimension variation and rill erosion amount. The best correlation was observed between rill fractal dimension and rill erosion amount. These results indicated that the rill fractal dimension on the plot slope could represent the development process of rill,the complex degree of rill and the variation of soil erosion intensity on the entire slope. (authors)

  6. Lavastaja Rimas Tuminas: Pöördun Tšehhovi kui arsti poole" / Rimas Tuminas ja Sergei Makovetski ; intervjueerinud Maris Johannes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuminas, Rimas, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Lavastaja Rimas Tuminas ja Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nimeline Teater toovad teatrifestivalile "Kuldne Mask Eestis" Anton Tšehhovi "Onu Vanja". Intervjuu lavastajaga, sõna saab sekka ka Vanja osatäitja

  7. Modeling sediment concentration of rill flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daming; Gao, Peiling; Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Yuhang; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qingwen

    2018-06-01

    Accurate estimation of sediment concentration is essential to establish physically-based erosion models. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flow discharge (Q), slope gradient (S), flow velocity (V), shear stress (τ), stream power (ω) and unit stream power (U) on sediment concentration. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a 10 × 0.1 m rill flume under four flow discharges (2, 4, 8 and 16 L min-1), and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25°). The results showed that the measured sediment concentration varied from 87.08 to 620.80 kg m-3 with a mean value of 343.13 kg m-3. Sediment concentration increased as a power function with flow discharge and slope gradient, with R2 = 0.975 and NSE = 0.945. The sediment concentration was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow discharge. The sediment concentration was well predicted by unit stream power (R2 = 0.937, NSE = 0.865), whereas less satisfactorily by flow velocity (R2 = 0.470, NSE = 0.539) and stream power (R2 = 0.773, NSE = 0.732). In addition, using the equations to simulate the measured sediment concentration of other studies, the result further indicated that slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power were good predictors of sediment concentration. In general, slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power seem to be the preferred predictors for estimating sediment concentration.

  8. LEVELS OF SOME ANIONS IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    obtained in this work, the river water is safe for the aquatic life therein. ... environmental issue in developing countries. ... of these ions to enhance water quality of this ... IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN NORTH IN WESTERN NIGERIA.

  9. Hadley Rille, lava tubes and mare volcanism at the Apollo 15 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeley, R.; Spudis, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hadley Rille appears to be a collapsed lava tube/channel, whose formation history may be more intimately related to the mare units sampled at 15 than was previously thought. More work is needed relating samples and observations from Apollo 15 to the rille and its geologic evolution. As the only sinuous rille visited during the Apollo missions, Hadley Rille represents a data source that is directly applicable to the deciphering of processes involved in lunar mare volcanism

  10. The Geology of Inferno Chasm, Idaho: a Terrestrial Analog for Lunar Rilles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, William B.; Hughes, Scott S.; Kobs Nawotniak, Shannon E.; Neish, Catherine D.; Haberle, Christopher W.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar sinuous rilles are thought to have formed by thermal erosion, mechanical erosion, construction, or a combination of these processes via emplacement by lava tubes or lava channels. The investigation of Hadley Rille by Apollo 15 provided the first field observations of a rille, but remote sensing observations remain our primary method for studying these features. Terrestrial volcanic features with similar morphologies to lunar rilles can provide insight into their formation on the Moon.

  11. Personalized and Depersonalized Discourses: Irony and Self-Consciousness in Bécquer's Rimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile West-Settle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer's Rimas have long been read as a prelude to the later twentieth-century texts of Juan Ramón Jiménez and Jorge Guillén. This established reading of the Rimas emphasizes the romantic idealism of Bécquer's poetry and identifies Bécquer as a proto-symbolist poet whose work anticipates "pure" poetry in Spain. An alternate view of the Rimas, one that recognizes the ironic impulses of this poetry, reminds us that Bécquer's poetry and poetics are, rather than single-minded, grounded in paradox and concerned with one of art's central problems, that is to say, with representing what the limitless imagination produces within the limits of language.

  12. Finite element method for one-dimensional rill erosion simulation on a curved slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rill erosion models are important to hillslope soil erosion prediction and to land use planning. The development of rill erosion models and their use has become increasingly of great concern. The purpose of this research was to develop mathematic models with computer simulation procedures to simulate and predict rill erosion. The finite element method is known as an efficient tool in many other applications than in rill soil erosion. In this study, the hydrodynamic and sediment continuity model equations for a rill erosion system were solved by the Galerkin finite element method and Visual C++ procedures. The simulated results are compared with the data for spatially and temporally measured processes for rill erosion under different conditions. The results indicate that the one-dimensional linear finite element method produced excellent predictions of rill erosion processes. Therefore, this study supplies a tool for further development of a dynamic soil erosion prediction model.

  13. Rill erosion on an oxisol influenced by a thin compacted layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Lopes Thomaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of compacted layers in soils can induce subprocesses (e.g., discontinuity of water flow and induces soil erosion and rill development. This study assesses how rill erosion in Oxisols is affected by a plow pan. The study shows that changes in hydraulic properties occur when the topsoil is eroded because the compacted layer lies close below the surface. The hydraulic properties that induce sediment transport and rill formation (i.e., hydraulic thresholds at which these processes occur are not the same. Because of the resistance of the compacted layer, the hydraulic conditions leading to rill incision on the soil surface differed from the conditions inducing rill deepening. The Reynolds number was the best hydraulic predictor for both processes. The formed rills were shallow and could easily be removed by tillage between crops. However, during rill development, large amounts of soil and contaminants could also be transferred.

  14. Using REE tracers to measure sheet erosion changing to rill erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Puling; Xue Yazhou; Song Wei; Wang Mingyi; Ju Tongjun

    2004-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different rare earth elements of different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amounts increase with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4-5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amounts. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands. (authors)

  15. Cryogenic optical systems for the rapid infrared imager/spectrometer (RIMAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, John I.; Content, David A.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Toy, Vicki L.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2014-07-01

    The Rapid Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (RIMAS) is designed to perform follow-up observations of transient astronomical sources at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (0.9 - 2.4 microns). In particular, RIMAS will be used to perform photometric and spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows to compliment the Swift satellite's science goals. Upon completion, RIMAS will be installed on Lowell Observatory's 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) located in Happy Jack, Arizona. The instrument's optical design includes a collimator lens assembly, a dichroic to divide the wavelength coverage into two optical arms (0.9 - 1.4 microns and 1.4 - 2.4 microns respectively), and a camera lens assembly for each optical arm. Because the wavelength coverage extends out to 2.4 microns, all optical elements are cooled to ~70 K. Filters and transmission gratings are located on wheels prior to each camera allowing the instrument to be quickly configured for photometry or spectroscopy. An athermal optomechanical design is being implemented to prevent lenses from loosing their room temperature alignment as the system is cooled. The thermal expansion of materials used in this design have been measured in the lab. Additionally, RIMAS has a guide camera consisting of four lenses to aid observers in passing light from target sources through spectroscopic slits. Efforts to align these optics are ongoing.

  16. Application of NAA in study of rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wenfeng

    2003-01-01

    Based on the principle and method of rare earth elements (REE) tracer and NAA for the study of soil erosion, the changeable process of rill erosion on loess sloping surface was researched in runoff scouring experiments. The results showed that the REE tracer and NAA method can be used not only quantitatively to determine soil erosion amounts on different slope sections, but also to reveal the changeable trend of relative erosion amounts. The relative errors are mostly less than ±20% for the tracing elements, which is considered satisfactory in the soil erosion studies

  17. Rill erosion of mudstone slope-a case study of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ci-Jian; Lin, Jiun-chuan; Cheng, Yuan-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion has been studied by many scientists for decades (Zingg, 1940; Meyer & Wischmeier, 1969; Foster, 1982; Luk, 1988) and many soil erosion prediction equations have already been developed, such as USLE, RUSLE. In spite of WEEP is based on hydrological physical model, all of the above models are restricted to predict concentrate flow. On the other hand, rill erosion is not understood completely. The amounts of rill erosion are always underestimated. Rill Erosion correlate closely to gradient (Cerda & Garcia-Fayos, 1997; Fox & Bryan, 1999; Fu,et al., 2011; Clarke & Rendell, 2006), slope length (Gabriel, 1999; Yair, 2004), particle distribution (Gabriel, 1999), proportion of clay (Luk,1977; Bryan2000), rainfall intensity (Römkens et al. 2001), and land use (Dotterweich, 2008). However, the effect of micromorphology of mud rock surface, such as mud-cracks, could be studied in more details. This research aims to simulate rill development by hydraulic flume to observe the morphological change caused by rill/erosion process. Mudstone specimens sampled from the mudstone area of Long-Chi, southern Taiwan. The results show that: (1) The erosion pattern of mudstone slope can be divided into four steps: (a) inter-rill erosion, ( b) rill erosion, (c) rill development, (d) slope failure. (2) Slopes with mud-cracks caused 125% soil loss than smooth slopes. (3) Mud-cracks affect spatial distribution of rill development (4) The sediment concentration decreased sharply in the beginning of experiments, however increased due to rill development. This paper demonstrated such a rill development. 1: Department of Geography, National Taiwan University. E-mail:maxpossibilism0929@gmail.com

  18. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wengfeng; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2006-01-01

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process

  19. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)]. E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ding Wengfeng [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Yangtse River' s Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei 430010 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)

    2006-03-15

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process.

  20. Predicting risk of rill initiation in a sub-catchment of Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, C.; Sisák, I.

    2009-04-01

    Rill erosion is an accelerated form of soil degradation. It removes much more soil and nutrients from the agricultural land than sheet erosion. Soils in the southern sub-watershed of Lake Balaton are especially prone to rill erosion and they contribute to siltation of ditches, to muddy floods and to eutrofication of the lake. The parent material in this region is mainly (sandy) loess and the soils are already moderately or strongly eroded thus, the low tolerance of loess against erosion determines erodibility. Identification of soils with high risk of rill erosion is crucial to plan mitigation measures. Soil erodibility has been investigated in this study in the catchment of Tetves stream. The USLE soil erodibility factor and soil slaking are widely accepted indicators for soil erosion. Both of them are published for all soil texture classes in handbooks of soil mapping. We have found that erodibility derived from our physical model has a close linear correlation with the product of the USLE soil erodibility factor and soil slaking grade thus, USLE could be directly used to assess parameters for physical based models. Rill erosion is highly probable if the product of KUSLE X slaking grade is above 2. Digital maps were produced to delineate soils with high potential for rill erosion. The basic data for the soil properties were drawn from the 1:10,000 soil map. Soil texture classes were used to assign KUSLE and slaking grade to the soil units. Beyond soil properties, other factors also influence rill formation: slope, surface cover, rainfall intensity. However, identifying soil properties, which make soils prone to rill erosion, is an important initial step for the reduction of diffuse agricultural loads to Lake Balaton. It might be the objective of River Basin Management Plans in the Water Framework Directive to prevent rill erosion and our study provides scientific evidence for targeting this policy.

  1. Mapping of Rill Erosion of Arable Soils Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtanov, A. N.; Vernyuk, Yu. I.; Savin, I. Yu.; Shchepot'ev, V. V.; Dokukin, P. A.; Sharychev, D. V.; Li, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Possibilities of using data obtained from unmanned aerial vehicles for detection and mapping of rill erosion on arable lands are analyzed. Identification and mapping of rill erosion was performed on a key plot with a predominance of arable gray forest soils (Greyzemic Phaeozems) under winter wheat in Tula oblast. This plot was surveyed from different heights and in different periods to determine the reliability of identification of rill erosion on the basis of automated procedures in a GIS. It was found that, despite changes in the pattern of rills during the warm season, only one survey during this season is sufficient for adequate assessment of the area of eroded soils. According to our data, the most reliable identification of rill erosion is based on the aerial survey from the height of 50 m above the soil surface. When the height of the flight is more than 200 m, erosional rills virtually escape identification. The efficiency of identification depends on the type of crops, their status, and time of the survey. The surveys of bare soil surface in periods with maximum possible interval from the previous rain or snowmelt season are most efficient. The results of our study can be used in the systems of remote sensing monitoring of erosional processes on arable fields. Application of multiand hyperspectral cameras can improve the efficiency of monitoring.

  2. Reversible Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase-A (RIMAs): Robust, Reversible Inhibition of Human Brain MAO-A by CX157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joanna S; Logan, Jean; Azzaro, Albert J; Fielding, Robert M; Zhu, Wei; Poshusta, Amy K; Burch, Daniel; Brand, Barry; Free, James; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Hubbard, Barbara; Jayne, Millard; King, Payton; Carter, Pauline; Carter, Scott; Xu, Youwen; Shea, Colleen; Muench, Lisa; Alexoff, David; Shumay, Elena; Schueller, Michael; Warner, Donald; Apelskog-Torres, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase-A (RIMA) inhibit the breakdown of three major neurotransmitters, serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, offering a multi-neurotransmitter strategy for the treatment of depression. CX157 (3-fluoro-7-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenoxathiin-10,10-dioxide) is a RIMA, which is currently in development for the treatment of major depressive disorder. We examined the degree and reversibility of the inhibition of brain monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and plasma CX157 levels at different times after oral dosing to establish a dosing paradigm for future clinical efficacy studies, and to determine whether plasma CX157 levels reflect the degree of brain MAO-A inhibition. Brain MAO-A levels were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and [11C]clorgyline in 15 normal men after oral dosing of CX157 (20–80 mg). PET imaging was conducted after single and repeated doses of CX157 over a 24-h time course. We found that 60 and 80 mg doses of CX157 produced a robust dose-related inhibition (47–72%) of [11C]clorgyline binding to brain MAO-A at 2 h after administration and that brain MAO-A recovered completely by 24 h post drug. Plasma CX157 concentration was highly correlated with the inhibition of brain MAO-A (EC50: 19.3 ng/ml). Thus, CX157 is the first agent in the RIMA class with documented reversible inhibition of human brain MAO-A, supporting its classification as a RIMA, and the first RIMA with observed plasma levels that can serve as a biomarker for the degree of brain MAO-A inhibition. These data were used to establish the dosing regimen for a current clinical efficacy trial with CX157. PMID:19890267

  3. Erosion rills offset the efficacy of vegetated buffer strips to mitigate pesticide exposure in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Dabrowski, James Michael; Bangert, Uli; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory risk assessment considers vegetated buffer strips as effective risk mitigation measures for the reduction of runoff-related pesticide exposure of surface waters. However, apart from buffer strip widths, further characteristics such as vegetation density or the presence of erosion rills are generally neglected in the determination of buffer strip mitigation efficacies. This study conducted a field survey of fruit orchards (average slope 3.1-12.2%) of the Lourens River catchment, South Africa, which specifically focused on the characteristics and attributes of buffer strips separating orchard areas from tributary streams. In addition, in-stream and erosion rill water samples were collected during three runoff events and GIS-based modeling was employed to predict losses of pesticides associated with runoff. The results show that erosion rills are common in buffer strips (on average 13 to 24 m wide) of the tributaries (up to 6.5 erosion rills per km flow length) and that erosion rills represent concentrated entry pathways of pesticide runoff into the tributaries during rainfall events. Exposure modeling shows that measured pesticide surface water concentrations correlated significantly (R(2)=0.626; pregulatory risk assessment procedures conducted for pesticide authorization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  5. The project for the study of Wurno irrigation scheme area in the Rima hydrological basin, Sokoto State, Nigeria for Fadama irrigation and water supply, using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, C.

    2000-07-01

    This publication summarizes the result of the project on the use of isotope techniques for the study of recharge and discharge of the Sokoto-Rima hydrological basin in the semi-arid and northwestern part of Nigeria

  6. Consciência fonológica: rimas e aliterações no português brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas, Gabriela Castro Menezes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar resultados de uma pesquisa sobre consciência fonológica, no que se refere à consciência de rimas e aliterações. Através da comparação de resultados em tarefas que envolvem identificação e produção de rimas e aliterações, buscou-se identificar: 1 se crianças falantes de português brasileiro apresentam consciência com relação a essas unidades antes do ensino sistemático das escrita; 2 quais são as tarefas em que essas criançcas apresentam maior facilidade; 3 se há uma relação entre o nível de escrita (Ferreiro e Teberosky, 1991 das crianças e o desempenho nas tarefas propostas. A consciência fonológica é a habilidade de identificar e manipular os sons da fala, compreendendo a consciência de sílabas, elementos intrassilábicos e fonemas. No presente estudo investigou-se a habilidade de crianças falantes de português brasileiro em lidar com unidades silábicas e intrassilábicas, respondendo a tarefas que envolvem identificação e produção de rimas e aliterações. Os sujeitos desta pesquisa foram 40 crianças com idades entre 4 e 8 anos, alunos da educação infantil (níveis A e B, 1 e 2 séries do ensino fundamental. Essas crianças responderam a tarefas de identificação e produção de rimas e aliterações contidas no instrumento "consciência fonológica: instrumento de avaliação seqüencial - CONFIAS" (2003. A realização deste estudo evidenciou que tanto as crianças não alfabetizadas quanto as em processo de aquisição da escrita são capazes de identificar e produzir rimas e aliterações. Os resultados desta pesquisa, corroborando estudos já realizados no Brasil (por exemplo, Cardoso Martins, 1995, apontam para uma maior facilidade das tarefas que envolvam aliterações, mostrando a rima como um elemento menos significativo para as crianças brasileiras em processo de aquisição da escrita

  7. Delineation of rill soil erosion from uav-borne remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is a very important factor of land degradation and is especially oppressive when it occurs on productively used areas such as agricultural fields. Rill and interrill soil erosion, although less serious and smaller in size then gully erosion, might also bring serious damages. Dependin...

  8. A análise dos impactos socioeconômicos na estruturação do EIA/RIMA: a importância da Abordagem Humanista para a Sustentabilidade The analysis of socio-economic impacts on the structure of EIA / RIMA: the importance of humanist approach to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Carlos Dias Conde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.5902/198346597686O presente trabalho trata da defesa da abordagem humanista na estruturação da análise de Impacto Ambiental (EIA e do seu Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RIMA, no que concerne aos impactos socioeconômicos abordados, por compreender que a abordagem convencional não dá conta das demandas sociais, pois somente esta nova abordagem dará, de fato, o caráter sustentável da EIA/RIMA. The present work deals with the defense of the humanistic approach in structuring the analysis of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and its Environmental Impact Report (RIMA in relation to socioeconomic impacts addressed to realize that the conventional approach does not account social demands, as only this new approach will in fact the sustainable nature of the EIA / RIMA.

  9. Õppimise tähendustest ja väärtustest / Larissa Jõgi, Rille Raaper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Larissa, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Õppimise protsessi ja õppimise mõtestamist puudutavatele küsimustele vastavad Tallinna Ülikooli andragoogika osakonna juhataja Larissa Jõgi ja andragoogika bakalaureuseõppe üliõpilane Rille Raaper

  10. Ignacio Arellano, El ingenio de Lope de Vega. Escolios a las «Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciado Tomé de Burguillos»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Morros Mestres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Ignacio Arellano,El ingenio de Lope de Vega. Escolios a las «Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciado Tomé de Burguillos», IDEA/IGAS, New York, 2012, 305 pp. ISBN: 978-1-938795-84-8.

  11. Applicability of Different Hydraulic Parameters to Describe Soil Detachment in Eroding Rills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Stefan; Seeger, Manuel; Zell, Andreas; Wagner, Christian; Wagner, Jean-Frank; Ries, Johannes B.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the comparison of experimental results with assumptions used in numerical models. The aim of the field experiments is to test the linear relationship between different hydraulic parameters and soil detachment. For example correlations between shear stress, unit length shear force, stream power, unit stream power and effective stream power and the detachment rate does not reveal a single parameter which consistently displays the best correlation. More importantly, the best fit does not only vary from one experiment to another, but even between distinct measurement points. Different processes in rill erosion are responsible for the changing correlations. However, not all these procedures are considered in soil erosion models. Hence, hydraulic parameters alone are not sufficient to predict detachment rates. They predict the fluvial incising in the rill's bottom, but the main sediment sources are not considered sufficiently in its equations. The results of this study show that there is still a lack of understanding of the physical processes underlying soil erosion. Exerted forces, soil stability and its expression, the abstraction of the detachment and transport processes in shallow flowing water remain still subject of unclear description and dependence. PMID:23717669

  12. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Wagenbrenner; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control)...

  13. Geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas

  14. Terrestrial analogs to lunar sinuous rilles - Kauhako Crater and channel, Kalaupapa, Molokai, and other Hawaiian lava conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, C.R.; Hawke, B.R.; Wilson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Two source vents, one explosive and one effusive erupted to form a cinder cone and low lava shield that together compose the Kalaupapa peninsula of Molokai, Hawaii, A 50-100-m-wide channel/tube system extends 2.3 km northward from kauhako crater in the center of the shield. Based on modeling, a volume of up to about 0.2 cu km of lava erupted at a rate of 260 cu m/sec to flow through the Kauhako conduit system in one of the last eruptive episodes on the peninsula. Channel downcutting by thermal erosion occurred at a rate of about 10 micron/sec to help form the 30-m-deep conduit. Two smaller, secondary tube systems formed east of the main lava channel/tube. Several other lava conduit systems on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii were also compared to the Kauhako and lunar sinuous rille systems. These other lava conduits include Whittington, Kupaianaha, and Mauna Ulu lava tubes. Morphologically, the Hawaiian tube systems studied are very similar to lunar sinuous rilles in that they have deep head craters, sinuous channels, and gentle slopes. Thermal erosion is postulated to be an important factor in the formation of these terrestrial channel systems and by analogy is inferred to be an important process involved in the formation of lunar sinuous rilles. 28 refs

  15. Análise do EIA/RIMA do Terminal de Combustíveis da Paraíba (TECOP para fins de licenciamento ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeniza Delmondes Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de impacto ambiental precede ao licenciamento ambiental, sendo obrigatório para atividades efetiva ou potencialmente poluidoras ou capazes de degradar o meio ambiente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer a análise do EIA/RIMA do Terminal de Combustíveis da Paraíba Ltda-TECOP, observando se foram cumpridas as exigências legais para a caracterização dos impactos ambientais, e verificando também a existência de medidas mitigadoras para os impactos adversos e indicação de monitoramento para os referidos impactos identificados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva e documental, que teve como objetos de estudo, o EIA/RIMA e o Processo de Licenciamento Ambiental do TECOP, cujos dados foram coletados junto ao Setor de Documentação da SUDEMA. O EIA/RIMA se mostrou extremamente superficial no que diz respeito à caracterização dos impactos ambientais, estes não sendo devidamente caracterizados conforme determina a Resolução Conama 01/86, artigo 6, inciso II. Os atributos para a correta caracterização dos impactos não foram levados em consideração sequer para os principais impactos adversos passíveis de ocorrerem na fase de operação do empreendimento. O estudo também não mostrou clareza quanto à proposição das medidas mitigadoras e monitoramento para os impactos identificados, pois nem todos os impactos adversos continham a indicação de mitigação e como seriam monitorados.

  16. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control) forests burned at high severity in northern Montana, eastern Washington, and southern British Columbia to quantify rill overland flow and sediment production rates (fluxes) after ground-based salvage logging. We tested different types of logging equipment-feller-bunchers, tracked and wheeled skidders, and wheeled forwarders-as well as traffic levels and the addition of slash to skid trails as a best management practice. Rill experiments were done at each location in the first year after the fire and repeated in subsequent years. Logging was completed in the first or second post-fire year. We found that ground-based logging using heavy equipment compacted soil, reduced soil water repellency, and reduced vegetation cover. Vegetation recovery rates were slower in most logged areas than the controls. Runoff rates were higher in the skidder and forwarder plots than their respective controls in the Montana and Washington sites in the year that logging occurred, and the difference in runoff between the skidder and control plots at the British Columbia site was nearly significant (p = 0.089). Most of the significant increases in runoff in the logged plots persisted for subsequent years. The type of skidder, the addition of slash, and the amount of forwarder traffic did not significantly affect the runoff rates. Across the three sites, rill sediment fluxes were 5-1900% greater in logged plots than the controls in the year of logging, and the increases were significant for all logging treatments except the low use forwarder trails. There was no difference in the first-year sediment fluxes between the feller

  17. Evaluation of Spatial-Temporal Variation of Soil Detachment Rate Potential in Rill Erosion, Case study: Doshmanziari Rainfed Lands, Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of land degradation and it has caused many undesirable consequences in last decades. On steep slopes, rill erosion is the most important type of erosion, which produces sediment and rill flow. It can be also considered as a vehicle for transporting soil particles detached from upland areas. Recent studies indicate that soil detachment rates are significantly influenced by land use. It is also known that there is a major difference between detachment rates of disturbed and natural soils (Zhang et al., 2003. Plowing rills especially in steep slopes increases sediment production. Sun et al. (2013 reported that the contribution of rill erosion in hill slope lands in china was more than 70%, which was approximately 50% of total soil erosion. In addition, measured soil loss is statistically related to hydraulic indicators such as slope, water depth, flow velocity, flow shear stress and stream power (Knapen et al., 2007. This study aims to evaluate the effects of hydraulic variables (shear stress and stream power on spatial-temporal soil detachment rate. The focus is on the plowing rills in hillslope areas under wheat dry farming cultivation. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in hilly slopes with the slope of 22.56% under dry farming wheat cultivation at 60 km of west of Shiraz, Iran. Top-down conventional plowing was carried out in order to create 10 meters furrows. Slope and cross sections of rills were measured throughout the experiment at 1 m intervals by rill-meter. Water was added to the top of the rills for 10 minutes and inflow rates were 10, 15 and 20 L min-1. Hydraulic parameters such as shear stress and stream power were calculated measuring rill morphology and water depth. Flow velocity and hydraulic radius along the different rill experiments were also calculated. Sediment concentrations were measured in three equal regular time and distance intervals

  18. ANALISIS KAUSALITAS VOLATILITAS NILAI TUKAR MATA UANG DENGAN KINERJA SEKTOR KEUANGAN DAN SEKTOR RILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Nurrohim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Fundamental ekonomi yang salah satunya nilai tukar mata uang lebih dominan untuk dikaji. Nilai tukar yang berfluktuatif juga mempunyai keterkaitan dengan sektor rill, dalam hal ini fenomena nilai tukar yang berfluktuatif berdampak langsung mempengaruhi inflasi begitu pula sebaliknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan kausalitas dan kointegrasi antara nilai tukar dengan IHSG dan nilai tukar dengan inflasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan data bulana periode Januari 1999-Desember 2012, data diperoleh dari Bank Indonesia (BI dan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Alat analisis menggunakan uji kausalitas Granger untuk mengetahui hubungan sebab-akibat dan uji kointegrasi untuk mengetahui hubungan keseimbangan jangka panjang. Hasil penelitian uji kausalitas Granger menunjukkan bahwa nilai tukar dengan indeks harga saham gabungan (IHSG ada terjadi hubungan kausalitas satu arah, dan dari uji kointegrasi menunjukkan terdapat hubungan jangka panjang untuk periode Januari 1999-Desember 2012. Untuk hasil penelitian lain uji kausalitas Granger menunjukkan bahwa nilai tukar dengan inflasi ada juga terjadi hubungan kausalitas satu arah, dan dari uji kointegrasi menunjukkan terdapat hubungan jangka panjang untuk periode Januari 1999-Desember 2012. Berdasarkan dari penelitian ini Bank Indonesia harus dapat mengendalikan volatilitas nilai tukar yang optimal dalam rangka pencapaian kestabilan harga dan investasi. Perlunya juga peran pemerintah untuk membantu bank sentral dalam upaya mengendalikan nilai tukar agar fundamental ekonomi terjaga stabil dan kuat. Abstract ______________________________________________________________ Economic fundamentals that one exchange is dominant for review. The exchange rate has also fluctuated linkages with the real sector, in this case the phenomenon of fluctuating exchange rates affect inflation directly affects vice versa. This study aims to

  19. Palankios ugdymui(si) psichologinės ir fizinės aplinkos kūrimas inkliuzinėje klasėje

    OpenAIRE

    Bartkutė, Aistė

    2014-01-01

    Bakalauro darbe analizuojamas palankios ugdymui(si) psichologinės ir fizinės aplinkos kūrimas inkliuzinėje klasėje. Tyrime dalyvavo 104 pedagogai, dirbantys Panevėžio miesto ir rajono bendrojo ugdymo mokyklose. Anketinės apklausos metodu tirta pedagogų nuomonė apie palankios ugdymui(si) psichologinės ir fizinės aplinkos kūrimo patirtis ir svarbiausias sąlygas inkliuzinėje klasėje. Analizuojant tyrimo duomenis ieškota ryšio tarp svarbiausių sąlygų, reikalingų palankios ugdymui(si) psicho...

  20. BASES TEÓRICO-CONCEITUAIS DE MÉTODOS PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS EM EIA/RIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Fonseca Galvão de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious partner-environmental crisis that the planet crosses takes to the formularization of new methods and instruments that minimize to the maximum the environmental impacts generated by the implantation and operation of potentially polluting enterprises. In this way, this article aims to bring a proposal of methods for environmental impact assessment, stage this, demanded in the elaboration of Evironment Impact Studies and the Environment Impact Report (EIA/RIMA. These studies are legal instruments that if consolidate to leave, of Law 6,938/81 that it makes use on the National Politics of the Environment, and Art. 225, (§ 1º, IV of the Federal Constitution, still with its federal regulation for Resolution 001/86 of the CONAMA. Therefore, it was exposed the environmental impacts, formulating a methodology for its analysis, with a posterior definition of the attributes and parameters to be used from "Matrices of Interaction".

  1. Runoff experiment and adapted SfM photogrammetry to assess rill erosion in Mediterranean agricultural fields from a holistic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronz, Oliver; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Seeger, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean agricultural fields, more research is needed to quantify soil loss and to assess runoff generation caused by unsuitable land management strategies (García-Díaz et al., 2017; Keesstra et al., 2016). Nowadays, farmers are increasing the generation of rills and, consequently, enhancing several sub-processes related to soil erosion by water such as headcut retreats, piping or cracks joint to mass movements (Marzolff and Poesen, 2009; Poesen et al., 2003; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). This complex problem under different spatiotemporal scales hinders a reliable forecasting of its final consequences (Prasuhn, 2011; Salome et al., 2014). Several researchers pay more attention to point observations, but no to general and connected overviews of processes related to forms and the quantitative functioning of all elements. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to characterize and quantify the rill erosion generated by these degradation processes. To achieve this goal, two runoff experiments were carried out with two repetitions (dry and wet conditions) under extreme conditions (Wirtz et al., 2013, 2012, 2010): a motor driven pump discharged a water inflow up to ˜4.2 l s-1 maintained during between 4 and 6 minutes (≈1000 litres). Additionally, a 3D-captation of the rill by an adapted SfM photogrammetry was performed to assess: i) clear visible zonation of geomorphological (structural) connectivity features; ii) runoff and sediment productions close to the catchment outlet under actual conditions; iii) topsoil-subsoil interaction and crusting crucial for runoff generation; and, iv) the area with evidence of (former) high erosion intensity now stable, but with remnant. García-Díaz, A., Bienes, R., Sastre, B., Novara, A., Gristina, L., Cerdà, A., 2017. Nitrogen losses in vineyards under different types of soil groundcover. A field runoff simulator approach in central Spain. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 236, 256-267. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2016.12.013 Keesstra

  2. A Paisagem na Área de Influência da Usina Hidrelétrica do FUNIL (UHE-FUNIL, Percebida Através do EIA-RIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério José Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A construção de uma hidrelétrica provoca grandes transformações na paisagem regional, provocando rápida degradação ambiental, contrária ao processo milenar de sua formação. A implantação de hidrelétricas é definida por pré-requisitos, como a disponibilidade de água, topografia e geologia adequadas e, assim, o estudo integral da paisagem – sistema em constante transformação, não faz parte do processo. A Usina Hidrelétrica do Funil, UHEFunil, foi construída no alto do rio Grande, próximo à cidade de Lavras – MG. Os primeiros estudos são da década de 1960; os estudos e relatórios de impacto ambiental – EIA-RIMA de 1991/1992 e, em 2003, iniciou-se a operação comercial. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, analisar toda a documentação referente ao EIA-RIMA, para perceber como a paisagem na área de influência da usina foi considerada antes, durante e após sua construção; objetivouse também verificar se os estudos apontaram alternativas para o aproveitamento ou a preservação dos recursos naturais, questionando-se sobre a relação entre os benefícios da geração de energia elétrica e os conseqüentes danos ambientais. Os resultados conduziram a uma análise temporal com três estágios de transformação da paisagem: dos primórdios da ocupação antrópica até a época do EIA-RIMA; modificações durante a construção e enchimento da barragem e o surgimento de novas paisagens após a construção da usina.

  3. Hydrology and sediment budget of Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, MX: Modelling channel, gully, and rill erosion with 3D photo-reconstruction, CONCEPTS, and AnnAGNPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Gudiño, Napoleon; Biggs, Trent; Castillo, Carlos; Langendoen, Eddy; Bingner, Ron; Taguas, Encarnación; Liden, Douglas; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-04-01

    Several watersheds cross the US-Mexico boundary, resulting in trans-boundary environmental problems. Erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, increases the rate of sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States, altering the structure and function of the ecosystem. The well-being of residents in Tijuana is compromised by damage to infrastructure and homes built adjacent to stream channels, gully formation in dirt roads, and deposition of trash. We aim to understand the dominant source of sediment contributing to the sediment budget of the watershed (channel, gully, or rill erosion), where the hotspots of erosion are located, and what the impact of future planned and unplanned land use changes and Best Management Practices (BMPs) will be on sediment and storm flow. We will be using a mix of field methods, including 3D photo-reconstruction of stream channels, with two models, CONCEPTS and AnnAGNPS to constrain estimates of the sediment budget and impacts of land use change. Our research provides an example of how 3D photo-reconstruction and Structure from Motion (SfM) can be used to model channel evolution.

  4. «Daños, engaños y desengaños, frutos son de los años»: el valor semántico de la rima en los sonetos barrocos españoles sobre la fugacidad de la vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Oman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los temas más recurrentes del Barroco es, sin duda, el del tempus fugit que da lugar a numerosas reflexiones sobre la brevedad de la vida, la fugacidad de lo terreno y la omnipresencia de la muerte en la poesía áurea española. En los sonetos barrocos sobre la fugacidad, la obsesión barroca por el tiempo puede observarse también a nivel de la rima que, lejos de ser un mero recurso fónico y ornamental, aporta al poema un importante valor semántico. Entre palabras rimadas, como p. ej. años / daños / engaños / desengaños o mañana / vana, jornada / nada que aparecen casi de forma obsesiva a lo largo de toda la poesía barroca, se establecen vínculos semáticos que subrayan el tema principal del soneto. Del mismo modo, palabras como encina / ruina, vida / desvanecida, humano / gusano, dentro de un soneto sobre lo efímero de la vida, a pesar de la alteridad de sus significados, guardan una estrecha relación, llamando la atención sobre los efectos devastadores del fluir del tiempo. La rima funciona así como uno de los ejes del sentido y uno de los recursos para cumplir con la tendencia barroca a la unidad.

  5. Olaf Kapella, Christiane Rille-Pfeiffer, Marina Rupp, Norbert F. Schneider (Hg.: Die Vielfalt der Familie. Tagungsband zum 3. Europäischen Fachkongress Familienforschung. Opladen u.a.: Verlag Barbara Budrich 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Josephine Kürschner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Der im Anschluss an die 3. Europäische Fachkonferenz für Familienforschung erschienene Sammelband Die Vielfalt der Familie von Olaf Kapella, Christiane Rille-Pfeiffer, Marina Rupp und Norbert F. Schneider greift wichtige Trends in der jüngeren Entwicklung familialen Zusammenlebens in Europa auf. Neben der Formenvielfalt und Dynamik werden unterschied-liche nationale und internationale Rahmenbedingungen und entsprechende Entwicklungen ins Blickfeld genommen.This anthology contains the presentations of the third European symposium on Family Research in June 2008. The articles illustrate from various research perspectives how families live together in modern Europe and what family means today. In addition to the variety of forms and dynamic, various national and international parameters and their respective developments are analyzed.

  6. Rill erosion rates in burned forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires often produce large increases in runoff and erosion rates (e.g., Moody and Martin, 2009), and land managers need to predict the frequency and magnitude of postfire erosion to determine the needs for hazard response and possible erosion mitigation to reduce the impacts of increased erosion on public safety and valued resources. The Water Erosion...

  7. Las rimas de Giannantonio de Petruciis, conde de Policastro

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Mesa, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    La lírica culta napolitana en lengua italiana del segundo Quattrocento está dominada por los llamados líricos de vanguardia o poetas de la vieja guardia aragonesa; es decir, Giovanni Aloisio, Giovan Francesco Caraciolo, Francesco Galeota, Pietro Jacopo de Jennaro, Giannantonio de Petruciis y Rustico Romano. A pesar de que las obras de estos líricos encierran múltiples paralelismos, acentuados por el hecho de que operaron bajo unas circunstancias políticas, históricas y culturales similares, l...

  8. Kelio ramento kūrimas ir tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Raškauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Crutches in the market has a number of drawbacks. Based on these drawbacks and other data it decided to create a more comfortable, while the designed a simple sense of crutches. The objective of this master final work is to design the lower leg crutch designed to immobilize the injured lower leg. The Master's thesis consists of 5 chapters. The paper reviews the market in crutches, types, structures, strengths and weaknesses. Described gait analysis. Performed gait with crutches research an...

  9. Rekreacinių teritorijų kūrimas antropogenizuotoje gamtinėje aplinkoje

    OpenAIRE

    Šaliamoras, Paulius

    2009-01-01

    Daugelis kaimo turizmo, rekreacinių teritorijų kūrėjų pateikę specialiai sudarytai komisijai parengtus projektus galėjo gauti nemenką ES paramą, tačiau pasisekė ne visiems, kiti rekreacines teritorijas turėjo rengti už savo lėšas. Vienas tokių projektų yra rekreacinės teritorijos įrengimas Pajaurės pelkėje, esančios 20 km nuo Vilniaus centro. Projektas įdomus tuo, kad rekreacinę teritoriją planuojama įrengti pelkėje, kuri pasižymi silpnu gruntu - durpe, o tai reiškia, kad pelkinį paviršių tek...

  10. Paskirstytų sistemų testavimo metodikos kūrimas ir tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Kolganov, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    Automated access control systems are becoming increasingly integrated within any aspect of technology, be that IT or regular business appliances. Such systems can automatically control access to offices, premises or whole buildings. Systems, which require either PIN (Personal Identification Number), ID card or like to be used to authenticate one and allow access to protected area. Biometric systems, which are based on unique aspects of human physiology, came into wider usage only recently, wh...

  11. RIMA-dependent nuclear accumulation of IYO triggers auxin-irreversible cell differentiation in arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, Alfonso; Mangano, Silvina; González-García, Mary Paz; Contreras, Ramón; Sauer, Michael; Rybel, De Bert; Weijers, Dolf; Sánchez-Serrano, José Juan; Sanmartín, Maite; Rojo, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator MINIYO (IYO) is essential and rate-limiting for initiating cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, IYO moves from the cytosol into the nucleus in cells at the meristem periphery, possibly triggering their differentiation. However, the genetic mechanisms

  12. On the Moon with Apollo 15, A Guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gene

    The booklet, published before the Apollo 15 mission, gives a timeline for the mission; describes and illustrates the physiography of the landing site; and describes and illustrates each lunar surface scientific experiment. Separate timelines are included for all traverses (the traverses are the Moon walks and, for Apollo 15, the Moon rides in the…

  13. Laboratory Investigation of Rill Erosion on Compost Blankets under Concentrated Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A flume study was conducted using a soil, yard waste compost, and an erosion control compost to investigate the response to concentrated flow and determine if the shear stress model could be used to describe the response. Yard waste compost (YWC) and the bare Cecil soil (CS) cont...

  14. The influence of rill density on soil erosion against USLE-soil erosion methode

    OpenAIRE

    Rizalihadi, A.M.; Faimah, B.E.; Nazia, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Land and water is one of the major natural resource which has an important role for human life. Exploitation of land in catchment areas that not correspond to its carrying capacity will cause damage. One of the effect is increassing the soil erosion. Continuous erosion will also lead to increased sediment transport in rivers that disrupt the ship navigation on estuary due sediment accumulation. At present, soil erosion is estimated using USLE method, which is only limited to the erosion in th...

  15. Post-fire rill and gully formation, Schultz Fire 2010, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Karen A. Koestner; Ann Youberg; Peter E. Koestner

    2011-01-01

    The Schultz Fire burned 6,100 ha on the eastern slopes of the San Francisco Peaks, a dormant Middle Pliocene to Holocene aged stratovolcano in northern Arizona (Figure 1). The fire burned in the Coconino National Forest between June 20th and 30th, 2010, across moderate to very steep ponderosa pine and mixed conifer watersheds. About 40% of the fire area was classified...

  16. Extensive rill erosion and gullying on abandoned pit mining sites in Lusatia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunth, Franziska; Kaiser, Andreas; Vláčilová, Markéta; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    As the major economic driver in the province of Lusatia, Eastern Germany, the large open-cast lignite mining sites characterize the landscape and leave vast areas of irreversible changed post-mining landscapes behind. Cost-intensive renaturation projects have been implemented in order to restructure former mine sites into stabile self-sustaining ecosystems and local recreation areas. With considerable expenditure the pits are stabilized, flooded and surrounding areas are restructured. Nevertheless, heavy soil erosion, extensive gullying and slope instability are challenges for the restructuring and renaturation of the abandoned open-cast mining sites. The majority of the sites remain inaccessible to the public due to instable conditions resulting in uncontrolled slides and large gullies. In this study a combined approach of UAV-based aerial imagery, 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction and physically-based soil erosion modelling is carried out in order to document, quantify and better understand the causes of erosion processes on mining sites. Rainfall simulations have been carried out in lausatian post mining areas to reproduce soil detachment processes and observe the responsible mechanisms for the considerable erosion rates. Water repellency and soil sealing by biological crusts were hindering infiltration and consequently increasing runoff rates despite the mainly sandy soil texture. On non-vegetated experimental plots runoff coefficients up to 87 % were measured. In a modelling routine for a major gully catchment regarding a 50 years rainfall event, simulation results reveal runoff coefficients of up to 84% and erosion rates of 118 Mg*ha^-1. At the sediment pass over point 450Mg of sediments enter the surface water bodies. A system response of this order of magnitude were unexpected by the authorities. By applying 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction a model validation is now possible and further may illustrate the great importance of soil conservation measures under the described conditions.

  17. Environmental Impact Report for thermoelectric from coal in Candiota region - Brazil; RIMA para termeletrica a carvao na regiao de Candiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossato, A C; Camison, F L; Ladniuk, S T [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The principles for executing the Environmental Impact Studies and the elaboration of Environmental Impact Report, referring to the first module of Candiota III Thermoelectric Plant, near to the Electric Energy State Company are described, with some aspects about the mine, plant, region, executor corporations and comprehend area for the environmental impact studies. (C.G.C.).

  18. Vidutinių sumų mokėjimo sistemos sukūrimas ir tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Zenkus, Irmantas

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models of electronic money, usually used for electronic payment systems are not adap- ted for small amounts of high-volume transactions. When the product is very low value, such as music, art, transport tickets, traditional schemes are far from ideal. Payments must be made very quickly, wi- thout requiring significant system resources. As we know the system resources cost money, and some low-value goods would become cheaper than the transaction costs. In this work i...

  19. Lava Eruption and Emplacement: Using Clues from Hawaii and Iceland to Probe the Lunar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Debra Hurwitz; Hamilton, C. W.; Bleacher, J. E.; Whelley, P. L.; Young, K. E.; Scheidt, S. P.; Richardson, J. A.; Sutton, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Investigating recent eruptions on Earth is crucial to improving understanding of relationships between eruption dynamics and final lava flow morphologies. In this study, we investigated eruptions in Holuhraun, Iceland, and Kilauea, Hawaii to gain insight into the lava dynamics near the source vent, the initiation of lava channels, and the origin of down-channel features. Insights are applied to Rima Bode on the lunar nearside to deduce the sequence of events that formed this lunar sinuous rille system. These insights are crucial to correctly interpreting whether the volcanic features associated with Rima Bode directly relate to eruption conditions at the vent and, thus, can help us understand those eruption dynamics, or, alternatively, whether the features formed as a result of more localized influences on lava flow dynamics. For example, if the lava channel developed early in the eruption and was linked to pulses in vent activity, its morphology can be analyzed to interpret the flux and duration of the eruption. Conversely, if the lava channel initiated late in the eruption as the result of a catastrophic breaching of lava that had previously pooled within the vent [e.g., 1], then the final channel morphology will not indicate eruption dynamics but rather local dynamics associated with that breach event. Distinguishing between these two scenarios is crucial for correctly interpreting the intensity and duration of volcanic history on the Moon.

  20. Bare soil and rill formation following wildfires, fuel reduction treatments, and pine plantations in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil H. Berg; David L. Azuma

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated erosion commonly occurs after wildfires on forested lands. As burned areas recover, erosion returns towards prefire rates depending on many site-specific characteristics, including fire severity, vegetation type, soil type and climate. In some areas, erosion recovery can be rapid, particularly where revegetation is quick. Erosion recovery is less well...

  1. Ilustrar poesia para a infância: entre as rimas cromáticas e as metáforas visuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a corpus of anthologies of children’s poetry published in Portugal in last few years where illustration plays an important role in assuring the cohesion of the volumes and in the reading process of the texts. The paper also analyses the relationships established between images and texts in order to understand the specificity of children’s poetry illustration, identifying illustration functions and particular strategies that link text and image.

  2. Além das Rimas: uma breve análise sociológica da vida e obra do músico alagoano Jacinto Silva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo procura fazer uma análise sociológica da vida e obra do músico alagoano Jacinto Silva (1933-2001. De acordo com pressupostos da sociologia disposicional, sobretudo os que podem ser notados na obra do sociólogo francês Bernard Lahire, o indivíduo traz em si uma serie de elementos que denunciam seu pertencimento a um determinado grupo social. Com base nisso, será visto de que modo os pertencimentos do indivíduo Jacinto Silva tornaram possível sua carreira artística.

  3. “Tratado” e Exercício de ser criança: a infância entre versos, rimas e tintas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penha Lucilda de Souza Silvestre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of art, in general, consists of a significant event, considering the reader can experience different fictional worlds, as well as retrieve and articulate the intertextual networks in the act of reading. Thus, there is the possibility of rethinking one’s own experience as well as the social conditions in which the child is inserted. In this sense , our objective is to perform a journey through the poetic universe from the reading of the texts Exercício de ser criança (1999, by Manoel de Barros, and Um pequeno tratado de brinquedos para meninos quietos (2009, by Selma Maria Kuasne, associating the m to the paintings by Candido Portinari, ‘Boys flying kites’ (1932, ‘Children playing’ (1938 and ‘Boys playing’ (1955. Indeed, these pictures enable us to rethink how the representation and the constitution of childhood in art are conceived and to under stand them in the weaving of poetry and painting, as well as the act of playing, in a dialectical process.

  4. The Role of Undercutting of Banks in the Collapse and Evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of undercutting in rill banks on the development and collapse of rill banks and on the subsequent evolution of the rill channels were investigated in a laboratory flume. Undercutting of rill banks were observed to develop in rill channels by 'reverse roller' effect of plunging water jet into scour holes, cutting the ...

  5. Rap-rimas afetivas da periferia: reflexões na perspectiva sócio-histórica Rap-affective rhymes of the periphery: reflections in the social-historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison Hinkel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a dimensão afetiva como constitutiva do agir e do pensar humano, e reconhecendo que sua presença é uma constante no Rap, este artigo busca investigar como a afetividade é expressa nas músicas de quatro grupos de Rap nacional. A partir da análise das músicas, pode-se considerar que estas expressam as vivências advindas de uma ordem social baseada na inclusão social perversa. Há instantes em que a tônica está no sentimento da vergonha, culpa, humilhação, tristeza, revolta e medo que assola os moradores da periferia. Em contrapartida, há propostas de enfrentamento desta condição, expressando a importância da união, irmandade, humildade, esperança, amor, alegria e solidariedade. Assim, nestas canções, a afetividade expressa tanto a denúncia do sofrimento ético-político, como a possibilidade de aumentar a potência de ação do sujeito para a superação da condição de padecimento humano, indicando a música, especialmente o Rap, como temática importante na compreensão psicossocial do sujeito em contextos de exclusão social.Considering the affectionate dimension as the constituent of act and of human thought, and recognizing that his presence is a constant one in the Rap, this article seeks to investigate like the affection is espress in the music of four groups of Rap national. Starting from the analysis of the music, we can consider that these express the resulting experiences of a social order based on the perverse social inclusion. There are instants in that to tonic is in the feeling of the shame, blame, humiliation, sorrow, revolt and fear that devastates the inhabitants of the periphery. In compensation, there is proposals to face of this condition, expressing the importance of the union, fraternity, humility, hope, love, joy and solidarity. Like this, in these songs, the so much express affection the denunciation of the ethical-political suffering, as the possibility of potency the action of the subject for the overcoming of the condition of human suffering, indicating the song, specially the Rap, like important theme in the comprehension psychosocial of the subject in contexts of social exclusion.

  6. Environmental Impact Study - Impact Report on the Environment: analysis of the present legislation and the perspectives. An approach related to the electric sector; EIA - RIMA : analise atual legislacao e as perspectivas. Uma abordagem relativa ao setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Alessio Bento [Secretaria de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1994-07-01

    The present work analyze the present legal structure for environment protection considering the impacts to which the nature is submitted as consequence of the electric power generation transmission and distribution. The work evaluate the the legal directives for elaboration of environmental impact study, as far the pertinence and applicability related to the objectives to be attained is concerned.

  7. Resource management in Diffserv measurement-based admission control PHR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westberg, L.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios; Oosthoek, S.; Partain, D.; Rexhepi, Vlora; Szabo, R.; Wallentin, P.; El Allali, H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this draft is to present the Resource Management in Diffserv (RMD) Measurement-Based Admission Control (RIMA) Per Hop Reservation (PHR) protocol. The RIMA PHR protocol is used on a per-hop basis in a Differentiated Services (Diffserv) domain and extends the Diffserv Per Hop Behavior

  8. Juegos - Cuentos - Cantos - Y - Rimas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilinque y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XII [Games - Stories - Songs -And - Rhymes. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis, Margarita

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the twelfth in a series of 16, is designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees and contains (in four separate sections) games, stories, songs and rhymes in Spanish that can be used in a bilingual, multicultural classroom setting. The module, written in Spanish, offers…

  9. Technical review of the environmental study and report referent to the proposal of construction of a 1200 MW thermoelectric power plant (Carioba II) in the Americana district, SP, Brazil; Parecer tecnico parcial do estudo e relatorio de impacto ambiental (EIA/RIMA) referentes a proposta de implantacao de uma usina termeletrica de 1200 Mw (Carioba II) no municipio de Americana, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Paulo Jorge Moraes; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: pfigueir@unimep.br; gmartins@unimep.br

    2001-06-01

    This document represents a partial analysis and a technical review about the environmental study and report of a 1200 MW thermoelectric power plant, proposed for the Americana district, SP, Brazil. Published on June, 4th 2001, this article points out many problems and mistakes of the referred studies, with the objective of providing support to the Federal attorney office and the general public. (author)

  10. Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 2: Predicted emplacement processes and observations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    , inhibiting dike emplacement and surface eruptions. In contrast to small dike volumes and low propagation velocities in terrestrial environments, lunar dike propagation velocities are typically sufficiently high that shallow sill formation is not favored; local low-density breccia zones beneath impact crater floors, however, may cause lateral magma migration to form laccoliths (e.g., Vitello Crater) and sills (e.g., Humboldt Crater) in floor-fractured craters. Dikes emplaced into the shallow crust may stall and produce crater chains due to active and passive gas venting (e.g., Mendeleev Crater Chain) or, if sufficiently shallow, may create a near-surface stress field that forms linear and arcuate graben, often with pyroclastic and small-scale effusive eruptions (e.g., Rima Parry V). Effusive eruptions are modulated by effusion rates, eruption durations, cooling and supply limitations to flow length, and pre-existing topography. Relatively low effusion rate, cooling-limited flows lead to small shield volcanoes (e.g., Tobias Mayer, Milicius); higher effusion rate, cooling-limited flows lead to compound flow fields (e.g., most mare basins) and even higher effusion rate, long-duration flows lead to thermal erosion of the vent, effusion rate enhancement, and thermal erosion of the substrate to produce sinuous rilles (e.g., Rimae Prinz). Extremely high effusion rate flows on slopes lead to volume-limited flow with lengths of many hundreds of kilometers (e.g., the young Imbrium basin flows). Explosive, pyroclastic eruptions are common on the Moon. The low pressure environment in propagating dike crack-tips can cause gas formation at great depths and throughout dike ascent; at shallow crustal depths both the smelting reaction and the recently documented abundant magmatic volatiles in mare basalt magmas contribute to significant shallow degassing and pyroclastic activity associated with the dike as it erupts at the surface. Dikes penetrating to the surface produce a wide range of

  11. Туминас лечит себя и публику Чеховым / Ксения Репсон

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Репсон, Ксения

    2010-01-01

    Lavastaja Rimas Tuminas ja Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nimeline Teater toovad Tallinna Anton Tšehhovi "Onu Vanja". Lavastus kuulub teatrifestivali "Kuldne Mask Eestis" programmi. Artiklis leedu lavastajast, lavastusest ja teatrist

  12. Анна Дубровская между небом и землей / Анна Дубровская ; интервьюировал Николай Караев

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Дубровская, Анна, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Teatrifestivalil "Kuldne Mask Eestis" etendus Anton Tšehhovi "Onu Vanja", lavastaja Rimas Tuminas, Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nimeline Teater. Intervjuu Jelena Andrejevnat mängiva Anna Dubrovskajaga tema elust ja rollidest

  13. Дядя Ваня мертв, но... / Сергей Маковецкий ; интервьюировал Николай Караев

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Маковецкий, Сергей, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    Teatrifestivalil "Kuldne Mask Eestis" Anton Tšehhovi "Onu Vanja", lavastaja Rimas Tuminas, Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nimeline Teater. Intervjuu Vanja osatäitja Sergei Makovetskiga tema elust ja rollidest

  14. Римас Туминас: надо убить своего зрителя! / Римас Туминас ; интервьюировал Николай Караев

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Туминас, Римас, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Anton Tšehhovi "Onu Vanja" teatrifestivalil "Kuldne Mask Eestis", lavastaja Rimas Tuminas, Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nimelise Teatri kunstiline juht. Intervjuus "Onu Vanja" lavastusest, leedu lavastajatest, lavastajatöö meetoditest, oma teatrist, näitlejatest

  15. Atributos físicos, químicos e erosão entressulcos sob chuva simulada, em sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Physics and chemical attributes and enter-rill erosion under simulated rain in no tillage and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane G. da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar as perdas de solo e água, nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional, e foi realizado no câmpus experimental da UFMS, em Dourados - MS, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no período compreendido entre outubro de 2001 e novembro de 2002. As estimativas das perdas de solo e de água foram feitas utilizando-se do infiltrômetro de aspersão InfiAsper/UFMS, regulado para aplicar chuva com intensidade de 60 mm h-1, correspondendo à energia cinética de aproximadamente 820 Jm-2. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: sucessão milho-pousio; sucessão milho-trigo; sucessão milho-nabo; sucessão milho-ervilhaca; sucessão milho-aveia, os quais foram avaliados nos sistemas de preparo convencional (PC e plantio direto (PD. Com os resultados obtidos, foram ajustadas equações de regressão, com as quais foi possível obter valores de perda de solo que variaram de 5,34 g m-2 na sucessão milho-aveia a 47,75 g m-2 na sucessão milho-nabo para o PC, e de 1,09 g m-2 na sucessão milho-trigo a 4,19 g m-2 na sucessão milho-ervilhaca para o PD. As perdas de água variaram de 0,00329 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-aveia a 0,00988 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-nabo, e de 0,00123 a 0,00663 m³m-2 na sucessão milho-pousio para o PC e para o PD, respectivamente.This work was developed in order to estimate the soil and water loss in no tillage and conventional systems. The work was carried out at Experimental Center of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul - UFMS, in Dourados - MS - Brazil, in a soil classified as "Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico", in a period between October, 2001, and November, 2002. Soil and water loss estimations were done using a sprinkling infiltrometer InfiAsper/UFMS, adjusted to apply a rainfall of 60 mm h-1 of intensity, corresponding to kinetic energy of 820 Jm-2. The estimates were calculated in five treatments: corn-rest succession, corn-wheat succession, corn-Raphanus sativus succession, corn-vetch succession, corn-oats succession, for conventional tillage system (PC and no tillage system (PD. With the results obtained, equations of regression were adjusted. Through these equations soil loss values were observed. They varied from 5.34 g m-2 in corn-oats succession to 47.75 g m-2 in Raphanus sativus-corn succession for PC, and 1.09 g m-2 in corn-wheat succession to 4.19 g m-2 in corn-vetch succession for PD. Water loss varied from 0.00329 m³m-2 in corn-oats succession to 0.00988 m³m-2 in corn-Rhaphanus sativus succession and from 0.00123 to 0.00663 m³m-2 in corn-rest succession for PC and PD, respectively.

  16. Soil erosion processes on sloping land using REE tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhenzhou; Liu Puling; Yang Mingyi; Lian Zhenlong; Ju Tongjun; Yao Wenyi; Li Mian

    2007-01-01

    Sheet erosion is the main performance in the slope soil erosion process at the primary stage of natural rainfall. For three times of rainfall during experiment, the ratios of sheet erosion to total erosion account for 71%, 48% and 49% respectively, which showed that the sloping erosion was still at the primary stage from sheet erosion to rill erosion. With the rainfall going, the rill erosion amount increase. It showed that soil erosion was changing from sheet erosion to rill erosion. The sources of sediment from different sections of the plot were analyzed, and the results indicated that whatever the sheet erosion changed, the ratio erosion of upper part of surface soil was always lower than 10%. Sheet erosion came mainly from the lower section of surface soil. With the ratios to the amount of total rill erosion changes, the rill erosion amount of each section regularly changes too. The general conclusion is that when the rainfall ends, relative erosion of different slope element to the foot of slope is: 1 meter away accounts for 16%, 2-4 meters away is 6% and 5-9 meters away is 3%. The ratio of rill erosion amount of these three slope element is 5:2:1, which shows the rill erosion amount are mainly from the slope element of 4 meters from the foot of slope. (authors)

  17. Towards a better understanding of the interaction between bed roughness and flow hydraulics in small eroded channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Rafael; Zubieta, Elena; Campo-Bescós, Miguel A.; Casalí, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Rills eroding cohesive materials are hydraulically different from rivers or large channels. Unlike rivers, rills are small, shallow flow stream with frequently a relatively steep slope gradient. Besides, rills evolve morphologically over much shorter timescales due to active bed erosion. This leads to a strong interaction between the channel flow and bed roughness. This interaction gives rise to a reconfiguration of the bed geometry generated by the important erosive action of the flow. This new shape is characterized by a typical alternance between concavities (pools) and more or less flat reaches (steps). The new rill geometry affects, in turn, the behaviour of the flow that is why we talk about interaction or feedback. In addition, the greatest energy dissipation occurs in the pools -mainly due to the action of hydraulic jumps- which, in turn, lead to an increase in the pool size. We hypothesize there is a regular spacing of step-pools units and that, both the frequency and the depth of the pools will be strongly conditioned by the discharge and the general rill slope. The determination of that periodicity (if any) would be an important contribution for concentrated flow erosion modelling of small channels. That is because the majority of erosion models are based on formulations which assume that a rill has a flat bed, only affected by micro-roughness. For instance, equations like Manning's - widely used in river and large channel hydraulics -, if a constant value of roughness is assumed, would be inappropriate in erosion rills since, as explained above, the roughness is not constant. The objectives of this work are then: (i) to investigate the geometry of erosion rills aiming at determining if there is a spatial arrangement of the macro roughness of their beds; and (ii) to establish (semi)-empirical models of prediction of this periodicity, mainly based on topographic parameters. Rills were generated in an agricultural field in a homogeneous hillslope (with no

  18. La poésie du catalogue : toponymie et anthroponymie dans l’épopée contemporaine

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva, Saulo

    2014-01-01

    E Gil Eanes e Gonçalo Velho e Bartolomeuensinavam Vasco a soletrar o mar e a terra de Bojador e Cananor[...]onde começavam as rimas do Império :Meliapor e Timor e Cranganor e Mangalor e de todos os nomes, pequeno poeta dos piratas / ingleses,Macassar, Manaar e Manapar,Madagascar e Visnagar e Malabar e Zanzibarcom as rimas de todas as vogaisem ara e era e ira e ora e urade Guanabara e Jericoacoara e Pajuçaraa Cingapura e Baramura[...].E assim se achava o mundo inteirosuas vogais e suas sílabas...

  19. Dangers du tabac et des narguilés pour la santé | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2010 ... Résumant les travaux d'Alan Shihadeh, Rima Afifi, chercheure à l'AUB, rappelle que la fumée des pipes à eau a une forte teneur en goudron et contient en outre de la nicotine et des métaux lourds. Rima Afifi précise que le fait d'avoir réuni des données probantes sur les dangers du narguilé a ouvert la ...

  20. Practical decisions of relationships creation with business-to-business customers on „LinkedIn“ social network

    OpenAIRE

    Maculevičiūtė, Gitana

    2017-01-01

    Šiame darbe nagrinėjama itin aktuali tema – santykių su verslas-verslui vartotojais kūrimas soc.tinkluose. Darbo tikslas – atlikus mokslinės literatūros šaltinių analizę ir praktinį tyrimą, pateikti projektinius sprendimus, kaip įmonėms efektyviai kurti santykius su verslas-verslui vartotojais „LinkedIn” soc.tinkle. Teorinėje darbo dalyje analizuojama santykių marketingo samprata, santykių marketingo verslas-verslui rinkoje specifika bei santykių kūrimas socialiniuose tinkluose. Analiti...

  1. The Evolution of U.S. Antitrust Agencies’ Approach to Standards and Standard Essential Patents: From Enforcement to Advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    James Rill

    2015-01-01

    Advocacy must be based on sound factual and economic analysis and correct legal principles—there is a serious question whether agency advocacy concerning SSOs and essential patents satisfies these criteria. James F. Rill (Baker Botts)

  2. Soil Erosion and Sedimentation in Upper Mill Creek, Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, Randall

    2000-01-01

    ..., and to measure suspended sediment leaving the basin. Repeat cross-section surveys and bulk density samples of selected "rill erosion" road hill slopes and roadside gullies were used to measure soil loss during the period...

  3. Analysis of Food And Feeding Habits of Catfish ( Bagrus bayad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding habits of the two size class of Bagrus bayad caught in River Rima and Goronyo Dam in north western Nigeria between October, 2002 and September, 2003 were studied for feeding adaptations and stomach contents. Feeding adaptive features such as mouth, gill rakers, dentition and gut system were ...

  4. Симонов: играть надо всегда радостно / Ксения Репсон

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Репсон, Ксения

    2011-01-01

    Festivali Kuldne mask Eestis raames etendub Gerard Sibleyrasi absurdikomöödia "Ветер шумит в тополях" (Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nim. Teater), lavastaja Rimas Tuminas. Lavastuses teeb kaasa Venemaa näitleja Vladimir Simonov

  5. Актер Суханов создает аритмию дел / Ксения Репсон

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Репсон, Ксения

    2011-01-01

    Festivali Kuldne mask Eestis raames etendub Gerard Sibleyrasi absurdikomöödia "Ветер шумит в тополях" (Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nim. Teater), lavastaja Rimas Tuminas. Lavastuses teeb kaasa Venemaa tuntud teatri- ja filminäitleja Maksim Suhhanov

  6. Множественные "я" Максима Суханова / Максим Суханов ; интервьюировал Николай Караев

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Суханов, Максим, 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Festivali Kuldne mask Eestis raames etendub Gerard Sibleyrasi absurdikomöödia "Ветер шумит в тополях" (Moskva Jevgeni Vahtangovi nim. Teater), lavastaja Rimas Tuminas. Lavastuses teeb kaasa Venemaa tuntud teatri- ja filminäitleja Maksim Suhhanov

  7. XVI "Baltiiski dom" : klassika v raznõhh izmerenijahh / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    16. rahvusvahelisest teatrifestivalist "Baltiiski dom" Peterburis. Pikemalt vaadeldakse lavastusi : Anton Tshehhovi "Onu Vanja" (Belgia teater "Toneelhuis", lavastaja Luk Perceval), "Kolm õde" (lavastaja Rimas Tuminas), Goethe "Faust" (lavastaja Eimuntas Nekroshius), "Kosmos" (Witold Gombrowiczi romaani järgi lavastanud Jerzy Jarocki), Aleksandr Ostrovski "Mets" (Moskva Kunstiteater, lavastaja Kirill Serebrjannikov). Mainitakse, et festivalil osales ka Ugala teater Oleg Titovi lavastusega "Libahunt"

  8. Mis teeb klassikast klassika / Eteri Kekelidze ; tõlk. Virge Harak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2007-01-01

    16. rahvusvahelisest teatrifestivalist "Baltiiski dom" ("Balti kodu") Peterburis : Anton Tshehhovi "Onu Vanja" (Belgia teater "Toneelhuis", lavastaja Luk Perceval), "Kolm õde" (lavastaja Rimas Tuminas), Goethe "Faust" (lavastaja Eimuntas Nekroshius), "Kosmos" (Witold Gombrowiczi romaani järgi lavastanud Jerzy Jarocki), Aleksandr Ostrovski "Mets" (Moskva Kunstiteater, lavastaja Kirill Serebrjannikov), Sergei Korobkovi "Phaidra. Kuldne koloss" (Moskva Rahvuste Teatri projekt, lavastaja Andrii Zholdak)

  9. Tshto delajet klassiku klassikoi / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    16. rahvusvahelisest teatrifestivalist "Baltiiski dom" ("Balti kodu") Peterburis : Anton Tshehhovi "Onu Vanja" (Belgia teater "Toneelhuis", lavastaja Luk Perceval), "Kolm õde" (lavastaja Rimas Tuminas), Goethe "Faust" (lavastaja Eimuntas Nekroshius), "Kosmos" (Witold Gombrowiczi romaani järgi lavastanud Jerzy Jarocki), Aleksandr Ostrovski "Mets" (Moskva Kunstiteater, lavastaja Kirill Serebrjannikov), Sergei Korobkovi "Phaidra. Kuldne koloss" (Moskva Rahvuste Teatri projekt, lavastaja Andrii Zholdak)

  10. Enarvube & Atedhor (6).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    settlement increased by 1.4% and 1.5% respectively while forest and water decreased by 0.7% and .... forest, while water is composed of streams, rivers .... have shown that urban development is a threat to ... Sokoto-Rima Basin of N.W. Nigeria based .... the Atlantic rainforest region: Consequences for the hydrology of small.

  11. Uruguay project - Metalic silicon manufacturing. Palmar location study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This work is about the Soriano town possibilities offered to Rima Industrial S.A in relation with the metallic silicon project in Uruguay. In this zone there is the Palmar hydroelectric plant with a capacity of 33 MW and its development is part of the Rio Negro river

  12. Baltimaade fotokunstnike sovetiaja ühised mälestused : üheksa autori tööd sarnastel teemadel / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2011-01-01

    Näitus "Sündinud samas kohas: kujutis, mälu ja fiktsioon Baltimaades" Tallinna Kunstihoones 20. novembrini 2011, kuraator Vytautas Michelkevičius. Eksponeeritakse eesti, läti ja leedu kunstnike loomingut. Marge Monko, Arnis Balčuse, Rimas Sakalauskase, Tadas Šarūnase töödest

  13. Structural stability and hydraulic conductivity of Nkpologu sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vincent

    Sokoto, and Illela coversand) of Sokoto-Rima river basin area of Sokoto state. ... Morphological properties of the soils revealed a dominant spectral colour hue of 7.5YR ..... roots; sh=shale, ch=channel Fe=ironstone crust, Fec=iron concretion; ...

  14. Laboratory based degradation of light crude oil by aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples were collected from Dundaye river (an offshoot of sokoto river Rima) using sterile conical flasks. The samples were immediately transported to the Microbiology Laboratory and introduced into petri dishes containing hemp seeds ( Crotalaria juncea) and allowed to stand on the bench. The hemp seeds served ...

  15. Food and Feeding Habits of Catfish (Synodontis nigrita Cuvier And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT:The food and feeding habits of Synodontis nigrita (Cuvier and Valenciennes) from. River Rima were ... (2005) studied the food habits of. Synodontis ... Phytoplankton families, Chlorophyceae and ... with r values of almost 1 in all the regression equations. ... often influences gut length (Smith, 1980). Perhaps the ...

  16. Kuldse Maski lavastusi peab vaatama minema / Jaak Allik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allik, Jaak, 1946-

    2011-01-01

    Teatrifestivalist "Kuldne Mask Eestis", mille avab Rimas Tuminase lavastus "Tuul mühiseb paplites". Konstantin Bogomolovi lavastusest "Hundid ja lambad", Lev Ehrenburgi lavastusest "Vassa Železnova", Mindaugas Karbauskise lavastusest "Viik kestab silmapilgu" (põhineb I. Merase romaanil "Igavene tuli")

  17. Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators of climate change in north-east Sokoto-Rima basin, Nigeria. ... water resources development including water supply project, agriculture and tourism in the study area. Key word: Climate change, Climatic variability, Actual evapotranspiration, Global warming ...

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES AND LEVELS OF ORGANIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... 10.0 tons/ha) of three types of organic manures (poultry droppings (P.D), farm yard manure (FYM) and cow dung (CD) laid out in a ... spread to all parts of the world and is widely grown in. India, Philippines, China, Ethiopia, Kenya ..... Sokoto Rima Valley Journal of Sustainable. Development in Agriculture & ...

  19. Comparative study of soil erodibility and critical shear stress between loess and purple soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Huang, Yu-han; Chen, Xiao-yan; Luo, Bang-lin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2018-03-01

    Loess and purple soils are two very important cultivated soils, with the former in the loess region and the latter in southern sub-tropical region of China, featured with high-risks of erosion, considerable differences of soil structures due to differences in mineral and nutrient compositions. Study on soil erodibility (Kr) and critical shear stress (τc) of these two soils is beneficial to predict soil erosion with such models as WEPP. In this study, rill erosion experimental data sets of the two soils are used for estimating their Kr and τc before they are compared to understand their differences of rill erosion behaviors. The maximum detachment rates of the loess and purple soils are calculated under different hydrodynamic conditions (flow rates: 2, 4, 8 L/min; slope gradients: 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) through analytical and numerical methods respectively. Analytical method used the derivative of the function between sediment concentration and rill length to estimate potential detachment rates, at the rill beginning. Numerical method estimated potential detachment rates with the experimental data, at the rill beginning and 0.5 m location. The Kr and τc of these two soils are determined by the linear equation based on experimental data. Results show that the methods could well estimate the Kr and τc of these two soils as they remain basically unchanged under different hydrodynamic conditions. The Kr value of loess soil is about twice of the purple soil, whereas the τc is about half of that. The numerical results have good correlations with the analytical values. These results can be useful in modeling rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils.

  20. Defining the Antigenic Structure of the Henipavirus Attachment (G) Glycoprotein: Implications for the Fusion Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Morbillivirus Measles Virus Canine Distemper virus Rinderpest virus Respirovirus Bovine Parainfluenzavirus 3 Human Parainfluenzavirus 1,3...M. D. Curran, and B. K. Rima. 1997. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the large (L) genes of Phocine Distemper virus and Canine Distemper virus...components of Canine Distemper virus. J Gen Virol 66 ( Pt 3):443-56. 115. Parashar, U. D., L. M. Sunn, F. Ong, A. W. Mounts, M. T. Arif, T. G. Ksiazek

  1. Moskovskije stsenõ / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2008-01-01

    Moskva teatrites nähtud lavastustest : Adolf Shapiro "451 kraadi Fahrenheiti järgi" (Et Cetera teater), Pjotr Fomenko "Kaasavaratu" ja Jevgeni Kamenkovitshi "Kõige tähtsam" (Pjotr Fomenko Meistriklass), Juri Butussovi "Kuningas Lear" (Satirikoni teater) Konstantin Raikini esituses (pälvis rolli eest Kuldse maski preemia) ja Rimas Tuminase "Häda mõistuse pärast" (Sovremenniku teatris)

  2. Intralaryngeal thyroarytaenoid lateralisation using the Fast-Fix 360 system: a canine cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, Ludo; Kitshoff, Adriaan M; Van Goethem, Bart; Vandekerckhove, Peter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal paralysis is a condition in which failure of arytaenoid abduction results in a reduced rima glottidis cross-sectional area. The most commonly performed surgical techniques rely on unilateral abduction of the arytaenoid, requiring a lateral or ventral surgical approach to the larynx. The aim of the study was to investigate a novel minimally invasive intralaryngeal thyroarytaenoid lateralisation technique, using the Fast-Fix 360 meniscal repair system. Larynges were harvested from large breed canine cadavers. With the aid of Kirschner wires placed between the centre of the vocal process and the centre of an imaginary line between the cranial thyroid fissure and the cricothyroid articulation, the mean insertion angle was calculated. The Fast-Fix 360 delivery needle inserted intralaryngeally (n=10), according to a simplified insertion angle (70°), resulted in thyroid penetration (>2.5 mm from margin) in all patients. The Fast-Fix was applied unilaterally at 70° with the first toggle fired on the lateral aspect of the thyroid cartilage and inside the laryngeal cavity on retraction. The suture was tightened. Preprocedural (61.06±9.21 mm2) and postprocedural (138.37±26.12 mm2) rima glottidis cross-sectional area was significantly different (P<0.0001). The mean percentage increase in rima glottidis cross-sectional area was 125.96 per cent (±16.54 per cent). Intralaryngeal thyroarytaenoid laterlisation using the Fast-Fix 360 meniscal repair system ex vivo increased the rima glottidis cross-sectional area significantly.

  3. Baltimaade fiktiivne dokumentaalfoto / Annika Toots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toots, Annika

    2011-01-01

    Fotokuu näitus "Sündinud samas kohas: kujutis, mälu ja fiktsioon Baltimaades" Tallinna Kunstihoones 20. nov.-ni 2011. Kuraator Vytautas Michelkevičius. Sigrid Viiri, Marge Monko, Krista Möldri (Eesti), Kaspars Podnieksi, Arnis Balčuse (Läti), Tadas Šarūnase, Milda Zabarauskaitė, Robertas Narkuse, Rimas Sakalauskase ja Ugnius Gelduga (Leedu) töödest

  4. Energy offer expansion by the implantation of a small SHPP (Small Hydroelectric Power Plant) at the Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a brief analysis of social-environmental impact potentials; Expansao da oferta de energia pela implantacao de uma PCH (pequena central hidreletrica) no municipio de Paracambi: uma breve analise sobre potenciais impactos socioambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Rafael; Chaves, Alison; Coutinho, Douglas; Alves, Joberson [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia, Paracambi, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the potential social and environmental impacts from the implementation and operation of the SHPP which will guarantee the energy offer expansion in the order of 25 MW, proposing the viabilization of growing and local economic development with environmental sustainability, assured by the environmental programs and mitigatory measurements and/or compensatories as disposed in the EIA/Rima of the enterprising and observed in the data systematization of in loco research.

  5. An allegedly wicked sonnet by Lope de Vega (Duerme el sol de Belisa en noche escura and its source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arellano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the humorous and satirical value of the sonnet «The Portrait of a Lady after her death», included in Rimas de Tomé de Burguillos, the last book of Lope de Vega. Other lyrical interpretations are discussed and details are given concerning its source of inspiration, which is a joke recorded by Juan Rufo in his Six hundred apothegms (Seiscientas apotegmas.

  6. The accumulation and management of pharmaceutical waste in the community pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Latožienė, Rima

    2017-01-01

    The Accumulation and Management of Pharmaceutical Waste in the Community Pharmacy Authors: students Diana Patašienė and Rima Latožienė, pharmacy master program at Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Forensic Medicine and Pharmacology. Work Leader: Dr. Kristina Garuolienė. The aim of the study: to determine pharmaceutical waste formation causes and to assess pharmaceutical waste management problems at community pharmacies. Materials and methods: The study was condu...

  7. Best of Tshehhov. Best before / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Analüüsitakse A. Tšehhovi näidenditel "Kolm õde" ja "Kirsiaed" põhinevaid erinevaid lavastusi - Kristian Smedsi ja Radu Afrimi "Kolm õde" Tampere "Teatrisuvel" ning Rimas Tuminase "Kolme õde" Leedu teatrifestivalil "Sirenos", Sasha Pepeljajevi "Kirsiaeda" NO99 teatris, Roman Baskini "Kirsiaeda" Vanalinnastuudios ja Mati Undi "Kirsiaeda" Vanemuises, samuti Mikk Mikiveri "Tšehhovi kolme õde" (autor Per Olov Enquist) Vanemuises

  8. Quantifying the Spatial Distribution of Hill Slope Erosion Using a 3-D Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, B. N.; Bogonko, M.; He, Y.; Beighley, R. E.; Milberg, C. T.

    2007-12-01

    Soil erosion is a complicated process involving many interdependent variables including rainfall intensity and duration, drop size, soil characteristics, ground cover, and surface slope. The interplay of these variables produces differing spatial patterns of rill versus inter-rill erosion by changing the effective energy from rain drop impacts and the quantities and timing of sheet and shallow, concentrated flow. The objective of this research is to characterize the spatial patterns of rill and inter-rill erosion produced from simulated rainfall on different soil densities and surface slopes using a 3-D laser scanner. The soil used in this study is a sandy loam with bulk density due to compaction ranging from 1.25-1.65 g/cm3. The surface slopes selected for this study are 25, 33, and 50 percent and represent common slopes used for grading on construction sites. The spatial patterns of soil erosion are measured using a Trimble GX DR 200+ 3D Laser Scanner which employs a time of flight calculation averaged over 4 points using a class 2, pulsed, 532 nm, green laser at a distance of 2 to 11 m from the surface. The scanner measures point locations on an approximately 5 mm grid. The pre- and post-erosion scan surfaces are compared to calculate the change in volume and the dimensions of rills and inter-rill areas. The erosion experiments were performed in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL), part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments utilize a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with a soil depth of 0.5 meters. Rainfall is applied to the soil surface using two overhead Norton ladder rainfall simulators, which produce realistic rain drop diameters (median = 2.25 mm) and impact velocities. Simulated storm events used in this study consist of rainfall intensities ranging from 5, 10 to 15 cm/hr for durations of 20 to 30 minutes. Preliminary results are presented that illustrate a change in runoff processes and

  9. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  10. Erosion Assessment Modeling Using the Sateec Gis Model on the Prislop Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SATEEC acts as an extension for ArcView GIS 3, with easy to use commands. The erosion assessment is divided into two modules that consist of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for sheet/rill erosion and the nLS/USPED modeling for gully head erosion. The SATEEC erosion modules can be successfully implemented for areas where sheet, rill and gully erosion occurs, such as the Prislop Catchment. The enhanced SATEEC system does not require experienced GIS users to operate the system therefore it is suitable for local authorities and/or students not so familiar with erosion modeling.

  11. Sediment transfer and connectivity analysis in an olive orchard microcatchment in Spain: a study case to evaluate the impact of rainfall variability and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Rebolledo, Juan; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Guzmán, Gema; Burguet, María; Gómez, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    Quantification and description of sediment delivery processes at the catchment scale are essential to evaluate the main sources of sediments that contribute to soil degradation, and to design effective management strategies. Erosion derived from concentrated flow might imply a serious degradation risk which is not always apparent as is the case of rills and ephemeral gullies. The objectives of this work were: 1) to characterize the rills and ephemeral gullies measured for periods with different hydrological features in terms of precipitation and erosivity and management; and 2) to evaluate the contribution of concentrated flow to the sediment discharge measured at the catchment outlet. In this study, rills and ephemeral gullies generated during inter-tillage periods were measured 4 times in a period between April 2009 and March 2014. The measures were carried out in a 6.7 ha olive orchard of with conventional tillage until September 2014, when cover crops were seeded in some lanes following the most approximate direction to contours. Although rainfall, runoff and sediment discharge were monitored at the outlet for the complete study period, there were some very erosive events in which sediment concentration could not be measured. Hence, the SEDD model, previously calibrated (Burguet, 2015), was used to fill these gaps as well as to calculate the sediment delivery ratios in the catchment. The mean volume of rills and ephemeral gullies for the 4 surveys was equivalent to 8.1 t.ha-1 and 3.3 t.ha-1, respectively whereas the mean total sediment discharge for the same period was of 7.8 t.ha-1. The accumulated erosivity explained the differences of soil losses associated to rills better than accumulated precipitation. The impact of cover crops during 2014 was particularly notable on the reduction of the sediment loads in the events, as well as on the rill discontinuities and sediment trapping as observed in the field. An active sediment dynamics is expected in the

  12. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-01-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain); Los procesos de erosion hidrica en el retroceso erosivo de acantilados sobre rocas blandas en la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-07-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  15. Modeling the Contribution of Ephemeral Gully Erosion Under Different Soil Management in An Olive Orchard Microcatchment Using AnnAGNPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Spain, few studies have been carried out to explore the erosion caused by processes other than interrill and rill erosion, such as gully and ephemeral gully erosion, especially because most of the available studies have evaluated the erosion at plot scale. A study about the en...

  16. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MALATHION 5-E GRAIN PROTECTANT CONTAINS CYTHION, 09/05/1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... ' .... wil ..... raia ..... ... tMtlted K .. aia ~.u •.••• 1, I r.ill" ., 1I.1.,,,lutl ; •. g i. :! ". i ••• lena,.' wa'e .. ';'1' 1000 b ..... A • .,I,. a ..... raia I" 1M", ... or 1 ... ..1 ...

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The presence of rill marks, flat-topped ripples, wrinkle marks, desiccation cracks and adhesion warts point to intertidal conditions with intermittent exposure. The high energy sandstone bars overlie a thick mudstone-dominated shelf sequence across a sharp interface indicating rapid change in the sea-level, provenance, rate ...

  18. Exploring the Moon through binoculars and small telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cherrington, Ernest H

    1984-01-01

    Informative, profusely illustrated guide to locating and identifying craters, rills, seas, mountains, other lunar features. Newly revised and updated with special section of new photos. Over 100 photos and diagrams. ""Extraordinary delight awaits the amateur astronomer or teacher who opens this book."" - The Science Teacher.

  19. Dating the Moon: Teaching Lunar Stratigraphy and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edward; Bell, Randy

    2013-01-01

    As our closest celestial neighbor, the Moon is a familiar and inspiring object to investigate using a small telescope, binoculars, or even photographs or one of the many high quality maps available online. The wondrously varied surface of the Moon--filled with craters, mountains, volcanic flows, scarps, and rilles--makes the Moon an excellent…

  20. An Electrochemical and Infrared Study of Chloranil in n-Butylpyridinium Chloride: Aluminum Chloride Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Chem. Soc., 4540 (1962). 32. G. B. Ansell , P. R. Hammond, S. V. Hering and P. Corradini, Tetrahedron, 25, 2549 (1969). 33. L. G. Boxall, H. L. Jones and...Rill, New Jersey 07974 1 Materials Division, Research 6 Technology Deoartment Dr. Adam Weller Naval Surface Weapons Center Bell Laboratories White

  1. Assessing soil erosion risk in the Tillabery landscape, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that soil erosion output scenarios predict greater soil erosion in the study area from 2070 onwards. They suggest that human disturbance and topographic factors are the main impact factors in the affected areas. Key words: Tillabéry landscape (Niger), sheet and rill erosion modelling, data mining.

  2. Effect of soil texture, tailwater height, and pore-water pressure on the morphodynamics of migrating headcuts in upland concentrated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rill and gully erosion in upland and agricultural areas can result in significant soil degradation worldwide, and headcuts are the primary mechanism by which this landscape dissection occurs. Experiments were conducted to further examine the morphodynamic behavior of actively migrating headcuts in u...

  3. Pre-clinical and Clinical Development of Low Dose Methamphetamine for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Aim 3: Secure FDA approval of a phase I/II clinical trial plan and obtain an amended IND in preparation for initiating human clinical testing in TBI...Neurology 6:193–201. Raineri M, Gonzalez B, Goitia B, Garcia-Rill E, Krasnova IN, Cadet JL, Urbano FJ, Bisagno V. 2012. Modafinil abrogates

  4. 30 CFR 715.20 - Revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be capable of stabilizing the soil surface with respect to erosion. All disturbed lands, except... for the type of plant materials selected to meet specific site conditions and climate. Any disturbed..., or legumes to control erosion until an adequate permanent cover is established. When rills or gullies...

  5. Changes in micro-relief during different water erosive stages of purple soil under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Zheng, Zicheng; Li, Tingxuan; He, Shuqin

    2018-02-22

    This study investigated the variation characteristics of micro-topography during successive erosive stages of water erosion: splash erosion (SpE), sheet erosion (ShE), and rill erosion (RE). Micro-topography was quantified using surface elevation change, soil roughness (SR) and multifractal model. Results showed that the area of soil surface elevation decay increased gradually with the development of water erosion. With rainfall, the combined effects of the detachment by raindrop impact and the transport of runoff decreased SR, whereas rill erosion contributed to increase SR. With the increase in slope gradient, soil erosion area gradually decreased at the splash erosion stage. By contrast, soil erosion area initially decreased and then increased at the sheet and rill erosion stages. The width of the D q spectra (ΔD) values increased at the splash erosion stage and then decreased at the sheet and rill erosion stages on the 10° slope, opposite to that on the 15° slope. The ΔD values decreased with the evolution of water erosive stages on the 20° slope. The slope had an enhancing effect on the evolution of water erosion. In this study, we clarified the essence of micro-topography and laid a theoretical foundation for further understanding diverse hydrological processes.

  6. Use of Sunflower Meal as a Substitute for Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Growing Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.; EI-Fouly, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen growing male lambs with an average of 3 months old were randomly divided into three equal groups. Animals of each group were kept in separate shaded pen and fed one of the three tested rations as follows: 1st group fed ration one (RI): (CFM) concentrate feed mixture contained 30% cottonseed meal (CSM) + 0.00 sunflower meal (SFM). 2nd group fed ration two (RII): CFM contained 15% CSM + 15% SFM. 3rd group fed ration three (RIll): CFM contained 00.0% CSM + 30% SFM. Wheat straw was offered to the 3 experiment groups ad libitum. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period then at two weeks intervals. At the end of the experimental period, four animals from each group were used to evaluate the nutrients digestibility and nutritive value of the experimental rations. Blood samples were taken each three weeks before feeding animals. The present study showed that lambs fed RII and RIll had significantly higher CP and EE digestibility values compared to those fed RI. % Nitrogen balance was currently higher for RIll than RI and RII. No significant differences among the tested blood serum parameters for the experimental lambs except for total protein, AST, triglycerides and cholesterol values. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were better for RII and RIll than RI

  7. Modeling the reduction in soil loss due to soil armouring caused by rainfall erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface soil properties can change as a result of soil disturbances, erosion, or deposition. One process that can significantly change surface soil properties is soil armouring, which is the selective removal of finer particles by rill or interrill erosion, leaving an armoured layer of coarser parti...

  8. The Incidence of Soil Erosion in Zing Local Government Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 4 No.2 2011 ... area is erosive, while analysis of data on rills and gullies using the student t-test shows that greater length and depth of .... Haytee and Publishing Comp. Ilorin ...

  9. influence of effluent discharge and runoffs into ikpoba river on its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INAYA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... *PRODUCTION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN ... Chemical analyses of samples of the river water collected at predetermined sampling ... natural rills by flood and eventually into the ... and numerical methods to analyze the sample .... the correlation matrix as applied in this study.

  10. Runoff generation and routing on artificial slopes in a Mediterranean-continental environment: the Teruel coalfield, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the mechanisms of runoff generation and routing and their controlling factors at the hillslope scale, on artificial slopes derived from surface coal mining reclamation in a Mediterranean-continental area. Rainfall and runoff at interrill and microcatchment scales were recorded for a year on two slopes with different substrata: topsoil cover and overburden cover. Runoff coefficient and runoff routing from interrill areas to microcatchment outlets were higher in the overburden substratum than in topsoil, and greater in the most developed rill network. Rainfall volume is the major parameter responsible for runoff response on overburden, suggesting that this substratum is very impermeable - at least during the main rainfall periods of the year (late spring and autumn) when the soil surface is sealed. In such conditions, most rainfall input is converted into runoff, regardless of its intensity. Results from artificial rainfall experiments, conducted 3 and 7 years after seeding, confirm the low infiltration capacity of overburden when sealed. The hydrological response shows great seasonal variability on the overburden slope in accordance with soil surface changes over the year. Rainfall volume and intensities explain runoff at the inter-rill scale on the topsoil slope, where rainfall experiments demonstrated a typical Hortonian infiltration curve. However, no correlation was found at the microcatchment level, probably because of the loss of functionality of the only rill as ecological succession proceeded. The runoff generation mechanism on the topsoil slope is more homogeneous throughout the year. The dense rill networks of the overburden slope guarantee very effective runoff drainage, regardless of rainfall magnitude. Runoff generation and routing on topsoil slopes are controlled by grass cover and soil moisture content, whereas on overburden slopes rill network density and soil moisture content are the main controlling factors.

  11. Hydrological regime shift in a constructed catchment: Effect of vegetation encroachment on surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, C.; Caviedes-Voullieme, D.; Andezhath Mohanan, A.; Brueck, Y.; Zaplata, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Hühnerwasser catchment (Chicken Creek) was constructed to provide discharge for a small stream in the post-mining landscape of Lusatia, Germany. It has an area of 6 ha and quaternary sands with a thickness of 2-4 m were dumped on to a clay liner to prevent deep drainage. After completion of the construction the catchment was left to develop on its own without intervention and has been monitored since 2005. The upper part of the catchment discharges water and sediment into the lower part forming an alluvial fan. Below the alluvial fan is a pond receiving all surface and subsurface water from the upper catchment. After the formation of the drainage network vegetation started growing and surface runoff decreased until the water balance was dominated by evapotranspiration. This regime shift and the rate at which it happened depends on the vegetation encroachment into the rills and the interrill areas. Based on the hypothesis that vegetation will increase surface roughness and infiltration behavior, aerial photos were used to map rills and vegetation within and outside the rills for the last 10 years to obtain a time series of change. Observational evidence clearly shows that vegetation encroaches from the bottom, from the interrill areas as well as from the top. The rills themselves did not change their topology, however, the width of the erosion rills and gully increased at the bottom. For a subcatchment area a high resolution a physical based numerical model of overland flow was developed to explicitly assess the importance of increasing roughness and infiltration capacity for surface runoff. For the purpose of analyzing the effect of rainfall variability a rainfall generator was developed to carry out large sets of simulations. The simulations provide a means to assess how the roughness/infiltration feedback affects the rate of regime shift for a set of parameters that are consistent with the observed hydrological behavior of the drainage network.

  12. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Lighting Up the High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Vicki Louise

    overlapping NHI and redshift ranges, our GRB-DLA galaxies have much larger SFRs than the QSO-DLA host galaxy sample; this may suggest that the QSO-DLA and GRB-DLA galaxy populations are different. We also compare star formation efficiencies to the local Universe and simulations at z = 3. A large portion of this thesis has focused on the development of a new ground- based GRB afterglow follow-up instrument, the Rapid infrared IMAger-Spectrometer (RIMAS), that will target high-redshift GRB afterglows to study early galaxy envi- ronments. RIMAS covers 0.97-2.37 mum and can simultaneously observe two band-passes in any observing mode: photometry, low-resolution spectroscopy (R ˜ 30), or high-resolution spectroscopy (R ˜ 4000). In particular, this thesis focuses on RIMAS's three detectors: two science grade Teledyne HgCdTe Astronomy Wide Area Infrared Imager with 2K x 2K, Reference Pixels and Guide Mode (H2RG) and a slit-viewer Spitzer Legacy Indium-Antimonide (InSb) array. We describe the detector hardware and characterization in detail and discuss general infrared detector troubleshooting methods at both cryogenic and room temperatures. Several software packages have been developed for RIMAS throughout this thesis work. We introduce RIMAS's quick reduction pipeline that takes raw images from a single acquisition and returns a single result frame. We then present a generalized data reduction pipeline that we have tested on two currently operational photometers. We also describe our detailed and realistic RIMAS throughput models for all three observing modes as well as our online observer calculators with these throughput models. All of our data products are open source and are publicly available on Github repositories with detailed documentation.

  13. Runoff and sediment transport in a degraded area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Lopes Thomaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gully erosion occurs by the combined action of splash, sheetwash and rill-wash (interrill and rill erosion. These erosion processes have a great capacity for both sediment production and sediment transport. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate hydrological and sediment transport in a degraded area, severely dissected by gullies; to assess the hydraulic flow characteristics and their aggregate transport capacity; and to measure the initial splash erosion rate. In the study area in Guarapuava, State of Paraná, Brazil (lat 25º 24' S; long 51º24' W; 1034 m asl, the soil was classified as Cambissolo Húmico alumínico, with the following particle-size composition: sand 0.116 kg kg-1; silt 0.180 kg kg-1; and clay 0.704 kg kg-1. The approach of this research was based on microcatchments formed in the ground, to study the hydrological response and sediment transport. A total of eight rill systems were simulated with dry and wet soil. An average rainfall of 33.7 ± 4.0 mm was produced for 35 to 54 min by a rainfall simulator. The equipment was installed, and a trough was placed at the end of the rill to collect sediments and water. During the simulation, the following variables were measured: time to runoff, time to ponding, time of recession, flow velocity, depth, ratio of the initial splash and grain size. The rainsplash of dry topsoil was more than twice as high as under moist conditions (5 g m-2 min-1 and 2 g m-2 min-1, respectively. The characteristics of the flow hydraulics indicate transition from laminar to turbulent flow [Re (Reynolds number 1000-2000]. In addition, it was observed that a flow velocity of 0.12 m s-1 was the threshold for turbulent flow (Re > 2000, especially at the end of the rainfall simulation. The rill flow tended to be subcritical [Fr (Froude Number < 1.0]. The variation in hydrological attributes (infiltration and runoff was lower, while the sediment yield was variable. The erosion in the rill systems was

  14. Floresta de símbolos: bicho e poesia para crianças e adultos inteligentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rodrigues da Silva Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work utilizes aesthetic productions on the framework of Brazilian children's and youth literature and animal representation in the book. The framework is the poetic creation of Manuel Bandeira for a comparison between the works Arca de Noé, by Vinícius de Moraes, and Rimas da floresta, by José Santos. The main point for comparison is the image of the animal and the way of representing it within contemporary poetry. However, expressing different trends and multiple images, these books contain features in common that resemble them, such as fun and diversion, humor, imagination, realism, eco literature aspects, popular culture and colloquial language.

  15. Macht auf das Tor! - Opens the gate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir de Quadros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Macht auf das Tor! (Abra o portão foi publicado, possivelmente, na primeira metade do século 20. Editado por Max Dirkschneider, Raimund Heuler e Felix Oberborbeck, apresenta músicas, rimas, piadas, jogos e canções.A edição apresentada nesse espaço é de um livro que pertence à família de Carolina Drebes, estudante do curso de Pedagogia do Centro Universitário Franciscano, Santa Maria/RS.

  16. "Русские!" Русские?.. И Казимир Малевич / Этэри Кекелидзе

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кекелидзе, Этэри, 1944-

    2014-01-01

    Ülevaade XXIII Peterburi teatrifestivalist "Balti kodu" 2013. a. Pikemalt Ivo van Hove lavastusest Tšehhovi näidendite järgi "De Russen!" (Toneelgroep Amsterdam (Holland)), Alvis Hermanise lavastusest "Oblomov" (Riia Uus Teater), Luk Percevali lavastusest "Vennad Karamazovid" (Theater Thalia (Saksamaa)), Bram Janseni lavastusest Strindbergi "Preili Julie" järgi "Kijken naar Julie" (Bram Jansen Company (Holland)), Juri Butussovi lavastusest "Macbeth-Kino" (Peterburi Lensoveti-nim. Teater), Grigori Kozlovi lavastusest "Vaikne Don" (Мастерская (Peterburi)) ning Rimas Tuminase lavastusest "Jevgeni Onegin" (Vahtangovi-nim. Teater (Moskva))

  17. TRADUÇÃO DE CANÇÃO: QUANDO ‘THE LOOK OF LOVE’ SE CANTA ‘O AMOR EM TEU OLHAR’

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Natanael Ferreira França

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo propõe uma tradução comentada da canção The Look of Love de Burt Bacharach e Hal David. O objetivo é a criação de uma tradução cantável que soe natural em língua portuguesa. A tradução levará em conta diferentes aspectos pertinentes a esse gênero, a saber: significado, naturalidade, rimas, sonoridade, ritmo e cantabilidade. A proposta inclui também a gravação do áudio em estúdio por uma intérprete.

  18. Lesão do nervo laringeo superior pos tireoidectomia sob anestesia local e hipnosedação : frequencia, alterações vocais e endoscopicas subsequentes da laringe

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln Santos Souza

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: A lesão do ramo externo do nervo laríngeo superior é complicação importante após tireoidectomia, em virtude da dificuldade diagnóstica geralmente presente, e pelo impacto causado pela dificuldade do paciente emitir voz em registros mais agudos, principalmente em profissionais da voz. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a freqüência de lesão do ramo externo do nervo laríngeo superior, comparar a intensidade da disfonia e as alterações da rima glótica, em pacientes submetidos à...

  19. Literatura oral argelina: reflexión sobre un proceso de traducción

    OpenAIRE

    Souad Hadj Ali Mouhoub

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: El proceso de traducción al español de algunos poemas de una tradición oral femenina argelina conocida por el nombre de boqala implica una primera fase que consiste en su transcripción en árabe argelino, lengua no definitivamente regulada y bastante distinta del árabe clásico, y una segunda fase que es la traducción propiamente dicha con el debido respeto de la sonoridad, el ritmo y la rima de los versos con el fin de transmitir al lector/oyente hispanohablante toda la carga simbólic...

  20. Modelling of the impact of advertising source on advertising effectiveness : theoretical insights

    OpenAIRE

    Pilelienė, Lina; Grigaliūnaitė, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    Straipsnyje analizuojami reklaminės žinutės šaltinio įtakos reklamos efektyvumui teoriniai aspektai. Reklama yra viena dažniausių marketingo komunikacijos priemonių, todėl reklamos efektyvumo didinimas tampa siektinu daugelio organizacijų tikslu, padedančiu įgyvendinti marketingo komunikacijos tikslus. Kadangi reklaminės žinutės šaltinis yra vienas svarbiausių reklamos elementų, straipsnio tikslu tapo teorinio reklaminės žinutės šaltinio įtakos reklamos efektyvumui modelio sukūrimas. Siekiant...

  1. The establishment of value of shared economy‘s trademark sign „Uber“ for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Šerpytis, Mindaugas

    2017-01-01

    Baigiamojo darbo tikslas yra išanalizuoti dalijimosi ekonomikos prekės ženklo Uber vertės kūrimą vartotojams. Teorinėje darbo dalyje analizuojama prekės ženklo sampratos kaita, vertinamas prekės ženklo vertės kūrimas vartotojams, pristatomas dalijimosi ekonomikos fenomenas, įvertinami dalijimosi ekonomikos veiksniai, kurie kuria vertę vartojams bei pristatomas žaidybinimo (angl. gamification) veiksnių naudojimas kuriant vertę vartotojams. Analitinėje darbo dalyje pristatoma bai...

  2. Gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan sebagai benda asing dalam trakea (Removable partial denture as foreign body in trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Herawati JPB

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the trachea are not uncommon. Usually the patients come with dyspnea and a history of having aspirate something. This is an emergency case and needs extraction of the foreign body via bronchoscopy with general anesthesia as soon as possible. The optimal preparation is a controlled, well-equipped and well prepared operative setting. A case of removable partial denture as foreign body in trachea was reported and the extraction of the denture was done with difficulty due to the size of the denture compared with the width of the rima glottis and the trachea.

  3. The role of mycorrhizal fungi and microsites in primary succession on Mount St. Helens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, J; Del Moral, R

    1998-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the role of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and microsites on the growth of pioneer species. Flat, rill, near-rock, and dead lupine microsites were created in plots in barren areas of the Pumice Plain of Mount St. Helens. VAM propagules were added to the soil in half of the plots. Six pioneer species were planted into both VAM and non-VAM inoculated microsites. Plants in dead lupine microsites were greater in biomass than those in flat, rill, and near-rock microsites. Significant effects of VAM on plant biomass did not occur. Microsites continue to be important to plant colonization on the Pumice Plain, but VAM do not yet appear to play an important role. This may be due to limited nutrient availability and the facultatively mycotrophic nature of the colonizing plant species. It is unlikely that VAM play an important role in successional processes in newly emplaced nutrient-poor surfaces.

  4. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe th...

  5. An Inquiry: Effectiveness of the Complex Empirical Mode Decomposition Method, the Hilbert-Huang Transform, and the Fast-Fourier Transform for Analysis of Dynamic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    graphical user interface (GUI) called ALPINE© [18]. Then, it will be converted into a 10 MAT-file that can be read into MATLAB®. At this point...breathing [3]. For comparison purposes, Balocchi et al. recorded the respiratory signal simultaneously with the tachogram (or EKG ) signal. As previously...primary authors, worked to create his own code for implementing the method proposed by Rilling et al. Through reading the BEMD paper and proceeding to

  6. Effects of Topography and Surface Soil Cover on Erosion for Mining Reclamation: The Experimental Spoil Heap at El Machorro Mine (Central Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Moreno, Cristina; Martín Duque, J. F.; Nicolau, J. M.; Hernando, N.; Sanz, M. A.; Sánchez Castillo, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mining reclamation tries to reduce environmental impacts, including accelerated runoff, erosion and sediment load in the nearby fluvial networks and their ecosystems. This study compares the effects of topography and surface soil cover on erosion on man-made slopes coming from surface mining reclamation in Central Spain. Two topographic profiles, linear and concave, with two surface soil covers, subsoil and topsoil, were monitored for two hydrologic years. Sediment load, rill development and ...

  7. Photogrammetric techniques for across-scale soil erosion assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Eltner, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is a complex geomorphological process with varying influences of different impacts at different spatio-temporal scales. To date, measurement of soil erosion is predominantly realisable at specific scales, thereby detecting separate processes, e.g. interrill erosion contrary to rill erosion. It is difficult to survey soil surface changes at larger areal coverage such as field scale with high spatial resolution. Either net changes at the system outlet or remaining traces after the ...

  8. Collaborative Research and Development (CR&D) III Task Order 0090: Image Processing Framework: From Acquisition and Analysis to Archival Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate was conducted from 11 June 2010 through 18 April 2013. The objective of this study ...Finite E lement Method algorithms. data acqui sition sensitivity studi es and linking material properties to material structure. T he software is s...PA); distribution unlimited. uu .... u j Ji s j ~ 5 \\.1 - 10 ..... 01 -.. .. ~, ., I f .a.,:"’ u I U - .... C.Oir- ’ .rill nun •cr

  9. The Impact of Deployment Separation on Army Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    REFERENCES 15 I-.- i , L. "I INTRODUCTION Brief family separations resulting from military training exercises are a common phenomenon in Army :ommuni...there have been numerous . studies of military family separation beginning with Rill’s ... (1949) classic study of military- induced separation during...were increased reports of headaches, weight change, sleep disturbances, and changes in menstrual regularity: specif- ically amenorrhea (cessation of

  10. Methods for Tier 1 Modeling within the Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    properties, part b. USLE K-Factor by Organic Matter Content Soil -Texture Classification Dry Bulk Density, g/cm3 Field Capacity, % Available...Universal Soil Loss Equation ( USLE ) can be used to estimate annual average sheet and rill erosion, A (tons/acre-yr), from the equation A R K L S...erodibility factors, K, for various soil classifications and percent organic matter content ( USLE Fact Sheet 2008). Textural Class Average Less than 2

  11. Immobilisation of a thrombopoietin peptidic mimic by self-assembled monolayers for culture of CD34+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Be, Cheang Ly; Vinson, Andrew R; Riches, Andrew G; Fehr, Friederike; Gardiner, James; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Winkler, David A; Haylock, David

    2015-01-01

    Compared to soluble cytokines, surface-tethered ligands can deliver biological signalling with precise control of spatial positioning and concentration. A strategy that immobilises ligand molecules on a surface in a uniform orientation using non-cleavable linkages under physiological conditions would enhance the specific and systemic delivery of signalling in the local environment. We used mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of oxyamine- and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiols on gold to covalently install aldehyde- or ketone-functionalised ligands via oxime conjugation. Characterisation by electrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed quantitative immobilisation of the ligands on SAM surfaces. The thrombopoietin mimetic peptide, RILL, was immobilised on SAMs and the bioactivity of the substrate was demonstrated by culturing factor-dependent cells. We also optimised the immobilisation and wash conditions so that the peptide was not released into the culture medium and the immobilised RILL could be re-used for consecutive cell cultures. The surface also supported the growth of haematopoietic CD34+ cells comparable to the standard thrombopoietin-supplemented culture. Furthermore, the RILL-immobilised SAM surface was as effective in expanding uncommitted CD34+ cells as standard culture. The stimulatory effect of surface-tethered ligands in haematopoietic stem cell expansion supports the use of ligand immobilisation strategies to replicate the haematopoietic stem cell niche. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photogrammetry for environmental monitoring: the use of drones and hydrological models for detection of soil contaminated by copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Alessandra; Pindozzi, Stefania; Okello, Collins; Fiorentino, Nunzio; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Campania Region of Southern Italy has a complex environmental situation, due to geogenic and anthropogenic soil pollution. Some of the pollutants such as copper are mobilized in the organic matter. It has been shown that wetlands provide physical as well as biogeochemical barriers against pollutants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to introduce and test an innovative approach able to predict copper accumulation points at plot scales, using a combination of aerial photos, taken by drones, micro-rill network modelling and wetland prediction indices usually used at catchment scales. Data were collected from an area measuring 4500 m(2) in Trentola Ducenta locality of Caserta Province of southern Italy. The photos processing with a fifth generation software for photogrammetry resulted in a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM), used to study micro-rill processes. The DEM was also used to test the ability of Topographic Index (TI) and the Clima-Topographic Index (CTI) to predict copper sedimentation points at plot scale (0.1-10 ha) by comparing the map of the predicted and the actual copper distribution in the field. The DEM obtained with a resolution of 30 mm showed a high potential for the study of micro-rill processes and TI and CTI indices were able to predict zones of copper accumulation at a plot scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  14. Importância do co-cultivo com fibroblastos de camundongo 3T3 para estabelecer cultura de suspensão de células epiteliais do limbo humano Importance of 3T3 feeder layer to establish epithelial cultures from cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Cardoso Cristovam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância da presença de células 3T3 para estabelecer cultura de suspensão de células epiteliais do limbo obtido de rimas córneo-esclerais. MÉTODOS: Rimas de diferentes doadores tiveram seus estroma posterior e endotélio removidos (n=6. Cada rima foi dividida em três segmentos iguais, que foram colocados em cultura em três diferentes condições: um segmento foi colocado na placa de cultura com o lado epitelial para cima (Grupo A. Os dois segmentos restantes foram tripsinizados e a suspensão de células obtida foi cultivada com (Grupo B ou sem (Grupo C células 3T3 irradiadas. As células foram mantidas em meio de cultura "supplemental hormonal epithelial médium" (SHEM, a migração epitelial e a formação de clones nos grupos A, B e C foram avaliadas pela microscopia de contraste de fase e por coloração pela rodamina B. Os resultados foram comparados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: O crescimento de células epiteliais foi observado em 4/6 rimas (Grupo A. Todas as suspensões de células epiteliais que foram cultivadas com células 3T3 (Grupo B formaram clones. Nenhuma adesão ou formação de clones verdadeiros (holo ou meroclones foi observada na cultura de células que foi cultivada sem 3T3 (Grupo C (p=0,009. CONCLUSÕES: Suspensão de células epiteliais límbicas obtidas de rimas córneo-esclerais no modelo utilizado precisa ser cultivada com células 3T3 para formar clones e estabelecer colônias epiteliais com perspectivas para uso terapêutico na reconstrução da superfície ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the presence of 3T3 fibroblasts for establishing limbal epithelial cultures from cell suspension obtained from corneo-scleral rims (CSR. METHODS: Corneo-scleral rims from different donors (n=6 had their posterior stroma and endothelium stripped away. Each corneo-scleral rim was divided into three equal segments that were set up in tissue culture in three different conditions: one of the

  15. Water erosion susceptibility mapping by applying Stochastic Gradient Treeboost to the Imera Meridionale River Basin (Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angileri, Silvia Eleonora; Conoscenti, Christian; Hochschild, Volker; Märker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion by water constitutes a serious problem affecting various countries. In the last few years, a number of studies have adopted statistical approaches for erosion susceptibility zonation. In this study, the Stochastic Gradient Treeboost (SGT) was tested as a multivariate statistical tool for exploring, analyzing and predicting the spatial occurrence of rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion. This technique implements the stochastic gradient boosting algorithm with a tree-based method. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment located in central-northern Sicily (Italy), where water erosion processes are prevalent, and affect the agricultural productivity of local communities. In order to model soil erosion by water, the spatial distribution of landforms due to rill-interrill and gully erosion was mapped and 12 environmental variables were selected as predictors. Four calibration and four validation subsets were obtained by randomly extracting sets of negative cases, both for rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion models. The results of validation, based on receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves, showed excellent to outstanding accuracies of the models, and thus a high prediction skill. Moreover, SGT allowed us to explore the relationships between erosion landforms and predictors. A different suite of predictor variables was found to be important for the two models. Elevation, aspect, landform classification and land-use are the main controlling factors for rill-interrill erosion, whilst the stream power index, plan curvature and the topographic wetness index were the most important independent variables for gullies. Finally, an ROC plot analysis made it possible to define a threshold value to classify cells according to the presence/absence of the two erosion processes. Hence, by heuristically combining the resulting rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion susceptibility maps, an integrated water erosion susceptibility map was created. The

  16. [Sediment transport characteristics at different erosion stages for non-hardened roads of the Shenfu Coalfield, west China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Wang, Wen-long; Li, Jian-ming; Huang, Peng-fei; Zhu, Bao-cai; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Ting

    2015-02-01

    Non-hardened roads formed in the production of the Shenfu Coalfield have a unique condition of underlying surface. The road surface is composed of a regolith layer with a certain thickness resulted from long-term rolling and thus, is characterized by weakened anti-scourabilty and anti-erodibility. In contrast, soil layer below the regolith has a higher bulk density and anti-erodibility. The processes of soil erosion on the non-hardened roads exhibit some differences under rainfall condition. The process of sediment transport and the relationship between sediment transport rate and erosion factors at different erosion stages were studied on non-hardened roads with slope degrees ranging from 3° to 12° (3°, 6°, 9°, 12°) by a field experiment under artificial rainfall. Results showed that the first peak of sediment transport on the regolith surface was observed at the sheet erosion stage. Sheet erosion occurred only at 3° slope degree, with an average variation coefficient of 0.07 for sediment transport rate. Rills in every testing began to develop at slope degrees of 6° to 12° about 15 min after runoff initiation. At the sheet erosion stage, the process of sediment transport fluctuated considerably at rainfall intensities of > 1.5 mm · min(-1), but the differences in its variation were little at the three slope degrees, with average variation coefficients of 0.20, 0.19 and 0.16, respectively. Rainfall intensity had a more significant impact on sediment transport rate than slope degree. The process of sediment transport at the rill erosion stage fluctuated, but the fluctuation was obviously smaller than that at the sheet erosion stage, with average variation coefficients of 0.05, 0.09 and 0.10 at the three slope degrees. Many wide and shallow rills evolved at the rill erosion stage. The sediment transport rate could be well predicted by a power function of rainfall intensity and slope degree at the sheet and rill erosion stages. The stable sediment transport

  17. Experimental Investigation of Rainfall Impact on Overland Flow Driven Erosion Processes and Flow Hydrodynamics on a Steep Hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, P.; Xu, X.; Pan, C.; Hsu, K. L.; Yang, T.

    2016-12-01

    Few attempts have been made to investigate the quantitative effects of rainfall on overland flow driven erosion processes and flow hydrodynamics on steep hillslopes under field conditions. Field experiments were performed in flows for six inflow rates (q: 6-36 Lmin-1m-1) with and without rainfall (60 mm h-1) on a steep slope (26°) to investigate: (1) the quantitative effects of rainfall on runoff and sediment yield processes, and flow hydrodynamics; (2) the effect of interaction between rainfall and overland flow on soil loss. Results showed that the rainfall increased runoff coefficients and the fluctuation of temporal variations in runoff. The rainfall significantly increased soil loss (10.6-68.0%), but this increment declined as q increased. When the interrill erosion dominated (q=6 Lmin-1m-1), the increment in the rill erosion was 1.5 times that in the interrill erosion, and the effect of the interaction on soil loss was negative. When the rill erosion dominated (q=6-36 Lmin-1m-1), the increment in the interrill erosion was 1.7-8.8 times that in the rill erosion, and the effect of the interaction on soil loss became positive. The rainfall was conducive to the development of rills especially for low inflow rates. The rainfall always decreased interrill flow velocity, decreased rill flow velocity (q=6-24 Lmin-1m-1), and enhanced the spatial uniformity of the velocity distribution. Under rainfall disturbance, flow depth, Reynolds number (Re) and resistance were increased but Froude number was reduced, and lower Re was needed to transform a laminar flow to turbulent flow. The rainfall significantly increased flow shear stress (τ) and stream power (φ), with the most sensitive parameters to sediment yield being τ (R2=0.994) and φ (R2=0.993), respectively, for non-rainfall and rainfall conditions. Compared to non-rainfall conditions, there was a reduction in the critical hydrodynamic parameters of mean flow velocity, τ, and φ by the rainfall. These findings

  18. Modificacions de les Propietats Fisicoquímiques de les "Lies" de Segona Fermentació durant la Criança del Cava

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Chacón, Joan Josep

    2010-01-01

    [cat] Els caves són vins escumosos que es distingeixen per la seva criança particular en contacte amb els llevats de la segona fermentació per un període no inferior a 9 mesos. Com més es perllonga la criança, se suposa una millor qualitat del vi. Així, la categoria “Gran Reserva” implica com a mínim 30 mesos d’envelliment en rima. Tanmateix, encara no s'han esclarit els mecanismes que involucren l’autòlisi amb la qualitat organolèptica dels vins escumosos. En aquest treball s’ha proposat...

  19. Comparison of the ability to flourish and the increment of native species of the cerrado region in different soils, aiming at recuperating the degraded soils in the Abadia de Goias State Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, Max Lima e; Antunes, Erides Campos; Benvenutti, Romeu Davi; Ferreira, Gislene Auxiliadora; Braga, Marcio

    1997-01-01

    The project of botanical recuperation was carried out in order to re vegetate the degraded soils of the areas which surround the radioactive deposit of Cesium 137, within the State Park of Abadia de Goias. An analysis of the park area reveals different stages of degradation, from an absolute stage of degradation, with the C horizon exposed, to other areas of well-preserved forest. On the occasion of the installation of the deposit of radioactive waste, the EIA-RIMA Report determined that the areas should be recuperated in order to re-establish the previous existing forests and cerrado vegetation. A plan for planting 199,366 native trees was then carried out. The present long term project, aims to monitoring the growth of the several species, in different substrates, with the general objective of determining which would better adapt to such substrates. The objective is to provide subsidies for developing appropriate methodology for recuperating degraded areas. (author)

  20. Programs of environmental administration of GASBOL and its results; Programas de gestao ambiental do GasBol e seus resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos; Figliuolo, Marilu [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side, owned and operated by TBG, has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (Environmental and States department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. As a result of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Reports (EIA/RIMA) required for the project implementation, was developed an Environmental Management Plan - EMP, which addressed the following compensation plans: Socio - Economic Compensation Plan, Indigenous Peoples Development Plan - PDI and Ecological Compensation Plan. This report presents a summary of the compensation plans, the criteria utilized for the projects determination and the evaluation of the results, after 6 years, according to the established targets. (author)

  1. Retracted: Aetiology and clinical profile of children with 46, XY differences of sex development at an Indian referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V; Dada, R; Jain, V

    2017-11-01

    Retraction: 'Aetiology and clinical profile of children with 46, XY differences of sex development at an Indian referral centre' by Vasundhera Chauhan, Rima Dada, Vandana Jain The above article, published online on 8 August 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editors-in-Chief, Wolf-Bernhard Schill and Ralf Henkel, and Blackwell Verlag GmbH. The retraction has been agreed as the result of an unresolved dispute between the first author and a colleague research fellow due to the inclusion of data from patients who were simultaneously enrolled in two studies being conducted separately by the two parties. Reference Chauhan, V., Dada, R. and Jain, V. (2016), Aetiology and clinical profile of children with 46, XY differences of sex development at an Indian referral centre. Andrologia. doi:10.1111/and.12663. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. GuideLiner™ as guide catheter extension for the unreachable mammary bypass graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, Alec; Savage, Michael P; Fischman, David L

    2018-03-09

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of mammary artery bypass grafts through a trans-radial (TR) approach can present unique challenges, including coaxial vessel engagement of the guiding catheter, adequate visualization of the target lesion, sufficient backup support for equipment delivery, and the ability to reach very distal lesions. The GuideLiner catheter, a rapid exchange monorail mother-in-daughter system, facilitates successful interventions in such challenging anatomy. We present a case of a patient undergoing PCI of a right internal mammary artery (RIMA) graft via TR access in whom the graft could not be engaged with any guiding catheter. Using a balloon tracking technique over a guidewire, a GuideLiner was placed as an extension of the guiding catheter and facilitated TR-PCI by overcoming technical challenges associated with difficult anatomy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Strateginio valdymo modeliavimas statyboje

    OpenAIRE

    Lileikytė, Simona

    2005-01-01

    Ekonomikos globalizacija, ES plėtra, statybos verslo perprodukcija ES šalyse, Lietuvos integracija į ES bendrąją rinką priverčia statybos įmonių vadovus ir savininkus siekti naujų tikslų. Pasikeitusi išorinė aplinka pakeičia ir vidinę statybos įmonės aplinką, o tai sąlygoja naujų tikslų siekim�� ir naujų strategijų atsiradimą. Šio darbo mokslinių tyrimų objektas yra strateginio valdymo modelio kūrimas. Darbo tikslas - išanalizuoti strateginio valdymo statyboje modeliavimą, integruojantis į Eu...

  4. Objektinis programavimas ir vartotojo grafinis interfeisas (GUI) NetBeans aplinkoje

    OpenAIRE

    Jasiulionis, Rolandas

    2008-01-01

    Darbe nagrinėjami objektinio programavimo principai. Apžvelgiama Java programavimo kalba, jos platformos, virtualioji mašina, programų tipai. Apžvelgiami Java baziniai paketai, klasės. Aprašyta programavimo aplinka ir vartotojo grafinės sąsajos (interfeiso) kūrimas NetBeans aplinkoje. Aprašyti pagrindiniai swing ir awt paketų komponentai. Programiškai realizuoti ir aprašyti keli uždaviniai NetBeans aplinkoje, kurie demonstruoja vartotojo grafinės sąsajos kūrimą. Darbo tikslas yra NetBeans apl...

  5. Programs of environmental administration of GASBOL and its results; Programas de gestao ambiental do GasBol e seus resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos; Figliuolo, Marilu [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side, owned and operated by TBG, has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (Environmental and States department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. As a result of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Reports (EIA/RIMA) required for the project implementation, was developed an Environmental Management Plan - EMP, which addressed the following compensation plans: Socio - Economic Compensation Plan, Indigenous Peoples Development Plan - PDI and Ecological Compensation Plan. This report presents a summary of the compensation plans, the criteria utilized for the projects determination and the evaluation of the results, after 6 years, according to the established targets. (author)

  6. Un fondo semidesconocido de obras (¿y una cuarteta autógrafa? de Lope: la Bibliotheca Bodmeriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crivellari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo ofrece noticias detalladas a propósito de un fondo de obras de Lope de Vega semidesconocido hasta la fecha, el de la Fundación Martin Bodmer de Ginebra (Suiza. El artículo consta de dos partes: en la primera, después de presentar brevemente la Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, se reseñan todos los textos no dramáticos del Fénix custodiados en la fundación, señalando sus peculiaridades bibliográficas. En la segunda parte se analiza una cuarteta manuscrita (un romancillo de heptasílabos asonantados en -é que encabeza la edición de 1625 de los Triunfos divinos con otras rimas sacras para averiguar si esos versos fueron escritos de puño y letra por el Fénix, tal y como han afirmado algunos estudiosos.

  7. Método da árvore temporal modificada aplicado à análise de impactos ambientais: um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Moscardi, Jean Prost [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RIMA), por muitas vezes sub-estimados em seu valor, apresenta-se apenas como um capítulo no Estudo de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) sem o devido reconhecimento e grau de relevância. O objetivo do presente estudo foi à proposição de um novo método de avaliação de impactos ambientais, no qual, a caracterização e formatação apresentaram-se direcionadas ao público leigo e distinto dos profissionais que realizam os trabalhos ambientais, porém, de grande relevância em pr...

  8. Strubelammelse hos hund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James; Eriksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Strubelammelse (larynxparese) er en dysfunktion af strubehovedet, der medfører en stærkt nedsat eller som oftest helt fraværende evne til at åbne stemmeridsen (rima glottidis) ved inspiration. De lammede stemmebånd står immobile i paramedian stilling, hvilket medfører begrænset og besværet...... og hoste. Strubelammelse er enten medfødt eller erhvervet. Den medfødte form udgør 20-30 procent af patienter, hvor symptomerne debuterer hos unge dyr med kraftig ophobning i racer som Bouvier de Flandre, Siberian husky, Dalmatiner og Bull terrier. Den erhvervede lammelse er den hyppigste form og ses...

  9. Miguel Ángel Buonarroti: el homoerotismo distinguido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Abate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, proponemos una aproximación crítica a la producción lírica de Miguel Angel Buonarroti, a partir de un dispositivo conceptual al que denominaremos “homoerotismo distinguido”. Durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI, la obra poética de Miguel Angel Buonarroti permite recorrer las principales motivaciones culturales y estéticas que el movimiento humanista había desplegado, entre la Florencia de los Medici y la Roma de los papas. En este trabajo se propone una lectura crítica de algunos textos de sus Rimas que apuntan decididamente a la postulación de una poética personal del gran artista, basada en el idealismo platónico y en formas expresivas no del todo canónicas.

  10. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43??mm of rain in 4??h, 35??mm of which fell in the first 2??h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30??) in catchments with small contributing areas (runoff and therefore less likely to generate debris flows by the firehose effect or by rilling. The character of the surficial cover and the spatially variable hydrologic response to intense rainfall, rather than a threshold of contributing area and topographic slope, appears to control the initiation process in the high alpine of the Front Range. Because debris flows initiated by rilling and the firehose effect tend to increase in volume as they travel downslope, these debris flows are potentially more hazardous than those initiated by shallow landslides, which tend to deposit material along their paths. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertical movement in mare basins: relation to mare emplacement, basin tectonics, and lunar thermal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial and temporal relationships of linear rilles and mare ridges in the Serenitatis basin region of the moon are explained by a combination of lithospheric flexure in response to basin loading by basalt fill and a time-dependent global stress due to the thermal evolution of the lunar interior. The pertinent tectonic observations are the radial distance of basin concentric rilles or graben from the mare center; the location and orientation of mare ridges, interpreted as compressive features; and the restriction of graben formation to times older than 3.6 +- 0.2 b.y. ago, while ridge formation continued after emplacement of the youngest mare basalt unit (approx.3 b.y. ago). The locations of the graben are consistent with the geometry of the mare basalt load expected from the dimensions of multiring basins for values of the thickness of the elastic lithosphere beneath Serenitatis in the range 25--50 km at 3.6--3.8 b.y. ago. The locations and orientations of mare ridges are consistent with the load inferred from surface mapping and subsurface radar reflections for values of the elastic lithosphere thickness near 100 km at 3.0--3.4 b.y. ago. The thickening of the lithosphere beneath a major basin during the evolution of mare volcanism is thus clearly evident in the tectonics. The cessation of rille formation and the prolonged period of ridge formation are attributed to a change in the global horizontal thermal stress from extension to compression as the moon shifted from net expansion to overall cooling and contraction. Severe limits as placed on the range of possible lunar thermal histories. The zone of horizontal extensional stresses peripheral to mare loads favors the edge of mare basins as the preferred sites for mare basalt magma eruption in the later stages of mare fill, although subsidence may lead to accumulation of such young lavas in basin centers

  12. Hydrogeology and deformation of sandbars in response to fluctuations in flow of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, M.C.; Carruth, R.L.; Fink, J.B.; Boling, J.K.; Cluer, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring develop on seepage faces of many sandbars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. These processes, observed at low river stage, are a response to residual head gradients in the sandbars caused by the river-stage fluctuation. Three sandbars were instrumented with sensors for continual monitoring of pore pressure and ground-water temperature within the sandbars and river stage. Two of the sandbars also had tilt sensors to aid in determining the relation between ground-water flow within and out of the sandbars and sandbar deformation. Tilting at sandbar 43.1L occurred on the downward limb of the hydrograph in the absence of scour, indicating slumping or a slump-creep sequence. The deformation was caused by outward-flowing bank storage, oversteepening of the lower part of the slope in the zone of fluctuating river stage by filling, and increased effective stress. At sandbar 172.3L, tilts were probably all related to scour and occurred on the rising limb of a hydrograph. Tilt occurred on April 17, May 7, May 13, June 18, and September 1, 1991. On September 1, the entire face of sandbar 172.3L was scoured. Rill erosion and slumping accompanied by measured tilts continued in reduced magnitude on sandbar 43.1L during interim flows. Thus, reduction in the range of discharge does not eliminate degradation caused by rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring. The importance of the ground-water processes is that they occur on every sandbar and become increasingly important on all sandbars in the absence of sandbar-building flows.

  13. Particle transport patterns of short-distance soil erosion by wind-driven rain, rain and wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; de Lima, João L. M. P.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Short distance erosion of soil surface material is one of the big question marks in soil erosion studies. The exact measurement of short-distance transported soil particles, prior to the occurrence of overland flow, is a challenge to soil erosion science due to the particular requirements of the experimental setup and test procedure. To approach a quantification of amount and distance of each type of transport, we applied an especially developed multiple-gutter system installed inside the Trier Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator (PWRS). We measured the amount and travel distance of soil particles detached and transported by raindrops (splash), wind-driven rain (splash-saltation and splash-drift) and wind (saltation). The test setup included three different erosion agents (rain/ wind-driven rain/ wind), two substrates (sandy/ loamy), three surface structures (grain roughness/ rills lengthwise/ rills transversal) and three slope angles (0°/+7°/-7°). The results present detailed transport patterns of the three erosion agents under the varying soil and surface conditions up to a distance of 1.6 m. Under the applied rain intensity and wind velocity, wind-driven rain splash generates the highest erosion. The erodibility and travel distance of the two substrates depend on the erosion agent. The total erosion is slightly higher for the slope angle -7° (downslope), but for wind-driven rain splash, the inclination is not a relevant factor. The effect of surface structures (rills) changes with traveling distance. The wind driven rain splash generates a much higher amount of erosion and a further travel distance of the particles due to the combined action of wind and rain. The wind-driven rain factor appears to be much more significant than the other factors. The study highlights the effects of different erosion agents and surface parameters on short-distance particle transport and the powerful impact of wind-driven rain on soil erosion.

  14. Participatory assessment of soil erosion severity and performance of mitigation measures using stakeholder workshops in Koga catchment, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene E M; Fleskens, Luuk; Ritsema, Coen J

    2018-02-01

    Farmers possess a wealth of knowledge regarding soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC), and there is a great demand to access it. However, there has been little effort to systematically document farmers' experiences and perceptions of SWC measures. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices rather than adoption based on scientific evidence. This research aimed to assess soil erosion and performance of different SWC measures from the farmers' perspective by documenting their perceptions and experiences in Koga catchment, Ethiopia. To this aim, workshops were organised in three sub-catchments differing in slopes and SWC measures. Workshops included group discussions and field monitoring of erosion indicators and systematically describing the status of soil erosion, soil fertility and yield to assess the performance of SWC measures. Results show that farmers are aware of the harmful effects of ongoing soil erosion and of the impacts of mitigation measures on their farms. Sheet erosion was found to be the most widespread form of erosion while rill damage was critical on plots cultivated to cereals on steep slopes. The average rill erosion rates were 24.2 and 47.3 t/ha/y in treated and untreated farmlands, respectively. SWC reduced rill erosion on average by more than 48%. However, the impacts of SWC measures varied significantly between sub-watersheds, and farmers believed that SWC measures did not prevent erosion completely. Comparatively, graded stone-faced soil bunds revealed maximum desired impacts and were most appreciated by farmers, whereas level bunds caused water logging. Most traditional ditches were highly graded and begun incising and affected production of cereals. Despite the semi-quantitative nature of the methodology, using farmers' perceptions and experiences to document land degradation and the impacts of SWC measures is crucial as they are the daily users of the land and therefore directly

  15. MEANING AND FORM IN NURSERY RHYMES TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-07-01

    dihapus sedangkan sebagian besar rima bergeser. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap penerjemahan lagu khususnya yang melibatkan anak-anak sebagai pendengar sasaran. Kata kunci: kesepadanan, keakuratan, sound values, auditory devices, rima

  16. Sosiaalisen median markkinointisuunnitelma uudelle hoitoalan konseptoidulle työvaatemallistolle

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä pohdittiin keinoja saada uuden konseptoidun työvaatemalliston näkyvyyttä esille sosiaalisen median keinoin. Toimeksiantaja-yrityksenä toimi suomalainen Virtually Oy ja kohteena oli sen uusi hoitajille suunnattu työvaatemallisto. Malliston ympärille halutaan luoda kestävä brändi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi on tukemassa brändin tunnettavuutta ja myyntiä. Sosiaalinen media ei yritysten välisessä liiketoiminnassa toimi ainoana markkinoinnin työkaluna, vaan se on tukemas...

  17. Working in partnerships : an ethnographic study on volunteers' narratives of establishing, managing and ending partnerships between Finnish and Indian NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Eronen, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Pro gradu -tutkielmassani tarkastelen suomalaisten ja intialaisten kehitysyhteistyöjärjestöjen yhteisen kehitysyhteistyöhankkeen ympärille muodostunutta yhteistyötä eli kumppanuutta. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on ymmärtää kumppanuuden muodostumiseen, ylläpitoon ja lopettamiseen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Tutkimuksessa tuodaan esille suomalaisten vapaaehtoisten kertomuksia, kokemuksia ja havaintoja muun muassa uuden kumppanijärjestön valintakriteereistä, järjestöjen välisestä työnjaosta, hankesykli...

  18. Ruoan uskonnolliset merkitykset yläkoulun uskonnon oppikirjoissa

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen lähtökohtana on ruoan ja uskontojen monipuolinen suhde, joka esiintyy kaikissa uskonnoissa. Tutkimuksen kohteena ovat koulun uskonnonopetus ja siinä erityisesti oppikirjat. Tutkimuksessa ruokaa ja ruoan ympärille liitettäviä uskonnollisia merkityksiä tarkasteltiin osana myyttejä ja riittejä ja rituaaleja. Tämän tutkimuksen teorialähtökohtien mukaan ruoat saavat symboliarvoa uskonnosta ja toisaalta ruokailulla ilmennetään uskonnollisia riittejä ja rituaaleja. Tämä tutkimus ra...

  19. The Development of a High-Power, Low-Frequency Underwater Acoustic Source for Use in a Deep-Towed Geophysical Array Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-15

    Metca) for each ring 6 Aluminum orirlce end ring 15 Rubber bumpers 7 Back plate inner boot ring 16 Castor oil rill-fluid I ’)-ring %eals I ’ Nikel ...electrode .ab% with hook-up wire -ig. 6 - Sectional v-icw orf ISRI) typc (662 tran.dhcer 9 YOUNG, TIMS. AND HENRIQUFZ 0.42 m. Approximately 85% of the...electrical leads for each ring are routed to individual bulkhead connectors on the trans- ducer back plate with high-voltage silicone-jacketed hookup wire

  20. 2009 - Global Energy Balance - Intendente Camara - Ipatinga - Minas Gerais - Brazil - plant - Superintendence of Energy and Utilities; Balanco energetico global - 2009 - Usina Intendente Camara - Ipatinga - Minas Gerais - Superintendencia de Energia e Utilidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira Junior, Jose Ronaldo; Bastos, Moises Hofer [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Global Energy Balance of the USIMINAS - Usina Intendente Camara em Ipatinga - Minas Gerais - Brazil, in 2009, is presented with the the main energy consumption indicators of the producer areas. It is highlighted during 2009 as followed: the steel demand retraction decurring from the world wild financial crisis, given as consequence the stop of the blast furnace 1 and 2; dinishing of the production of sinter, pig iron, steel, hot and cold rolled rilled mill; gradual elevation of the production rhythm at the at the plant and energy consumption during the year, motivated by the slow and gradual recovering of the steel marketing.

  1. Aliupseereiden työssä oppiminen - Tapaustutkimus sosiomateriaalisten oppimisverkostojen näkökulmasta

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkarinen, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin Puolustusvoimien perusyksiköissä kouluttajatehtävissä toimivien aliupseerien työssä oppimista ja sen ohjaamista. Työssä oppimista tarkasteltiin kulttuurihistori-allisen toiminnan teorian ja tietoa luovan oppimisen metaforan mukaisen trialogisen oppimisen tarjoamilla teoreettisilla työkaluilla. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen näkökulma kiteytettiin sosiomate-riaalisen oppimisverkostoon, joka määriteltiin toiminnan yhteisen kohteen ympärille rakentu-neeksi yksilön, hänen yh...

  2. Integrated process-based hydrologic and ephemeral gully modeling for better assessment of soil erosion in small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshukov, A. Y.; Karimov, V. R.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive soil erosion in agriculturally dominated watersheds causes degradation of arable land and affects agricultural productivity. Structural and soil-quality best management practices can be beneficial in reducing sheet and rill erosion, however, larger rills, ephemeral gullies, and concentrated flow channels still remain to be significant sources of sediment. A better understanding of channelized soil erosion, underlying physical processes, and ways to mitigate the problem is needed to develop innovative approaches for evaluation of soil losses from various sediment sources. The goal of this study was to develop a novel integrated process-based catchment-scale model for sheet, rill, and ephemeral gully erosion and assess soil erosion mitigation practices. Geospatially, a catchment was divided into ephemeral channels and contributing hillslopes. Surface runoff hydrograph and sheet-rill erosion rates from contributing hillslopes were calculated based on the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. For ephemeral channels, a dynamic ephemeral gully erosion model was developed. Each channel was divided into segments, and channel flow was routed according to the kinematic wave equation. Reshaping of the channel profile in each segment (sediment deposition, soil detachment) was simulated at each time-step according to acting shear stress distribution along the channel boundary and excess shear stress equation. The approach assumed physically-consistent channel shape reconfiguration representing channel walls failure and deposition in the bottom of the channel. Soil erodibility and critical shear stress parameters were dynamically adjusted due to seepage/drainage forces based on computed infiltration gradients. The model was validated on the data obtained from the field study by Karimov et al. (2014) yielding agreement with NSE coefficient of 0.72. The developed model allowed to compute ephemeral gully erosion while accounting for antecedent soil moisture

  3. Effect of gamma rays on the larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecheva, G.

    1979-01-01

    Rhipicephalus bursa larvae were exposed to a single acute gamma-irradiation from cobalt 60 source in doses from 0.5 to 40 kiloroentgen (kr). Doses higher than 20 kr rilled the larvae, lower than 10 kr produced disturbances in tick development, dependent on radiation; larvae irradiated with 2 to 3 kr started sucking blood as larvae ordinarily do, but could not undergo metamorphosis; larvae irradiated with lower doses (0.5 and 1 kr) had a prolonged metamorphosis, the onset of oviposition was delayed and the percentage of hatched second generation larvae was reduced. (A.B.)

  4. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  5. Metabolic factors affecting enhanced phosphorus uptake by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, W H; Gottfried, R J; Sinclair, N A; Yall, I

    1971-10-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and (32)P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl(2), iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN(3), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10(-3)m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions).

  6. Bluff evolution along coastal drumlins: Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, E.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Rosen, P.S.; Allen, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A series of partially drowned drumlins forms the backbone of the inner islands within Boston Harbor. The shoreline of these rounded glacial deposits is composed of actively retreating bluffs formed by continual wave attack. Comparisons of bluffs reveal variability in their height and lateral extent, as well as in the dominant mechanism causing their retreat. Two processes are responsible for bluff erosion and yield distinct bluff morphologies: (1) wave attack undercuts the bluff and causes episodic slumping, yielding planar bluff slopes, and (2) subaerial processes such as rainfall create irregular slopes characterized by rills and gullies. We propose a model of drumlin bluff evolution that is based on processes of erosion and physical characteristics such as bluff height, slope morphology, and the orientation of the bluff with respect to the long axis of the drumlin and its topographic crest. The four phases of drumlin bluff evolution consist of (1) initial formation of bluff, with retreat dominated by wave notching and slumping processes; (2) rill and gully development as bluff heights exceed 10 m and slumped sediment at bluff base inhibits wave attack; (3) return of wave notching and slumping as bluff heights decrease; and (4) final development of boulder retreat lag as last remnants of drumlin are eroded by wave action. These phases capture the important physical processes of drumlin evolution in Boston Harbor and could apply to other eroding coastal drumlin deposits.

  7. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Hongyi; Tesfa, Teklu; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Zhang, Xuesong; Lu, Hui; Hartmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1,081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km2), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  8. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zeli [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Li, Hongyi [Montana State University, Bozeman MT USA; Tesfa, Teklu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Vanmaercke, Matthias [Département de Géographie, Université de Liège, Liege Belgium; Poesen, Jean [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Division of Geography, KU Leuven, Leuven Belgium; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lu, Hui [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Hartmann, Jens [Institute for Geology, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg Germany

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km27 ), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  9. Prediction of long-term erosion from landfill covers in the southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Erosion is a primary stressor of landfill covers, especially for climates with high intensity storms and low native plant density. Rills and gullies formed by discrete events can damage barrier layers and induce failure. Geomorphologic, empirical and physical modeling procedures are available to provide estimates of surface erosion, but numerical modeling requires accurate representation of the severe rainfall events that generate erosion. The National Weather Service precipitation frequency data and estimates of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60-minute intensity can be statistically combined in a numerical model to obtain long-term erosion estimates. Physically based numerical models using the KINEROS and AHYMO programs have been utilized to predict the erosion from a southwestern landfill or waste containment site with 0.03, 0.05 and 0.08 meter per meter surface slopes. Results of AHYMO modeling were within 15 percent of average annual values computed with the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation. However, the estimation of rill and gully formation that primarily degrades cover systems requires quantifying single events. For Southwestern conditions, a single 10-year storm can produce erosion quantifies equal to three times the average annual erosion and a 100-year storm can produce five times the average annual erosion

  10. Implications of climate change scenarios for soil erosion potential in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D L; White, D; Johnson, B [US EPA, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Laboratory

    1993-07-01

    Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) project that increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases may result in global changes in temperature and precipitation over the next 40-100 years. Equilibrium climate scenarios from four GCMs run under doubled CO[sub 2] conditions were examined for their effect on the climatic potential for sheet and rill erosion in the conterminous USA. Changes in the mean annual rainfall factor (R) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) were calculated for each cropland, pastureland and rangeland sample point in the 1987 National Resources Inventory. Projected annual precipitation changes were assumed to be from differences in either storm frequency or storm intensity. With all other USLE factors held constant these changes in R translated to changes in the sheet and rill erosion national average of +2 to +16 per cent in croplands, -2 to +10 per cent in pasturelands and 5 to +22 per cent in rangelands under the eight scenarios. Land with erosion rates above the soil loss tolerance (T) level and land classified as highly erodible also increased slightly. These results show the range of sensitivity of soil erosion potential by water under projected climate change scenarios. However, actual changes in soil erosion could be mitigated by management practices, or possibly by increased crop growth and residue production under higher atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations.

  11. Trend of Soil Erosion Processes within the Southern Half of the Russian Plain for the Last Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, V. N.; Yermolaev, O. P.; Safina, G. R.; Maltsev, K. A.; Gusarov, A. V.; Rysin, I. I.

    2018-01-01

    Complex approach is applied for assessment of recent trends of sheet, rill and gully erosion in different landscape zones of study area. Investigation is undertaken in 6 selected sectors (area of each transect is about 6-10 thousand km2), uniformly distributed over the area of the Russian Plain. Changes of the different factors, including some meteorological and hydrological parameters, land use change, USLE C-factor, were determined for the period 1980-2015. A set of field methods was used for quantification of sediment redistribution rates for the key small catchments. It was found that erosion rate decreased in forest and forest-steppe zone. Gully density decreases considerably in all landscape zones. The reduction of surface runoff from cultivated slope during snow-melting is the main reason of decreasing of sheet, rill and gully erosion rates in the forest, forest steppe and the north of steppe landscape zones. Increasing the proportion of perennial grasses in crop-rotation is the other factor of serious reduction of erosion processes in the forest zone.

  12. Nuclear moments and charge radii of magnesium isotopes from N=8 up to (and beyond) N=20

    CERN Multimedia

    Mattolat, C F; Mallion, S N; Himpe, P

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear monopole, dipole and quadrupole moments of magnesium isotopes from the neutron deficient nuclei near the N=8 shell closure ($^{21}$Mg), up to the neutron rich Mg nuclei beyond N=20 ($^{33}$Mg). The physics issues that will be addressed in this project are related to: \\begin{itemize} \\item The properties of mirror nuclei (e.g. $^{21}$Mg - $^{21}$F being members of a T=3/2 multiplet) \\item The evolution of shell structure and deformation with isospin. \\item Changes in the shell structure in the "island of inversion" around $^{32}$Mg and along the N=9 isotones. \\end{itemize} Radioactive beams of Mg isotopes will be produced by the RILlS ion source. The Mg isotopes will be resonantly polarized at the COLLAPS set-up. With $\\beta$-NMR techniques, precision measurements of g-factors and quadrupole moments of the radioactive $^{21,23}$Mg and $^{29,31,33}$Mg isotopes will be performed. Isotope shifts, thus changes in mean square charge radii, will be deduced from hyperfine spectra mea...

  13. Pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAnD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Taryn; Hattingh, Coenraad J; Kariuki, Catherine M; Tromp, Sean A; van Balkom, Anton J; Ipser, Jonathan C; Stein, Dan J

    2017-10-19

    ), reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (RIMAs) (k = 8, RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.55, N = 1270), and the benzodiazepines (k = 2, RR 4.03; 95% CI 2.45 to 6.65, N = 132), although the evidence was low quality. We also found clinical response for the anticonvulsants with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) analogues (k = 3, RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.20, N = 532; moderate-quality evidence). The SSRIs were the only medication proving effective in reducing relapse based on moderate-quality evidence. We assessed tolerability of SSRIs and the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine on the basis of treatment withdrawal; this was higher for medication than placebo (SSRIs: k = 24, RR 2.59; 95% CI 1.97 to 3.39, N = 5131, low-quality evidence; venlafaxine: k = 4, RR 3.23; 95% CI 2.15 to 4.86, N = 1213, moderate-quality evidence), but there were low absolute rates of withdrawal for both these medications classes compared to placebo. We did not find evidence of a benefit for the rest of the medications compared to placebo.For the secondary outcome of SAnD symptom severity, there was benefit for the SSRIs, the SNRI venlafaxine, MAOIs, RIMAs, benzodiazepines, the antipsychotic olanzapine, and the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) atomoxetine in the reduction of SAnD symptoms, but most of the evidence was of very low quality. Treatment with SSRIs and RIMAs was also associated with a reduction in depression symptoms. The SSRIs were the only medication class that demonstrated evidence of reduction in disability across a number of domains.We observed a response to long-term treatment with medication for the SSRIs (low-quality evidence), for the MAOIs (very low-quality evidence) and for the RIMAs (moderate-quality evidence). We found evidence of treatment efficacy for the SSRIs, but it is based on very low- to moderate-quality evidence. Tolerability of SSRIs was lower than placebo, but absolute withdrawal rates were low.While a small number

  14. Aquifers in the Sokoto basin, northwestern Nigeria, with a description of the general hydrogeology of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.R.; Ogilbee, William

    1973-01-01

    The Sokoto Basin of northwestern Nigeria lies in the sub-Saharan Sudan belt of west Africa in a zone of savannah-type vegetation. Rainfall, averaging about 30 inches annually in much of the basin, occurs chiefly in a wet season which lasts from May to October. A prolonged dry season extending from October to April is dominated by dusty harmattan winds from the northeast. April and May are the hottest months, when temperatures occasionally reach 105?F. Flow in streams of the Sokoto Basin is mostly overland runoff. Only in a few reaches, fed by ground-water discharge from the sedimentary rocks, are streams perennial. In the River Zamfara basin, ground-water discharge contributes almost 1 inch of the average 3.33 inches of total annual runoff. In the vicinity of Sokoto, the River Rima flows throughout the year sustained by spring discharge from perched ground water in limestone of the Kalambaina Formation. On the crystalline terrane where most of the streams rise, total annual runoff may exceed 5 inches, very little of which is ground-water discharge. The sedimentary rocks of the basin range in age from Cretaceous to Tertiary and are composed mostly of interbedded sand, clay, and some limestone; the beds dip gently toward the northwest. Alluvium of Quaternary age underlies the lowlands of the River Sokoto (now Sokoto) and its principal tributaries. These rocks contain three important artesian aquifers, in addition to regional unconfined ground-water bodies in all the principal outcron areas, and a perched water body in the outcrop of the Kalambaina Formation. Artesian aquifers occur at depth in the Gundumi Formation, the Rima Group, and the Gwandu Formation and are separated from one another by clay beds in the lower part of the Rima Group and the Dange Formation. In outcrop, clay in the Dange Formation also supports the perched water of the Kalambaina Formation. The Gundumi Formation, resting on the basement complex, is composed of varicolored clay, sand, and gravel

  15. Numerical model SMODERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, P.; Jeřábek, J.; Strouhal, L.

    2016-12-01

    The contribution presents a numerical model SMODERP that is used for calculation and prediction of surface runoff and soil erosion from agricultural land. The physically based model includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff routing (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D version of the model was introduced in last years. The script uses ArcGIS system tools for data preparation. The physical relations are implemented through Python scripts. The main computing part is stand alone in numpy arrays. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm and in multiple flow algorithm. Sheet flow is described by modified kinematic wave equation. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of hundred measurements performed on the laboratory and filed rainfall simulators. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Development of the rills is based on critical shear stress and critical velocity. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Flow in the ditches and streams are also computed. Numerical stability of the model is controled by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamic and depends on the actual discharge. The model is used in the framework of the project "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Main goal of the project is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The methodology will account for

  16. Analyzing post-wildfire erosional processes and topographic change using hydrologic monitoring and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry at the storm event scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, R. J.; Barth, N. C.; Gray, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydro-geomorphic response in recently burned watersheds is highly dependent on the timing and magnitude of subsequent rainstorms. Recent advancements in surveying and monitoring techniques using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry can support the rapid estimation of near cm-scale topographic response of headwater catchments (ha to km2). However, surface change due to shallow erosional processes such as sheetwash and rilling remain challenging to measure at this spatial extent and the storm event scale. To address this issue, we combined repeat UAV-SfM surveys with hydrologic monitoring techniques and field investigations to characterize post-wildfire erosional processes and topographic change on a storm-by-storm basis. The Las Lomas watershed ( 15 ha) burned in the 2016 San Gabriel Complex Fire along the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains, southern California. Surveys were conducted with a consumer grade UAV; twenty-six SfM control markers; two rain gages, and two pressure transducers were installed in the watershed. The initial SfM-derived point cloud generated from 422 photos contains 258 million points; the DEM has a resolution of 2.42 cm/pixel and a point density of 17.1 pts/cm2. Rills began forming on hillslopes and minor erosion occurred within the channel network during the first low intensity storms of the rainy season. Later more intense storms resulted in substantial geomorphic change. Hydrologic data indicate that during one of the intense storms total cumulative rainfall was 58.20 mm and peak 5-min intensity was 38.4 mm/hr. Poststorm field surveys revealed evidence of debris flows, flash flooding, erosion, and fluvial aggradation in the channel network, and rill growth and gully formation on hillslopes. Analyses of the SfM models indicate erosion dominated topographic change in steep channels and on hillslopes; aggradation dominated change in low gradient channels. A contrast of 5 cm exists between field

  17. In-situ soil loss monitoring in a small Mediterranean catchment to assess the siltation risk of a limno-reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, E.; Bienes-Allas, R.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Sastre-Merlín, A.

    2012-04-01

    The existence of large reservoirs under Mediterranean climate causes some negative impacts. The construction of small dams in the riverine zone of these reservoirs is an innovative idea designed to counteract some of those impacts, generating a body of water with a constant level which we have termed "limno-reservoirs". Pareja Limno-reservoir, located in the influence area of the Entrepeñas Reservoir (Guadalajara) is among the first limno-reservoirs built in Spain, and the first having a double function: environmental and recreational. The limno-reservoir basin (85.5 Km2) enjoys a Mediterranean climate, however, cold temperatures prevail in winter and maximum annual variation may be around 50 °C. Average annual precipitation is 600 mm, with high variability too. Most of the basin is dominated by a high limestone plateau, while a more erodible lithology surfaces in the hillsides of the Ompólveda River and its tributaries. These characteristics make the basin representative of central Spain. Despite the unquestionable interest of the initiative, it construction has raised some issues about its environmental viability. One of them is related to its siltation risk, as the area shows signs of high erosion rates that have been contrasted in previous empirical studies. An in-situ soil loss monitoring network has been installed in order to determine the soil loss and deposition rates in the limno-reservoir basin (85.5 km2). It includes 15 sampling plots for inter-rill erosion and 8 for sedimentation, each one containing 16 erosion sticks. Rill erosion was studied monitoring 8 rills with a needle micro-profiler, quantifying the sediment deposition in their terminal zone with sticks. These control points have been located in places where the soil type, land use and slope present are representative of the basin, in order to extrapolate the results to similar areas. In-situ monitoring has been performed for three years, starting in 2009 and carrying out sampling every 3

  18. Erosion processes by water in agricultural landscapes: a low-cost methodology for post-event analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Calligaro, Simone; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the world, agricultural landscapes assume a great importance, especially for supplying food and a livelihood. Among the land degradation phenomena, erosion processes caused by water are those that may most affect the benefits provided by agricultural lands and endanger people who work and live there. In particular, erosion processes that affect the banks of agricultural channels may cause the bank failure and represent, in this way, a severe threat to floodplain inhabitants and agricultural crops. Similarly, rills and gullies are critical soil erosion processes as well, because they bear upon the productivity of a farm and represent a cost that growers have to deal with. To estimate quantitatively soil losses due to bank erosion and rills processes, area based measurements of surface changes are necessary but, sometimes, they may be difficult to realize. In fact, surface changes due to short-term events have to be represented with fine resolution and their monitoring may entail too much money and time. The main objective of this work is to show the effectiveness of a user-friendly and low-cost technique that may even rely on smart-phones, for the post-event analyses of i) bank erosion affecting agricultural channels, and ii) rill processes occurring on an agricultural plot. Two case studies were selected and located in the Veneto floodplain (northeast Italy) and Marche countryside (central Italy), respectively. The work is based on high-resolution topographic data obtained by the emerging, low-cost photogrammetric method named Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Extensive photosets of the case studies were obtained using both standalone reflex digital cameras and smart-phone built-in cameras. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from SfM revealed to be effective to estimate quantitatively erosion volumes and, in the case of the bank eroded, deposited materials as well. SfM applied to pictures taken by smartphones is useful for the analysis of the topography

  19. Alterações topográficas do disco óptico provocadas pela ingestão oral de glicerina Effects of ingestion of glycerol on optic disc topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teixeira Nicolela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos na topografia do disco óptico após a ingestão de glicerina, uma droga que pode atuar significativamente tanto na pressão intra-ocular (Po como na pressão do líquido cérebro-raquidiano (PLCR. Métodos: Foram estudados 14 pacientes glaucomatosos recentemente diagnosticados com pressão intra-ocular acima de 25 mmHg, sem uso prévio de terapia hipotensora. Foram analisados parâmetros topográficos com o "Heildelberg Retina Tomograph" antes e após a ingestão de glicerina. Resultados: A administração de glicerina produziu uma redução significante da pressão intra-ocular de 28,2% (95% IC de 20,7 a 32,1%. Não foram observadas alterações estatisticamente significantes após ingestão de glicerina nos seguintes parâmetros topográficos: área da escavação, volume da escavação, área da rima, volume da rima, medida da forma da escavação, profundidade média da escavação e profundidade máxima da escavação. Conclusões: Nenhuma mudança significante foi observada nos parâmetros topográficos com o "Heildelberg Retina Tomograph" após a ingestão de glicerina.Purpose: To verify the effects on optic disc topography of newly diagnosed glaucoma subjects after ingestion of glycerol, a drug that causes major changes in both the intra-ocular pressure (IOP and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP. Methods: We studied 14 patients presenting with intra-ocular pressure over 25 mmHg, without previous use of hypotensive therapy. Results: Glycerol produced a significant intra-ocular pressure average reduction of 28.2% (95% CI of 20.7 to 32.1%. Despite the obtained intraocular pressure reduction, no significant change was observed in any evaluated topographic parameter (cup area and volume, rim area and volume, maximal and mean cup depth. Conclusions: Overall, no significant change in the topographic parameters, using the "Heildelberg Retina Tomograph", was observed after ingestion of glycerol.

  20. O olho da coruja-orelhuda: observações morfológicas, biométricas e valores de referência para testes de diagnóstico oftálmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.V. Rodarte-Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se relatar características morfológicas do bulbo ocular e determinar valores de referência para testes oftálmicos selecionados em corujas-orelhudas (Asio clamator. Foram estudados 32 olhos de 16 corujas (Asio clamator, adultas e jovens, machos e fêmeas, de vida livre. Sendo compilados dados referentes a observações morfológicas do crânio, bulbo ocular e anexos, além de mensuração de testes oftálmicos, incluindo, Teste Lacrimal de Schirmer (TLS, cultura da microbiota normal da conjuntiva, estesiometria, pressão intraocular (PIO, espessura de córnea central (ECC, diâmetro horizontal da rima palpebral, diâmetro horizontal da córnea e oftalmoscopia indireta. Vinte e dois tipos de bactérias foram identificados em 12 corujas havendo predominância de microrganismos Gram-positivos. A média encontrada para o TLS foi de 5,03±3,28mm/min, para o diâmetro horizontal da rima palpebral em 16 corujas foi 21,24±1,17mm, e 15,7±2,74mm para o diâmetro horizontal da córnea. O valor médio para o teste de estesiometria foi de 0,80±0,59cm, a PIO média de 13,81±5,62mmHg e ECC média de 0,28±0,03cm. O estudo contribuiu para a caracterização da morfologia ocular e para o estabelecimento de valores de referências de testes diagnósticos oftálmicos em corujas-orelhudas, sendo necessário ainda o desenvolvimento de estudos complementares sobre histologia ocular desta espécie.

  1. Evaluation of Mediterranean plants for controlling gully erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baets, S. de; Poesen, J.; Muys, B.

    2009-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments, gullies are responsible for large soil losses causing loss of fertile cropland soil, reservoir sedimentation and flooding. To limit soil loss and sediment export it is important to prevent the initiation or rills and to stabilise gullies. This can be done by establishing vegetation at vulnerable places in the landscape. Although in the past, the effects of vegetation on soil erosion rates were predicted using above-ground biomass characteristics only, plant roots also play an important role in protecting the soil against erosion by concentrated runoff. Especially in conditions where the above-ground biomass becomes very scarce (e.g. due to drought, harvest, overgrazing or fire) the effects of vegetation will be underestimated when only above-ground plant characteristics are taken into account. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Are irrational reactions to unfairness truly emotionally-driven? Dissociated behavioural and emotional responses in the Ultimatum Game task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2010-01-01

    The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness (Sanfey, Rilling, Aronson, Nystrom, & Cohen, 2003; van't Wout, Kahn, Sanfey, & Aleman, 2006). We recorded skin conductance responses as a measure of emotional activation while participants performed a modified version of the UG, in which they were asked to play both for themselves and on behalf of a third-party. Our findings show that even unfair offers are rejected when participants' payoff is not affected (third-party condition); however, they show an increase in the emotional activation specifically when they are rejecting offers directed towards themselves (myself condition). These results suggest that theories emphasizing negative emotions as the critical factor of "irrational" rejections (Pillutla & Murninghan, 1996) should be re-discussed. Psychological mechanisms other than emotions might be better candidates for explaining this behaviour.

  3. Tsunami Waves Extensively Resurfaced the Shorelines of an Early Martian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Fairen, A. G.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Platz, T.; Komatsu, G.; Kargel, J. S.; Gulick, V.; Jianguo, Y.; Higuchi, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Viking image-based mapping of a widespread deposit covering most of the northern low-lands of Mars led to the proposal by Parker et al. that the deposit represents the vestiges of an enormous ocean that existed approx. 3.4 Ga. Later identified as the Vastitas Borealis Formation, the latest geologic map of Mars identifies this deposit as the Late Hesperian lowland unit (lHl). This deposit is typically bounded by raised lobate margins. In addition, some margins have associated rille channels, which could have been produced sub-aerially by the back-wash of high-energy tsunami waves. Radar-sounding data indicate that the deposit is ice-rich. However, until now, the lack of wave-cut shoreline features and the presence of lobate margins have remained an im-pediment to the acceptance of the paleo-ocean hypothesis.

  4. PELAKSANAAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM MULTIKULTURAL DI RINTISAN SEKOLAH BERTARAF INTERNASIONAL SMAN 1 PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Susanto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex in all dimension life, start from most abstraction up to most concretet represents the fact which is given, irreversible and cannot disobey. Still,- realized or without in realizing - He, that complext, times, rill trap human being at destructive behavior and becomes conflict root, so that it is important to be traced fully seriousness. This article try to describe execution of Islamic education being based on multi-cultural, as one of effort minimizing the conflict with entrance of Islamic education . Through the approach qualitative with deep observation and deep interview as instrument of the first data collection, the article representing this research summary finds that education of multicultural in SMAN 1 Pamekasan is still executed in integrativeadditive pattern and not yet entered for transformatif level

  5. Remote Sensing techniques used to characterize soil erosion in southwestern Sao Paulo state. M.S. Thesis - 29 Sep. 1982; [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Pinto, S. D. A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Within randomly sampled squares of a 1 km x 1 km grid, rill/gullies frequency, land cover/land use type and shape of the slopes were extracted from aerial photographs of the Ribeirao Anhumas drainage basin. Mean slope gradient, stream frequency and slope length were calculated on topographic maps. Ground truth data on fine sand/coarse sand ratio and vegetation cover densities were obtained. The MSS-LANDSAT-2 data (CCTs) were analyzed using single-cell, cluster synthesis and slicer algorithms. Graphical and statistical analyses of the data indicate that different slope gradients and land cover/land use types are the most significant factors related to the soil erosion process. The digital analysis of MSS data allowed the association among gray level classes and vegetation cover classes, which defined seven classes. These gray level classes and slope gradient classes were used to rank erosion risk.

  6. Venusian channels and valleys - Distribution and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    An updated map is presented which shows the distribution of more than 200 channels and valleys on Venus. A large number of channels are concentrated in equatorial regions characterized by highlands, rift and fracture zones, an associated volcanic features. Many channels associated with flow deposits are similar to typical terrestrial lava drainage channels. They are associated with a wide range of volcanic edifices. More than half of the sinuous rilles are associated with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. Corona volcanism driven by mantle plume events may explain this association. Many valley network are observed in highlands and in association with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. This indicates that highlands and coronae provided fractures and flow-viscosity lavas, both of which seem to be required for network formation by lava sapping processes. Canali-type channels have a unique distribution limited to some plains regions.

  7. Geologic structure of shallow maria. [topography of lunar maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Isopach maps and structural contour maps of the eastern mare basins (30 deg N to 30 deg S; 0 deg to 100 deg E), constructed from measurements of partially buried craters, are presented and discussed. The data, which are sufficiently scattered to yield gross thickness variations, are restricted to shallow maria with less than 1500-2000 m of mare basalts. The average thickness of basalt in the irregular maria is between 200 and 400 m. Correlations between surface topography, basalt thickness, and basin floor structure are apparent in most of the basins that were studied. The mare surface is commonly depressed in regions of thick mare basalts; mare ridges are typically located in regions of pronounced thickness changes; and arcuate mare rilles are confined to thin mare basalts. Most surface structures are attributed to shallow stresses developed within the mare basalts during consolidation and volume reduction.

  8. Liiketoiminnan kehittäminen 3D-tulostuksen avulla

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, Pauli; Pekkanen, Matti-Juhani

    2014-01-01

    Työn lähtökohtana oli liiketoiminnan kehittäminen 3d-tulostuksen avulla. Tätä ajatusta lähestyttiin kahdesta eri näkökulmasta, eli siitä miten tekijöiden oma yritys saisi rakennettua liiketoimintaa 3d-tulostuksen ympärille, ja siitä miten tekijät voisivat auttaa eri alojen toimijoita hyötymään 3d-tulostuksen mahdollisuuksista. Keskeisessä osassa opinnäytetyötä oli myös 3D-tulostuksen prosessin havainnollistaminen. Työn perustavava tavoitteena oli luoda tukeva perusta yrityksen toiminnalle...

  9. Apollo 15 clastic materials and their relationship to local geologic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Stoeser, J. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Goles, G. G.

    1973-01-01

    Ninety sub-samples of Apollo 15 materials have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques for as many as 21 elements. Soil and soil breccia compositions show considerable variation from station to station although at any given station the soils and soil breccias were compositionally very similar to one another. Mixing model calculations show that the station-to-station variations can be related to important local geologic features. These features include the Apennine Front, Hadley Rille and the ray from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus. Compositional similarities between soils and soil breccias at the Apollo 15 site indicate that the breccias and soils are related in some fundamental way, although the exact nature of this relationship is not yet fully understood.

  10. Evaluation of Mediterranean plants for controlling gully erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baets, S. de; Poesen, J.; Muys, B.

    2009-07-01

    In Mediterranean environments, gullies are responsible for large soil losses causing loss of fertile cropland soil, reservoir sedimentation and flooding. To limit soil loss and sediment export it is important to prevent the initiation or rills and to stabilise gullies. This can be done by establishing vegetation at vulnerable places in the landscape. Although in the past, the effects of vegetation on soil erosion rates were predicted using above-ground biomass characteristics only, plant roots also play an important role in protecting the soil against erosion by concentrated runoff. Especially in conditions where the above-ground biomass becomes very scarce (e.g. due to drought, harvest, overgrazing or fire) the effects of vegetation will be underestimated when only above-ground plant characteristics are taken into account. (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Quantum Optical Heating in Sonoluminescence Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurcz, Andreas; Capolupo, Antonio; Beige, Almut

    2009-01-01

    Sonoluminescence occurs when tiny bubbles rilled with noble gas atoms are driven by a sound wave. Each cycle of the driving field is accompanied by a collapse phase in which the bubble radius decreases rapidly until a short but very strong light flash is emitted. The spectrum of the light corresponds to very high temperatures and hints at the presence of a hot plasma core. While everyone accepts that the effect is real, the main energy focussing mechanism is highly controversial. Here we suggest that the heating of the bubble might be due to a weak but highly inhomogeneous electric field as it occurs during rapid bubble deformations [A. Kurcz et al.(submitted)]. It is shown that such a field couples the quantised motion of the atoms to their electronic states, thereby resulting in very high heating rates.

  12. Investigation of Soil Erosion and Phosphorus Transport within an Agricultural Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klik, A.; Jester, W.; Muhar, A.; Peinsitt, A.; Rampazzo, N.; Mentler, A.; Staudinger, B.; Eder, M.

    2003-04-01

    In a 40 ha agricultural used watershed in Austria, surface runoff, soil erosion and nutrient losses are measured spatially distributed with 12 small erosion plots. Crops during growing season 2002 are canola, corn, sunflower, winter wheat, winter barley, rye, sugar beets, and pasture. Canopy height and canopy cover are observed in 14-day intervals. Four times per year soil water content, shear stress and random roughness of the surface are measured in a 25 x 25 m grid (140 points). The same raster is sampled for soil texture analyses and content of different phosphorus fractions in the 0-10 cm soil depth. Spatially distributed data are used for geostatistical analysis. Along three transects hydrologic conditions of the hillslope position (top, middle, foot) are investigated by measuring soil water content and soil matrix potential. After erosive events erosion features (rills, deposition, ...) are mapped using GPS. All measured data will be used as input parameters for the Limburg Soil Erosion Model (LISEM).

  13. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  14. Three procedures for estimating erosion from construction areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Ruff, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Erosion from many mining and construction sites can lead to serious environmental pollution problems. Therefore, erosion management plans must be developed in order that the engineer may implement measures to control or eliminate excessive soil losses. To properly implement a management program, it is necessary to estimate potential soil losses from the time the project begins to beyond project completion. Three methodologies are presented which project the estimated soil losses due to sheet or rill erosion of water and are applicable to mining and construction areas. Furthermore, the three methods described are intended as indicators of the state-of-the-art in water erosion prediction. The procedures herein do not account for gully erosion, snowmelt erosion, wind erosion, freeze-thaw erosion or extensive flooding

  15. Taide siltana sosionomiksi (AMK) kasvamiselle. Toimintatutkimus taide- ja ilmaisuaineiden kehittämisestä postmodernin taidekasvatuksen suuntaan Oulun seudun ammattikorkeakoulun sosiaalialan koulutusohjelmassa vuosina 2001 - 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Malmivirta, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Taide on ollut aina läsnä sanoina, tarinoina, kuvina, tanssina, musiikkina, lauluina ja muina keinoina tutkia ihmisen paikkaa sekä suhdetta toiseen ihmiseen ja ympärillä olevaan maailmaan. Taide on liikuttanut, täyttänyt ja tyhjentänyt mieltä. Taide käsitteenä on monimutkainen sen kerroksellisuuden ja taidekokemuksen henkilökohtaisuuden vuoksi. Taide on järjestelmä, joka voi määritellä omat sisäiset kriteerinsä eikä sillä näin määritettäessä tarvitse olla käytännön tehtävää. Taiteen kohtaamis...

  16. Intensification of citrus production and soil loss in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Burguet, M.; Giménez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    After land abandonment for five decades (Arnáez et al., 2010; Belmonte Serrato et al., 1999) as a widespread process in Spain, agriculture intensification is taken place. This is changing the nature of the soil erosion processes as they were known (Cerdà, 1997; Cammeraat and Imeson, 1999; Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010; Zavala et al., 2010). Citrus production are being reallocated on slopes due to the new irrigation systems (drip-irrigation), the thermic inversion on the bottom of the valley and then the frost affecting the plantations, the high prices of the bottom valley lands and the investment in agriculture from other economic sectors such as tourism and industry. Those new plantations are based on intense pesticides and herbicides use, and erosion processes are triggered due to the sloping surface developed (Cerdà et al., 2010). Five study sites were selected in the Montesa Municipality research zone, where an increase in the orange and clementines plantations were found during the last 20 years. Measurements were perfomed by a simple method, which consist in measuring the surface characteristics: stoniness, crust, herbs, bare soil, sheet flow, rills and gullies. One thousand meters were monitored at each of the study sites and measurements were done in January and August with a precision of 1 cm. The results show that the erosion rates are controlled by the sheet erosion (78,4 %), although rill and gullies exist (managed new citrus plantation non sustainable. The intensification of agriculture is triggering new soil erosion processes to be added to the traditional ones (García Ruiz and López Bermúdez, 2009). This research study is being supported by the the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

  17. A numerical modeling investigation of erosion and debris flows following the 2016 Fish Fire in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; McGuire, L.; Rengers, F. K.; Kean, J. W.; Staley, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire significantly changes the hydrological characteristics of soil for a period of several years and increases the likelihood of flooding and debris flows during high-intensity rainfall in steep watersheds. Hazards related to post-fire flooding and debris flows increase as populations expand into mountainous areas that are susceptible to wildfire, post-wildfire flooding, and debris flows. However, our understanding of post-wildfire debris flows is limited due to a paucity of direct observations and measurements, partially due to the remote locations where debris flows tend to initiate. In these situations, numerical modeling becomes a very useful tool for studying post-wildfire debris flows. Research based on numerical modeling improves our understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the increase in erosion and consequent formation of debris flows in burned areas. In this contribution, we study changes in sediment transport efficiency with time since burning by combining terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys of a hillslope burned during the 2016 Fish Fire with numerical modeling of overland flow and sediment transport. We also combine the numerical model with measurements of debris flow timing to explore relationships between post-wildfire rainfall characteristics, soil infiltration capacity, hillslope erosion, and debris flow initiation at the drainage basin scale. Field data show that an initial rill network developed on the hillslope, and became more efficient over time as the overall rill density decreased. Preliminary model results suggest that this can be achieved when flow driven detachment mechanisms dominate and raindrop-driven detachment is minimized. Results also provide insight into the hydrologic and geomorphic conditions that lead to debris flow initiation within recently burned areas.

  18. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  19. Rehabilitation at Nabarlek: erosion assessment 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.G.; Saynor, M.J.; Hancock, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Decommissioning work and the rehabilitation at the Nabarlek minesite were completed at the end of 1995. Site description, mining history, environmental management and rehabilitation have been summarised elsewhere (Prendergast et al 1999, Martin 2000, Waggitt 2001). Tailings were buried in the mined-out pit and capped with waste rock. An erosion assessment of the cap design, using a combination of modelling and analogue estimates, indicated that denudation rates on the cap would be -1 (Riley 1995). Riley (1995) suggested minor design modifications to reduce slope length on the pit cap to improve stability and provide structural integrity for several thousand years. Riley (1995) observed that roads were areas of most severe rill development in the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) and suggested that rill development (0.2-0.3 m depth) on the pit cap would occur in the early stages of adjustment toward equilibrium but not persist in the long term. Consequently, as part of the process of assessing rehabilitation success, erosion at the former minesite was examined by ERISS in August and October 1999. A ground assessment of the perimeter of the evaporation ponds, pit and waste rock dump (WRD), unsealed roads to the north and east of the site and infrastructure area was conducted in August 1999. This survey described, quantified (using a tape and rule) and photographed erosion features. No transects were undertaken. In October 1999, a qualitative (descriptive and photographic) survey of the airstrip, constructed drains, unsealed roads to the west of the site, the pit and WRD was conducted. On this occasion, transects of the WRD and pit were taken but the locations of the transects were not surveyed

  20. Soil Protection measures based on the analysis if sediment sources in a commercial farm at the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Enrique; Brígido, Consuelo; Herrera, Pascual; Migallón, Jose Ignacio; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2016-04-01

    High soil losses are associated with agricultural areas dedicated to traditional crops in Spain (olive, grapevine, almond and sunflower, among others) and they caused by interacting drivers such as frequent intense events, steep/hilly slopes and unsuitable managements (De Santisteban et al., 2006). These crops are essential for the Spanish economy but at the same time, they constitute important areas of soil degradation. This work has been promoted by a farm owner interested in improving the sustainability of his farm as well as solving traffic problems derived from a gully. An analysis based on a modeling approach and field measurements was carried out in order to diagnose the main sediment sources of a farm with traditional Mediterranean crops (sunflower and olives) and to propose actions for optimizing soil conservation efforts. Firstly, an environmental study to characterize meteorological and topographical features, soil properties and managements was performed. The farm was divided in different areas belonging to the same hydrological catchment, land-use and management. Secondly, splash and inter-rill erosion were evaluated in each spatial unit through the RUSLE model. Rills and gullies in the catchment were also measured by using orthophotographies and a tape in the field to calculate their corresponding sediment volume. Finally, a plan of soil protection measures was designed and presented to the owner who will apply the proposed actions, mainly cover crop seeding and construction of check dams. REFERENCES: De Santisteban, L. M., J. Casalí, and J. J. López. 2006. Assessing soil erosion rates in cultivated areas of Navarre (Spain). Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31: 487-506.

  1. Headcut erosive regimes influenced by groundwater on disturbed agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, D L

    2011-02-01

    A series of simulated rainfall experiments, testing several soils and slope gradients in a 10 m x 0.8m laboratory flume, displayed close correlations between initial development of a water table at a 10 cm depth and highly erosive headcut formation. On some soils and gradients, highly erosive headcuts formed consistently and predictably within minutes or seconds of initial water table rise. However, headcuts alone were not good indicators of increased erosion. In most experiments some headcuts formed early, often when surface hydraulic parameter values reached established rill initiation thresholds, but resulted in little or no erosion increase. Later, at initial water table rise, other headcuts formed coincident with major erosion increase, often with surface hydraulic values then less than rill initiation thresholds. On the four soils tested, highly erosive headcuts never formed without groundwater development, except on steep 9 ° slopes. Common visual indicators such as headcut morphology and headcut advance rates were not effective means of determining either erosion or the existence of groundwater. Only local monitoring of subsurface moisture conditions with micro-standpipes and TDR aided in determining headcut processes and erosive regimes. Groundwater-influenced headcut formation was likely caused by increased soil pore-water pressures and decreased soil shear strengths in surface rainflow, not by sapping or seepage from the soil matrix. Highly erosive headcuts can thus form under common agricultural conditions where reductions in permeability, such as plow pans, exist near the surface--without the need for saturated soils. Headcut erosive regimes were also significantly influenced by soil type and slope gradient, with the greatest effects of groundwater on moderate slopes and fairly permeable soils. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Soil erosion and sediment yield, a double barrel problem in South Africa's only large river network without a dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion not only involves the loss of fertile topsoil but is also coupled with sedimentation of dams, a double barrel problem in semi-arid regions where water scarcity is frequent. Due to increasing water requirements in South Africa, the Department of Water and Sanitation is planning water resource development in the Mzimvubu River Catchment, which is the only large river network in the country without a dam. Two dams are planned including a large irrigation dam and a hydropower dam. However, previous soil erosion studies indicate that large parts of the catchment is severely eroded. Previous studies, nonetheless, used mapping and modelling techniques that represent only a selection of erosion processes and provide insufficient information about the sediment yield. This study maps and models the sediment yield comprehensively by means of two approaches over a five-year timeframe between 2007 and 2012. Sediment yield contribution from sheet-rill erosion was modelled with ArcSWAT (a graphical user interface for SWAT in a GIS), whereas gully erosion contributions were estimated using time-series mapping with SPOT 5 imagery followed by gully-derived sediment yield modelling in a GIS. Integration of the sheet-rill and gully results produced a total sediment yield map, with an average of 5 300 t km-2 y-1. Importantly, the annual average sediment yield of the areas where the irrigation dam and hydropower dam will be built is around 20 000 t km-2 y-1. Without catchment rehabilitation, the life expectancy of the irrigation dam and hydropower dam could be 50 and 40 years respectively.

  3. Targeted therapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas V Lukas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Rimas V Lukas1, Adrienne Boire2, M Kelly Nicholas1,2 1Department of Neurology; 2Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas are invasive tumors with the potential to progress through current available therapies. These tumors are characterized by a number of abnormalities in molecular signaling that play roles in tumorigenesis, spread, and survival. These pathways are being actively investigated in both the pre-clinical and clinical settings as potential targets in the treatment of malignant gliomas. We will review many of the therapies that target the cancer cell, including the epidermal growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, histone deacetylase, and farnesyl transferase. In addition, we will discuss strategies that target the extracellular matrix in which these cells reside as well as angiogenesis, a process emerging as central to tumor development and growth. Finally, we will briefly touch on the role of neural stem cells as both potential targets as well as delivery vectors for other therapies. Interdependence between these varied pathways, both in maintaining health and in causing disease, is clear. Thus, attempts to easily classify some targeted therapies are problematic.Keywords: glioma, EGFR, mTOR, HDAC, Ras, angiogenesis

  4. TRATAMIENTO DEL ANÁLISIS SEMIÓTICO DEL TEXTO POÉTICO EN EL PROCESO DE ENSEÑANZA APRENDIZAJE DE LA LITERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovannys Montero Zayas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la incidencia del método semiótico para el análisis del texto poético en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la literatura; demuestra cómo el estudiante interpreta las múltiples determinaciones socio-históricas, culturales, psicológicas y hasta biológicas de los códigos lingüístico y poético; explica la decodificación de los códigos culturales individuales y sociales plasmados por el sistema emisor en el poema lírico y la forma en que el estudiante configura los códigos culturales propios en beneficio de la sociedad. Los autores ilustran las múltiples determinaciones de los fenómenos que conforman el código poético, entre los que destacan la métrica, la rima, los recursos expresivos, el tiempo, el espacio y el color, con referencias a obras líricas de autores cubanos y de la literatura para niños. A modo de conclusiones se enumera una serie de insuficiencias presentes en la didáctica de la literatura y trianguladas en intercambios académicos con maestros y profesores.

  5. Comparison of the ability to flourish and the increment of native species of the cerrado region in different soils, aiming at recuperating the degraded soils in the Abadia de Goias State Park; Comparacao de pegamentos e incrementos de especies nativas do cerrado em diferentes solos para recuperacao de areas degradadas no Parque Estadual de Abadia de Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Max Lima e; Antunes, Erides Campos; Benvenutti, Romeu Davi [CONFLORA, Consultoria, Planejamento e Assessoria Florestal, GO (Brazil); Ferreira, Gislene Auxiliadora; Braga, Marcio

    1997-12-31

    The project of botanical recuperation was carried out in order to re vegetate the degraded soils of the areas which surround the radioactive deposit of Cesium 137, within the State Park of Abadia de Goias. An analysis of the park area reveals different stages of degradation, from an absolute stage of degradation, with the C horizon exposed, to other areas of well-preserved forest. On the occasion of the installation of the deposit of radioactive waste, the EIA-RIMA Report determined that the areas should be recuperated in order to re-establish the previous existing forests and cerrado vegetation. A plan for planting 199,366 native trees was then carried out. The present long term project, aims to monitoring the growth of the several species, in different substrates, with the general objective of determining which would better adapt to such substrates. The objective is to provide subsidies for developing appropriate methodology for recuperating degraded areas. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: conflora at netgo.com.br

  6. Gross morphometric study of the eyeball and tongue of the Nigerian local dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igado, Olumayowa Olawumi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the morphometry of two sense organs, the eyeball and tongue, of the Nigerian local dog (11 males, 14 females), all aged 2 years and above. The samples were grouped according to gender and weight (up to 12 kg or above that weight). The average values obtained for the weights of the left and right eyeballs and the tongue were 3.77 +/- 0.51 g, 3.68 +/- 0.74 g and 2.96 +/- 0.38 g respectively, while the length of the tongue, its thickness and width at the root and apex were 14.20 +/- 2.29 cm, 0.87 +/- 0.30 cm, and 0.21 +/- 0.05 cm respectively. The circumferences of the eyeballs (antero-posterior, mediolateral and peri-orbital) were all found to be higher in females, except the antero-posterior circumference of left eye, in spite of heavier eyeballs in males. Also, the females showed a wider rima oris and higher values for most of the tongue measurements. A positive correlation existed between the weight of the animal and that of the head and tongue, while a negative correlation was observed between the body weight and the weight of the eyeballs. This report highlights the presence of sexual dimorphism and mild lateral asymmetry in this rarely reported breed of dog. The data obtained from this study may find application in feeding physiology, ophthalmic clinical manipulations and comparative anatomy.

  7. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency by intravenous electron beam computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, Shoji; Toyama, Junji; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsushita, Toyoaki; Murakami, Yoshimasa; Ogata, Masaki; Ito, Shigenori; Fukutomi, Tatsuya; Okayama, Naotsuka; Itoh, Makoto

    2003-11-01

    This study evaluates the usefullness of intravenous electron beam computed tomographic angiography (EBA) for the detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency in 43 patients (33 men and 10 women, mean age, 65 years) who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery. EBA was performed a few days before selective bypass graft angiography (SGA). Forty axial cross-sections of angiographic images of the heart were acquired consecutively by an electrocardiographic trigger signal at 40% of the RR interval, which corresponds to the end-systolic phase. EBA data were reconstructed as a three-dimensional shaded surface display of the heart and bypass grafts. Detectability of the patency of bypass gratis was evaluated, taking selective angiographic images of the bypass grafts as a gold standard. One hundred and nine grafts (96%) out of 114 grafts were subjected to evaluation: 37 grafts were left internal mammary artery grafts (LIMA), 7 were right internal mammary artery grafts (RIMA), 6 were gastroepiploic artery grafts (GEA), 7 were free gastroepiploic artery grafts with venous drainage (free-GEA), 7 were radial artery grafts (RAG), and 45 were saphenous vein gratis (SVG). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of EBA were 98%, 100%, 100%, 91%, and 98%, respectively. EBA sampled at the end-systolic period was determined to be useful for the detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency and occlusion.

  8. Lope y Boccalini: Tres sonetos de Tomé de Burguillos

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    Arellano, Ignacio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes three sonnets of Lope against Traiano Boccalini included in the Rhymes of Tomé de Burguillos, showing the need to compare the Lope´s text with the italian original version of Ragguagli di Parnaso, not with spanish translation of Perez de Sousa, because in this translation are deleted essential passages to understand the game of wit of Lope. These three sonnets are a good example of the complexity of this exercise of conceptism in Lope, whose poetry can not be described as plain, simple and clear: it is a difficult poetry full of games, intertextual allusions and references that should be clarified applying the type of appropiate reading.Se analizan tres sonetos de Lope contra el italiano Traiano Boccalini, incluidos en las Rimas de Tomé de Burguillos, mostrando la necesidad de comparar el texto de Lope con el de los Ragguagli di Parnaso, en su versión original italiana, y no en la traducción de Perez de Sousa, que elimina pasajes necesarios para entender los juegos de Lope. Estos tres sonetos son buena muestra de la complejidad que puede tener este ejercicio de agudeza de Lope, cuya poesía no se puede calificar sin más de llana, sencilla o clara: es una poesía conceptista llena de juegos, alusiones y referencias intertextuales que deben ser aclaradas si se quiere aplicar a estos poemas el tipo de lectura que exigen.

  9. Emergetic analysis of the electrolytic hydrogen production using the secondary energy from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant; Analise emergetica da producao de hidrogenio eletrolitico aproveitando a energia vertida nao turbinada da Usina Hidroeletrica de Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Espinola, Michel Osvaldo Galeano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2006-07-01

    Due to the possibility of increase in the energy market in a few years and awareness of the necessity of using the secondary energy in hydroelectric power plants and also concerned about the environmental problems related to energy enterprises, the present paper develops the emergy analyses of electrolytic hydrogen production in the Itaipu Power Plant located in the countries of Brazil and Paraguay. The emergy analyses despite being unknown by the major people and technicians responsible for the development of Environmental Impacts Studies, named EIA/RIMAS in Brazil, represents a way to fulfill all requirements imposed by law and government and also an important manner to internalize externalities in the evaluation of all variables involved in the execution and maintenance of natural and artificial processes. Afterwards, this database can be used to be compared with other actual processes of producing and supplying energy, guiding stake holders when deciding where and how to implement and take advantage of available energy sources. This work aims to evaluate with emergetic criteria the research done by Antonio Carlos Fonseca Santos Jr.: Analysis of the Economic Feasibility of Hydrogen Production in Hydroelectric Power Plants: A Case Study at Itaipu. (author)

  10. Los cuentos limerick de Silvina Ocampo

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    Natalia Biancotto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una lectura de tres relatos paradigmáticos del nonsense ocampiano en su inflexión Lear, “El automóvil”, “Sábanas de tierra” y “La pista de hielo y de fuego”, de la compilación titulada Y así sucesivamente (1987. Se sabe que Silvina Ocampo leía a Edward Lear, aunque no es posible afirmar que haya querido imitarlo, rendirle homenaje o escribir relatos a la manera de limericks. Sí se puede, en cambio, leer estos cuentos a partir del modo en que los atraviesan ciertos rasgos propios del nonsense de Lear. La hipótesis de trabajo afirma que en ellos aparece, desprendida de la rima, la estructura narrativa efímera del limerick, que trastorna la forma del relato y la impregna de fugacidad y tontería. El lector se encuentra entonces con cuentos anómalos, de raras formas breves, con aire de inconclusos. Son historias mínimas en las que casi no hay narración, puesto que una sola anécdota insignificante ocupa, como en los limericks de Lear, el espacio todo del relato.

  11. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  12. Tradição e modernidade em diálogo na correspondência de Pio Lourenço Corrêa & Mário de Andrade

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    Denise Landi Corrales Guaranha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar e discutir alguns aspectos sentimentais e literários do diálogo epistolar entre Mário de Andrade (1893-1945 e Pio Lourenço Corrêa (1875-1957, um interlocutor privilegiado do autor de Macunaíma (1928, que, embora tenha sido associado a tradição, " não me cabe na mioleira um verso sem metro, sem rima, sem leis ", como confessou em uma carta a Mário após a Semana de Arte Moderna (1922, teve uma influência importante sobre a obras do escritor modernista e foi corresponsável pela autodescoberta de Mário como um poeta, bem como, em parte, pelo amadurecimento de seu estilo. A correspondência prolongada, trocada entre 1917 e 1945 e interrompida apenas pela morte de Mario, também revela outros aspectos humanos como a figura do pai que, em certos momentos Pio representou, e as funções de amigo e confidente do escritor modernista. Intelectualmente, foi a ampla gama de conhecimentos gerais de Pio Lourenço, incluindo linguística e conhecimentos literários, elementos importantes na construção e maturação do estilo Mário de Andrade.

  13. Consciência fonológica de vinte e três disléxicos falantes do Português

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    Vera Pedreira dos Santos Pepe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, com recorte transversal, investiga o desempenho de sujeitos disléxicos em tarefas de consciência fonológica, a partir do enfoque teórico do déficit de processamento fonológico da dislexia. A amostra é composta por 23 sujeitos disléxicos, falantes do português brasileiro, nas faixas etárias entre 8;0 e 14;11. O instrumento utilizado para a coleta de dados foi o CONFIAS, Consciência Fonológica: Instrumento de Avaliação Sequencial (MOOJEN et alii, 2003, que avalia a consciência fonológica nos níveis da sílaba e do fonema. Os resultados mostraram que, no nível da sílaba, a tarefa mais difícil foi a Produção de Rima; no nível do fonema, foi a Transposição. Os resultados evidenciaram, também, o uso de estratégias linguísticas, a exemplo de Associação Fonológica, Associação Semântica, entre outras.

  14. Dubowitz syndrome: common findings and peculiar urine odor

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    Chehade C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Chehade,1 Johnny Awwad,2 Nadine Yazbeck,1 Marianne Majdalani,1 Rima Wakim,1 Hala Tfayli,1 Chantal Farra1,31Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Dubowitz syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hyperactivity, eczema, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Although many cases have been reported, the cause of this disease is still unknown.Case: We present here the case of a Lebanese girl with Dubowitz syndrome in whom an unpleasant urine odor was persistently reported since birth.Conclusion: Although Dubowitz syndrome has been largely described in the medical literature, this is the first time that a peculiar urine odor was reported. This case report adds a new and unusual feature to the numerous findings related to this rare polymorphous syndrome.Keywords: Dubowitz syndrome, autosomal recessive, developmental delay, odorous urine

  15. Selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by purpurin, an anthraquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kang, Myung-Gyun; Park, Daeui; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidation of monoamines that act as neurotransmitters. During a target-based screening of natural products using two isoforms of recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B, purpurin (an anthraquinone derivative) was found to potently and selectively inhibit MAO-A, with an IC 50 value of 2.50μM, and not to inhibit MAO-B. Alizarin (also an anthraquinone) inhibited MAO-A less potently with an IC 50 value of 30.1μM. Furthermore, purpurin was a reversible and competitive inhibitor of MAO-A with a K i value of 0.422μM. A comparison of their chemical structures suggested the 4-hydroxy group of purpurin might play an important role in its inhibition of MAO-A. Molecular docking simulation showed that the binding affinity of purpurin for MAO-A (-40.0kcal/mol) was higher than its affinity for MAO-B (-33.9kcal/mol), and that Ile 207 and Gly 443 of MAO-A were key residues for hydrogen bonding with purpurin. The findings of this study suggest purpurin is a potent, selective, reversible inhibitor of MAO-A, and that it be considered a new potential lead compound for development of novel reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Girolamo Murari Dalla Corte e il suo poema Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le Russie

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    Marialuisa Ferrazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marialuisa FerrazziGirolamo Murari Dalla Corte and his poem Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le RussieThis study focuses on Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le Russie. Canti XII in ottava rima, a poem by the Mantuan Count, Girolamo Murari Dalla Corte. The work, which examines the conflict between Peter the Great and Charles XII of Sweden, was first published in Verona in 1803. 1814 saw the issue of a second edition, in which the author – who dedicated his work to the then reigning tsar, Alexander I – attempted to match the ideological perspective of the account to the changes occurring in the international political situation after the demise of Napoleon’s power. While presenting the historical and stylistic-structural aspects of the poem, the article also considers the relationship established with the Russian world by certain sectors of the Italian intelligencija, in particular by Venetian publishing houses, in the last decades of the 18th century. On the basis of Murari Dalla Corte’s papers, the last part of the article pieces together the sadly unsuccessful attempts made by the writer over a period of 20 years to obtain official recognition of the dedication of his poem from the Russian Court.

  17. Large-Eddy Simulation of Internal Flow through Human Vocal Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Martin; Šidlof, Petr

    2018-06-01

    The phonatory process occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis and the pressure drop causes flow-induced oscillations of the vocal folds. The flow fields created in phonation are highly unsteady and the coherent vortex structures are also generated. For accuracy it is essential to compute on humanlike computational domain and appropriate mathematical model. The work deals with numerical simulation of air flow within the space between plicae vocales and plicae vestibulares. In addition to the dynamic width of the rima glottidis, where the sound is generated, there are lateral ventriculus laryngis and sacculus laryngis included in the computational domain as well. The paper presents the results from OpenFOAM which are obtained with a large-eddy simulation using second-order finite volume discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Large-eddy simulations with different subgrid scale models are executed on structured mesh. In these cases are used only the subgrid scale models which model turbulence via turbulent viscosity and Boussinesq approximation in subglottal and supraglottal area in larynx.

  18. Large-Eddy Simulation of Internal Flow through Human Vocal Folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasota Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonatory process occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis and the pressure drop causes flow-induced oscillations of the vocal folds. The flow fields created in phonation are highly unsteady and the coherent vortex structures are also generated. For accuracy it is essential to compute on humanlike computational domain and appropriate mathematical model. The work deals with numerical simulation of air flow within the space between plicae vocales and plicae vestibulares. In addition to the dynamic width of the rima glottidis, where the sound is generated, there are lateral ventriculus laryngis and sacculus laryngis included in the computational domain as well. The paper presents the results from OpenFOAM which are obtained with a large-eddy simulation using second-order finite volume discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Large-eddy simulations with different subgrid scale models are executed on structured mesh. In these cases are used only the subgrid scale models which model turbulence via turbulent viscosity and Boussinesq approximation in subglottal and supraglottal area in larynx.

  19. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

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    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  20. Current ecosystem processes in steppe near Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanteeva, Julia

    2015-04-01

    The steppes and forest steppes complexes of Priol'khonie at the Lake Baikal (southern Siberia, Russia) were studied in this research. Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol'khonie region. During soviet time this area was actively used for agriculture. Nowadays, this territory is the part of Pribaikalskyi National Park and special protection is needed. As the landscapes satisfy different human demands there are many land-management conflicts. The specific climate and soil conditions and human activity lead to erosion processes on study area. Sediment loads are transferred into the Lake Baikal and cause water pollution. Consequently, vegetation cover and phytomass play an important role for regulating hydrological processes in the ecosystems. The process of phytomass formation and its proactive role playing on sedimentation and mitigate silt detaching by rill and inter-rill erosion are considered in the research as important indicators of the ecosystem functions for steppe landscapes. These indicators were studied for the different land cover types identified on the area because the study area has a large variety of steppe and forest steppe complexes, differing in the form of relief, soil types, vegetation species composition and degree of land degradation. The fieldwork was conducted in the study area in the July and August of 2013. Thirty-two experimental sites (10 x 10 m) which characterized different types of ecosystem were established. The level of landscape degradation was estimated. The method of clipping was used for the valuation of above-ground herbaceous phytomass. The phytomass of tree stands was calculated using the volume-conversion rates for forest-steppe complexes. For the quantification of transferred silt by inter-rill erosion in different conditions (vegetation, slope, soil type, anthropogenic load) a portable rainfall simulator was created with taking into account the characteristics of the study area. The aboveground

  1. Consciência fonológica e desempenho escolar Phonological awareness and school performance

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    Patrícia Aparecida Zuanetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a relação entre consciência fonológica e o desempenho acadêmico de escolares, e averiguar se a ordem de preferência para as tarefas acadêmicas é a mesma ordem conseguida por esta criança em seu desempenho. MÉTODOS: avaliou-se 24 crianças de uma sala da 2ª série do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública, aplicando a prova de consciência fonológica por produção oral e o teste de desempenho escolar. Excluíram-se todos os alunos que apresentavam distúrbios fonológicos. RESULTADOS: existe associação entre ordem de preferência e resultado apenas nas tarefas de aritmética e escrita, já na leitura não existe. Em relação ao desempenho nas tarefas de consciência fonológica, o grupo com desempenho escolar médio foi mais hábil em tarefas que envolviam síntese fonêmica, rima, segmentação fonêmica e manipulação fonêmica quando comparados aos alunos com desempenho acadêmico inferior. Quanto à correlação, esta foi positiva e forte entre as variáveis estudadas (consciência fonológica, desempenho escolar, leitura, escrita e aritmética. CONCLUSÕES: quanto mais desenvolvida é a consciência fonológica, melhor é a performance do aluno; Tarefas de rima, síntese, segmentação e manipulação fonêmica estão mais relacionadas à alfabetização. Existe associação entre ordem de preferência e resultado nas tarefas de aritmética e escrita.PURPOSE: to know the relationship between students’ phonological awareness and their school performance, and to study if the students preference order or school subjects agree with their performance order obtained in the tests. METHODS: 24 children in second degree of the public fundamental school was analyzed. They made a oral phonological awareness test and the school performance test. Every student with phonological disturbs was excluded from the study. RESULTS: we observed that there is an association between preference and performance orders just

  2. Medidas fonológicas em crianças com transtorno fonológico Phonological measures in children with phonological disorders

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    Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de crianças com e sem transtorno fonológico (TF quanto às habilidades de consciência fonológica (CF, índice de Porcentagem de Consoantes Corretas - Revisada (PCC-R e Índice de Inconsistência de Fala (IIF, além de correlacionar estes resultados entre si. MÉTODOS: Participaram 36 sujeitos, entre 5 anos e 7 anos de idade, divididos em: Grupo Pesquisa (GP: 18 crianças com TF; e Grupo Controle (GC: 18 crianças em desenvolvimento típico de linguagem. Foi calculado o PCC-R, aplicado o IIF e o Teste de Sensibilidade Fonológica-Visual (TSF-V: aliteração igual (AI, diferente (AD e total (AT, rima igual (RI, diferente (RD e total (RT. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças na comparação dos grupos em todos os índices, com melhores desempenhos no GC. Neste, houve correlação negativa do IIF com todas as habilidades de CF e com o PCC-R, exceto com RI. Em todos os subtestes do TSF-V houve correlações positivas entre si. No GP, foram encontradas correlações positivas entre o PCC-R e as provas de aliteração; não foram encontradas correlações entre IFF e PCC-R, nem com as provas de CF. Houve correlações no TSF-V: AI com AT; AD com AT; AD com RD; RI com RT e RD com RT. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças com TF apresentam pior desempenho; as do GC, na medida em que estabilizam a produção de fala, desenvolvem as habilidades de rima e aliteração. As crianças do GP são mais inconsistentes e parecem desenvolver as habilidades de CF de forma desorganizada.PURPOSE: To compare and correlate the performance of children with and without phonological disorders (PD according to phonological awareness (PA abilities, Percentage of Consonants Correct - Revised (PCC-R and Speech Inconsistency Index (SII. METHODS: Participants were 36 children with ages between 5 and 7 years divided into: Research Group (RG - 18 children with PD; and CG - 18 typically developing children

  3. Kritik Sosial dalam Puisi “Wakil Rakyat” dalam Antologi Puisi: Tidur Tanpa Mimpi Karya Rachmat Djoko Pradopo

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    Wiwiek Dwi Astuti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan (1 mendeskripsikan struktur fisik sajak “Wakil Rakyat” karya Rachmat Djoko Pradopo dan (2 mendeskripsikan kritik sosial yang terdapat di dalam sajak tersebut. Untuk mencapai tujuan itu digunakan dua pendekatan, yaitu (1 pendekatan struktur dan (2 pendekatan semiotika. Hasil analisis yang diperoleh adalah (1 bahwa sajak tersebut dibangun dengan struktur fisik yang padu, yang terbukti dari eratnya kaitan antarunsur struktur yang terdiri atas diksi, pengimajian (citraan, kata konkret, majas (bahasa figuratif, versifikasi (rima, ritme, dan tipografi dan (2 bahwa kritik sosial yang diangkat dalam sajak itu adalah para wakil rakyat (pejabat legislatif dan eksekutif yang merupakan hasil pilihan rakyat dalam melaksanakan tugasnya, mendahulukan kepentingan diri sendiri atau kelompoknya daripada kepentingan rakyat. Abstract: This research is proposed to (1 describe the physical structure of poetry “Wakil Rakyat” written by Rachmat Djoko Pradopo and (2 describe the social critics in the poetry. Thus, two approaches are used, i.e. structural and semiotic. The findings are (1 that poetry is constructed with a physical structure proven by the tight bond among the structural element consisting of diction, imagination, concrete word, figurative language, verification (rhyme, rhythm, and metrum, and typography and (2 that the social critics highlighted in the poetry are the member of parliament (wakil Rakyat-who, in doing the duty, do not meet the people expectations by putting forward their own/their group’s interest before the poor people and thus the effort to eliminate the poverty becomes very difficult and has a small possibility to be realized. Key Words: social critic, physical structure, semiotics

  4. An industrial mineral for the next millenium

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    Čorej Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Talc is a mineral of high quality and from chemical point of view it is Mg3Si04010 /OH/2. It usually contains different additional minerals that signigicantly affect its color and most of all its quality. The quality is decreased by the existence of Fe3+, pyrite and oxide Mn. Talc is used mainly in the paper manufacturing, cosmetic industry, glass industry, as a chemical catalyzator, ingredient in making explosives, in pharmaceutics and car industry.Some of the biggest producers of talc are: China - 2.35 mills tons/year, the USA - 1.0 mills tons/year, India - 500.00 kt/year, Finland - 425 kt/year, and Brazil with 325 kt/year. The most important deposits are located in: Finland (Sotkano deposit, in the USA (deposits in the state of New York, Virginia and Vermont in Canada (province of Ontariou, Australia (Three Springs deposit etc.Among one of the first companies being interested in this deposit of talc (along with the Rima Muran Ltd were companies from Germany – Gebruder Dorfner and Thyssen Schachtbau. The result of the detailed research of the deposit performed in 1994 was a Feasibility Study. This deposit with 28 milions tons of talc belongs to the group of most important deposits in the world.Initial acivities began in September 2000 and they are still in progress.The first ton will be placed into themarket during this year. The deposit lies about 350 meters beneath the earth surface. The whole body of talc is 2700 meters from West-East and 820 meters from North-South. The average depth of the deposit is 200 meters.

  5. Philoctete’s Healing: Echoes of Dante’s Purgatorio in Walcott’s Omeros

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    Pamela Beattie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex reading adventure is the one awaiting the reader of Omeros, a book-length poem published by Derek Walcott in 1990 and, with a title reminiscent of the Greek poet par excellence, an ideal text to talk about re-writings and re-readings of the Western literary tradition.  As readers, we enter Omeros expecting a re-writing of the Odyssey. We find, instead, a text that recalls, in its structure, themes and prosody, Dante’s Commedia, in particular, the Purgatorio. In our reading of Walcott alongside with Dante, we will concentrate on the character of Philoctete with whom Omeros begins and on the theme of healing that he embodies. While Philoctetes is a minor character in Homer’s Odyssey, Walcott’s appropriation of the Greek character in Omeros is enhanced by his reading of Dante. The theme of healing is pervasive in Walcott’s Omeros, but it is even more emblematic in Dante’s vision of repentance and salvation in the second cantica of his Commedia: the Purgatorio. Interestingly, in Walcott’s “postcolonial Purgatory,” Philoctete remains a minor character and is not turned into a postcolonial hero. Our analysis will focus on the theme of healing, on the vision of history that is unlocked through a comparison between the authors’ worlds, and on Dante’s and Walcott’s creative use of terza rima, the aspect of the poems that – before anything else – brings them together.

  6. Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections

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    Hsiao William WL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections. Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals.

  7. [Vocal cord functions in patients with asthma attack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Burcu; Selçuk, Omer Tarik; Ardiç, Sadik; Saylam, Güleser; Yüceege, Melike; Bilgin, Esra; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate vocal cord functions and to establish underlying vocal cord dysfunctions (VCD) in patients with asthma attack. All patients admitted to emergency service of our hospital with asthma attack between February 01, 2007 and June 01, 2007 were included in the evaluation. After the evaluation, all patients regarded to have asthma attacks based on GINA 2006 guide were enrolled in the study. After first intervention, patients underwent endoscopic larynx examination for the evaluation of vocal cord functions. Twenty four (65.7%) male and 11 female (31.4%), overall 35 patients diagnosed with asthma and who did not have the history of another disease were included in the study. At endoscopic larynx examination carried out after first medical examination, at the moment of asthma attack, tongue, tongue base, epiglottis and arytenoid were observed to be within normal limits. In 9 (25.7%) patients, upper respiratory tract was hyperemic and in 2 (5.7%) odematous. One patient had nasal polyposis (p> 0.05). In the evaluation of vocal cord functions, restriction in adduction was observed in merely one patient. All other functions were normal. Rima opening width was established to be mean 8.34 + or - 0.725. VCD was deteced in none of the patients included in the study. Although we did not detect VCD in any patient, VCD should be borne in mind in cases which presents with the clinical picture of asthma and responds weakly to the treatment or in cases of unexplained shortness of breath. This may prevent many unnecessary procedures such as medication, entubation, tracheostomy and iatrogenic mortality. Further longutudial studies are required in order to shed light on the assocation of asthma with VCD.

  8. THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE IN EUROPEAN PORTUGUESE A Estrutura da Sílaba em Português Europeu

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    Maria Helena Mateus

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to discuss the internal structure of the syllable in European Portuguese and to propose an algorithm for base syllabification. Due to the analysis of consonant clusters in onset position and the occurrence of epenthetic vowels, and considering the variation of the vowels in word initial position that occupy the syllable nucleus without an onset at the phonetic level, we assume that, in European Portuguese, the syllable is always constituted by an onset and a rhyme even though one of these constituents (but not both may be empty, that is, one of then may have no phonetic realisation.O objetivo deste artigo é o de discutir a estrutura interna da sílaba em Português Europeu e o de propor um algoritmo para a silabificação de base. Tendo en conta a análise dos grupos de consoantes que ocupam o lugar de ataque e a possibilidade de existência de vogais epentéticas que desfazem alguns desses grupos, e considerando, ainda, a variação de vogais em posição inicial de palavra que constituem núcleo de sílaba sem ataque no nível fonético, apresenta-se a hipótese de que a sílaba, em Português Europeu, é sempre constituída por um ataque e por uma rima, mesmo que um desses constituintes (mas não os dois seja vazio. Ou seja, um dos dois constituintes pode não ter realização fonética.

  9. New bacterial composition in primary and persistent/secondary endodontic infections with respect to clinical and radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennert, Christian; Fuhrmann, Maximilian; Wittmer, Annette; Karygianni, Lamprini; Altenburger, Markus J; Pelz, Klaus; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the microbiota of primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections of patients undergoing endodontic treatment with respect to clinical and radiographic findings. Samples from the root canals of 21 German patients were taken using 3 sequential sterile paper points. In the case of a root canal filling, gutta-percha was removed with sterile files, and samples were taken using sterile paper points. The samples were plated, and microorganisms were then isolated and identified morphologically by biochemical analysis and sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of isolated microorganisms. In 12 of 21 root canals, 33 different species could be isolated. Six (50%) of the cases with isolated microorganisms were primary, and 6 (50%) cases were endodontic infections associated with root-filled teeth. Twelve of the isolated species were facultative anaerobic and 21 obligate anaerobic. Monomicrobial infections were found for Enterococcus faecalis and Actinomyces viscosus. E. faecalis was most frequently isolated in secondary endodontic infections (33%). Moraxella osloensis was isolated from a secondary endodontic infection that had an insufficient root canal filling accompanied by a mild sensation of pain. A new bacterial composition compromising Atopobium rimae, Anaerococcus prevotii, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Dialister invisus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum was recovered from teeth with chronic apical abscesses. New bacterial combinations were found and correlated to clinical and radiographic findings, particularly to chronic apical abscesses. M. osloensis was detected in root canals for the second time and only in German patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of environmental education in the process of nuclear and environmental licensing of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Ribeiro, Katia Maria Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Today, there is a thread with regard to the global environment. To reduce the environmental impact due to spending supplies to meet the basic needs of the global population. Can be considered as the power of these needs and in this context, the environmental impact occurs by the use of fossil fuels and loss of land for use of water resources. To minimize these impacts, governments are establishing appropriate laws towards the use of renewable energy. However it appears that there is still a great distance between the established law and implementation in practice. In this context nuclear energy is an attractive option, both economic and environmental. The facilities that are somehow associated with nuclear power plants are classified as radioactive or nuclear. These facilities are subject to two licensing procedures: Environmental (by IBAMA) and Nuclear (by CNEN). Nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants Angra 1 and 2, deposits and tailings facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Rezende that are more the attention of the population. As part of these processes are reports of analysis of safety and environmental impacts and socio-economic (EIA/RIMA RFAS), which are available to the public and then discussed at public hearings, where there is the opportunity for questions on these reports. These questions are mainly related with the social-environmental and economic due to construction and operation of these facilities. This work is a research, discussing the law, identifying the difficulties in the licensing process and presents a discussion on the importance of environmental education at all school levels, for adult audiences and is a connection between the environmental education and process of environmental licensing and nuclear, showing how the popular consciousness more informed can better discuss issues associated with these licenses, understand the advantages and disadvantages and obtain benefits. (author)

  11. Tumor do VIII nervo com apresentação incomum An uncommon presentation of an VIII nerve tumor

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    Rubem Cruz Swensson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Os Schwannomas vestibulares são responsáveis por 80 a 90% dos tumores do ângulo ponto-cerebelar. A atual incidência é estimada em 0,8% a 2,5% da população mundial. A hipoacusia unilateral e progressiva é o sintoma mais precoce e freqüente, sendo o tinido a segunda queixa mais comum. Estudos demonstram que apenas 5% dos pacientes com schwannoma vestibular têm exames audiométricos normais. No caso em foco é relatado hipoestesia da hemiface com diminuição do reflexo córneo palpebral ipsilateral, hipoestesia da porção póstero-superior do pavilhão auditivo (sinal de Hitzelberger positivo, diminuição do lacrimejamento, Romberg sensibilizado positivo. Observava-se discreto desvio da rima labial para a esquerda, não apresentando outras alterações nos demais pares cranianos. À acumetria, não havia alteração da sensibilidade auditiva em ambas as vias aéreas.Vestibular Shwannomas are responsible for 80-90% of the cerebelar-pontine angle tumors and their incidence is of 0.8 to 20.5% of all tumors. Unilateral and progressive hearing loss is the most frequent and premature symptom, and tinnitus is the second most common complaint. Only 5% of the patients have normal audiograms. In this case the patient complained of ipsilateral facial numbness and weak blink, posterior pinna hypoesthesia (Hitzelberger +, tear reduction and positive Romberg test. He also had mouth twisting but no other involvement of other cranial nerves. Hearing acuity was normal.

  12. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges

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    Mann AP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrea P Mann,1 Elena Grebenciucova,2 Rimas V Lukas21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, 2Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAObjective: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R encephalitis is a new autoimmune disorder, often paraneoplastic in nature, presenting with complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Diagnosed serologically, this disorder is often responsive to immunosuppressant treatment. The objective of this review is to educate clinicians on the challenges of diagnosis and management of this disorder.Materials and methods: A review of the relevant literature on clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and recommended management was conducted using a PubMed search. Examination of the results identified articles published between 2007 and 2014.Results: The literature highlights the importance of recognizing early common signs and symptoms, which include hallucinations, seizures, altered mental status, and movement disorders, often in the absence of fever. Although the presence of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies confirms diagnosis, approximately 15% of patients have only positive cerebrospinal fluid titers. Antibody detection should prompt a search for an underlying teratoma or other underlying neoplasm and the initiation of first-line immunosuppressant therapy: intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasmapheresis, or a combination thereof. Second-line treatment with rituximab or cyclophosphamide should be implemented if no improvement is noted after 10 days. Complications can include behavioral problems (eg, aggression and insomnia, hypoventilation, catatonia, and autonomic instability. Those patients who can be managed outside an intensive care unit and whose tumors are identified and removed typically have better rates of remission and functional outcomes.Conclusion: There is an increasing need for clinicians of different specialties, including

  13. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

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    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  14. A tradução de suculentos jogos de palavras, sem perder o sabor

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    Stella E. O. Tagnin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute algumas questões levantadas durante a tradução para o português de títulos de receitas de um livro britânico de sucos para crianças, com especial atenção para as diferenças culturais envolvidas nesse tipo de tradução. A maioria dos títulos baseia-se em jogos de palavras ou algum tipo de metáfora - imagética ou conceitual – que se espera sejam mantidos na tradução, de modo a preservar o apelo que esses títulos têm para o público infantil, pois, em geral fazem referência ao universo da criança. Linguisticamente, os títulos envolvem colocações, rimas e aliterações. Culturalmente, há referências a jogos infantis, canções e heróis que, na maioria das vezes, não são as mesmas na nossa cultura. Alguns títulos são baseados na cor do suco (Red devil, outros no ingrediente principal (Crazy kiwi, outros ainda no efeito desejado (Battery charge.  A tradução de jogos de palavras exige certo grau de elaboração semântica, especialmente quando várias camadas de significado estão envolvidas.  Serão apresentados vários exemplos que envolvem diferenças culturais entre a Inglaterra e o Brasil, assim como as soluções a que se chegou, sempre na tentativa de manter o jogo de palavras dentro do universo infantil.

  15. Telemedicine for diabetic retinopathy screening using an ultra-widefield fundus camera

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    Hussain N

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nazimul Hussain,1 Maryam Edraki,2 Rima Tahhan,2 Nishanth Sanalkumar,2 Sami Kenz,2 Nagwa Khalil Akasha,2 Brian Mtemererwa,2 Nahed Mohammed2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Al Zahra Hospital, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Endocrinology, Al Zahra Hospital, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Objective: Telemedicine reporting of diabetic retinopathy (DR screening using ultra-widefield (UWF fundus camera. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study of diabetic patients who visited the endocrinology department of a private multi-specialty hospital in United Arab Emirates between April 2015 and January 2017 who underwent UWF fundus imaging. Fundus pictures are then accessed at the Retina Clinic in the Department of Ophthalmology. Primary outcome measure was incidence of any form of DR detected. The secondary outcome measure was failure to take good image and inability to grade. Results: A total of 1,024 diabetic individuals were screened for DR from April 2015 to January 2017 in the department of Endocrinology. Rate of DR was 9.27%; 165 eyes of 95 individuals were diagnosed to have some form of DR. Mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR was seen in 114 of 165 eyes (69.09%, moderate NPDR in 32 eyes (19.39%, severe NPDR in six eyes (3.64%, and proliferative DR (PDR in 13 eyes (7.88%. The secondary outcome measure of poor image acquisition was seen in one individual who had an image acquired in one eye that could not be graded due to bad picture quality. Conclusions: The present study has shown the effectiveness of DR screening using UWF fundus camera. It has shown the effectiveness of trained nursing personnel taking fundus images. This model can be replicated in any private multi-specialty hospital and reduce the burden of DR screening in the retina clinic and enhance early detection of treatable DR. Keywords: telemedicine, ultra-widefield camera, diabetic retinopathy screening

  16. Sedation with detomidine and acepromazine influences the endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal function in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegaard, C; Husted, L; Ullum, H; Fjeldborg, J

    2007-11-01

    Endoscopy of the upper airways of horses is used as a diagnostic tool and at purchase examinations. On some occasions it is necessary to use sedation during the procedure and it is often speculated that the result of the examination might be influenced due to the muscle-relaxing properties of the most commonly used sedatives. To evaluate the effect of detomidine (0.01 mg/kg bwt) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg bwt) on the appearance of symmetry of rima glottidis, ability to abduct maximally the arytenoid cartilages and the effect on recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) grade. Forty-two apparently normal horses underwent endoscopic examination of the upper airways on 3 different occasions, under the influence of 3 different treatments: no sedation (control), sedation with detomidine and sedation with acepromazine. All examinations were performed with a minimum of one week apart. The study was performed as an observer-blind cross-over study. Sedation with detomidine had a significant effect on the RLN grading (OR = 2.91) and ability maximally to abduct the left arytenoid cartilages (OR = 2.91). Sedation with acepromazine resulted in OR = 2.43 for the RLN grading and OR = 2.22 for the ability to abduct maximally. The ability to abduct maximally the right arytenoid cartilage was not altered. Sedating apparently healthy horses with detomidine or acepromazine significantly impairs these horses' ability to abduct fully the left but not the right arytenoid cartilage. This resulted in different diagnosis with respect to RLN when comparing sedation to no sedation. Since the ability to abduct the right arytenoid cartilage fully is not altered by sedation, it is speculated that horses changing from normal to abnormal laryngeal function when sedated, might be horses in an early stage of the disease. To confirm or reject these speculations, further studies are needed. Until then sedation during endoscopy should be used with care.

  17. Comparação entre membrana amniótica com e sem epitélio como substrato para cultura de células epiteliais do limbo ex vivo

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    Joyce Luciana Covre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e aspecto estrutural de células límbicas epiteliais humanas cultivadas sobre membrana amniótica (MA com e sem epitélio. MÉTODOS: As culturas límbicas foram obtidas a partir de rima corneoescleral remanescentes de transplantes de córnea de 6 diferentes doadores. Cada explante foi cultivado em três diferentes grupos: MA desepitelizada por tripsina (Grupo 1, MA com epitélio íntegro (Grupo 2 e controle (Grupo 3. A migração epitelial foi avaliada por microscopia de contraste de fase. Após 15 dias, as células cultivadas sobre MA foram submetidas à microscopia eletrônica para avaliar migração e adesão epitelial. RESULTADOS: Todas as células do grupo controle cresceram até atingir confluência. Somente uma das culturas em membrana amniótica desepitelizada não apresentou crescimento epitelial. O crescimento de células epiteliais sobre membrana amniótica epitelizada foi observada em apenas uma cultura. CONCLUSÃO: Baseando-se nestes achados, o uso de membrana amniótica desepitelizada aparenta ser o melhor substrato para migração e adesão epitelial comparando com membrana amniótica epitelizada. Remover o epitélio da membrana amniótica demonstra ser um importante passo para estabelecer culturas de células sobre membrana amniótica.

  18. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

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    Noelle George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18 exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design: Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA. Results: The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9. Conclusions: Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which

  19. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Baumgartner, J Craig; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2016-01-01

    Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly identified in endodontic abscesses between the

  20. Resistência e empoderamento na literatura urbana carioca

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    Rôssi Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estado de Rio de Janeiro la ocupación del espacio público por colectivos de arte y cultura ha traído contribuciones innovadoras a los lenguajes artísticos. Intercambios, hibridismos, experimentaciones de variadas manifestaciones culturales encuentran en las calles y plazas un lugar de acogida. Este artículo tratará de una forma de ocupación, la Roda Cultural, que yendo más allá de la función de llevar el arte al espacio público, permite la producción de una expresión literaria particular - las rimas de la calle. Sin embargo, dado que el espacio público es regulado y disputado por diversos segmentos, la ocupación es marcada generalmente por tensiones. Éstas solían paralizar a los actores del arte de la calle, que no creían en la posibilidad de negociación con los poderes públicos. Sin embargo, con el aumento de la represión y la necesidad cada vez mayor de otras formas públicas de recreación y cultura, los agentes involucrados en esta escena vienen sumando esfuerzos hacia una articulación con los órganos responsables del planeamento urbano, al mismo tiempo que éstos intentan promover manifestaciones que les den más visibilidad para validar sus políticas culturales en las calles. El arte callejero está descubriendo, no sin dificultad, que dialogar e instrumentalizarse para tratar con la cosa pública también es una forma de resistencia.

  1. La huella del folclore en la literatura infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita CASANUEVA HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La huella del folclore es abundante en la literatura infantil y adquiere su presencia viva en lo que Cervera denomina «literatura ganada» (cuentos tradicionales, rimas y juegos con soporte literario. Pero también lo imaginario en la «literatura creada» enlaza a menudo con el folclore y, aunque no participe del carácter tradicional, popular y anónimo del mismo, responde a idénticos componentes de psiquismo profundo y a la necesidad de simbolizarlos, y posee similar estructura a los relatos del pasado. Trataremos del valor educativo de este tipo de composiciones poéticas o narrativas, sin olvidarnos del «teatro de animación», ni de su más válida manifestación en el aula: la dramatización o juegos de libre expresión dramática abierta a la imaginación y a la creatividad del niño.SUMMARY: Traces of folklore are abundant in children's literature and they acquire a living presence in what Cervera calls «earned literature» (traditional stories, rhymes and games with a literaty support. But the imaginary aspect in «creative literature » also ties in with folklore and, although it is not a part of its traditional, popular and anonymous character, it does respond to identical components of the deep psyche and the need to symbolize them, and has a structure similar to the stories of the past. Our study also deals with the educational value of folklbric narratives and verse, without overlooking «participatory drama», or its most important expression in the classroom: dramatization or games of free dramatic open to the imagination and creativity of the child.

  2. Environmental effects of the TermoPernambuco; Impactos ambientais da TermoPernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves Filho, Luiz Carlos; Costa, Heitor Scalambrini [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias Renovaveis]. E-mail: naper@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    In a world scale, 80% of the total energy consumed by mankind comes fossil fuel (charcoal, petroleum and natural gas). The massive use of that energy resource has lead to the exhaustion of its reserves and has turned itself into a real menace to the environment, as a consequence of the earth global warming (greenhouse effect), of the risk to the public health and of the acidification of the water cycle. Whenever that type of fuel is burned in thermoelectric power plants, in transportation vehicles and in the industry, it liberates highly toxic gases and other pollutants (carbonic gas, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, among others), which are largely the responsible for the mentioned environmental impacts to the point of putting at stake the very survival of the human race. In the context of the Thermoelectricity Priority Program, launched by the federal government in February 24th, 2000 (Decree 3.371), the Pernambuco State Government has authorized the construction of a thermoelectric power plant powered by natural gas - the Thermo Pernambuco - in the harbor region of Suape, with a installed capacity of generating 520 MW. In this work the environmental impacts of the Thermo Pernambuco are shown in which concerns to the production of toxic gases. Those results were obtained through a bibliographic research about similar situations and through the detailed analysis of the EIA/RIMA reports (needed for the complying with the Brazilian environmental laws). We show that that plant will be responsible for a considerable increase in the air pollution. Considering an 80% capacity factor , that is, the power plant operating for 7,000 hours per year, it will send yearly 1.8 million ton of C0{sub 2} (5,000 per day) and 836 ton of No{sub x} (2.3 ton per day). (author)

  3. Ruralidad y discurso: del caso español al de Cantabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Gómez-Pellón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La reforma de la Política Agraria Comunitaria (PAC en 1992 por parte de la Unión Europea, en aras de lo que desde entonces se denominará multifuncionalidad de los espacios rurales, hará de la conservación del paisaje y del medio natural, del mantenimiento del tejido social y del bienestar de las poblaciones locales, sus objetivos más ambiciosos. Como atributo del territorio, y en rima con el principio de la sostenibilidad, la multifuncionalidad estará llamada a proveer de bienes públicos a la sociedad en general. Pasado el tiempo, la retórica de la ruralidad, afianzada mediante la Agenda 2000 y las reformas de la PAC de 2003 y de 2004, ha creado la creciente ilusión de un inmenso mundo rural que supuestamente abarca la práctica totalidad del territorio de la Unión Europea, según parece desprenderse de la aplicación de criterios meramente cuantitativos. Paradójicamente, la Unión Europea se extiende sobre una de las áreas más urbanizadas del mundo, y sus habitantes han adoptado estilos de vida urbanos desde hace mucho tiempo. El presente trabajo muestra, a partir del análisis del caso español, por un lado, las dificultades insalvables para asumir esta concepción dicotómica del territorio y, por otro lado, cómo la multifuncionalidad de los espacios rurales esconde una multitud de paisajes sociales de la ruralidad.

  4. Surface and subsurface flow effect on permanent gully formation and upland erosion near Lake Tana in the northern highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebebu, T. Y.; Abiy, A. Z.; Zegeye, A. D.; Dahlke, H. E.; Easton, Z. M.; Tilahun, S. A.; Collick, A. S.; Kidnau, S.; Moges, S.; Dadgari, F.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2010-11-01

    Gully formation in the Ethiopian Highlands has been identified as a major source of sediment in water bodies, and results in sever land degradation. Loss of soil from gully erosion reduces agricultural productivity and grazing land availability, and is one of the major causes of reservoir siltation in the Nile Basin. This study was conducted in the 523 ha Debre-Mawi watershed south of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, where gullies are actively forming in the landscape. Historic gully development in a section of the Debre-Mawi watershed was estimated with semi structured farmer interviews, remotely sensed imagery, and measurements of current gully volumes. Gully formation was assessed by instrumenting the gully and surrounding area to measure water table levels and soil physical properties. Gully formation began in the late 1980's following the removal of indigenous vegetation, leading to an increase in surface and subsurface runoff from the hillsides. A comparison of the gully area, estimated from a 0.58 m resolution QuickBird image, with the current gully area mapped with a GPS, indicated that the total eroded area of the gully increased from 0.65 ha in 2005 to 1.0 ha in 2007 and 1.43 ha in 2008. The gully erosion rate, calculated from cross-sectional transect measurements, between 2007 and 2008 was 530 t ha-1 yr-1 in the 17.4 ha area contributing to the gully, equivalent to over 4 cm soil loss over the contributing area. As a comparison, we also measured rill and interrill erosion rates in a nearby section of the watershed, gully erosion rates were approximately 20 times the measured rill and interrill rates. Depths to the water table measured with piezometers showed that in the actively eroding sections of the gully the water table was above the gully bottom and, in stable gully sections the water table was below the gully bottom during the rainy season. The elevated water table appears to facilitate the slumping of gully walls, which causes the gully to widen and to

  5. Surface and subsurface flow effect on permanent gully formation and upland erosion near Lake Tana in the northern highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Tebebu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gully formation in the Ethiopian Highlands has been identified as a major source of sediment in water bodies, and results in sever land degradation. Loss of soil from gully erosion reduces agricultural productivity and grazing land availability, and is one of the major causes of reservoir siltation in the Nile Basin. This study was conducted in the 523 ha Debre-Mawi watershed south of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, where gullies are actively forming in the landscape. Historic gully development in a section of the Debre-Mawi watershed was estimated with semi structured farmer interviews, remotely sensed imagery, and measurements of current gully volumes. Gully formation was assessed by instrumenting the gully and surrounding area to measure water table levels and soil physical properties. Gully formation began in the late 1980's following the removal of indigenous vegetation, leading to an increase in surface and subsurface runoff from the hillsides. A comparison of the gully area, estimated from a 0.58 m resolution QuickBird image, with the current gully area mapped with a GPS, indicated that the total eroded area of the gully increased from 0.65 ha in 2005 to 1.0 ha in 2007 and 1.43 ha in 2008. The gully erosion rate, calculated from cross-sectional transect measurements, between 2007 and 2008 was 530 t ha−1 yr−1 in the 17.4 ha area contributing to the gully, equivalent to over 4 cm soil loss over the contributing area. As a comparison, we also measured rill and interrill erosion rates in a nearby section of the watershed, gully erosion rates were approximately 20 times the measured rill and interrill rates. Depths to the water table measured with piezometers showed that in the actively eroding sections of the gully the water table was above the gully bottom and, in stable gully sections the water table was below the gully bottom during the rainy season. The elevated water table appears to facilitate the slumping of gully

  6. Georeferenced measurement of soil EC as a tool to detect susceptible areas to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The Southeast region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, is one of the main region for the cultivation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in that country. The implementation of complementary irrigation for potato cultivation meant an increase in yield of up to 60%. Therefore, all potato production in the region is under irrigation. In this way, the area under central pivot irrigation has increased to 150% in the last two decades. The water used for irrigation in that region is underground with a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. A reduction in infiltration means greater partitioning of precipitation into runoff. The degree of slope of the terrain, added to its length, increases the erosive potential of runoff water. The content of dissolved salts, in combination with the water content, affect the apparent Electrical Conductivity of the soil (EC), which is directly related to the concentration of Na + 2 in the soil solution. In August 2016, severe rill erosion was detected in a productive plot of 300 ha. The predecessor crop was a potato under irrigation campaign. However the history of the lot consists of various winter and summer crops, always made in dry land and no till. Cumulative rainfall from harvest to erosion detection (four months) was 250 mm. A georeferenced EC measurement was performed using the Verys 3100® contact sensor. With the data obtained, a geostatistical analysis was performed using Kriging spatial interpolation. The maps obtained were processed, dividing them into 4 EC ranges. The values and amplitude of the CEa ranges for each lot were determined according to the distribution observed in the generated histograms. It was observed a distribution of elevated EC ranges and consequently of a higher concentration of Na+ 2 coincident with the irrigation areas of the pivots. These

  7. Agri-spillways as soil erosion protection tools in conventional sloping vineyards (Montes de Málaga, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall causes soil erosion on Mediterranean sloping vineyards (>25˚ of slope inclination), however, little is known about information related to cheap, effective and suitable soil erosion protection measures. In the vineyards of the Montes de Málaga (southern Spain), a concrete land management practice against soil erosion is actually conducted by building tilled rills to down-slope direction to canalize water and sediments. We decided to call them agri-spillways. In this study, by carrying out runoff experiments, we assessed two agri-spillways (from 10 m to 15 m length) under extreme conditions. A motor driven pump mobilizes a constant water inflow about of 1.33 L s-1during between 12 and 15 minutes (≈1000 litres). Finally, we observed: i) a high capacity of these agri-spillways to canalize a large volume of water and sediments; and, ii) higher speed of water flow (from 0.16 m s-1to 0.28 m s-1) and sediment concentration (SC) rates with ratios up to 1538.6 g l-1). By comparing among them, the speed of water flow and the SC were much higher in one of tested rills, which was 5 meters length less and 7 degrees more of inclination. So, we concluded that these agri-spillways, after correctly planning and long term maintenance from contribution area to down-slope direction, can be function as a potential tool for designing suitable and cheap plans to protect the soil in Mediterranean sloping vineyards. Acknowledgements Firstly, we acknowledge the farmer's syndicate UPA (Unión de Pequeños Agricultores) and the wine-grower Pepe Gámez (Almáchar) for providing access to the study area. Secondly, we thank the students of the Bachelor course and Master from Trier University for their hard efforts in the field and laboratory works in the Almáchar campaign. Thirdly, we acknowledge the geomorphology and soil laboratory technicians María Pedraza and Rubén Rojas of GSoilLab (Málaga University) for the soil analysis. Finally, we also thank the Ministerio de Educaci

  8. Detection of seasonal cycles of erosion processes in a black marl gully from a time series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bechet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Roubine catchment located in the experimental research station of Draix-Bléone (south French Alps is situated in Callovo-Oxfordian black marls, a lithology particularly prone to erosion and weathering processes. For 30 years, this small watershed (0.13 ha has been monitored for analysing hillslope processes on the scale of elementary gullies. Since 2007, surface changes have been monitored by comparing high-resolution digital elevation models (HRDEMs produced from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS. The objectives are (1 to detect and (2 to quantify the sediment production and the evolution of the gully morphology in terms of sediment availability/transport capacity vs. rainfall and runoff generation. Time series of TLS observations have been acquired periodically based on the seasonal runoff activity with a very high point cloud density ensuring a resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM on the centimetre scale. The topographic changes over a time span of 2 years are analysed. Quantitative analyses of the seasonal erosion activity and of the sediment fluxes show and confirm that during winter, loose regolith is created by mechanical weathering, and it is eroded and accumulates in the rills and gullies. Because of limited rainfall intensity in spring, part of the material is transported in the main gullies, which are assumed to be a transport-limited erosion system. In the late spring and summer the rainfall intensities increase, allowing the regolith, weathered and accumulated in the gullies and rills during the earlier seasons, to be washed out. Later in the year the catchment acts as a sediment-limited system because no more loose regolith is available. One interesting result is the fact that in the gullies the erosion–deposition processes are more active around the slope angle value of 35°, which probably indicates a behaviour close to dry granular material. It is also observed that there exist thresholds for the rainfall

  9. Gully erosion in the Caatinga biome, Brazil: measurement and stochastic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Alencar, Pedro Henrique; de Araújo, José Carlos; Nonato Távora Costa, Raimundo

    2017-04-01

    In contrast with inter-rill erosion, which takes a long time to modify the terrain form, gully erosion can fast and severely change the landscape. In the Brazilian semiarid region, a one-million km2 area that coincides with the Caatinga biome, inter-rill erosion prevails due to the silty shallow soils. However, gully erosion does occur in the Caatinga, with temporal increasing severity. This source of sediment impacts the existing dense network of small dams, generating significant deleterious effects, such as water availability reduction in a drought-prone region. This study focuses on the Madalena basin (124 km2, state of Ceará, Brazil), a land-reform settlement with 20 inhabitants per km2, whose main economic activities are agriculture (especially Zea mays), livestock and fishing. In the catchment area, where there are 12 dams (with storage capacity ranging from 6.104 to 2.107 m3), gully erosion has become an issue due to its increasing occurrence. Eight gully-erosion sites have been identified in the basin, but most of them have not yet reached great dimensions (depth and/or width), nor interacted with groundwater, being therefore classified as ephemeral gullies. We selected the three most relevant sites and measured the topography of the eroded channels, as well as the neighboring terrain relief, using accurate total stations and unmanned aerial vehicle. The data was processed with the help of software, such as DataGeosis (Office 7.5) and Surfer (11.0), providing information on gully erosion in terms of (μ ± σ): projection area (317±165 m2), eroded mass (61±36 Mg) and volume (42±25 m3), length (38±6 m), maximum depth (0.58±0.13 m) and maximum width (6.00±2.35 m). The measured data are then compared with those provided by the Foster and Lane model (1986). The model generated results with considerable scatter. This is possibly due to uncertainties in the field parameters, which are neglected in the deterministic approach of most physically-based models

  10. Hillslope erosion and hydrologic response in two small watersheds in Yosemite National Park following the 2013 Rim Fire, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, T. J.; Forrester, H.; Abney, R.; DeLong, S.; Roche, J. W.; Asefaw Berhe, A.

    2016-12-01

    The 2013 Rim Fire burned 1036 km2 in the Sierra Nevada, including 312 km2 within Yosemite National Park, and generated concern about post-fire effects in the Tuolumne River watershed. We evaluated hillslope erosion and water quality during the winter storm seasons of 2013-2015, in two small watersheds (3.0 and 3.6 km2) in Yosemite located within the rain-snow transition zone. Within a month of fire containment, we installed equipment to monitor streamflow, rainfall, turbidity, and total suspended solids during storms. On moderate and high severity burn areas (based on initial dNBR data), we established 21 plots (100-150 m2) to trap all sediment (≥ silt size) eroded from moderate to steep (11°-26°) slopes. Soil temperature sensors were installed at 14 plots to measure the presence of snow cover. Lastly, we conducted seven terrestrial lidar surveys to measure vegetation recovery and topographic change. In the three study years, precipitation intensity events were generally low and lacked more typical higher intensity storms (I-30 in mm: Min = 1.5; Max = 34.0; Median = 6.1). Preliminary results suggest that despite revegetation, a lack of intense storms during the 1st and 2nd years following the fire produced less suspended solids in streams than the 3rd year. Hillslope erosion in plots was controlled by burn severity, with moderate severity plots having significantly more transport of coarse material (>2mm, mainly litterfall) and high severity plots having significantly more fine material (geologic parent material; a topic of current analyses. The dominant surface processes revealed by lidar were sheetflow and minor rill formation in the plots, and rilling and gully erosion on slopes near the plots. Analyses of sediment produced from snow storms, or those with pre-existing snow cover, indicate sediment export is dampened by these conditions, and allow for partitioning of within-channel and hillslope sediment sources. Overall, initial analyses suggest that

  11. Radiation safety actuality in Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharuk, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioecological monitoring issues and radiation safety are actual in the Republic of Moldova. Japan events show us the possibility of natural disasters. Republic of Moldova is surrounded by 8 NPPs, the closest being at the distance of 160 km. Moldovas territory is in seismic zone where underground earthquake shocks reaches 7 points or more. Thatis why radiation safety and radioecological monitoring is actual in our republic. Traces of Chernobyl were left in Moldovas soils. The fallouts of radio nuclides formed on the soil surfaces in the Republic of Moldova following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Accident have been continuously affected by attacks of both natural and technicaly generated agents since the time of fallout. During the past decade a shift in emphasis has taken place regarding the need for more complete and accurate information on reservoir sedimentation. Classical sedimentation surveys involve repeated field measurement and, therefore, this is probably the most costly and time consuming method. The application of radio nuclides, particularly Cs 137, for water erosion and sedimentation studies in Republic of Moldova has not been attempted so far. This paper presents the results obtained on reservoir sedimentation rates in an area subjected to wide range in land degradation dy sheet-rill erosion. The profil characteristics support the assumption that in most undisturbed sites there is a sharp decline in Cs 137 activity with increasing dept. Such an asymmetrical distribution of the Cs 137 would suggest a standard pattern in the form of a cantilever. If the validity of this assamption is accepted it is possible to define two major types of Cs 137 cantilever distribution: shallow and deep buried cantilever. The main criterion in classifying these pattents lies generally in the shape of Cs 137 depth profile and particularly in burial magnitude of Cs 137 peak derived from Chernobyl. Hills area has been impacted by greatest sendimentation. This regional

  12. Misrepresentation of hydro-erosional processes in rainfall simulations using disturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Pereira, Adalberto A.

    2017-06-01

    Interrill erosion is a primary soil erosion process which consists of soil detachment by raindrop impact and particle transport by shallow flow. Interill erosion affects other soil erosion sub-processes, e.g., water infiltration, sealing, crusting, and rill initiation. Interrill erosion has been widely studied in laboratories, and the use of a sieved soil, i.e., disturbed soil, has become a standard method in laboratory experiments. The aims of our study are to evaluate the hydro-erosional response of undisturbed and disturbed soils in a laboratory experiment, and to quantify the extent to which hydraulic variables change during a rainstorm. We used a splash pan of 0.3 m width, 0.45 m length, and 0.1 m depth. A rainfall simulation of 58 mm h- 1 lasting for 30 min was conducted on seven replicates of undisturbed and disturbed soils. During the experiment, several hydro-physical parameters were measured, including splashed sediment, mean particle size, runoff, water infiltration, and soil moisture. We conclude that use of disturbed soil samples results in overestimation of interrill processes. Of the nine assessed parameters, four displayed greater responses in the undisturbed soil: infiltration, topsoil shear strength, mean particle size of eroded particles, and soil moisture. In the disturbed soil, five assessed parameters displayed greater responses: wash sediment, final runoff coefficient, runoff, splash, and sediment yield. Therefore, contextual soil properties are most suitable for understanding soil erosion, as well as for defining soil erodibility.

  13. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion. PMID:15263069

  14. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nino-Southern Oscillation records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, David K; Moseley, Michael E

    2004-07-27

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.

  15. Mitigating Hillslope Erosion After Post-fire Salvage Logging Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, P. R.; Bone, E. D.; Brown, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the past decades, wildfires around the world have continued to increase in size, severity, and cost. Major concerns after wildfires are the increased runoff and erosion due to loss of the protective forest floor layer, loss of water storage, and creation of water repellent soil conditions. Salvage logging is often a post-fire forest management action to recoup the economic loss of the burned timber, yet concerns arise on the impacts of this activity on water quality. Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the effect of salvage logging on hillslope erosion. Logging skid trails have been cited as being the cause of high erosion during and after salvage operations. We investigated the impacts of adding operational logging slash to skid trails to reduce hillslope erosion after salvage operations on the 2015 North Star Fire, Washington. We implemented well-designed rapid response approach to compare slash treatment effectiveness by monitoring sediment yield and runoff response from hillslopes with a concentrated flow (rill) experiment. Various runoff amounts are incrementally added to 4 m hillslope plots with and without slash treatments. Our initial results suggest that adding logging slash increased ground cover significantly which contributed to an order of magnitude decrease in hillslope erosion. Integrating erosion mitigation strategies into salvage logging operations should be commonplace when hillslope erosion is a concern.

  16. Exogenic geomorphic processes dynamics at the Black Sea coast, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia; Tsvetkova, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays there is an obvious grow of anthropogenic load going on in many areas worldwide. Under such conditions, intensive activation of a number of exogenic geomorphic processes may be observed. Moreover, if natural environment is aggressive itself their dynamics and rates may reach enormous values. Our work is conducted at the Black Sea coast, known for its mountainous topography, wet subtropical climate and intensive anthropogenic development (especially during the last decade due to the recent Olympic games). We chose two key basins near Sochi, Russia to study a number of presented exogenic processes, including rill, gully and channel erosion, weathering, suffusion and piping, soil creep. A set of field study methods is used to monitor the processes dynamics since 2005 (and late 1970s for soil creep). In addition, soil erosion rates and landslide susceptibility were modelled to get information of the watersheds dynamics. This is ongoing work, but the results of the passed period of observations will be resented. Special attention is paid to the processes connectivity and their input into sediment redistribution over the river basins.

  17. [Calculation of soil water erosion modulus based on RUSLE and its assessment under support of artificial neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhuan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jixian

    2006-06-01

    With Hengshan County of Shanxi Province in the North Loess Plateau as an example, and by using ETM + and remote sensing data and RUSLE module, this paper quantitatively derived the soil and water loss in loess hilly region based on "3S" technology, and assessed the derivation results under the support of artificial neural network. The results showed that the annual average erosion modulus of Hengshan County was 103.23 t x hm(-2), and the gross erosion loss per year was 4. 38 x 10(7) t. The erosion was increased from northwest to southeast, and varied significantly with topographic position. A slight erosion or no erosion happened in walled basin, flat-headed mountain ridges and sandy area, which always suffered from dropping erosion, while strip erosion often happened on the upslope of mountain ridge and mountaintop flat. Moderate rill erosion always occurred on the middle and down slope of mountain ridge and mountaintop flat, and weighty rushing erosion occurred on the steep ravine and brink. The RUSLE model and artificial neural network technique were feasible and could be propagandized for drainage areas control and preserved practice.

  18. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  19. Three Dimensional Computer Graphics Federates for the 2012 Smackdown Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Crystal; Govindaiah, Swetha; Muratet, Sean; O'Neil, Daniel A.; Schricker, Bradley C.

    2012-01-01

    The Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) Smackdown is a two-year old annual event held at the 2012 Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop (SIW). A primary objective of the Smackdown event is to provide college students with hands-on experience in developing distributed simulations using High Level Architecture (HLA). Participating for the second time, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) deployed four federates, two federates simulated a communications server and a lunar communications satellite with a radio. The other two federates generated 3D computer graphics displays for the communication satellite constellation and for the surface based lunar resupply mission. Using the Light-Weight Java Graphics Library, the satellite display federate presented a lunar-texture mapped sphere of the moon and four Telemetry Data Relay Satellites (TDRS), which received object attributes from the lunar communications satellite federate to drive their motion. The surface mission display federate was an enhanced version of the federate developed by ForwardSim, Inc. for the 2011 Smackdown simulation. Enhancements included a dead-reckoning algorithm and a visual indication of which communication satellite was in line of sight of Hadley Rille. This paper concentrates on these two federates by describing the functions, algorithms, HLA object attributes received from other federates, development experiences and recommendations for future, participating Smackdown teams.

  20. Experimental Setup for Evaluation of the Protective Technical Measures Against the Slopes Degradation Along Linear Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Zumr, David; Neumann, Martin; Lidmila, Martin; Dufka, Dušan

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion of the slopes along the linear construction sites, such as railroads, roads, pipelines or watercourses, is usually underestimated by the construction companies and controlling authorities. But under certain circumstances, when the construction site is not maintained and protected properly, a large amounts of soil may be transported from the sites to the surrounding environment during the intensive rainfall. Transported sediment, often carrying adsorbed pollutants, may reach watercourses and cause water recipient siltation and pollution. Within the applied research project we investigate ways of low cost, quick and easy technical measures that would help to protect the slopes against the splash erosion, rills development and sliding. The methodology is based on testing of various permeable covers, sheets, anchoring and patchy vegetation on a plot and hillslope scales. In this contribution we will present the experimental plot setup, consisting of large soil blocks encapsulated in the monitored steel containers and nozzle rainfall simulator. The presentation is funded by the Technological Agency of the Czech Republic (research project TH02030428) and an internal student CTU grant.

  1. Are we There Yet? ... Developing In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Technologies to Explore and Live on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Julie A.; Bodiford, Melanie P.; Fiske, Michael R.; Strong, Janet D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and great risk for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Engineers and Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are evaluating current technologies for in situ exploration habitat and fabrication and repair applications. Several technologies to be addressed in this paper have technology readiness levels (TRLs) that are currently mature enough to pursue for exploration purposes. However, many technologies offer promising applications but these must be pulled along by the demands and applications of this great initiative. The In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) program will supply and push state of the art technologies for applications such as habitat structure development, in situ resource utilization for tool and part fabrication, and repair and replacement of common life support elements. This paper will look at the current and future habitat technology applications such as the implementation of in situ environmental elements such as caves, rilles and lavatubes, the development of lunar regolith concrete and structure design and development, thin film and inflatable technologies. We will address current rapid prototyping technologies, their ISFR applications and near term advancements. We will discuss the anticipated need to utilize in situ resources to produce replacement parts and fabricate repairs to vehicles, habitats, life support and quality of life elements. All ISFR technology developments will incorporate automated deployment and robotic construction and fabrication techniques. The current state of the art for these applications is fascinating, but the future is out of this world.

  2. Rapid formation of rock armour for soil - rock fragment mixture during simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultney, E.; McGrath, G. S.; Hinz, C.

    2009-04-01

    Preventing erosion is an important issue in disturbed semi-arid and arid landscapes. This is in particular of highest importance for mining companies while undertaking land rehabilitation. An onsite investigation of the impact of surface rock fragments on erosion was conducted at Telfer goldmine in the Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia. The study site is a waste rock dump designed to mimic the concave slope of a natural mesa to both discourage erosion and blend in with its natural surroundings. Four treatments were used to construct the slope: two are topsoil mixed with rock fragments, and two are unmixed topsoil. A field study investigating erosion rills, particle size distribution, rock fragment coverage surface roughness and vegetation was carried out to determine changes down and across slope. The treatments constructed by mixing topsoil and rock fragments are more stable and show rock fragment distributions that more closely resemble patterns found on natural mesas surrounding Telfer. A controlled study using trays of topsoil mixed with rock fragment volumes of 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% were used to investigate how varying mixtures of rock fragments and topsoil erode using rainfall intensities between 20 and 100 mm h-1. Two runs of 25 minutes each were used to assess the temporal evolution of rock armouring. Surface coverage results converged for the 50%, 60% and 70% mixtures after the first run to coverage of about 90%, suggesting that fine sediment proportion does not affect rate and degree of rock armouring.

  3. Erodabilidad y erosión hídrica potencial en un sector de la cuenca del rio Otún - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madero Morales Edgar Enrique

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The present research seeks to determine the applicability of simple, rapid and economic methods tor comparing the soil erodability under twelve cultivation systems, and besides to record the features of rill erosion under ale crops in the watershed area of the Otún river. Here the denudation processes are common and affect a large portion of the area. The erodability tests considered (crumb, pinhole, manipulation, rain acceptance, soil loss, shear strenght are related to soil toss with reference to erodable material and the volume of surface flow. These do not seek to quantify the actual or potential soil loss of a place, but can help in the estimation of the variability of soil erodability with the content of surface gravel, the state soil moisture content and time. To predict the advance of rill and interril erosion in bare soil, Bergsma (1989 developed a semicuantitative system with this purpose, and what is related to the presence and frequency of six microtopography soil surface features after each rain and at the end of tillage: original clods, eroding clods, depressional areas, linear flow pattern of shallow channels and deeper rills, and coverage (vegetation, gravel, etc.; each feature has a length less than 25 cm. The erodability tests demonstrate their practical value with no more than three repetitions per unit of management. There was more soils (8/12 with low erodability. The evolution of microtopograhy soil surface features showed that corn, bean and grass increased depressional areas and shallow channels; the tendency in onion was similar but with a relatibility increase in deeper rills. Bean and grass crops were the less erosion hazard uses because they let a few loss of soil at the more inestable terrains. Contrary, corn and onion are not the most recomendable uses because they allowed the biggest advance of erosion in the most stable soils.

    Las pruebas de erodabilidad consideradas (terrón, agujero, manipulación o

  4. Geomorphologic analysis in the assessment of slope susceptibility in reservoirs. Case studies of the Guadalquivir basin, Spain; Analisis geomorfologico para la determinacion de la susceptibilidad en las laderas de los embalses. Aplicacion a los embalses de Danador, Guadalmena y Tranco de Beas (cuenca del Guadalquivir, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Garcia, P.; Garcia de Domingo, A.; Alameda Revalderia, J.

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge of conditioning factors regarding slope stability in reservoirs requires a detailed background study of the main dynamic processes acting in the surroundings of the dam. In this sense, geomorphologic mapping provides excellent results in the determination of unstable slopes and their level of susceptibility. This essay analyzes the geological and geomorphologic characteristics in the surroundings of Danador, Guadalmena and Tranco de Beas reservoirs, all of them located within the basin of the Guadalquivir river. A selected area, approximately 1,500 meters wide, around each reservoir was mapped, and a detailed geological and geomorphologic database was obtained for each one in which the surficial formations were represented. The analysis of the main geomorphologic processes, in terms of location, characteristics and assessed level of activity, has allowed for the delimitation of those areas that could suffer changes in their safety level in the short term, thus affecting the reservoir itself. The most important ones are those derived from slope movements (rock falls, landslides), slope erosion (gullies and rills) and karstic processes (subsidence and collapses). (Author)

  5. Forecasting inundation from debris flows that grow during travel, with application to the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Brien, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Many debris flows increase in volume as they travel downstream, enhancing their mobility and hazard. Volumetric growth can result from diverse physical processes, such as channel sediment entrainment, stream bank collapse, adjacent landsliding, hillslope erosion and rilling, and coalescence of multiple debris flows; incorporating these varied phenomena into physics-based debris-flow models is challenging. As an alternative, we embedded effects of debris-flow growth into an empirical/statistical approach to forecast potential inundation areas within digital landscapes in a GIS framework. Our approach used an empirical debris-growth function to account for the effects of growth phenomena. We applied this methodology to a debris-flow-prone area in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, where detailed mapping revealed areas of erosion and deposition along paths of debris flows that occurred during a large storm in 1996. Erosion was predominant in stream channels with slopes > 5°. Using pre- and post-event aerial photography, we derived upslope contributing area and channel-length growth factors. Our method reproduced the observed inundation patterns produced by individual debris flows; it also generated reproducible, objective potential inundation maps for entire drainage networks. These maps better matched observations than those using previous methods that focus on proximal or distal regions of a drainage network.

  6. Lunar mare volcanism - Stratigraphy, eruption conditions, and the evolution of secondary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in the geological analysis of lunar mare volcanism are reviewed. Analysis of returned samples and photogeological and remote sensing studies shows that mare volcanism began prior to the end of heavy bombardment (the period of cryptomare formation), in pre-Nectarian times, and continued until the Copernical Period, the total duration approaching 3.5-4 Ga. Stratigraphic analysis shows that the flux was not constant, but peaked in early lunar history, during the Imbrian Period. Average volcanic output rate during this period was about 0.01 cu cm/a. Volcanic landforms indicate that many eruptions were of high volume and long duration. Some eruptions associated with sinuous rills may have lasted a year and emplaced 1000 cu km of lava, representing the equivalent in one year of about 70,000 yr at the average flux. The occurrence of farside maria within craters whose diameter is generally near to or less than the thickness of the crust may be accounted for by the difference between local and regional compensation.

  7. Tipología y usos del suelo en agroecosistemas del valle del guamuez, Putumayo – Colombia / Typology and land use in agroecosystems of Guamuez Valley, Putumayo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Espinosa-Alzate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze different agroecosystems located in a region of the Departamento de Putumayo (Colombia and its sociocultural relationship with productive and land conservation contexts, based on the conceptual and methodological aspects of agroecology. A mixed methods study was carried out, and soil testing methodologies and assessment of cultural aspects with research tools such qualitative interview and focus groups, were designed. The analysis was based on the concept of principal ecological landscape structure (PELS and agroecology principles, guided by an ethno – agricultural analysis of the phenomenon. Three types of production systems, where indigenous groups coexist with settlers and migrant population who have developed different processes of ecosystem adaptation, were identified. This heterogeneity implies at least two different livelihoods: first, “endogenous type” in peasant – settlers linked to indigenous communities, and second, mediated by the classical view of economic development. All people, no matter what livelihoods have, are forced to overcome biophysical and ecosystem limiting of territory, indeed the processes of forest logging and poor land use, which have generated severe processes of environmental degradation including irreversible phenomena of rill and gully erosion. This deterioration is expressed in limiting subsistence possibilities and accumulation decrease of local inhabitants.

  8. Climate change and the causes of dam failures in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of poor dam construction methods in Australia and significant droughts occurring over the past 60 years, there is a danger that mistakes made during previous droughts will be repeated. Dams were often built in soils of very low moisture content to ensure a properly compacted bank. As a result of these poor construction methods, the drought years have produced an unusually high number of dam failures. This paper discussed the causes of dam failures such as dispersive clays and defects in associated structures. The discussion on dispersive clays included cracking, piping, tunneling, and slides. Dispersive clays occur in soils whose clay minerals separate into single grains when placed in contact with water and are associated with high soil erodability and their distribution often coincides with the occurrence of erosion gullying, rilling and piping. Dispersive clays in a dam embankment can result in the leaching out of material from the embankment with consequent erosion and failure. Defects in associated structures that were discussed included spillway blockage and outlet pipe blockage. It was concluded that dam failures are seldom due to one particular cause but rather due to one weakness triggering another. It was concluded that failures are difficult and expensive to remedy. 9 refs., 4 figs

  9. Relationships between substrate, surface characteristics, and vegetation in an initial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, P.; Seifert, S.; Zaplata, M. K.; Schaaf, W.; Pretzsch, H.; Fischer, A.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated surface and vegetation dynamics in the artificial initial ecosystem "Chicken Creek" (Lusatia, Germany) in the years 2006-2011 across a wide spectrum of empirical data. We scrutinized three overarching hypotheses concerning (1) the relations between initial geomorphological and substrate characteristics with surface structure and terrain properties, (2) the effects of the latter on the occurrence of grouped plant species, and (3) vegetation density effects on terrain surface change. Our data comprise and conflate annual vegetation monitoring results, biennial terrestrial laser scans (starting in 2008), annual groundwater levels, and initially measured soil characteristics. The empirical evidence mostly confirms the hypotheses, revealing statistically significant relations for several goal variables: (1) the surface structure properties, local rill density, local relief energy and terrain surface height change; (2) the cover of different plant groups (annual, herbaceous, grass-like, woody, Fabaceae), and local vegetation height; and (3) terrain surface height change showed significant time-dependent relations with a variable that proxies local plant biomass. Additionally, period specific effects (like a calendar-year optimum effect for the occurrence of Fabaceae) were proven. Further and beyond the hypotheses, our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics during the system's early development grasp processes which generally mark the transition from a geo-hydro-system towards a bio-geo-hydro system (weakening geomorphology effects on substrate surface dynamics, while vegetation effects intensify with time), where pure geomorphology or substrate feedbacks are changing into vegetation-substrate feedback processes.

  10. Clementine observations of the aristarchus region of the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A S; Robinson, M S; Eliason, E M; Lucey, P G; Duxbury, T C; Spudis, P D

    1994-12-16

    Multispectral and topographic data acquired by the Clementine spacecraft provide information on the composition and geologic history of the Aristarchus region of the moon. Altimetry profiles show the Aristarchus plateau dipping about 1 degrees to the north-northwest and rising about 2 kilometers above the surrounding lavas of Oceanus Procellarum to the south. Dark, reddish pyroclastic glass covers the plateau to average depths of 10 to 30 meters, as determined from the estimated excavation depths of 100- to 1000-meter-diameter craters that have exposed materials below the pyroclastics. These craters and the walls of sinuous rilles also show that mare basalts underlie the pyroclastics across much of the plateau. Near-infrared images of Aristarchus crater reveal olivine-rich materials and two kilometer-sized outcrops of anorthosite in the central peaks. The anorthosite could be either a derivative of local magnesium-suite magmatism or a remnant of the ferroan anorthosite crust that formed over the primordial magma ocean.

  11. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  12. Excess erosion and deposition in the catchments of Kamenichka and Radanjska river, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milevski Ivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest environmental problems in the Republic of Macedonia is accelerated soil erosion caused by high human impact during last centuries on to the susceptible landscape. Natural factors itself are very suitable for development of such erosion: from mostly erodible rocks and soils on the mountainous slopes around the depressions, to the generally continental, semi-arid climate and slight vegetation cover. Because of that, there are sites with severe erosion and deposition like those in the catchments of Kamenichka River and Radanjska River, two torrential tributaries of Bregalnica. In these catchments there are varieties of erosion-related landforms: rills, gullies, badlands, landslides, as well as valley-type alluvial fans and huge alluvial plains. Such devastating accelerated erosion and deposition largely transformed original landscape, and represent significant environmental, social, and economic problem in local areas. Because of that, some measures of protection and conservation were taken from 1950-ties in both catchments. But it is obvious that the final effect of these measures is far of enough, so new efforts must be implemented to revitalizing these abandoned lands.

  13. The similarity of river evolution at the initial stage of channel erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2014-05-01

    The study deals with a comparison study of two types of rocks at the initial stage of channel erosion in Taiwan. It is interesting that channel erosion at different types of rocks shows some similarity. There are two types of rocks: sandstone at Ta-an River, central Taiwan where river channel erosion from the nick point because of earthquake uplifting and mud rock at Tainan, southern Taiwan where rill erosion on a flat surface after artificial engineering. These two situations are both at the beginning stage of channel erosion, there are some similar landform appeared on channels. However the rate of erosion and magnitude of erosion are different. According to the using of photogrammetry method to reconstruct archive imageries and field surveying by total station and 3D scanner at different stages. The incision rate is high both at the Ta-an River and the bank erosion and it is even more obvious at mud rock area because of erodibility of mud rock. The results show that bank erosion and incision both are obvious processes. Bank erosion made channel into meander. The bank erosion cause slope in a asymmetric channel profile. The incision process will start at the site where land is relatively uplifted. This paper demonstrates such similarity and landform characters.

  14. Use of USLE/GIS methodology for predicting soil loss in a semiarid agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Emrah H; Erpul, Günay; Bayramin, Ilhami

    2007-08-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is an erosion model to estimate average soil loss that would generally result from splash, sheet, and rill erosion from agricultural plots. Recently, use of USLE has been extended as a useful tool predicting soil losses and planning control practices in agricultural watersheds by the effective integration of the GIS-based procedures to estimate the factor values in a grid cell basis. This study was performed in the Kazan Watershed located in the central Anatolia, Turkey, to predict soil erosion risk by the USLE/GIS methodology for planning conservation measures in the site. Rain erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), and cover management factor (C) values of the model were calculated from erosivity map, soil map, and land use map of Turkey, respectively. R values were site-specifically corrected using DEM and climatic data. The topographical and hydrological effects on the soil loss were characterized by LS factor evaluated by the flow accumulation tool using DEM and watershed delineation techniques. From resulting soil loss map of the watershed, the magnitude of the soil erosion was estimated in terms of the different soil units and land uses and the most erosion-prone areas where irreversible soil losses occurred were reasonably located in the Kazan watershed. This could be very useful for deciding restoration practices to control the soil erosion of the sites to be severely influenced.

  15. A PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTION FOR ESTIMATING THE SOIL ERODIBILITY FACTOR IN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil erodibility factor, K, of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE is a simple descriptor of the soil susceptibility to rill and interrill erosion. The original procedure for determining K needs a knowledge of soil particle size distribution (PSD, soil organic matter, OM, content, and soil structure and permeability characteristics. However, OM data are often missing and soil structure and permeability are not easily evaluated in regional analyses. The objective of this investigation was to develop a pedotransfer function (PTF for estimating the K factor of the USLE in Sicily (south Italy using only soil textural data. The nomograph soil erodibility factor and its associated first approximation, K’, were determined at 471 sampling points distributed throughout the island of Sicily. Two existing relationships for estimating K on the basis of the measured geometric mean particle diameter were initially tested. Then, two alternative PTFs for estimating K’ and K, respectively, on the basis of the measured PSD were derived. Testing analysis showed that the K estimate by the proposed PTF (eq.11, which was characterized by a Nash-Suttcliffe efficiency index, NSEI, varying between 0.68 and 0.76, depending on the considered data set, was appreciably more accurate than the one obtained by other existing equations, yielding NSEI values varying between 0.21 and 0.32.

  16. Geoprocessing techniques to evaluate the spatial distribution of natural rain erosion potential in the Hydrographic Basin of Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Pereira CABRAL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural potential erosion were defined from their main natural conditioners in the region of hydrographic basin of Cachoeira Dourada (between Goiás and Minas Gerais states −Brazil, with geoprocessing techniques and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. Upon the decision for natural erosion potential, a matrix with values of erosivity (R, erodibility (K, declivity, and ramp length (LS was elaborated, where classes of low, medium, high, very high, and extremely high natural erosion potential (NEP were established. Spatial distribution for the factors R, K, LS, and PNE was defined. The highest average R index for the rainy series was 8173.50 MJ ha mm-1 h-1 year-1. The period with data from 30 years (1973 – 2002 showed that the reservoir basin displayed areas susceptible to rill and interill erosion (69.16% of the total. There is a predominance of low erosion potential among the classes, which can be explained due to the soil predominant classes as well as to the low declivity. Areas with medium to extremely high erosion potential require the adoption of measures to avoid start and development of more severe erosion processes (ravines and gullies.

  17. Eruptive history of the Elysium volcanic province of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Scott, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1

  18. Indirect field technology for detecting areas object of illegal spills harmful to human health: application of drones, photogrammetry and hydrological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Alessandra; Pindozzi, Stefania; Okello, Collins; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is a serious environmental problem. The Campania region in southern Italy has higher levels of cancer risk, presumably due to the accumulation of geogenic and anthropogenic soil pollutants, some of which have been incorporated into organic matter. The aim of this study was to introduce and test an innovative, field-applicable methodology to detect heavy metal accumulation using drone-based photogrammetry and microrill network modelling, specifically to generate wetlands wetlands prediction indices normally applied at large catchment scales, such as a large geographic basin. The processing of aerial photos taken using a hexacopter equipped with fifth-generation software for photogrammetry allowed the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution as high as 30 mm. Not only this provided a high potential for the study of micro-rill processes, but it was also useful for testing and comparing the capability of the topographic index (TI) and the clima-topographic index (CTI) to predict heavy metal sedimentation points at scales from 0.1 to 10 ha. Our results indicate that the TI and CTI indices can be used to predict points of heavy metal accumulation for small field catchments.

  19. Spatio-temporal assessment of soil erosion risk in different agricultural zones of the Inle Lake region, southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, Thin Nwe; Brinkmann, Katja; Buerkert, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Myanmar is one of Southeast Asia's climatically most diverse countries, where sheet, rill, and gully erosion affect crop yields and subsequently livelihood strategies of many people. In the unique wetland ecosystem of Inle Lake, soil erosion in surrounding uplands lead to sedimentation and pollution of the water body. The current study uses the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to identify soil erosion risks of the Inle Lake region in space and time and to assess the relationship between soil erosion and degradation for different agricultural zones and cropping systems. Altogether, 85% of soil losses occurred on barren land along the steep slopes. The hotspot of soil erosion risk is situated in the western uplands characterized by unsustainable land use practices combined with a steep topography. The estimated average soil losses amounted to 19.9, 10.1, and 26.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in 1989, 2000, and 2009, respectively. These fluctuations were mainly the results of changes in precipitation and land cover (deforestation (-19%) and expansion of annual cropland (+35%) from 1989 to 2009). Most farmers in the study area have not yet adopted effective soil protection measures to mitigate the effects of soil erosion such as land degradation and water pollution of the lake reservoir. This urgently needs to be addressed by policy makers and extension services.

  20. Land degradation at the Stara Planina ski resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Ratko; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Radić, Boris; Nikić, Zoran; Vasiljević, Nevena

    2012-03-01

    The environmental impacts of ski resorts in the Balkan region are great and can lead to landscape degradation and loss of land functionality. In this study, we present an example of the negative effects of human activities at the Stara Planina ski resort in southeastern Serbia. The objective of this study is detailed analysis of the characteristics of environmental impacts at the Stara Planina. The management of the ski area and ski slope development caused severe degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The morphological characteristics of the area, lithological properties of the exposed material and climate conditions resulted in various geomorphic impacts, including rills, deep gullies, solifluctions and debris from rock weathering. Significant changes in land usage altered hydrological conditions, resulting in more frequent torrential floods in the downstream sections of the Zubska River and increased the sediment yield. Environmental impacts were analyzed in the immediate and wider zones of the ski resort in accordance with the specific topography and visual exposure. The restoration and erosion control measures have stopped degradation processes and helped to rehabilitate the appearance and functions of the landscape. The results show the importance of considering lithological (the type and characteristics of minerals present) and hydrological (precipitation, water storage capacity of soil, runoff) factors under the conditions of significant changes in land usage. The results of this investigation can contribute to the improvement of planning processes and the implementation of development projects in ski areas.

  1. Tourist Activities-Disturbance Factors of Natural Environment in Ciucaș Massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminița Costina SĂFTOIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines how tourism activities can disturb the natural environment in Ciucaș Massif. Methods used are based on bibliographic research and GIS analysis of morphometric features. Results show that the Ciucaș Massif, as one of the most important mountain in central Romania, is made of conglomerates, which lend specific features to topography. Having several natural sights (The Old Ladies Council, The Sphinx of Bratocea, Zăganului Ridge this massif is declared a protected natural area. The geomorphologic processes: compactions, mudflows, the deepening of tourist paths, rills and gully erosion have a negative impact on the landscape and even on the entire environment, causing erosion and loss of soil and vegetation. Also, the increased number of tourist accommodation facilities and 21 marked tourist trails have resulted in shrinking of forest areas, hayfields and pastures.These numerous changes which occur in this mountain area, lead, in time, to radical, irreversible changes and can affect the local economic development.

  2. Quasi-Steady Evolution of Hillslopes in Layered Landscapes: An Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, R. C.; Anderson, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Landscapes developed in layered sedimentary or igneous rocks are common on Earth, as well as on other planets. Features such as hogbacks, exposed dikes, escarpments, and mesas exhibit resistant rock layers adjoining more erodible rock in tilted, vertical, or horizontal orientations. Hillslopes developed in the erodible rock are typically characterized by steep, linear-to-concave slopes or "ramps" mantled with material derived from the resistant layers, often in the form of large blocks. Previous work on hogbacks has shown that feedbacks between weathering and transport of the blocks and underlying soft rock can create relief over time and lead to the development of concave-up slope profiles in the absence of rilling processes. Here we employ an analytic approach, informed by numerical modeling and field data, to describe the quasi-steady state behavior of such rocky hillslopes for the full spectrum of resistant layer dip angles. We begin with a simple geometric analysis that relates structural dip to erosion rates. We then explore the mechanisms by which our numerical model of hogback evolution self-organizes to meet these geometric expectations, including adjustment of soil depth, erosion rates, and block velocities along the ramp. Analytical solutions relate easily measurable field quantities such as ramp length, slope, block size, and resistant layer dip angle to local incision rate, block velocity, and block weathering rate. These equations provide a framework for exploring the evolution of layered landscapes and pinpoint the processes for which we require a more thorough understanding to predict their evolution over time.

  3. Modelling the geomorphic history of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians with the CHILD model

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    Staškovanová Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models were developed in order to provide a suitable computational framework for exploring research questions related to long-term landscape evolution. We used the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD model to prove three hypotheses concerning the processes contributing to the neotectonic landscape evolution of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians: (1 simultaneous planation and uplift; (2 temporally and spatially varying uplift; (3 exhumation of a part of the area from below Neogene sediments. Given the size of the area, its lithological variability and the insufficient knowledge of the palaeogeographical settings, using a detachment-limited model to express river incision into bedrock as well as water (rill erosion on hillslopes proved the best solution. Results of the simulations were compared with real topography through hypsographic curves and the distribution of remnants of planation surfaces. The real surface corresponds best to a combination of the hypotheses (2 and (3, with more intensive Quaternary tectonic uplift of the Pohronský Inovec Mts. and the adjacent Rázdiel part of the Tribeč Mts., and exhumation of a mature palaeosurface from below Miocene sediments in the east of the Tribeč Mts.

  4. Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

  5. CARTA DE POTENCIAL À EROSÃO LAMINAR DA PARTE SUPERIOR DA BACIA DO CÓRREGO DO MONJOLINHO (SÃO CARLOS, SP

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    Nemésio N. B. Salvador

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban areas in expansion, through the opening of new land parceling, require for their implementation, great movimentation and exposition of unconsolidated material, facilitating the appearing of erosive process. Monjolinho Stream's basin, in its superior part, fits in the kind of area next to the urban perimeter of Sao Carlos city (SP, consequently being submitted to an intensive antropic occupation. The objective of this work, with a preventive character, was to permit that, with the basic previous information, a land use and occupation chart can be elaborated in the future, including the basic zoning of the restrict occupation areas, the expansion urban areas and the common areas. Through the analysis of the results, it was observed that this region of Monjolinho stream's basin, mapped in the scale 1:10,000, doesn't show high potential areas to laminar erosion. There is a predominance of low potential areas (53% of total area, that can be explained by the great space occupied by pasturage, which keep the vegetal covering. The moderate potential areas (47% of total area require being adopted steps to avoid the appearing and development of graver erosive process (rill and gully erosion.

  6. Estimating surface soil erosion losses and mapping erosion risk for Yusufeli micro-catchment (Artvin

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    Mustafa Tüfekçioğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet erosion, one of the most important types of water erosion, takes place on the top soil as tiny soil layer movement that affects lake and stream ecosystem. This type of erosion is very important because the productive soil layer on the top soil can be lost in a very short period of time. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of surface (sheet and rill soil erosion, and to identify areas under high erosion risk within the study area at Yusufeli province in Artvin by using RUSLE erosion methodology. As a result of the study it was found that the average annual potential soil loss by surface erosion was 3.6 ton ha-1yr-1. Additionally, the maps produced and conclusions reached by the study revealed that the areas of high erosion risk were identified spatially and measures to control erosion on some of these high risk areas can be possible with appropriate erosion control techniques.

  7. Modeling the hospital safety partnership preferences of patients and their families: a discrete choice conjoint experiment

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    Cunningham CE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Charles E Cunningham,1 Tracy Hutchings,2 Jennifer Henderson,2 Heather Rimas,1 Yvonne Chen1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 2Department of Quality and Performance, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Patients and their families play an important role in efforts to improve health service safety. Objective: The objective of this study is to understand the safety partnership preferences of patients and their families. Method: We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the safety partnership preferences of 1,084 patients or those such as parents acting on their behalf. Participants made choices between hypothetical safety partnerships composed by experimentally varying 15 four-level partnership design attributes. Results: Participants preferred an approach to safety based on partnerships between patients and staff rather than a model delegating responsibility for safety to hospital staff. They valued the opportunity to participate in point of service safety partnerships, such as identity and medication double checks, that might afford an immediate risk reduction. Latent class analysis yielded two segments. Actively engaged participants (73.3% comprised outpatients with higher education, who anticipated more benefits to safety partnerships, were more confident in their ability to contribute, and were more intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer a personal engagement strategy, valued scientific evidence, preferred a more active approach to safety education, and advocated disclosure of errors. The passively engaged segment (26.7% anticipated fewer benefits, were less confident in their ability to contribute, and were less intent on participating. They were more likely to prefer an engagement strategy based on signage. They preferred that staff explain why they thought patients should help

  8. Geodezija od Mesopotamije do Globalnog geodetskog opažačkog sistema : Geodesy from Mesopotamie to Global Geodetic Observing System

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    Medžida Mulić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tokom šest milenijuma postojanja civilizacije na Zemlji, geodetske tehnike su doživjele teško sagledive promjene. Definicija i uloga geodezije su se mijenjale u skladu s tim promijenila. Geodezija (viša je evoluirala od svoje originalne klasične definicije da „proučava kretanja nebeskih tijela, oblik i dimenzije Zemlje“ u „znanost koja osim naprijed rečenog, proučava njene promjene i kompleksne dinamičke procese, koji djeluju unutar Zemlje, na njenoj površini i iznad njene površine, kao i u svemiru koji je okružuje. Rad predstavlja detaljan pregled geodetskih tehnika, instrumenata, katastra i kartografije kod starih civilizacija: Mesopotamije, starog Egipta, antičke Grčke, starog Rima, pa sve do Evropljana, između 17. stoljeća do modernog doba. Posebno su opisani geodetski radovi u Bosni i Hercegovini, od doba osmanlija, austro-ugarskog premjera, do savremenih dostignuća u polju premjera i primjene satelitskih modernih tehnika. Globalni geodetski opažački sistem-GGOS, glavna komponenta Internacionalne asocijacije za geodeziju, kao projekat za buduće generacije geodeta, opisan je na kraju. : During the six millennia of the existence of the civilization on the Earth, surveying techniques have been experienced difficult foreseeable changes. The definition and role of geodesy have been changing accordingly. Geodesy has evolved from its original classic definition that "studying the movements of celestial bodies, the shape and dimensions of the Earth" in the "science which, beside it noted above, studies its changes and complex dynamic processes that ongoing inside the Earth, on the surface, above its surfaces, and evironment. The paper is overview of the geodetic techniques and the surveying instruments, cadastre and cartography in the ancien civilizations: Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, antic Greece, ancient Rome, to the Europeans, from the 17th century to modern times. A detailed description devoted to surveying and geodetic

  9. PRODUÇÃO DE PETRÓLEO E IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS: ALGUMAS CONSIDERAÇÕES

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    Silas Sarkiz da Silva Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O petróleo está a cada dia sendo mais explorado e tem sido um recurso energético gerador de divisas para a economia de países e nações, a exemplo do Brasil, mas, também, difusor de impactos ambientais negativos. As etapas que envolvem a produção de petróleo desde a perfuração de poços até o refino, direta ou indiretamente, têm causado alterações ao meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de compreender os principais impactos ambientais gerados pelas etapas de produção de petróleo, considerando estudos de impacto ambiental (EIAs e seus respectivos relatórios de impacto ambiental (RIMAs. A avaliação dos impactos ambientais se dá através do diagnóstico ambiental da área de influência do empreendimento, o qual é feito para se conhecer os componentes dos meios físico, biológico e socioeconômico da área e, posteriormente, avaliar os efeitos das atividades do empreendimento sobre os mesmos. Pela complexidade da composição química do petróleo, o risco quanto as suas atividades e seu manuseio é, na maioria dos casos, de grande potencial, pois pode haver acidentes, que, por sua vez, podem interferir negativamente no meio ambiente. Ao término do estudo, concluiu-se que a fase de produção de petróleo apresenta diversos aspectos ambientais, os quais geram impactos. Viu-se que os impactos não são apenas de caráter negativo. E, por fim, sugere-se a aplicação de medidas mitigadoras e de um sistema de gestão ambiental eficaz para a minimização e/ou eliminação de tais impactos.

  10. Recovery of distal coronary flow reserve in LAD and LCx after Y-Graft intervention assessed by transthoracic echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Y- graft (Y-G) is a graft formed by the Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA) connected to the Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD) and by a free Right Internal Mammary Artery (RIMA) connected to LIMA and to a Marginal artery of Left Circumflex Artery (LCx). Aim of the work was to study the flow of this graft during a six months follow-up to assess whether the graft was able to meet the request of all the left coronary circulation, and to assess whether it could be done by evaluation of coronary flow reserve (CFR). Methods In 13 consecutive patients submitted to Y-G (13 men), CFR was measured in distal LAD and in distal LCx from 1 week after , every two months, up to six months after operation (a total of 8 tests for each patient) by means of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and Adenosine infusion (140 mcg/kg/min for 3-6 min). A Sequoia 256, Acuson-Siemens, was used. Contrast was used when necessary (Levovist 300 mg/ml solution at a rate of 0,5-1 ml/min). Max coronary flow diastolic velocity post-/pre-test ≥2 was considered normal CFR. Results Coronary arteriography revealed patency of both branches of Y-G after six months. Accuracy of TTE was 100% for LAD and 85% for LCx. Feasibility was 100% for LAD and 85% for LCx. CFR improved from baseline in LAD (2.21 ± 0.5 to 2.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.03) and in LCx (1.7 ± 1 to 2.12 ± 1, p = 0.05). CFR was under normal at baseline in 30% of patients vs 8% after six months in LAD (p = 0.027), and in 69% of patients vs 30% after six months in LCx (p = 0.066). Conclusion CFR in Y-G is sometimes reduced in both left territories postoperatively but it improves at six months follow-up. A follow-up can be done non-invasively by TTE and CFR evaluation. PMID:20716357

  11. ‘… the most dangerous place in the place …’

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    Jane Birkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate development in the concepts of patainstitutionalism with reference to the research methodologies and dynamics of the Grey Institute, a practice-based research centre directed by Dr Jane Birkin and Dr Rima Dunn. The paper will present the methodological and epistemic aspects of the Grey Institute’s research culture. From Derrida’s concept of hauntology to Foucault’s ‘The Masked Philosopher, we will examine the historical and critical legacies of Paul Grey, founder of the Grey Institute. Based on a repository of documents kept by Grey until his death, the paper will assess the current work of the Institute and attempt to project forward the path that the new generation of staff and affiliated members of the Grey Institute might take, whilst upholding the value systems of the founder, which are so clearly set out in the recently discovered collection of papers. The Grey Institute is charged with contradictions and knowingly operates within them as a playful and productive unit of administration, exploiting the hidden dynamics of various well-established research processes. The Institute manifests as a de- and re-institutionalising force, and through this rigorous reconfiguration facilitates a fluid circulation of creativity towards an effective practice-based research function. Sheltering diverse opinions and personalities, the Grey Institute facilitates the development of co-creative clusters, presenting and interacting with different modes of intensive and radical research. These activities (and these ‘ghosts of research’, to borrow Derrida’s term naturally operate across the wider social and political dimensions of art and theory. Working both inside and outside the institution, the various initiatives and interventions of the Grey Institute turn the accepted institutional model inside out. Feeding on the techniques and the grey literatures of management systems, the Grey Institute gradually and

  12. Sentieri petrarcheschi, intorno ad Arquà /Petrarchan paths, around Arquà

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    Francesca Favaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L’ultima dimora di Francesco Petrarca, situata ad Arquà, piccolo centro dei Colli Euganei nelle vicinanze di Padova, divenne lungo i secoli meta di frequenti e devoti pellegrinaggi letterari. Di questi itinerari di viaggio, che portavano a deporre, non solo idealmente, un fiore sulla tomba di Petrarca, resta una cospicua memoria, depositata, anno dopo anno, nelle pagine di coloro che – semplici estimatori del cantore di Laura o poeti e artisti anch’essi – dedicarono una lirica, una prosa, un appunto al proprio soggiorno ad Arquà. Attraversare queste pagine, sparse nella produzione dei singoli autori, ma anche conservate e riunite in edizioni a stampa sulla fine dell’Ottocento, consente pertanto di ripercorrere le orme di tali “viaggiatori di cultura”, di cogliere – nello spazio di una rima o di un giro di versi, nel riflesso di uno sguardo contemplante tradotto poi in parole – i differenti riverberi sprigionati dal magistero petrarchesco, diffusi, come un alone o, più propriamente, come un’aura, anche nel lembo di territorio che ospitò il poeta nello scorcio finale della sua esistenza. Petrarch’s last home, located in Arquà, a small town on the Euganean Hills near Padua, became over the centuries a destination of frequent literary pilgrimages. Of these travel routes, which led to lay down, not just ideally, a flower on Petrarch's tomb, a conspicuous memory remains, deposited, year after year, in the pages of those who - simple admirers of the epic poet of Laura or poets and artists themselves - dedicated a lyric poem, a prose or a note about their stay in Arquà. The outcome of this essay is therefore the crossing of some of these pages, scattered through the works of individual writers but also preserved and collected in printed editions at the end of the nineteenth century; the interpretation that has been developed allows us to capture, following the footsteps of these “cultural travelers”, the different

  13. Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (vis+wIRA and Chlorine e6 (Ce6 eradicates Planktonic Periodontal Pathogens and Subgingival Biofilms

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    Ali Al-Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative treatment methods for pathogens and microbial biofilms are required due to the widespread rise in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has recently gained attention as a novel method to eradicate pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a novel aPDT method using visible light (vis and water infiltrated infrared A (wIRA in combination with chlorine e6 (Ce6 against different periodontal pathogens in planktonic form and within in situ subgingival oral biofilms. Eight different periodontal pathogens were exposed to aPDT using vis+wIRA and 100 µg/ml Ce6 in planktonic culture. Additionally, pooled subgingival dental biofilm was also treated by aPDT and the number of viable cells determined as colony forming units (CFU. Live/dead staining was used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM to visualize and quantify antimicrobial effects within the biofilm samples. Untreated negative controls as well as 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX-treated positive controls were used. All eight tested periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Eikenella corrodens, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Slackia exigua and Atopopium rimae and the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm were eliminated over the ranges of 3.43 - 8.34 and 3.91 - 4.28 log10 CFU in the log10 scale, respectively. Thus, aPDT showed bactericidal effects on the representative pathogens as well as on the in situ subgingival biofilm. The live/dead staining also revealed a significant reduction (33.45 % of active cells within the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm. Taking the favorable tissue healing effects of vis+wIRA into consideration, the significant antimicrobial effects revealed in this study highlight the potential of aPDT using this light source in combination with Ce6 as an adjunctive method to treat periodontitis as well as

  14. Antidepressants in social anxiety disorder Antidepressivos no transtorno de ansiedade social

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    Antonio E. Nardi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a marked and persistent fear of doing almost everything in front of people due to concerns about being judge by others. An up-to-date review is needed in order to reach a practical judgement of all psychopharmacological data. Case reports, open and double-blind trials with SAD were described and commented upon from a clinical point of view. The MEDLINE system was searched from 1975 to 2001. The references from the selected papers were also used as a source. MAOIs (fenelzine, tranylcypromine, reversible monoamino oxidase-A inhibitors (moclobemide, brofaromine, SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and some other antidepressants (venlafaxine, nefazodone have proven effective in several studies with various methodologies. The MAOIs have more serious adverse effects and the SSRIs have the best tolerance. SSRIs are efficacious and the first choice of treatment.A fobia social é o medo acentuado e persistente patológico de comer, beber, tremer, enrubescer, falar, escrever, enfim, de agir de forma ridícula ou inadequada na presença de outras pessoas. Muitos estudos clínicos têm sido conduzidos com o objetivo de se obter um tratamento eficaz. É necessária uma revisão atualizada para alcançar um julgamento clínico de todos os dados com antidepressivos. O sistema MEDLINE foi pesquisado no período de 1975 a 2001. As referências dos artigos consultados também foram utilizadas com fonte. Antidepressivos inibidores da monoamino oxidase (IMAO (fenelzine, tanilcipromina, inibidores reversíveis da monoamino oxidase tipo--A (RIMA (moclobemida, brofaromina, antidepressivos inibidores seletivos de serotonina (ISRS (paroxetina, sertralina, fluoxetina, fluvoxamina e alguns outros (venlafaxina, nefazodone têm demonstrado eficácia em inúmeros estudos com diferentes metodologias. Os ISRS são o grupo mais estudado com metodologia duplo-cega, com melhores resultados e com boa tolerância, sendo a primeira

  15. Cefaléia na gestação

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    Marina Mayumi Murazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cefaleia é uma das principais queixas na prática clínica. Ocorre frequentemente na gestação devido vasodilatação por ação do estrógeno e progesterona. Uma vez que é um sintoma frequente, outras causas de cefaleia na gestação podem passar despercebidas, sendo a caracterização da dor e os sintomas que a acompanham fundamentais no diagnóstico diferencial. Trata-se de gestante de 39 anos, multípara e com 37 3/7 semanas de gestação. Refere que há 2 meses procurou atendimento médico devido dor de cabeça intensa, unilateral esquerda, sendo medicada com paracetamol e dispensada. A dor evoluiu para localização bilateral, em peso, contínua, de forte intensidade, acompanhada de fotofobia, fonofobia e vômitos, com discreta melhora com dipirona. Após 3 semanas percebeu ptose palpebral e estrabismo unilateral à direita com desvio da rima, diplopia, visão turva e dislalia. Foi encaminhada ao serviço terciário, onde realizou avaliação neurológica, fundo de olho e tomografia computadorizada do crânio que constatou lesão expansiva em topografia de clivo com extensão para o seio cavernoso e rechaço da carótida, resultando em paralisia do nervo oculomotor e comprometimento do nervo trigêmeo à direita. A hipótese diagnóstica foi de craniofaringioma ou cordoma. Decidiu-se resolução do parto via cesárea, com feto vivo, masculino, 3430g, apgar 6/8. Após o parto, paciente foi encaminhada para o serviço de neurologia, mas abandonou o tratamento assinando termo de responsabilidade pelo seu ato. Autores enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico diferencial da cefaleia na gestação, permitindo diagnóstico e tratamento precoce e alertam para na presença de dor não responsiva à medicação, associada à êmese e sintomas neurológicos, pensar em outras causas de cefaleia, como meningite, hemorragia subaracnóidea e tumores cranianos.

  16. EVALUASI KINERJA GURU FISIKA, BIOLOGI DAN KIMIA SMA YANG SUDAH LULUS SERTIFIKASI

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    Yusrizal Yusrizal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan (1 mengembangkan instrumen evaluasi kinerja guru yang valid dan reliabel, (2 mengevaluasi kinerja guru Fisika, Biologi, dan Kimia SMA yang sudah terser-tifikasi/menerima tunjangan profesi. Populasi penelitian yaitu seluruh guru Fisika, Biologi dan Kimia SMA tersertifikasi/pene-rima tunjangan profesi yang berada di Kota Banda Aceh, Kabupaten Aceh Besar dan Kabupaten Pidie. Validitas konstruk instrumen yang dikembangkan dibuktikan melalui analisis fak-tor, dan reliabilitasnya diestimasi dengan rumus alpha Cron-bach. Analisis tingkat kinerja ditentukan dengan persentase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 instrumen yang dikembang-kan terdiri atas 33 butir pernyataan, dan memiliki koefisien reliabilitas konsistensi internal sebesar 0,953; (2 kinerja guru Fisika, Biologi, dan Kimia SMA yang sudah lulus sertifikasi dan sudah menerima tunjangan belum seluruhnya berkinerja tinggi; (3 kinerja guru Kimia relatif lebih baik dari pada kinerja guru Biologi dan guru Fisika. Kata kunci: evaluasi, kinerja guru, validitas, reliabilitas ______________________________________________________________ AN EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF CERTIFIED SCIENCE TEACHERS (PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Abstract This study was aimed at (1 developing a valid and reliable performance evaluation instruments for teachers, and (2 evaluating the level of Physics, Biology and Chemistry teachers of senior high schools who have been certified and received theprofession allowance. The population of this study included all certified Physics, Biology and Chemistry teachers of senior high schools who have received profession allowance in Banda Aceh, Aceh Besar, and Pidie. The construct validity of the instrument developed was assessed through factor analysis, and the reliability was estimated by using Cronbach’s Alpha formula. The level of teachers’performance was analyzed by the percentage. The result of the research shows that (1 the

  17. Du nulle part au partout : l’utopie de Wittig pour changer le présent et l’avenir From nowhere to everywhere: Wittig’s Utopia to transform the present and the future

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    Kate Robin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’écrivaine Monique Wittig se projette au-delà des contraintes temporelles, tout en s’inspirant de l’époque révolutionnaire des années 1970. La culture est recréée, puisant dans l’Antiquité et la Préhistoire réelles et/ou inventées. Cette notion transtemporelle est récurrente chez des écrivaines d’utopies, servant déjà d’inspiration pour Christine de Pizan au XVe siècle. Elle rassembla par son écriture une population de femmes du passé, du présent et de l’avenir dans une « Cité des Dames », où elles vivront ensemble en dehors des contraintes temporelles et spatiales. Dans l’ensemble, les utopies littéraires féministes s’intéressent à la réinvention du temps, qui devient non plus une notion linéaire, mais circulaire. Aussi le symbole du cercle sert à ordonner les écrits de Wittig, notamment dans Les Guérillères. Cette « épopée » affirme une chronologie, mais non pas celle des horloges ou des calendriers. Les écrivaines utopistes relient le passé est l’avenir, avec une communication immédiate et facile entre les époques. Le présent, étant pollué par la hiérarchie et la domination, est secondaire dans ses manifestations courantes, mais primordial dans le sens que toute l’œuvre est dédiée à l’amélioration immédiate et constante de notre condition humaine.Though inspired by the revolutionary currents of the 1970s, writer Monique Wittig travels beyond temporal constraints. Culture is recreated, nourished by real or invented antiquity and prehistory. Such trans-temporal travel is common among feminist writers, it already inspired Christine de Pizan in the 15th century. Christine assembled a population of women from the past, present and future into the “City of Ladies”, where they could live together without spatial or temporal constraints. On the whole, feminist literary utopias are interested in questions of time and its reinvention in a cyclical and not linear form

  18. Interrill Erodibility of P and C on conventially and organically farmed Devon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion can have significant off-site effects on water quality and thus human and habitat health. Apart from sedimentation, the transfer of nutrients, both dissolved and particulate, is a major concern. The particulate transfer of nutrients from agricultural land can occur either by rill or interrill erosion. Rill erosion is non-selective and affects only a limited extent of agricultural land. Interrill processes such as crusting, splash and raindrop-impacted wash, on the other hand, act on all cropland and affect the quality of the water from all areas generating runoff. A significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by interrill processes annually. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm) surface layer corresponds to 4 to 40 kg ha-1 of P on arable land (1.094 mil km2). Therefore, the role of interrill processes and erosion for regional nutrient cycling requires close attention. Interrill erosion is a complex phenomenon, involving the detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion and particle size. As a consequence, erosion on interrill areas is selective, moving the most easily detached small and/or light soil particles which are often enriched in clay, P and organic C. Commonly, the risk of erosion associated with organically farmed soils is lower than those farmed in a conventional way. This is attributed to greater aggregate stability and thus greater infiltration and lower erodibility. Erosion of nutrients on organically farmed soils is therefore considered to be reduced by the same order of magnitude than the amount of eroded soil compared to conventionally farmed soils. However, the selective nature of

  19. Erosion-vegetation dynamics in the Lucciolabella biancane badland cultural landscape (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccherini, Simona; Vergari, Francesca; Santi, Elisa; Marignani, Michela; Della Seta, Marta; Rossi, Mauro; Torri, Dino; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    erosion rate, which reach more than 4 cm/a, and the most relevant dispersive clay fraction. The surface proneness to water erosion is enhanced by the wide presence of piping in the area. We showed that rills and subsurface micropipes are characterized by analogous erosion processes, meaning that they can be contrasted and eventually halted through a common mitigation strategy, and we observed a clear positive trend that will substantially suppress rilling at very low plant cover (no more than 20%). The analysis of the landscape changes showed a decrease in bare or scarcely vegetated spots of 0.9 ha/a during the last decades. Even if vegetation cover seems to stabilize upper layers of soil profile, rural abandonment and the lack of appropriate management practices have contributed to vegetation encroaching on biancana badland slopes mainly ascribed to generalist ruderal species, causing a loss of elements of high ecological and cultural values. If the encroachment continues to progress at this rate, in 35-40 years from now all the biancana domes will be completely re-vegetated. Badlands were previously kept alive by limited but nonetheless devastating grazing activities. If this picture is correct, then mimicking traditional badland grazing practices seems to be a necessary step towards saving the landscape and biodiversity that the protected areas were established to preserve.

  20. Post-wildfire landscape change and erosional processes from repeat terrestrial lidar in a steep headwater catchment, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Youberg, Ann M.; DeLong, Whitney M.; Murphy, Brendan P.

    2018-01-01

    Flooding and erosion after wildfires present increasing hazard as climate warms, semi-arid lands become drier, population increases, and the urban interface encroaches farther into wildlands. We quantify post-wildfire erosion in a steep, initially unchannelized, 7.5 ha headwater catchment following the 2011 Horseshoe 2 Fire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. Using time-lapse cameras, rain gauges, and repeat surveys by terrestrial laser scanner, we quantify the response of a burned landscape to subsequent precipitation events. Repeat surveys provide detailed pre-and post-rainfall measurements of landscape form associated with a range of weather events. The first post-fire precipitation led to sediment delivery equivalent to 0.017 m of erosion from hillslopes and 0.12 m of erosion from colluvial hollows. Volumetrically, 69% of sediment yield was generated from hillslope erosion and 31% was generated from gully channel establishment in colluvial hollows. Processes on hillslopes included erosion by extensive shallow overland flow, formation of rills and gullies, and generation of sediment-laden flows and possibly debris flows. Subsequent smaller rain events caused ongoing hillslope erosion and local deposition and erosion in gullies. Winter freeze-thaw led to soil expansion, likely related to frost-heaving, causing a net centimeter-scale elevation increase across soil-mantled slopes. By characterizing landscape form, the properties of near-surface materials, and measuring both precipitation and landscape change, we can improve our empirical understanding of landscape response to environmental forcing. This detailed approach to studying landscape response to wildfires may be useful in the improvement of predictive models of flood, debris flow and sedimentation hazards used in post-wildfire response assessments and land management, and may help improve process-based models of landscape evolution.

  1. Hydrologic conditions and terrestrial laser scanning of post-fire debris flows in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kevin M.; Hanshaw, M.N.; Howle, James F.; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Stock, Jonathan D.; Bawden, Gerald W.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate rainfall-runoff conditions that generate post-wildfire debris flows, we instrumented and surveyed steep, small watersheds along the tectonically active front of the San Gabriel Mountains, California. Fortuitously, we recorded runoff-generated debris-flows triggered by one spatially restricted convective event with 28 mm of rainfall falling over 62 minutes. Our rain gages, nested hillslope overland-flow sensors and soil-moisture probes, as well as a time series of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) revealed the effects of the storm. Hillslope overland-flow response, along two ~10-m long flow lines perpendicular to and originating from a drainage divide, displayed only a 10 to 20 minute delay from the onset of rainfall with accumulated totals of merely 5-10 mm. Depth-stratified soil-moisture probes displayed a greater time delay, roughly 20- 30 minutes, indicating that initial overland flow was Hortonian. Furthermore, a downstream channel-monitoring array recorded a pronounced discharge peak generated by the passage of a debris flow after 18 minutes of rainfall. At this time, only four of the eleven hillslope overlandflow sensors confirmed the presence of surface-water flow. Repeat TLS and detailed field mapping using GPS document how patterns of rainsplash, overland-flow scour, and rilling contributed to the generation of meter-scale debris flows. In response to a single small storm, the debris flows deposited irregular levees and lobate terminal snouts on hillslopes and caused widespread erosion of the valley axis with ground surface lowering exceeding 1.5 m.

  2. Estudio de procesos geomorfodinámicos en campos cultivados de viñedos sobre laderas en pendientes en el valle del Ruwer (Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodrigo Comino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende examinar la respuesta erosiva del suelo en áreas cultivadas de viñe-dos sobre laderas en pendientes elevadas en el Valle del Ruwer (Alemania a través de diferentes técnicas. Los experimentos se desarrollan entre los meses de septiembre y diciembre durante di-ferentes épocas de manejo del suelo: antes, durante y después de la vendimia. En primer lugar, se realiza un análisis de la variación geométrica de tres rills para cuantificar su expansión lateral (de 7 a 13 cm y vertical (1 a 4 cm. El movimiento del suelo confirma una elevada variabilidad en los procesos hidro-geomorfológicos de la ladera. A continuación, a través del cálculo del coeficiente teórico de escorrentía a partir del número de curva y lluvias simuladas en diferentes épocas del año, se observan unas elevadas tasas de infiltración, aunque con resultados muy diferentes entre técnicas. Por último, con el cálculo de la RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Ecuation y el aná-lisis de las marcas botánicas en los tocones de las parras, se calcula el impacto negativo de la ero-sión con el manejo agrícola del ser humano sobre los suelos de los viñedos. Con ambos métodos, se han obtenido 11.28 t ha-1 y 3.4 t ha-1 año de pérdida de suelo, respectivamente.

  3. Preliminary geologic map of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-07-01

    The Sleeping Butte volcanic centers comprise two, spatially separate, small-volume ( 3 ) basaltic centers. The centers were formed by mildly explosive Strombolian eruptions. The Little Black Peak cone consists of a main scoria cone, two small satellitic scoria mounds, and associated lobate lava flows that vented from sites at the base of the scoria cone. The Hidden Cone center consists of a main scoria cone that developed on the north-facing slope of Sleeping Butte. The center formed during two episodes. The first included the formation of the main scoria cone, and venting of aa lava flows from radial dikes at the northeast base of the cone. The second included eruption of scoria-fall deposits from the summit crater. The ages of the Little Black Peak and the Hidden Cone are estimated to be between 200 to 400 ka based on the whole-rock K-Ar age determinations with large analytical undertainty. This age assignment is consistent with qualitative observations of the degree of soil development and geomorphic degradation of volcanic landforms. The younger episode of the Hidden Cone is inferred to be significantly younger and probably of Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. This is based on the absence of cone slope rilling, the absence of cone-slope apron deposits, and erosional unconformity between the two episodes, the poor horizon- development of soils, and the presence of fall deposits on modern alluvial surfaces. Paleomagnetic data show that the centers record similar but not identical directions of remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetic data have not been obtained for the youngest deposits of the Hidden Cone center. Further geochronology, soils, geomorphic, and petrology studies are planned of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers 20 refs., 3 figs

  4. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis Marco Ndomba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977–1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977–1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969–2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  5. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977¿1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977-1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969-2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  6. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  7. Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.

    2014-11-01

    The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.

  8. Modeling mechanical and thermo-mechanical erosion by flowing lava at Raglan, Cape Smith Belt, New Québec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, V.; Williams, D. A.; Lesher, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The 1.5-D Williams et al. model of thermal erosion by turbulent lava was recently applied to the Athabasca Valles lava channel on Mars, in an attempt to establish the importance of thermal erosion in excavating this ~80-100 m deep outflow channel. The modeled erosion depths (0.4-7.5 m) are far less than the depth of the channel which, combined with the short duration of the eruption, suggests that mechanical erosion may have had a greater role. Several studies suggest that mechanical erosion by lava is more important in channel-tube formation than previously thought, under certain circumstances. How would we be able to distinguish between mechanical and thermal erosion? By investigating model results when substrate properties change, as we move from a consolidated, mechanically strong substrate to a partially consolidated or unconsolidated, mechanically weaker substrate. The Proterozoic Raglan komatiitic basalt lava channel of the Cape Smith Belt, New Québec, Canada is a complex erosional environment involving invasive erosion of both sediment and gabbro substrates - which makes it a critical test case. The lava eroded an upper layer of soft sediment, with erosion at the tops, bottoms, and sides of the conduit, through underlying gabbro, and then burrowed laterally into underlying sediment, a scenario requiring a two-dimensional modeling approach. Using the available field data, we will simulate two-dimensional thermomechanical and mechanical erosion interfaces on all sides of a turbulent lava flow by creating a finite-element mesh. The mesh will be defined by the geometry of the lava flow at those lava conduits for which data on lava and substrate composition, lava thickness, slope of the ground, conduit area and volume, and lava flow length are available. Ultimately, this model will be applied to lunar sinuous rilles and martian lava channels for which the use of a two-dimensional approach is needed.

  9. The dominant erosion processes supplying fine sediment to three major rivers in tropical Australia, the Daly (NT), Mitchell (Qld) and Flinders (Qld) Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caitcheon, Gary G.; Olley, Jon M.; Pantus, Francis; Hancock, Gary; Leslie, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    The tropics of northern Australia have received relatively little attention with regard to the impact of soil erosion on the many large river systems that are an important part of Australia's water resource, especially given the high potential for erosion when long dry seasons are followed by intense wet season rain. Here we use 137Cs concentrations to determine the erosion processes supplying sediment to two major northern Australian Rivers; the Daly River (Northern Territory), and the Mitchell River (Queensland). We also present data from five sediment samples collected from a 100 km reach of the Cloncurry River, a major tributary of the Flinders River (Queensland). Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface soil and subsurface (channel banks and gully) samples were used to derive 'best fit' probability density functions describing their distributions. These modelled distributions are then used to estimate the relative contribution of these two components to the river sediments. Our results are consistent with channel and gully erosion being the dominant source of sediment, with more than 90% of sediment transported along the main stem of these rivers originating from subsoil. We summarize the findings of similar studies on tropical Australian rivers and conclude that the primary source of sediment delivered to these systems is gully and channel bank erosion. Previously, as a result of catchment scale modelling, sheet-wash and rill erosion was considered to be the major sediment source in these rivers. Identifying the relative importance of sediment sources, as shown in this paper, will provide valuable information for land management planning in the region. This study also reinforces the importance of testing model predictions before they are used to target investment in remedial action.

  10. Vallerani Micro-Catchment Infiltration Dynamics and Erosion from Simulated Rainfall and Concentrated Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, M. J.; McGwire, K.; Weltz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Critical research gaps in rangeland hydrology still exist on the impact of conservation practices on erosion and subsequent mobilization of dissolved solids to streams. This study develops the scientific foundation necessary to better understand how a restoration strategy using a Vallerani Plow can be optimized to minimize erosion from rainfall impact and concentrated flow. Use of the Vallerani system has been proposed for use in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where rapidly eroding rangelands contribute high salt loads to the Colorado River at a significant economic cost. The poster presentation will document the findings from a series of physical rainfall and concentrated flow simulations taking place at an experimental site northeast of Reno, NV in early August. A Walnut Gulch Rainfall simulator is used to apply variable intensity and duration rainfall events to micro-catchment structures created by the Vallerani Plow. The erosion and deposition caused by simulated rainfall will be captured from multi-angle photography using structure from motion (SFM) to create sub-centimeter 3-D models between each rainfall event. A rill-simulator also will be used to apply large volumes of concentrated flow to Vallerani micro-catchments, testing the point at which their infiltration capacity is exceeded and micro-catchments are overtopped. This information is important to adequately space structures on a given hillslope so that chances of failure are minimized. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity from a Guelph Permeameter will be compared to the experimental results in order to develop an efficient method for surveying new terrain for treatment with the Vallerani plow. The effect of micro-catchments on surface flow and erosion will eventually be incorporated into the process-based Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) to create a tool that provides decision makers with quantitative estimates of potential reductions in erosion when

  11. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  12. Material component to non-linear relation between sediment yield and drainage network development: an flume experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the experimental study on influence ofmaterial component to non linear relation between sediment yield and drainage network development completed in the Lab. The area of flume drainage system is 81.2 m2, the longitudinal gradient and cross section slope are from 0.0348 to 0.0775 and from 0.0115 to 0.038, respectively. Different model materials with a medium diameter of 0.021 mm, 0.076 mm and 0.066 mm cover three experiments each. An artificial rainfall equipment is a sprinkler-system composed of 7 downward nozzles, distributed by hexagon type and a given rainfall intensity is 35.56 mm/hr.cm2. Three experiments are designed by process-response principle at the beginning the ψ shaped small network is dug in the flume. Running time spans are 720 m, 1440 minutes and 540 minutes for Runs Ⅰ, Ⅳ and Ⅵ, respectively. Three experiments show that the sediment yield processes are characterized by delaying with a vibration. During network development the energy of a drainage system is dissipated by two ways, of which one is increasing the number of channels (rill and gully), and the other one is enlarging the channel length. The fractal dimension of a drainage network is exactly an index of energy dissipation of a drainage morphological system. Change of this index with time is an unsymmetrical concave curve. Comparison of three experiments explains that the vibration and the delaying ratio of sediment yield processes increase with material coarsening, while the number of channel decreases. The length of channel enlarges with material fining. There exists non-linear relationship between fractal dimension and sediment yield with an unsymmetrical hyperbolic curve. The bsolute value of delaying ratio of the curve reduces with time unning and material fining. It is characterized by substitution of situation to time.

  13. Hydrogeomorphic Investigation of the 2015 Atacama Floods, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Agredano, R., Jr.; Mignot, E.; Gironas, J. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Mao, L.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2015 unusual atmospheric conditions over the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the driest area on Earth outside of Antarctica, produced many years worth of rainfall in a 24-hour period. The resulting sediment-rich floods caused dozens of deaths and/or disappearances, over $1 billion in estimated damage, and widespread geomorphic change. Here we describe the hydrologic and geomorphic drivers and responses to the 2015 Atacama floods, including characterization of the hydrologic forcing, water and sediment routing from source areas in the upper watershed to the outlet at the Pacific Ocean, and urban flooding impacts of this event. In a region where few direct measurements of precipitation and discharge during these events are available, we combined hydrologic and hydraulic modeling with field and aerial photograph interpretation of sediment sources and geomorphic change. A remarkable element of the flood, particularly with respect to its effects on urban areas, was its high sediment load. Despite widespread hillslope erosion in the form of rilling and gullying initiated by overland flow, sediment from these sources typically did not reach valley bottoms, and only limited, small-scale mass wasting was observed. Field observations indicated that the sediment load was primarily derived from dramatic erosion of channel bed, bank, and floodplain material (i.e., valley fill). In the coastal city of Chañaral, flooding of the Salado River produced maximum water depths over 6 m, meters-thick mud deposition in buildings and along city streets, flow velocities larger than 8 m/s, and coastal erosion. Broader implications of studying the Atacama flooding include hazard reduction, the history of copper mining and more than five decades of contamination in many of the affected watersheds, and the Atacama's status as a terrestrial analog for Mars.

  14. Hydrology of two slopes in subarctic Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean K.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    1999-11-01

    Two subarctic forested slopes in central Wolf Creek basin, Yukon, were studied in 1996-1997 to determine the seasonal pattern of the hydrologic processes. A south-facing slope has a dense aspen forest on silty soils with seasonal frost only and a north-facing slope has open stands of black spruce and an organic layer on top of clay sediments with permafrost. Snowmelt is advanced by approximately one month on the south-facing slope due to greater radiation receipt. Meltwater infiltrates its seasonally frozen soil with low ice content, recharging the soil moisture reservoir but yielding no lateral surface or subsurface flow. Summer evaporation depletes this recharged moisture and any additional rainfall input, at the expense of surface or subsurface flow. The north-facing slope with an ice rich substrate hinders deep percolation. Snow meltwater is impounded within the organic layer to produce surface runoff in rills and gullies, and subsurface flow along pipes and within the matrix of the organic soil. During the summer, most subsurface flows are confined to the organic layer which has hydraulic conductivities orders of magnitudes larger than the underlying boulder-clay. Evaporation on the north-facing slope declines as both the frost table and the water table descend in the summer. A water balance of the two slopes demonstrates that vertical processes of infiltration and evaporation dominate moisture exchanges on the south-facing slope, whereas the retardation of deep drainage by frost and by clayey soil on the permafrost slope promotes a strong lateral flow component, principally within the organic layer. These results have the important implication that permafrost slopes and organic horizons are the principal controls on streamflow generation in subarctic catchments.

  15. Current-use pesticides in stream water and suspended particles following runoff: exposure, effects, and mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, Renja; Streloke, Martin; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    The European Union's directive for sustainable use of pesticides requires implementing risk mitigation measures at streams threatened by pesticide entries. The need for mitigation measures was investigated at 10 stream sites within an intensively used arable region in central Germany by characterizing pesticide exposure following edge-of-field runoff and effects on the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Moreover, the influence of riparian buffer strip width (as a mitigation measure) at the sampling sites was considered. Generally, invertebrate fauna was dominated by pesticide-tolerant species, suggesting a high pesticide exposure at almost all sites. This result is also reflected by the elevated levels of suspended particle contamination in terms of toxic units (logTUMax  > -2), corresponding to one-hundredth of the median lethal concentration (LC50) to Daphnia magna. At two sites that received high aqueous-phase entries of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (logTUMax  > -0.6), the abundance and number of sensitive species in terms of the species at risk index decreased during the pesticide application period. In contrast, no acute significant negative effects on macroinvertebrates were observed at sites characterised by low water-phase toxicity (logTUMax  < -3.5). An influence of riparian buffer strip width on pesticide exposure was not observed, supposedly because of the presence of erosion rills and ephemeral ditches. In conclusion, results show that mitigation measures (such as the improvement of currently present riparian buffer strips) are needed in the study area. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  16. The Aristarchus-Harbinger region of the moon: Surface geology and history from recent remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisk, S.H.; Hodges, C.A.; Moore, H.J.; Shorthill, R.W.; Thompson, T.W.; Whitaker, E.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The region including the Aristarchus Plateau and Montes Harbinger is probably the most diverse, geologically, of any area of comparble size on the Moon. This part of the northwest quadrant of the lunar near side includes unique dark mantling material; both the densest concentration and the largest of the sinuous rilles; apparent volcanic vents, sinks, and domes; mare materials of various ages and colors; one of the freshest large craters (Aristarchus) with ejecta having unique colors and albedos; and three other large craters in different states of flooding and degradation (krieger, Herodotus, and Prinz). The three best-authenticated lunar transient phenomena were also observed here. This study is based principally on photographic and remote sensing observations made from Earth and Apollo orbiting space craft. Results include (1) delineation of geologic map units and their stratigraphic relationships; (2) discussion of the complex interrelationships between materials of volcanic and impact origin, including the effects of excavation, redistribution and mixing of previously deposited materials by younger impact craters; (3) deduction of physical and chemical properties of certain of the geologic units, based on both the remote-sensing information and on extrapolation of Apollo data to this area; and (4) development of a detailed geologic history of the region, outlining the probable sequence of events that resulted in its present appearance. A primary concern of the investigation has been anomalous red dark mantle on the Plateau. Based on an integration of Earth- and lunar orbit-based data, this layer seems to consist of fine-grained, block-free material containing a relatively large fraction of orange glass. It is probably of pyroclastic origin, laid down at some time during the Imbrian period of mare flooding. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  17. Nonmonotonic and spatial-temporal dynamic slope effects on soil erosion during rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songbai; Yu, Minghui; Chen, Li

    2017-02-01

    The slope effect on flow erosivity and soil erosion still remains a controversial issue. This theoretical framework explained and quantified the direct slope effect by coupling the modified Green-Ampt equation accounting for slope effect on infiltration, 1-D kinematic wave overland flow routing model, and WEPP soil erosion model. The flow velocity, runoff rate, shear stress, interrill, and rill erosion were calculated on 0°-60° isotropic slopes with equal horizontal projective length. The results show that, for short-duration rainfall events, the flow erosivity and erosion amounts exhibit a bell-shaped trend which first increase with slope gradient, and then decrease after a critical slope angle. The critical slope angles increase significantly or even vanish with increasing rainfall duration but are nearly independent of the slope projective length. The soil critical shear stress, rainfall intensity, and temporal patterns have great influences on the slope effect trend, while the other soil erosion parameters, soil type, hydraulic conductivity, and antecedent soil moisture have minor impacts. Neglecting the slope effect on infiltration would generate smaller erosion and reduce critical slope angles. The relative slope effect on soil erosion in physically based model WEPP was compared to those in the empirical models USLE and RUSLE. The trends of relative slope effect were found quite different, but the difference may diminish with increasing rainfall duration. Finally, relatively smaller critical slope angles could be obtained with the equal slope length and the range of variation provides a possible explanation for the different critical slope angles reported in previous studies.

  18. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  19. Constraining the relative importance of raindrop- and flow-driven sediment transport mechanisms in postwildfire environments and implications for recovery time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Rengers, Francis K.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.

    2016-01-01

    Mountain watersheds recently burned by wildfire often experience greater amounts of runoff and increased rates of sediment transport relative to similar unburned areas. Given the sedimentation and debris flow threats caused by increases in erosion, more work is needed to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed increase in sediment transport in burned environments and the time scale over which a heightened geomorphic response can be expected. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of different hillslope erosion mechanisms during two postwildfire rainstorms at a drainage basin in Southern California by combining terrestrial laser scanner-derived maps of topographic change, field measurements, and numerical modeling of overland flow and sediment transport. Numerous debris flows were initiated by runoff at our study area during a long-duration storm of relatively modest intensity. Despite the presence of a well-developed rill network, numerical model results suggest that the majority of eroded hillslope sediment during this long-duration rainstorm was transported by raindrop-induced sediment transport processes, highlighting the importance of raindrop-driven processes in supplying channels with potential debris flow material. We also used the numerical model to explore relationships between postwildfire storm characteristics, vegetation cover, soil infiltration capacity, and the total volume of eroded sediment from a synthetic hillslope for different end-member erosion regimes. This study adds to our understanding of sediment transport in steep, postwildfire landscapes and shows how data from field monitoring can be combined with numerical modeling of sediment transport to isolate the processes leading to increased erosion in burned areas.

  20. Land destruction and redevelopment - the use of computer based landscape evolution models for post-mining landscape reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Greg; Willgoose, Garry

    2017-04-01

    Mining provides essential resources for the global economy as well as considerable employment and economic benefits for the community. Mining is necessary for the modern economy. However, in recent decades the scale and environmental impact of mining has grown in line with the global demand for resources. This requires ever increasing areas of land to be disturbed. In particular, open-cast mining removes topsoil, disrupts aquifers and removes uneconomic material to depths of many hundreds of metres. Post-mining, this highly disturbed landscape system requires rehabilitation. The first and most important component of this process is to construct an erosionally stable landform which then can ecologically integrate with the surrounding undisturbed landscape. The scale and importance of this process cannot be overstated as without planned rehabilitation it is likely that a degraded and highly erosional landscape system with result. Here we discuss computer based landform evolution models which provide essential information on the likely erosional stability of the reconstructed landscape. These models use a digital elevation model to represent the landscape and dynamically adjusts the surface in response to erosion and deposition. They provide information on soil erosion rates at the storm event time scale through to annual time scales. The models can also be run to assess landscape evolution at millennial time scales. They also provide information on the type of erosion (i.e. rilling, gullying) and likely gully depths (and if they will occur). Importantly, the latest models have vegetation, armouring and pedogenesis submodels incorporated into their formulation. This allows both the surface and subsurface landscape evolution to be assessed. These models have been widely used and have huge benefits for the assessment of reconstructed landscapes as well as other disturbed landscape systems. Here we outline the state of the art.

  1. Assessing and mapping the severity of soil erosion using the 30-m Landsat multispectral satellite data in the former South African homelands of Transkei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutloali, Khoboso E.; Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2017-08-01

    Soil erosion is increasingly recognised as the principal cause of land degradation, loss of agricultural land area and siltation of surrounding water waterbodies. Accurate and up-to-date soil erosion mapping is key in understanding its severity if these negative impacts are to be minimised and affected areas rehabilitated. The aim of this work was to map the severity of soil erosion, based on the 30-m Landsat series multispectral satellite data in the former South African homelands of Transkei between the year 1994 and 2010. Further, the study assessed if the observed soil erosion trends and morphology that existed in this area could be explained by biophysical factors (i.e. slope, stream erosivity, topographic wetness index) retrieved from the 30-m ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The results of this study indicate that the Transkei region experiences varying erosion levels from moderate to very severe. The large portion of the land area under the former homelands was largely affected by rill erosion with approximately 74% occurring in the year 1984 and 54% in 2010. The results also revealed specific thresholds of soil erosion drivers. These include steeper areas (≥30°), high stream power index greater than 2.0 (stream erosivity), relatively lower vegetation cover (≤15%) and low topographic wetness index (≤5%). The results of this work demonstrate the severity of soil erosion in the Southern African former homelands of Transkei for the year 1984 and 2010. Additionally, this work has demonstrated the significance of the 30-m Landsat multispectral sensor in examining soil erosion occurrence at a regional scale where in-depth field work still remains a challenging task.

  2. Observations of paraglacial processes on glacier forelands in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The large and extensively debris-covered valley glaciers in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park immediate east of the Main Divide in the Southern Alps of New Zealand experienced a substantial frontal retreat and vertical downwasting during the past few decades, often connected with the development of a proglacial lake and retreat by calving. Their Holocene glacier forelands are characterised by huge lateral moraines and multi-ridged lateral moraine systems alongside smaller terminal moraines and frontal outwash heads. Placed within a very dynamic general geomorphological regime of various efficient process-systems, these Holocene glacier forelands are currently affected by substantial paraglacial modification. These paraglacial processes have already caused some consequences for the touristic infrastructure in the area and are likely to cause further problems for the accessibility of established tramping routes, tourist huts, and lookouts in the near and medium future. One of the first steps in a project under development presented here is a detailed visual comparison of changes documented during the past 15 Years on the glacier forelands of Hooker, Mueller and Tasman Glaciers in Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park. It reveals considerable erosion especially on the proximal slopes of the lateral moraines by gully development and retreat of erosion scars at their crest in order of several metres in just a few years. Different processes contribute to high erosion rates, among others rill erosion connected to mid-slope springs that only are temporarily active following substantial rainfall events, efficient gully incision, and slumping. Although any quantification of the actual erosion rates is just preliminary and further studies are necessary in order to make reliable predictions for future development, the amount of paraglacial erosion in this environment is very high compared to other regions and highlights the current importance of the paraglacial process-system in the

  3. Co-evolution and thresholds in arid floodplain wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven; Rodriguez, Jose; Riccardi, Gerardo; Wen, Li; Saintilan, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation in arid floodplain wetlands consist of water dependent and flood tolerant species that rely on periodical floods in order to maintain healthy conditions. The floodplain often consist of a complex system of marshes, swamps and lagoons interconnected by a network of streams and poorly defined rills. Over time, feedbacks develop between vegetation and flow paths producing areas of flow obstruction and flow concentration, which combined with depositional and erosional process lead to a continuous change on the position and characteristics of inundation areas. This coevolution of flow paths and vegetation can reach a threshold that triggers major channel transformations and abandonment of wetland areas, in a process that is irreversible. The Macquarie Marshes is a floodplain wetland complex in the semi-arid region of north western NSW, Australia. The site is characterised by a low-gradient topography that leads to channel breakdown processes where the river network becomes practically non-existent and the flow extends over large areas of wetland that later re-join and reform channels exiting the system. Due to a combination of climatic and anthropogenic pressures, the wetland ecosystem in the Macquarie Marshes has deteriorated over the past few decades. This has been linked to decreasing inundation frequencies and extent, with whole areas of flood dependent species such as Water Couch and Common Reed undergoing complete succession to terrestrial species and dryland. In this presentation we provide an overview of an ecogeomorphological model that we have developed in order to simulate the complex dynamics of the marshes. The model combines hydrodynamic, vegetation and channel evolution modules. We focus on the vegetation component of the model and the transitional rules to predict wetland invasion by terrestrial vegetation.

  4. Dynamic Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk Using Landsat TM and HJ Satellite Data in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area, China

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    Pengpeng Han

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Danjiangkou reservoir area is the main water source and the submerged area of the Middle Route South-to-North Water Transfer Project of China. Soil erosion is a factor that significantly influences the quality and transfer of water from the Danjiangkou reservoir. The objective of this study is to assess the water erosion (rill and sheet erosion risk and dynamic change trend of spatial distribution in erosion status and intensity between 2004 and 2010 in the Danjiangkou reservoir area using a multicriteria evaluation method.The multicriteria evaluation method synthesizes the vegetation fraction cover, slope gradient, and land use. Based on the rules and erosion risk assessment results of the study area in 2004 and 2010, the research obtained the conservation priority map. This study result shows an improvement in erosion status of the study area, the eroded area decreased from 32.1% in 2004 to 25.43% in 2010. The unchanged regions dominated the study area and that the total area of improvement grade erosion was larger than that of deterioration grade erosion. The severe, more severe, and extremely severe areas decreased by 4.71%, 2.28%, and 0.61% of the total study area, respectively. The percentages of regions where erosion grade transformed from extremely severe to slight, light and moderate were 0.18%, 0.02%, and 0.30%, respectively. However, a deteriorated region with a 2,897.60 km2 area was still observed. This area cannot be ignored in the determination of a general governance scheme. The top two conservation priority levels cover almost all regions with severe erosion and prominent increase in erosion risk, accounting for 7.31% of the study area. The study results can assist government agencies in decision making for determining erosion control areas, starting regulation projects, and making soil conservation measures.

  5. Multibeam bathymetric survey of the Ipala Submarine Canyon, Jalisco, Mexico (20°N): The southern boundary of the Banderas Forearc Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urías Espinosa, J.; Bandy, W. L.; Mortera Gutiérrez, C. A.; Núñez Cornú, Fco. J.; Mitchell, N. C.

    2016-03-01

    The Middle America Trench bends sharply northward at 20°N. This, along with the close proximity of the Rivera-North America Euler pole to the northern end of this trench, sharply increases the obliquity of subduction at 20°N. By analogy with other subduction zones with similar sharply changing obliquity, significant trench parallel extension is expected to exist in the forearc region near the bend. To evaluate this possibility, multibeam bathymetric, seafloor backscatter and sub-bottom seismic reflection data were collected in this area during the MORTIC08 campaign of the B.O. El Puma. These data image in detail a large submarine canyon (the Ipala Canyon) extending from the coast at 20°05‧N to the Middle America Trench at 19°50‧N. This canyon is 114 km long and is fed by sediments originating from two, possibly three, small rivers: the Ipala, Tecolotlán and Maria Garza. This canyon deeply incises (up to 600 m) the entire continental slope and at least the outer part of the shelf. Within the canyon, we observe meanders and narrow channels produced by turbidity flows indicating that the canyon is active. In the marginal areas of the canyon slumps, rills, and uplifts suggest that mass movements and fluid flow have had a major impact on the seafloor morphology. The seafloor bathymetry, backscatter images and sub-bottom reflection profiles evidence the tectonic processes occurring in this area. Of particular interest, the canyon is deflected by almost 90° at three locations, the deflections all having a similar azimuth of between 125° and 130°. Given the prominence and geometry of this canyon, along with its tectonic setting, we propose that the presence of the canyon is related to extension produced by the sharp change in the plate convergence. If so, the canyon may lie along the southeast boundary of a major forearc block (the Banderas Forearc Block).

  6. Post-wildfire landscape change and erosional processes from repeat terrestrial lidar in a steep headwater catchment, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Youberg, Ann M.; DeLong, Whitney M.; Murphy, Brendan P.

    2018-01-01

    Flooding and erosion after wildfires present increasing hazard as climate warms, semi-arid lands become drier, population increases, and the urban interface encroaches farther into wildlands. We quantify post-wildfire erosion in a steep, initially unchannelized, 7.5 ha headwater catchment following the 2011 Horseshoe 2 Fire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. Using time-lapse cameras, rain gauges, and repeat surveys by terrestrial laser scanner, we quantify the response of a burned landscape to subsequent precipitation events. Repeat surveys provide detailed pre-and post-rainfall measurements of landscape form associated with a range of weather events. The first post-fire precipitation led to sediment delivery equivalent to 0.017 m of erosion from hillslopes and 0.12 m of erosion from colluvial hollows. Volumetrically, 69% of sediment yield was generated from hillslope erosion and 31% was generated from gully channel establishment in colluvial hollows. Processes on hillslopes included erosion by extensive shallow overland flow, formation of rills and gullies, and generation of sediment-laden flows and possibly debris flows. Subsequent smaller rain events caused ongoing hillslope erosion and local deposition and erosion in gullies. Winter freeze-thaw led to soil expansion, likely related to frost-heaving, causing a net centimeter-scale elevation increase across soil-mantled slopes. By characterizing landscape form, the properties of near-surface materials, and measuring both precipitation and landscape change, we can improve our empirical understanding of landscape response to environmental forcing. This detailed approach to studying landscape response to wildfires may be useful in the improvement of predictive models of flood, debris flow and sedimentation hazards used in post-wildfire response assessments and land management, and may help improve process-based models of landscape evolution.

  7. COMPONENTES Y DINÁMICA NATURAL DEL AMBIENTE -CIUDAD DE NEUQUÉN-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga C. Capua

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The city of Neuquen, capital of the province, is located on the valleys' soils product or Limay and Neuquén rivers and on the surface, slopes and foothills of the plateau, located north of the town center. Up to 70s decade urban region was surrounded by agricultural areas, with intensive irrigation infrastructure and limited by rivers and relief with a marked topographic steep slope dissected by a dense network of rills and gullies. This front has layers with different resistance, then, a stepped profile with a succession of cliffs and debris cones that provide a complex look of the terrain. For a best understanding of nature and proper land management is essential to study the natural dynamics of dry regions. This demonstrates the diversity of morphogenetic processes responsible for the current modeling. Under the prevailing climatic conditions, soil pedogenic processes are weak or allowing the initial processes of weathering or weathering, act directly on the rocky outcrops influencing modeling. The mechanical breakdown and gravitational movements, generate from the initial slope, new landforms characterized by the deposition of debris, masking en some sectors, the original lithology. This is compounded by the action of running water, where runoff, predominantly concentrated, is based on two fundamental values: the intensity of rainfall, and the rate of infiltration. Low rainfall and intense evapotranspiration define a framework characterized by a homogeneous sparse shrub steppe, with elevated percentages of bare soil. Furthermore, the scarse plant covering and soil characteristics favor the direct action of wind on the surface incrementing the processes of erosion-deflation, abrasion and attrition, and build farms. This paper considers the interaction of biophysical elements of nature (climate, topography, vegetation, soil, water, agents and processes generating the forms of relief, in a systemic approach to understand the natural dynamics

  8. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  9. Water body and riparian buffer strip characteristics in a vineyard area to support aquatic pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Renja; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-10-15

    The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n=43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9m and 0.06m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width=1m; depth=0.3m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (>70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height>1.5m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72±29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot

  10. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex

  11. Neki problemi pri prevođenju moderne poezije promatrani kroz teoriju konceptualne integracije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Cimer

    2011-12-01

    koji slijede u vlastitom su prijevodu, osim ako nije drugačije naznačeno. U 20. stoljeću oformio se, između ostalih, pristup da je zadatak prevoditelja prijevodom oponašati izvorno lirsko djelo, a uz to što prijevod treba preslikavati original, on također treba zadržati i njegovu poetsku vrijednost te u ciljnom jeziku funkcionirati kao samostalna poetska forma (bez glosa, komentara ili fusnota. Budući da je svaka pjesma priča za sebe, svaki je prevoditelj pri definiranju prioriteta (zvučnost? semantika? rima? ritam? prepušten samom sebi i konstantno se suočava s izborima (Jones (citat u Connolly 174 prevođenje poezije naziva “umjetnošću kompromisa”. W. S. Merwin opisuje svoj pristup prevođenju poezije na sljedeći način: “Znate, i dalje vjerujem da ne znam kako se prevodi i da to nitko ne zna. To je nemoguć, ali nužan proces, ne postoji savršen način da se on izvede i velik njegov dio mora se oblikovati u hodu za svaku pojedinačnu pjesmu.”

  12. Burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among hospitalized patients in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaqafi AO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,1 Madonna J Matar,2 Rima Moghnieh,3 Adel F Alothman,4 Thamer H Alenazi,5 Fayssal Farahat,1 Shelby Corman,6 Caitlyn T Solem,6 Nirvana Raghubir,7 Cynthia Macahilig,8 Seema Haider,9 Jennifer M Stephens6 1Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, 3Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanese Republic; 4Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Central Region, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, 5Infection Prevention & Control Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 6Real World Evidence: Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, 7Medical Affairs, Pfizer, New York, NY, 8Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 9Outcomes & Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities, treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials, hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay, and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality. Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results: Chart

  13. Burden and treatment patterns of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized patients in the Middle East: real-world data from Saudi Arabia and Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alothman AF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adel F Alothman,1 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,2 Madonna J Matar,3 Rima Moghnieh,4 Thamer H Alenazi,1 Fayssal M Farahat,2 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Claudie Charbonneau,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1College of Medicine, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, King AbdulAziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, Lebanon; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Real-world Evidence/Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 8Pfizer International Operation, Paris, France Objectives: The objective of this study was to document the burden and treatment patterns associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs due to Candida and Aspergillus species in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study was conducted using data recorded from 2011 to 2012 from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of IFI due to Candida or Aspergillus, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive results were reported. Results: Five hospitals participated and provided data on 102 patients with IFI (51 from Lebanon and 51 from Saudi Arabia. The mean age of the patients was 55 years, and 55% were males. Comorbidities included diabetes (41%, coronary artery disease (24%, leukemia (19%, moderate

  14. Habilidades em consciência fonológica: diferenças no desempenho de meninos e meninas Abilities in phonological awareness: differences in boys and girls' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Andreazza-Balestrin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se existem diferenças entre meninas e meninos pré-escolares e em processo de alfabetização, quanto ao desempenho em tarefas de consciência fonológica (CF. MÉTODO: a amostra foi constituída de 75 crianças do sexo masculino e 88 do sexo feminino, com idades entre 5:6 e 8:0, avaliadas por meio de questionário enviado aos pais, triagem fonoaudiológica completa, avaliação do nível intelectual, do nível de escrita e das habilidades em CF. A análise estatística foi realizada pelos testes: ANOVA de Duas Vias complementado pelo teste Tukey, e Teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: o sexo feminino apresentou significância positiva nas tarefas: segmentação silábica com palavras quadrissílabas (p=0,03; detecção silábica posição inicial (p=0,05, posição final (p=0,01 e posição medial (p=0,04. Na análise percentual da média de acertos por tarefa, o desempenho dos meninos foi superior apenas nas tarefas de segmentação de frases em palavras com duas (média=7,52, três (média=5,79, quatro (média=4,56, cinco (média=3,93 e seis palavras (média=3,56, e no realismo nominal (média=8,93. CONCLUSÕES: encontrou-se desempenho significantemente superior das meninas em tarefas de segmentação silábica com quadrissílabos e de detecção silábica. Em análise qualitativa, as meninas obtiveram médias mais elevadas em todas as tarefas de consciência e rimas, de sílabas e de fonemas.PURPOSE: to check possible differences among pre-school boys and girls in literacy process, regarding their performance in Phonological Awareness (PA tasks. METHOD: 75 boys and 88 girls, aged between 5:6 and 8:0, submitted to an assessment involving a form sent to the parents, a complete speech and language screening, the assessment of the intellectual and writing levels and the abilities in phonological awareness (PA. For a statistical data analysis we applied the Two-Way ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student tests. RESULTS: girls showed a positive

  15. La persuasió de la lògica i la lògica de la persuasió: les proposicions en vers del Dictat de Ramon (1299 de Ramon Llull

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    Anna Fernàndez-Clot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article s’aborda l’estudi del Dictat de Ramon, una obra en vers que té el propòsit d’aportar arguments per provar els sis articles més destacats de la fe cristiana. Cada una de les sis parts en què es divideix el text conté vint, deu o dotze dístics que condensen en forma de proposició o màxima els arguments que s’addueixen. En el treball s’examina, en primer lloc, les estructures i les formulacions logicosemàntiques d’aquestes proposicions, entre les quals destaquen sobretot les construccions condicionals; en segon lloc, s’estudia la funció de la rima i la versificació, i es descriuen de forma sintètica els recursos estilístics que Llull empra en la redacció dels dístics; finalment, es valora la recepció de què ha estat objecte el text per part de la crítica contemporània. El treball destaca que la tria del vers i del discurs sentenciós s’ha de posar en relació amb el destinatari específic al qual va adreçat el text, el rei Jaume II d’Aragó, i amb la petició amb què Llull clou el poema: la sol·licitud d’un permís perquè pugui predicar a les sinagogues i les mesquites dels territoris de la Corona d’Aragó. In this paper, we deal with the study of the Dictat de Ramon, a work in verse that has the aim to provide arguments proving the most important articles of Christian religion. Each one of the six parts in which the poem is divided contains twenty, ten or twelve couplets that condense the arguments into the form of a proposition or maxim. Firstly, we analyze the semantic and logcial structures of the propositions, among which stand out the conditional clauses; secondly, we examine the function of the rhyme and the versification, and we sum up the stylistic and rhetorical figures used to compose the couplets; finally, we evaluate the reception of the text. One important aim of our study is to emphasize that the choice of verse and maxims is clearly linked with the addresee of the text

  16. Antikinių dramų pastatymai Lietuvoje | Performances of Antique Dramas in Lithuania

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    Jovita Dikmonienė

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Performances according to antique dramas and their revamps by Lithuanian directors of 1925 to 2003 are presented in the article. Performances of Sophocles’ and Euripides’ tragedies are discussed wider. Scilicet: “Oedipus at Colonus” by Borisas Dauguvietis (1939, “Oedipus the King” by Juozas Miltinis (1977, “Electra” by Irena Kriauzaitė (1993, “Medea” by Linas Marijus Zaikauskas (1994, “Oedipus the King” by Rimas Tuminas (1998, “Antigonė” by Birutė Marcinkevičiūtė (Mar (1999 and “Oedipus the King” by Oskaras Koršunovas (2002. Scenography and direction of performances, interpretation of antique text and particularity of development of performances’ form and content are analyzed in the article.Scenography of performances changed from realistic (by B. Dauguvietis and static (by J. Miltinis portrayal of antique theatre to modern (by L. M. Zaikauskas, plastic (by R. Tuminas with vivid reflection of today’s realia (by O. Koršunovas. B. Dauguvietis has saved almost authentic form of antique performance and has rejected only from masks and cothurni. Idea of antique marble statuary playing in the tragedy of “Oedipus the King” was rendered in J. Miltinis’ performance. Role of chorus was retained in these performances; original text was not changed or shortened. Plays by I. Kriauzaitė and B. Marcinkevičiūtė were up-to-date, without antique costumes and masks, and distinguished from other plays with its minimalist direction and scenography. Chorus parts, which were acted by one actress, were shortened in “Electra”. Director and actress B. Marcinkevičiūtė herself performed all personages in tragedy and tragedy’s chorus was represented by video projection in “Antigonė”. Later performances of antique dramas were modernized not only in the meaning of form but of content, too. Greek tragedy’s text remained plot’s pattern in L. M. Zaikauskas’ and O. Koršunovas’ performances, through which

  17. Treatment patterns, resource utilization, and outcomes among hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

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    Matar MJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Madonna J Matar,1 Rima Moghnieh,2 Adel F Alothman,3 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,4 Thamer H Alenazi,3 Fayssal M Farahat,4 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Seema Haider,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Notre Dame des Secours University Hospital, Jbeil, Lebanon; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Infection Prevention and Control, King AbdulAziz Medical City, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Pharmerit International, Real-World Evidence/Data Analytics, Bethesda, MD, 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 8Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: To describe treatment patterns and medical resource use for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon in terms of drug selection against the infecting pathogen as well as hospital resource utilization and clinical outcomes among patients with these infections. Methods: This retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from five hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA cSSTI, which was culture-proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients with each infection type to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: Data were abstracted from medical records of 87 patients with MRSA cSSTI; mean age 52.4±25.9 years and 61% male. Only 64% of patients received an MRSA active initial therapy, with 56% of first

  18. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  19. Low rate of human papillomavirus vaccination among schoolgirls in Lebanon: barriers to vaccination with a focus on mothers’ knowledge about available vaccines

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    Abou El-Ola MJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria J Abou El-Ola,1 Mariam A Rajab,2 Dania I Abdallah,3 Ismail A Fawaz,4 Lyn S Awad,5 Hani M Tamim,6 Ahmad O Ibrahim,7 Anas M Mugharbil,7 Rima A Moghnieh8 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Pediatrics, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Pharmacy, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Iklim Health Foundation Hospital, Mazboud, Mount Lebanon, Chouf, Lebanon; 5Department of Pharmacy, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 7Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 8Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is an established predisposing factor of cervical cancer. In this study, we assessed the awareness about genital warts, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine among mothers having girls who are at the age of primary HPV vaccination attending a group of schools in Lebanon. We also assessed the rate of HPV vaccination among these girls and the barriers to vaccination in this community. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional, school-based survey. A 23-item, self-administered, anonymous, pretested, structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was used to obtain data. The questionnaire was sent to the mothers through their student girls, and they were asked to return it within a week. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0. Bivariate analysis was performed using the chi-square test to compare categorical variables, whereas continuous variables were compared using the Student’s t-test. Fisher’s exact test was used when chi-square test could not be employed. Results: The response rate in our survey

  20. Desempenho de escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento em tarefas fonológicas e silábicas Performance of students with developmental dyslexia in phonological and syllabic tasks

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    Giseli Donadon Germano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho em tarefas fonológicas e silábicas de escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento e comparar estes achados com o desempenho de discentes com bom desempenho escolar. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 26 alunos de oito a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, de 2ª. a 4ª. séries do Ensino Fundamental municipal na cidade de Marilia-SP, divididas em GI: composto por 13 escolares com dislexia atendidos no Centro de Estudos da Educação e Saúde - CEES/UNESP e GII: composto por 13 alunos com bom desempenho acadêmico, pareados segundo sexo, idade e escolaridade com o GI. Como procedimento foi utilizada a Prova de Consciência Fonológica - Instrumento de Avaliação Seqüencial - CONFIAS. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste Mann-Whitney (comparação entre os grupos e Teste dos Postos Sinalizados-Wilcoxon (comparação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: os resultados evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significante, sugerindo melhor desempenho do GII em relação ao GI quanto às tarefas fonêmicas e silábicas. O GI apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa nas tarefas silábicas e fonêmicas, com melhor desempenho nas primeiras. Entre os escolares do GII não houve grande diferença estatística entre tarefas silábicas, apenas entre tarefas fonêmicas. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo concluiu que escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento apresentam dificuldades quanto à identificação de rima e produção de palavras com o som dado, apontando para um déficit em acessar os códigos e as representações fonológicas.PURPOSE: to characterize and to compare the performance in phonological and syllabic tasks of developmental dyslexia to good readers. METHODS: twenty-six students participated, with age varying between 8 and 12 years, both genders, of 2nd and 4th grades of the municipal elementary education of the city of Marília-SP. They were divided into GI: 13 developmental dyslexic

  1. O tratamento farmacológico da fobia social Pharmacologic treatment of social phobia

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    Antonio Egidio Nardi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fobia social é o medo acentuado e persistente de comer, beber, tremer, enrubescer, falar, escrever, enfim, de agir de forma ridícula ou inadequada na presença de outras pessoas. A fobia social apresenta-se em dois tipos básicos: a circunscrita, restrita a apenas um tipo de situação social, e a generalizada, caracterizada pelo temor a todas ou quase todas situações sociais. As características clínicas da fobia social são a ansiedade antecipatória, os sintomas físicos, a esquiva e a baixa auto-estima. Conforme o rigor diagnóstico, estima-se que 5% a 13% da população geral apresentem sintomas fóbicos sociais que resultem em diferentes graus de incapacitação e limitações sociais e ocupacionais. O tratamento médico de escolha é o uso de medicamentos associados à psicoterapia cognitivo-comportamental. Beta-bloqueadores (atenolol, propranolol, antidepressivos inibidores da monoamino oxidase (IMAO (fenelzine, tanilcipromina, inibidores reversíveis da monoamino oxidase tipo-A (RIMA (moclobemida, brofaromina, benzodiazepínicos (clonazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam e antidepressivos inibidores seletivos de serotonina (ISRS (paroxetina, sertralina, fluoxetina e fluvoxamina e alguns outros (venlafaxina, nefazodone, gabapentina, clonidina têm demonstrado eficácia em inúmeros estudos com diferentes metodologias. Os antidepressivos tricíclicos (imipramina, clomipramina, o ácido valproico e a buspirona têm apresentado resultados negativos. A paroxetina é o medicamento mais estudado com metodologia duplo-cega, com melhores resultados e com boa tolerância. Atualmente, os indivíduos que têm sua vida prejudicada pela fobia social podem, com o tratamento eficaz, adquirir uma postura mais segura em situações sociais.Social phobia is a marked and persistent fear of eating, drinking, trembling, blushing, speaking, writing or doing almost everything in front of people due to concerns about embarrassment or being scrutinized by others

  2. Caracterização funcional da mímica facial na paralisia facial em trauma de face: relato de caso clínico Functional characterization of facial mimicry in facial paralysis of face trauma: a clinical case report

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    Leila Bonfim de Jesus

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: mímica facial na paralisia facial ocasionada por trauma de face. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo de caso da mímica facial de um paciente com paralisia facial periférica no lado direito com sequelas decorrente de trauma por projétil de arma de fogo, adulto jovem do sexo masculino, comerciante autônomo. Foi realizada análise documental e fotográfica por meio de anamnese, avaliação e escala de graduação de da paralisia facial House e Brackmann. RESULTADOS: na avaliação da paralisia facial em repouso encontrou-se no lado direito (lesado: desvio de comissura labial, desvio de filtro, narina mais elevada e olho mais aberto. Em movimento, ainda no lado da lesão, observou-se: abolição de rugas frontais, incompetência no fechamento ocular natural e fechamento completo ao forçar, ausência de elevação de narina, rima naso-labial mais pronunciada, protrusão labial desviada para este lado, pouca retração labial, eversão de lábio inferior, comissura labial elevada, desvio de filtro, reduzida capacidade de inflar bochechas. O paciente apresentou sincinesia de olho/lábios e contratura com hipertonia de frontal, prócero, levantador da asa do nariz, risório, zigomático maior, zigomático menor, levantador do lábio superior, depressor do lábio inferior, mentual no lado da lesão e a fratura ocorreu em côndilo direito e o paciente referiu dor orofacial ao dormir e ao mastigar no lado comprometido. CONCLUSÃO: a lesão do nervo facial associada ao trauma de face provocou a alteração da mímica facial no lado direito o que gerou desfiguramento e distúrbios da mastigação.BACKGROUND: facial mimicry in the paralysis of the face that occurs because of a trauma in the face. PROCEDURES: case study of facial mimicry of a patient with peripheral facial paralysis, on the right side of the face, with sequels that happened because of a trauma because of a fire gun projectile; a young man, a self-employed trader. A documental and photographical

  3. Literatura en expresión inglesa: una propuesta de formación docente

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    Fernando BELTRÁN LLAVADOR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Lo que sigue es una propuesta didáctica para la introducción de la asginatura «Literatura Inglesa y su Didáctica» en los nuevos planes de estudio para la especialidad de «Maestro Especialista en Lengua Extranjera (Inglés» en las Escuelas de Formación del Profesorado. Su contenido, que tiene un carácter más descriptivo que prescriptivo, sistematiza algunas experiencias previamente experimentadas en la Escuela Universitaria de Educación de Ávila (Universidad de Salamanca. Para su diseño se han tenido en consideración tres enfoques que guardan cierta autonomía, aunque mantienen una estrecha relación: uno de carácter estrictamente «literario», con una introducción breve a la historia y géneros de la literatura, o pluralidad de literaturas, en lengua inglesa; otro con mayor acento «linguistico», donde la literatura en expresión inglesa se concibe como un instrumento o recurso especialmente favorable para la enseñanza de la lengua inglesa; y un tercer enfoque de carácter «pedagógico», que se detiene a estudiar tanto la literatura infantil inglesa (que comprende además de los cuentos tradicionales, las rimas y canciones infantiles, junto a dichos de extracción popular o folklórica como las lecturas adaptadas (según edad, nivel de conocimientos de la lengua, tema, complejidad léxica o gramatical, etc..SUMMARY: The article offers a proposal for the introduction of the subject of «English Literature and its Pedagogy» within the university curriculum of prospective primary ELT teachers in Spain. It is offered as a suggested description, based on former experiences piloted in the Teacher Training School of Avila (University of Salamanca, rather than as an imposed prescription. In designing it, three converging approaches have been taken into account: firstly, a «literary» one, including a brief historical introduction to literature, or more justly literatures, in English expression; secondly, a

  4. Episodic sediment delivery and landscape connectivity in the Mancos Shale badlands and Fremont River system, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Andrew E.; Everitt, Benjamin L.; Duque, José F. Martín

    2008-12-01

    The Fremont River drains about 1000 km 2 of Mancos Shale badlands, which provide a large percentage of the total sediment load of its middle and lower reaches. Factors controlling sediment movement include: weathering that produces thin paralithic soils, mass movement events that move the soil onto locations susceptible to fluvial transport, intense precipitation events that move the sediment along rills and across local pediments, and finally Fremont River floods that move the sediment to the main-stem Colorado River. A forty-year erosion-pin study has shown that down-slope creep moves the weathered shale crust an average of 5.9 cm/yr. Weather records and our monitoring show that wet winters add large slab failures and mudflows. Recent sediment-trap studies show that about 95% of sediment movement across pediments is accomplished by high-intensity summer convective storms. Between 1890 and 1910, a series of large autumn floods swept down the Fremont River, eroding its floodplain and transforming it from a narrow and meandering channel to a broad, braided one. Beginning about 1940, the Fremont's channel began to narrow. Sequential aerial photos and cross-sections suggest that floodplain construction since about 1966 has stored about 4000 to 8000 m 3 of sediment per kilometer per year. These data suggest that it will take two centuries to restore the floodplain to its pre-1890 condition, which is in line with geologic studies elsewhere on the Colorado Plateau. The various landscape elements of slope, pediment, and floodplain are semi-independent actors in sediment delivery, each with its own style. Accelerated mass movement on the slopes has an approximate 20-year recurrence. Sediment movement from slope across pediments to master stream is episodic and recurs more frequently. The slope-to-pediment portion of the system appears well connected. However, sediment transport through the floodplain is not well connected in the decadal time scale, but increases in the

  5. Geology, tectonism and composition of the northwest Imbrium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Li, Lin; Luo, Xiaoxing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Pieters, Carle M.; Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.

    2018-03-01

    hypothesized to be a causal relationship, with the PKT terrain reducing the thickness of the lithosphere and permitting preferential dike emplacement and extrusion there. We speculate that high-Ti and olivine-rich composition in late stage basalts may be consistent with low Si and high Ti and low degrees of partial melting. Large numbers of sinuous rilles and small ridges are identified and mapped. Many young ridges were found inside Imbrium, suggesting a very extended period (at least as young as the last 50 Ma) of the Moon's tectonic activity. The distinct compositions of both highlands and mare basalts and extended tectonism emphasize how the Imbrium basin is an important area for understanding the Moon.

  6. Ecohydrological Linkages, Multi-scale Processes, Temporal Variability, and Drivers of Change in a Degraded Pinyon-Juniper Watershed: Implications for Erosion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    In 1993 long-term research began on the runoff and erosion dynamics of a pinyon-juniper woodland hillslope at Bandelier National Monument in northern New Mexico (USA). In the 1.09 ha Frijolito watershed, erosion has been continuously studied at 3 spatial scales: 1 square meter, about 1000 square meters, and the entire watershed. This site is currently representative of degraded woodlands of pinyon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in this region, exhibiting marked connectivity of exposed bare soil interspaces between tree canopy patches and obvious geomorphic signs of accelerated soil erosion (e.g., pedestalling, actively expanding rill networks). Ecological and land use histories show that this site has undergone a number of dramatic ecohydrological shifts since ca. C.E. 1850, transitioning from: 1) open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) overstory with limited pinyon-juniper component and substantial herbaceous understory that supported surface fires and constrained soil erosion, to; 2) ponderosa pine with reduced herbaceous cover due to livestock grazing after ca.1870, resulting in collapse of the surface fire regime and increased establishment of young pinyon and juniper trees, to; 3) mortality of all of the ponderosa pine during the extreme drought of the 1950s, leaving eroding pinyon-juniper woodland, to; 4) mortality of all mature pinyon at or above sapling size during the 2002-2003 drought, with juniper now the only dominant woody species. Detailed measurements since 1993 document high rates of soil erosion (> 2.75 Mg/ha/year on average at the watershed scale) that are rapidly stripping the local soils. Long-term observations are needed to distinguish short-term variability from longer term trends, as measurements of runoff and erosion show extreme variability at multiple time scales since 1993. The multi-scale erosion data from the Frijolito watershed reveal little dropoff in erosion rate (g/meter-squared) between the one meter

  7. Adaptation to heavy rainfall events: watershed-community planning of soil and water conservation technologies in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu

    2010-05-01

    classified into high erosion risk areas. Accordingly, a community-watershed plan was established and revised with the community committee. Loans to implement soil and water conservation measures were distributed to 52 farmers based on the priorities of their farms. Results from four runoff events in 2009 showed that one erosive runoff event can deliver more than 50% of the total soil loss. Implementing semi-circular bunds reduced rill erosion by 40% and captured 3.4 tons of sediments per hectare. The effect of this approach in limiting the negative impact of extreme rainfall events, at watershed and field levels, are now being quantified and modeled. Keywords: climate change, land use, soil erosion, GIS, flow accumulation, land tenure.

  8. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    densities required to achieve a certain accuracy given the cross-sectional variability of a gully and the measurement method applied. References Casali, J., Loizu, J., Campo, M.A., De Santisteban, L.M., Alvarez-Mozos, J., 2006. Accuracy of methods for field assessment of rill and ephemeral gully erosion. Catena 67, 128-138. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2006.03.005

  9. Efecto de la escorrentía sobre la carga de sedimentos en sus­pensión y fósforo en un arroyo de cabecera de una cuenca ru­ral (NO España Effect of runoff on suspended sediment and phosphorus loading in a headwater stream of a rural catchment (NW Spain

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    M.L. Rodríguez-Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la carga de sedimentos en suspensión (SS y fósforo (P durante even­tos de lluvia-escorrentía en un arroyo de ca­becera, que drena una cuenca rural ubicada en Galicia (NO España. Asimismo, se trató de conocer las principales fuentes de SS y P exportados. Se observaron acusadas dife­rencias en la carga de SS y P entre eventos, lo cual se asocia con el volumen de esco­rrentía, así como con el desarrollo de surcos y cárcavas efímeras en parcelas de cultivo bien conectadas con la red de drenaje. La carga de SS osciló entre 0,8 y 21,0 t mientras que la de P varió entre 2,5 y 20,0 kg. El fósforo parti­culado (PP mostró relaciones significativas con los SS, lo que indica el origen erosivo de una parte importante de P, especialmente considerando que el PP supone más de un 80% del P exportado en cada evento.This work examines the suspended sedi­ment (SS and phosphorus (P load during rainfall-runoff events in a headwater stream which drains a rural catchment located in Galicia (NW Spain. Another objective is to know the major sources of SS and P ex­ported. Important differences in the SS and P load between events were found, which is associated with the runoff volume, as well as to develop of rills and ephemeral gullies in cultivated fields well connected to the drainage network. The SS load ranged be­tween 0.8 and 21.0 t, while the P load varied between 2.5 and 20.0 kg. The particulate phosphorus (PP showed significant rela­tionship with SS, which indicates the ero­sive origin of P, especially considering that PP means more 80% of P exported each event.

  10. Primary care patients' expectations regarding medical appointments and their experiences during a visit: does age matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariusz Jaworski,1 Marta Rzadkiewicz,1 Miroslawa Adamus,1 Joanna Chylinska,1 Magdalena Lazarewicz,1 Gørill Haugan,2 Monica Lillefjell,3 Geir Arild Espnes,2 Dorota Wlodarczyk1 1Department of Medical Psychology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, 3Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, NTNU Center for Health Promotion Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Introduction: There is evidence that meeting patients’ expectations toward health care correlates with involvement in the treatment they receive. The most important patient expectations concern certain types of information: explanation of disease and treatment, health promotion, and improvement in quality of life. Other demands include proper rapport and emotional support. The aim of this paper was to examine different patient groups over the age of 50 years and their expectations toward medical visits, evaluated before a visit and after the visit.Patients and methods: The study group consisted of 4,921 primary health-care patients. The patients received self-administered questionnaires that they filled in before and after the appointment with the doctor. Interviews with patients were conducted individually by specially trained interviewers. The PRACTA Patient Expectations Scale was used to measure the appointment-related expectations of the patients.Results: We observed differences related to age in patients’ expectations before medical visits regarding the following factors: disease explanation, treatment explanation, quality of life, rapport, and emotional support. The same differences were not observed on health promotion. Evaluation of patients’ appointment-related experiences after the visit showed that there were significant differences between the age-groups regarding all types of expectations included in the study. Differences between previsit and

  11. Effects of Near Soil Surface Characteristics on the Soil Detachment Process in a Chronological Series of Vegetation Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing

    2017-04-01

    correction coefficients of near soil surface characteristics for rill erodibility were provided for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model.

  12. Sediment pathways in a tropical forest: effects of logging roads and skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Roy C.; Sasaki, Shozo; Otsuki, Mieko; Noguchi, Shoji; Rahim Nik, Abdul

    2004-03-01

    Significant erosion occurred from recently constructed forest logging roads and skid trails in a small headwater catchment in Peninsular Malaysia. Soil loss was estimated by measuring dimensions of all significant rills and gullies along the road, as well as by measuring height of preserved soil pedestals in sidecast and fill material and on skid trails. Estimates of surface erosion from logging roads and skid trails were 272 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 and 275 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 respectively. However, owing to lack of connectivity of skid trails to the stream, much of the sediment mobilized on skid trails was stored either on adjacent hillslopes or the trails themselves, rather than being transported to the stream system, as was the case for the road. Steeper skid trails (>20% gradient) had slightly higher erosion rates (320 +/- 24 t ha-1 year-1) than trails with gentler gradients (245-264 t ha-1 year-1). Some 60% of the soil loss on logging roads comes from erosion of the running surface. Disturbed cut and fill material along the road supplied the remaining 40% of the soil loss from roads. Roads and skid trails had no designed drainage systems; runoff discharged onto the hillslope at 25 major discharge nodes from the logging road (690 m total length) and at 34 nodes from skid trails (2300 m). Sediment pathways were either fully or moderately connected to headwater channels at 64% of the logging road nodes, but at only 26% of the nodes emanating from skid trails. A detailed sediment budget revealed that 78% of the soil loss from the road system (including log landings) was delivered to the stream in the first 16 months after logging began. Most (90%) of the deposition from skid trails occurred below just three discharge nodes. Runoff from and onto skid trails often exacerbated the sediment connectivity to channels. Clearly, sediment discharge from logging roads was more highly connected to the stream than discharge from skid trails. Once in the channel, much of this

  13. Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuguang; Schumacher, Joseph A.; Schumacher, Thomas E.; Kaspar, Thomas C.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Napton, Darrell; Jaynes, Dan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic exponents (m = 1.0–1.6 and n = 1.0–1.3) using soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that the aggregated 24-m DEM, m = 1.4 and n = 1.0 for rill erosion, and m = 1.0 and n = 1.0 for sheet erosion, provided the best fit with the observation data at both sites. Moreover, estimated average SOC redistributions were 1.3 ± 9.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 1 and 3.6 ± 14.3 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 2. Spatial distribution patterns showed SOC loss (negative values) in the eroded areas and SOC gain (positive value) in the deposition areas. This study demonstrated the importance of the spatial resolution and the topographic exponents to estimate and map soil redistribution and the SOC dynamics throughout the landscape, helping to identify places where erosion and deposition from water and tillage are occurring at high rates. Additional research is needed to improve the application of the model framework for use in local and regional studies where rainfall erosivity and cover management factors vary. Therefore, using this model framework can help to improve the information about the spatial distribution of soil erosion across agricultural landscapes and to gain a better understanding of SOC

  14. Sprinkling experiments to simulate high and intense rainfall for process based investigations - a comparison of two methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C.; Seeger, M.; Schneider, R.; Johst, M.; Casper, M.

    2009-04-01

    Land use and land management changes affect runoff and erosion dynamics. So, measures within this scope are often directed towards the mitigation of natural hazards such as floods and landslides. However, the effects of these changes (e.g. in soil physics after reforestation or a less extensive agriculture) are i) detectable first many years later or ii) hardly observable with conventional methods. Therefore, sprinkling experiments are frequently used for process based investigations of near-surface hydrological response as well as rill and interrill erosion. In this study, two different sprinkling systems have been applied under different land use and at different scales to elucidate and quantify dominant processes of runoff generation, as well as to relate them to the detachment and transport of solids. The studies take place at the micro-scale basin Zemmer and Frankelbach in Germany. At the Zemmer basin the sprinkling experiments were performed on agricultural land while the experiments in Frankelbach were performed at reforested sites. The experiments were carried out i) with a small mobile rainfall simulator of high rainfall intensities (40 mm h-1) and ii) with a larger one covering a slope segment and simulating high rainfall amounts (120 mm in 3 days). Both methods show basically comparable results. On the agricultural sites clear differences could be observed between different soil management types: contrasting to the conventionally tilled soils, deep loosened soils (in combination with conservative tillage) do not produce overland flow, but tend to transfer more water by interflow processes, retaining large amounts in the subsoil. For the forested sites runoff shows a high variability as determined the larger and the smaller rainfall simulations. This variability is rather due to the different forest and soil types than to methodologically different settings of the sprinkling systems. Both rainfall simulation systems characterized the runoff behavior in a

  15. Geophysical characterization of soil moisture spatial patterns in a tillage experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Giráldez, J. V.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge on the spatial soil moisture pattern can improve the characterisation of the hydrological response of either field-plots or small watersheds. Near-surface geophysical methods, such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), provide a means to map such patterns using non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa. In this study ECa was measured using an EMI sensor and used to characterize spatially the hydrologic response of a cropped field to an intense shower. The study site is part of a long-term tillage experiment in Southern Spain in which Conventional Tillage (CT), Direct Drilling (DD) and Minimum Tillage (MT) are being evaluated since 1982. Soil ECa was measured before and after a rain event of 115 mm, near the soil surface and at deeper depth (ECas and ECad, respectively) using the EM38-DD EMI sensor. Simultaneously, elevation data were collected at each sampling point to generate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Soil moisture during the first survey was close to permanent wilting point and near field capacity during the second survey. For the first survey, both ECas and ECad, were higher in the CT and MT than in the DD plots. After the rain event, rill erosion appeared only in CT and MT plots were soil was uncovered, matching the drainage lines obtained from the DEM. Apparent electrical conductivity increased all over the field plot with higher increments in the DD plots. These plots showed the highest ECas and ECad values, in contrast to the spatial pattern found during the first sampling. Difference maps obtained from the two ECas and ECad samplings showed a clear difference between DD plots and CT and MT plots due to their distinct hydrologic response. Water infiltration was higher in the soil of the DD plots than in the MT and CT plots, as reflected by their ECad increment. Higher ECa increments were observed in the depressions of the terrain, where water and sediments accumulated. On the contrary, the

  16. Rapid Assessment of Logging-Associated Sediment-Delivery Pathways in an Intensively-Managed Forested Watershed in the Southern Cascades, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, D. B.; Wopat, M. A.; Lindsay, D.; Stanish, S.; Boone, M.; Beck, B.; Wyman, A.; Bull, J.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for water-quality impacts in intensively-managed forested watersheds depends partly upon the frequency of overland flow paths linking logging-related hillslope sediment sources to the channel network, as well as the volume of sediment delivered along these flow paths. In response to public concerns over perceived water-quality impacts from clearcut timber harvesting, the Battle Creek Task Force, composed of subject-matter experts from 4 different state agencies, performed a rapid assessment for visible evidence of sediment delivery pathways from multiple logging-associated features in the upper Battle Creek watershed - an area underlain predominantly by Holocene- and Late Pleistocene-aged volcanic rock types, with highly permeable soils, and relatively few streams. Logging-associated features were selected for assessment based on erosion potential and proximity to stream channels. Identified sediment-delivery pathways were then characterized by dominant erosion process and the relative magnitude of sediment delivery (i.e., low, moderate, and high) was estimated. Approximately 26 km of stream buffers adjacent to 55 clearcut harvest units were assessed, and the single detected instance of sediment delivery was found to be of low magnitude and the result of illegal encroachment by logging equipment into a 5-m wide stream-adjacent equipment-limitation zone. The proportion of sampled sites delivering sediment was found to be highest for tractor-stream crossings, followed by road-stream crossings, stream-adjacent road segments, stream-adjacent landings, and clearcut harvest units, respectively. All 5 tractor-stream crossings delivered sediment, but were generally delivering a low magnitude of sediment derived from sheetwash and rilling. Road-stream crossings (n=39) and stream-adjacent road segments (n=24) delivered observable sediment 69 and 67 percent of the time, respectively. The highest magnitudes of sediment delivery from roads were associated with

  17. RFID tags as a direct tracer for water and sediment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerer, Erik; Plate, Simon; Güntner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) is a wireless automatic identification system to track objects with widespread application in industrial operations, but also selected applications in ecological research (animal tracking) and for hydro-sedimentological studies (sediment transport with RFID tags embedded in bedload material). In this study, for the first time, we test and apply RFID tags as a direct tracer to track water pathways, erosion patterns and sediment transport on the surface at the hillslope and headwater scale. The RFID system used here consists of tags with a size of 12 x 2 mm and a combination of mobile and stationary antennas. The transport pathways and velocities of the RFID tags can be individually assessed due to their unique identification numbers. The study area is a badland of easily erodible marls and carbonates located in the Villacarli catchment (42 km²) in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. The badlands have been identified as one of the main sediment sources for siltation of the downstream Barasona Reservoir. More than 700 tags were placed in different terrain units using three experimental setups, including lab experiments: (i) intensive feasibility tests ranging from laboratory flume experiments to tracer studies under natural channel and slope conditions to compare the transport of RFID tags relative to colored particles of the natural sediment; (ii) several transects across the badland to investigate sediment transfer characteristics on different morphological units (i.e. channel, rills, slopes); (iii) a raster of 99 RFID tags covering a slope flank with vegetated and unvegetated parts to reveal the influence of vegetation to erosion and transport processes. The detection of transported tags was carried out with a mobile antenna system to map the spatial distribution of tags after selected rainfall events and with two stationary antennas in channel cross-sections for time-continuous observation of tag passage. From the observations, we

  18. My Changing Perception of Mars: A Whipple Award Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    presence of liquid water in the recent past, rapid change in polar solid CO2 landforms, perhaps related to climate change, and evidence for ancient rainfall in the form of inverted hillslope rills and first-order streams, and evidence for contemporary impact cratering. It is gratifying to be exploring, with cameras we designed for MSL, an area in Gale Crater Ken and I described in 2000.

  19. Can DEM time series produced by UAV be used to quantify diffuse erosion in an agricultural watershed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Lisein, J.; Swerts, G.; Bielders, C. L.; Lejeune, P.; Colinet, G.; Degré, A.

    2017-03-01

    Erosion and deposition modelling should rely on field data. Currently these data are seldom available at large spatial scales and/or at high spatial resolution. In addition, conventional erosion monitoring approaches are labour intensive and costly. This calls for the development of new approaches for field erosion data acquisition. As a result of rapid technological developments and low cost, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have recently become an attractive means of generating high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). The use of UAV to observe and quantify gully erosion is now widely established. However, in some agro-pedological contexts, soil erosion results from multiple processes, including sheet and rill erosion, tillage erosion and erosion due to harvest of root crops. These diffuse erosion processes often represent a particular challenge because of the limited elevation changes they induce. In this study, we propose to assess the reliability and development perspectives of UAV to locate and quantify erosion and deposition in a context of an agricultural watershed with silt loam soils and a smooth relief. Erosion and deposition rates derived from high resolution DEM time series are compared to field measurements. The UAV technique demonstrates a high level of flexibility and can be used, for instance, after a major erosive event. It delivers a very high resolution DEM (pixel size: 6 cm) which allows us to compute high resolution runoff pathways. This could enable us to precisely locate runoff management practices such as fascines. Furthermore, the DEMs can be used diachronically to extract elevation differences before and after a strongly erosive rainfall and be validated by field measurements. While the analysis for this study was carried out over 2 years, we observed a tendency along the slope from erosion to deposition. Erosion and deposition patterns detected at the watershed scale are also promising. Nevertheless, further development in the

  20. Spatial Resolution Effect on Forest Road Gradient Calculation and Erosion Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Elliot, W.

    2017-12-01

    Road erosion is one of the main sediment sources in a forest watershed and should be properly evaluated. With the help of GIS technology, road topography can be determined and soil loss can be predicted at a watershed scale. As a vector geographical feature, the road gradient should be calculated following road direction rather than hillslope direction. This calculation might be difficult with a coarse (30-m) DEM which only provides the underlying topography information. This study was designed to explore the effect of road segmentation and DEM resolution on the road gradient calculation and erosion prediction at a watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was run on road segments of 9 lengths ranging from 40m to 200m. Road gradient was calculated from three DEM data sets: 1m LiDAR, and 10m and 30m USGS DEMs. The 1m LiDAR DEM calculated gradients were very close to the field observed road gradients, so we assumed the 1m LiDAR DEM predicted the true road gradient. The results revealed that longer road segments skipped detail topographical undulations and resulted in lower road gradients. Coarser DEMs computed steeper road gradients as larger grid cells covered more adjacent areas outside road resulting in larger elevation differences. Field surveyed results also revealed that coarser DEM might result in more gradient deviation in a curved road segment when it passes through a convex or concave slope. As road segment length increased, the gradient difference between three DEMs was reduced. There were no significant differences between road gradients of different segment lengths and DEM resolution when segments were longer than 100m. For long segments, the 10m DEM calculated road gradient was similar to the 1m LiDAR gradient. When evaluating the effects of road segment length, the predicted erosion rate decreased with increasing length when road gradient was less than 3%. In cases where the road gradients exceed 3% and rill erosion dominates

  1. Effects of Small-scale Vegetation-related Roughness on Overland Flow and Infiltration in Semi-arid Grassland and Shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D.

    2012-12-01

    We studied the effects of small-scale roughness on overland flow/runoff and the spatial pattern of infiltration. Our semi-arid sites include a grassland and shrubland in Central New Mexico and a shrubland in the Eastern Mojave Desert. Vegetation exerts strong controls on small-scale surface roughness in the form of plant mounds and other microtopography such as depressions and rills. We quantified the effects of densely measured soil surface heterogeneity using model simulations of runoff and infiltration. Microtopographic roughness associated with vegetation patterns, on the scale of mm-cm's in height, has a larger effect on runoff and infiltration than spatially correlated saturated conductivity. The magnitude and pattern of the effect of roughness largely depends on the vegetation and landform type, and rainfall depth and intensity. In all cases, runoff and infiltration amount and patterns were most strongly affected by depression storage. In the grassland we studied in central New Mexico, soil surface roughness had a large effect on runoff and infiltration where vegetation mounds coalesced, forming large storage volumes that require filling and overtopping in order for overland flow to concentrate into runoff. Total discharge over rough surfaces was reduced 100-200% compared to simulations in which no surface roughness was accounted for. For shrublands, total discharge was reduced 30-40% by microtopography on gently sloping alluvial fans and only 10-20% on steep hillslopes. This difference is largely due to the lack of storage elements on steep slopes. For our sites, we found that overland flow can increase infiltration by up to 2.5 times the total rainfall by filling depressions. The redistribution of water via overland flow can affect up to 20% of an area but varies with vegetation type and landform. This infiltration augmentation by overland flow tends to occur near the edges of vegetation canopies where overland flow depths are deep and infiltration rates

  2. Erosion and Sedimentation from the Bagley Fire, Eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, J. A.; Bachmann, S.; Mai, C.; Mikulovsky, R.; Mondry, Z. J.; Rust, B.; Young, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Bagley Fire burned about 19,000 hectares on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest in the late summer of 2012, with soil burn severities of 11% high, 19% moderate and 48% low. Two strong storms in November and December followed the fire. The first storm had a recurrence interval of about 2 years, and generated runoff with a return interval of 10-25 years, causing many road stream crossing failures in parts of the fire. The second storm had a recurrence interval of 25-50 years, and initiated more severe erosion throughout the fire area. Erosional processes were dominated by sheet, rill and gully erosion, and landslides were uncommon. A model predicted high potential for debris flows, but few were documented, and though most stream channels exhibited fresh scour and deposition, residual deposits lacked boulder levees or other evidence of debris flow. Rather, deposits were stratified and friable, suggesting a sediment laden flood flow rather than debris flow origin. The resulting sediment was rich in gravel and finer particles, and poor in larger rock. Soil loss was estimated at 0.5-5.6 cm on most hillslopes. A high resolution DEM (LiDAR) was used to measure gullies, small landslides, and stream scour, and also to estimate sedimentation in Squaw Creek, and Shasta Lake. A soil erosion model was used to estimate surface erosion. Total erosion in the Squaw Creek watershed was estimated at 2.24 million metric tons, which equates to 260 metric tons/hectare. Of this, about 0.89 million metric tons were delivered to the stream system (103 metric tons/hectare). Nearly half of this sediment, 0.41 million metric tons, was temporarily stored in the Squaw Creek channel, and around 0.33 million metric tons of fine sediment were carried into Shasta Lake. Squaw Creek also delivered about 0.17 million metric tons of sand, gravel and cobbles to the lake. This estimate is very tenuous, and was made by measuring the volume of a delta in Shasta Lake from a tributary to Squaw Creek and

  3. Impact of soil protection measures based on topographical variations through connectivity indices in two agricultural catchments in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Mesas, F. Javier; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Marín-Moreno, Víctor; Mateos, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Physiographic attributes of the catchments (spatial organization and internal connectivity) determine sediment production, transport and delivery to river channels downstream. Understanding the hydrological connectivity allows identifying runoff and sediment contribution from overland flow pathways, rills and gullies at the upper parts of the catchments to sink areas (Borselli et al., 2008). Currently, the design of orchards and row crops plantations is driven by traffic and machinery management criteria, meaning significant simplification of the landscape. Topographic alterations may reduce the connectivity and maximize the retention of water and sediments in catchments by increasing travel times and infiltration (Gay et al., 2016). There are connectivity indices based on topography and land use information (Borselli et al., 2008) and travel times (Chow et al., 1988) which may help to identify measures to reduce water and sediment transfer. In this work, connectivity indices derived from digital elevation models (DEM) of two small agricultural catchments where topographic measures to interrupt the connectivity had been implemented were analyzed. The topographical details of the tree row ridges in a young almond orchard catchment and half-moons (individual terraces) in an olive grove catchment were obtained using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) flights. The aim was to evaluate the benefits of ridges and half-moons by comparing spatial patterns of connectivity indices before and after the topographical modifications in the catchments. The catchments were flown in December 2016. The original DEMs were generated based on previous topographical information and a filter based on minimum heights. The statistics and the maps generated will be presented as results of our study and its interpretation will provide an analysis to preliminarily explore effective and economical measures for erosion control and improved water harvesting. REFERENCES Gay, O. Cerdan, V. Mardhel, M

  4. Structural and Functional Connectivity from Unmanned-Aerial System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Rens; Heckmann, Tobias; Casalí, Javier; Giménez, Rafael; Cerdá, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade there has been an increase in both connectivity research and research involving Unmanned-Aerial systems (UASs). In some studies, UASs were successfully used for the assessment of connectivity, but not yet to their full potential. We present several ways to use data obtained from UASs to measure variables related to connectivity, and use these to assess both structural and functional connectivity. These assessments of connectivity can aid us in obtaining a better understanding of the dynamics of e.g. sediment and nutrient transport. We identify three sources of data obtained from a consumer camera mounted on a fixed-wing UAS, which can be used separately or combined: Visual and near-infrared imagery, point clouds, and digital elevation models (DEMs). Imagery (or: orthophotos) can be used for (automatic) mapping of connectivity features like rills, gullies and soil and water conservation measures using supervised or unsupervised classification methods with e.g. Object-Based Image Analysis. Furthermore, patterns of soil moisture in the top layers can be extracted from visual and near-infrared imagery. Point clouds can be analysed for vegetation height and density, and soil surface roughness. Lastly, DEMs can be used in combination with imagery for a number of tasks, including raster-based (e.g. DEM derivatives) and object-based (e.g., feature detection) analysis: Flow routing algorithms can be used to analyse potential pathways of surface runoff and sediment transport. This allows for the assessment of structural connectivity through indices that are based, for example, on morphometric and other properties of surfaces, contributing areas, and pathways. Third, erosion and deposition can be measured by calculating elevation changes from repeat surveys. From these "intermediate" variables like roughness, vegetation density and soil moisture, structural connectivity and functional connectivity can be assessed by combining them into a dynamic index of

  5. (210)Pb as a tracer of soil erosion, sediment source area identification and particle transport in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    , forested lands, construction sites, undisturbed lands) or style of erosion (sheet wash, rills, bank). The transport time of particles in the terrestrial system can be estimated using (7)Be/(210)Pbxs radionuclide ratios and from mass balance models of (210)Pbxs and/or (7)Be in streams. Watershed residence times can be calculated from the radionuclide inventory and the erosional loss rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating soil erosion on hiking trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Peeters, Mattias; Kuppen, Emiel; Blok, Kas; Dilly, Lina

    2017-04-01

    Natural parks and protected natural areas provide excellent recreational opportunities for outdoor activities through the richness of the natural environment and the abundance of walking trails. Hiking, mountain biking and running have rapidly gained popularity over recent years increasing concerns about the erosion and degradation of hiking trails caused by (over)use. This is also the case in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southeast Spain, which is a popular destination for tourists due to its diverse fauna and flora. The increasing number of tourists together with the negative impacts of climate change necessitates a better understanding of the key soil erosion processes impacting hiking trails. There are 4 scenic trail routes in the Natural Park amounting to 21 km plus an additional network of unofficial trails. Apart from the heavy touristic traffic on the trails there are large trail running events with up to 1000 participants becoming increasingly popular, however local park authorities have voiced concerns about the impacts of these activities on the trails. Despite the popularity of walking trails around the world, there is a paucity of research exploring soil erosion from these features. Therefore, the aims of this study are: 1) to ascertain the amount of erosion that occurs on trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park, and 2) determine the key factors that influence soil erosion. Some 100 km of trails were evaluated (both official and unmarked trails), with route segments ranging between 2 and 10 km. A trail classification system was developed to group trail segments based on their surface characteristics (bedrock, gravel, mixed sediment, soil or man-made) and specific erosion features (rills, ditch-shaped, tilted). For each class, the average erosion rate was calculated which ranged from 262 t/ha for soil-based trails to 2006 t/ha for heavily eroded, ditch-shaped trails. The spatial distribution of the different erosion rates and trail types were

  7. Computing LS factor by runoff paths on TIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Krasa, Josef; Bek, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    The article shows results of topographic factor (the LS factor in USLE) derivation enhancement focused on detailed Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) based DEMs. It describes a flow paths generation technique using triangulated irregular network (TIN) for terrain morphology description, which is not yet established in soil loss computations. This technique was compared with other procedures of flow direction and flow paths generation based on commonly used raster model (DEM). These overland flow characteristics together with therefrom derived flow accumulation are significant inputs for many scientific models. Particularly they are used in all USLE-based soil erosion models, from which USLE2D, RUSLE3D, Watem/Sedem or USPED can be named as the most acknowledged. Flow routing characteristics are also essential parameters in physically based hydrological and soil erosion models like HEC-HMS, Wepp, Erosion3D, LISEM, SMODERP, etc. Mentioned models are based on regular raster grids, where the identification of runoff direction is problematic. The most common method is Steepest descent (one directional flow), which corresponds well with the concentration of surface runoff into concentrated flow. The Steepest descent algorithm for the flow routing doesn't provide satisfying results, it often creates parallel and narrow flow lines while not respecting real morphological conditions. To overcome this problem, other methods (such as Flux Decomposition, Multiple flow, Deterministic Infinity algorithm etc.) separate the outflow into several components. This approach leads to unrealistic diffusion propagation of the runoff and makes it impossible to be used for simulation of dominant morphological features, such as artificial rills, hedges, sediment traps etc. The modern methods of mapping ground elevations, especially ALS, provide very detailed models even for large river basins, including morphological details. New algorithms for derivation a runoff direction have been developed as

  8. Retrogressive thaw slumps temper dissolved organic carbon delivery to streams of the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Cara A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2017-12-01

    In Siberia and Alaska, permafrost thaw has been associated with significant increases in the delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to recipient stream ecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) on DOC concentration and transport, using data from eight RTS features on the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada. Like extensive regions of northwestern Canada, the Peel Plateau is comprised of thick, ice-rich tills that were deposited at the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. RTS features are now widespread in this region, with headwall exposures up to 30 m high and total disturbed areas often exceeding 20 ha. We find that intensive slumping on the Peel Plateau is universally associated with decreasing DOC concentrations downstream of slumps, even though the composition of slump-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM; assessed using specific UV absorbance and slope ratios) is similar to permafrost-derived DOM from other regions. Comparisons of upstream and downstream DOC flux relative to fluxes of total suspended solids suggest that the substantial fine-grained sediments released by RTS features may sequester DOC. Runoff obtained directly from slump rill water, above entry into recipient streams, indicates that the deepest RTS features, which thaw the greatest extent of buried, Pleistocene-aged glacial tills, release low-concentration DOC when compared to paired upstream, undisturbed locations, while shallower features, with exposures that are more limited to a relict Holocene active layer, have within-slump DOC concentrations more similar to upstream sites. Finally, fine-scale work at a single RTS site indicates that temperature and precipitation serve as primary environmental controls on above-slump and below-slump DOC flux, but it also shows that the relationship between climatic parameters and DOC flux is complex for these dynamic thermokarst features. These results demonstrate that we should expect clear variation in thermokarst

  9. Retrogressive thaw slumps temper dissolved organic carbon delivery to streams of the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Littlefair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Siberia and Alaska, permafrost thaw has been associated with significant increases in the delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC to recipient stream ecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs on DOC concentration and transport, using data from eight RTS features on the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada. Like extensive regions of northwestern Canada, the Peel Plateau is comprised of thick, ice-rich tills that were deposited at the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. RTS features are now widespread in this region, with headwall exposures up to 30 m high and total disturbed areas often exceeding 20 ha. We find that intensive slumping on the Peel Plateau is universally associated with decreasing DOC concentrations downstream of slumps, even though the composition of slump-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM; assessed using specific UV absorbance and slope ratios is similar to permafrost-derived DOM from other regions. Comparisons of upstream and downstream DOC flux relative to fluxes of total suspended solids suggest that the substantial fine-grained sediments released by RTS features may sequester DOC. Runoff obtained directly from slump rill water, above entry into recipient streams, indicates that the deepest RTS features, which thaw the greatest extent of buried, Pleistocene-aged glacial tills, release low-concentration DOC when compared to paired upstream, undisturbed locations, while shallower features, with exposures that are more limited to a relict Holocene active layer, have within-slump DOC concentrations more similar to upstream sites. Finally, fine-scale work at a single RTS site indicates that temperature and precipitation serve as primary environmental controls on above-slump and below-slump DOC flux, but it also shows that the relationship between climatic parameters and DOC flux is complex for these dynamic thermokarst features. These results demonstrate that we should expect clear variation in

  10. Preliminary data concern the ravenation processes genesis in some sedimentation structures of The Moldavian Tableland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BUCUREȘTEANU

    2008-04-01

    decreases and the sand is transported exclusivelybecause of gravitational attraction. In the main section, but especially in the secondary gullieslocated on the right side of the main section, chemical suffusion processes might be present inthe early stages of the gully development, because of the primary salinization of the deposits,now levigated. Also, between other factors that contribute on gully development, its worth tobe mentioned the climatic particularities of the entire area, especially precipitation regime, theland use represented by vineyard plantations and the existence of pluvial flow rills fromslopes, which can contribute to evolution of actual active processes.

  11. Quantificação das classes de erosão por tipo de uso do solo no município de Franca - SP Measurement of the erosion classes and land use in Franca Municipality - SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. Endres

    2006-04-01

    use and the occurrence of classes of erosive process were elaborated and the relations between them were analyzed. The Municipality of Franca is relatively conserved, showing 74.23% of the area with sheet and rill erosion. Different land use had influenced the manifestation of the erosive process.

  12. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue

  13. Streamflow, suspended-sediment, and soil-erosion data from Kaulana and Hakioawa watersheds, Kaho'olawe, Hawai'i,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Abbott, Lyman L.

    2010-01-01

    , include sites that showed overall erosion as well as sites that showed overall deposition. The average rate of change was -1 mm/yr for both the 32 sites on rills and the 42 sites on interfluves; both categories include sites that showed deposition as well as sites that showed erosion. All three sites on hummocks showed overall erosion, with an average rate of -8 mm/yr. Both the Hakioawa and Kaulana watersheds showed an average rate of change of -1 mm/yr, and both included sites that showed erosion and sites that showed deposition. For sites with negative rates of change indicating erosion, the average rate of change during the monitoring period was -2 mm/yr in restoration areas and -3 mm/yr in nonrestoration areas. For sites with positive rates of change indicating deposition, the average rate of change was 5 mm/yr in restoration areas and 6 mm/yr in nonrestoration sites. The average rate of change for rills was 1 mm/yr in restoration areas and -2 mm/yr in nonrestoration sites. The average rate of change for interfluves was below detection in restoration areas and -1 mm/yr in nonrestoration areas. Potential Use and Limitation of Data.-Additional statistical comparisons of various subsets of erosion data can be used to assess the effectiveness of restoration efforts or how existing landforms, vegetation, climate, and other physical basin characteristics affect erosion and fluvial sediment transport in the watersheds. Further investigation to identify what factors cause the Kaulana watershed to have much lower runoff and sediment loads than the Hakioawa watershed may yield valuable information for developing and modifying restoration strategies. Continued monitoring of streamflow, sediment transport, and erosion is key to assessing the long-term effectiveness of restoration and can provide insight to the island's recovery since the eradication of feral goats and cessation of use as a military bombing range; the results of this study provide the

  14. Preliminary analysis of relation between natural and anthropic elements in the calanco area of Podere Paiccia (Southern Tuscany - Italy): crowns of mudflow vs. erosion control practices (graticciate) during the period 1989-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colica, Antonella; Martinelli, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    The study area Podere Paiccia, which is characterized by four calanchi, extends over a surface of 155,000 square meters, on N-NNW slopes, from 435 to 513m, with an average slope of 25° and it develops on Pliocene marine bedrocks. The calanchi represent an important morphology in southern Tuscany and also in Pliocene and Plio-Pleistocene bedrock in nearby areas of piedmont zones of Apennines. During the 1989 the "Consorzio di Bonifica della Val d'Orcia" introduced erosion control practices named graticciate (fences) along three of the four calanchi. They consisted of chestnut stakes (about 1 m long), fixed in the ground, connected by smaller transverse stakes and placed perpendicularly to the slopes, at 7-10 meters intervals, extending laterally for about 10 meters. These calanchi are formed by gullies, rills, crowns and mudflows. The crowns, one of the more dynamic erosional forms, are generally arch-shaped (40-50 cm in height, vary in width, gradient 54°÷90°). The four calanchi, named 1-2-3-4, were divided into three zones of equal size: high, medium and low. The analysis conducted by photo shoots and field measurements, during the years 1989-1992-1996-2002-2005-2015, aim to discover the relation between crowns and graticciate. In 1989, 1 did not present graticciate, 2 had graticciate in all 3 zones (28), 3 and 4 had graticciate (24 and 22 respectively) but only in the medium and high zones. The crowns (57 in 1, 58 in 2, 78 in 3 and 56 in 4) rise towards the ridges. In case during the ascend crowns meet the graticciate, these last are deformed and then destroyed (periods: 1989÷1992, 1992÷1996, 1996÷2002, 2002÷2005, 2005÷2015, graticciate destroyed along the 2, 3, 4,% mean values: 51, 87, 100 - 26, 46, 72, 90 costant value from 2005 - 57, 75 costant value 1992÷2002, 78,100). Until total destruction, graticciate limit the number of crowns in the high zones. Along 2, 3 and 4 the number of crowns is greater in the medium zones (mean values of the ratios

  15. MODEL PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN TAMAN WISATA ALAM GUNUNG MEJA MANOKWARI PAPUA BARAT (Model Environmental Management of Meja Mountain Natural Manokwari West Papua (Model Environmental Management of Meja Mountain Natural Manokwari West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalsen Basna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Model pengelolaan lingkungan hutan Taman Wisata Alam Gunung Meja mencapai lingkungan keberkelanjutan apabila aspek ekologis, ekonornis, dan sosial budaya yang dinarnis diperlukan suatu konsep model lingkungan yang permanen dalam pengelolaannya. Model lingkungan adalah perwakilan sebuah objek dalam bentuk aktual atau situasi rill yang ditentukan secara sadar dan terencana. Penelitian ini bertujuan (i menganalisis model sistem blok, (2 mengontruksi model rekayasa struktur hutan tanaman lokal campuran sebagai pengedalian lingkungan masa kini, (3 mengonstuksi model arahan lingkungan pengelolaan wisata alam yang berbasis bisnis konservasi.Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah memadukan sumber informasi lingkungan dari data penginderaan jauh, peta tematik, sistem informasi geografis (SIG, dan survei lapangan. Populasi sampel mengenai kerusakan lingkungan dipilih dari peta satuan lahan sesuai dengan liputan citra lansat thematic mapper (TM atau enhanced thematic mapper (ETM seluruh kawasan dan survei lapangan.Hasil penelitian, adalah (1 perumusan model berdasarkan kondisi permasalahan yang terdiri atas model sistem blok berdasarkan blok daerah datar, daerah tangkapan air satu atau daerah dengan kerapatan hutan yang tinggi, blok kerapatan sedang atau daerah tangkapan air dua, blok daerah pernanfaatan dan blok rehabilitasi; (2 mengontruksi model rekayasa struktur hutan tanaman lokal campuran untuk pengendalian lingkungan masa kini berdasarkan stratifikasi tajuk; dan (3 menginstruksi model arahan pengelolaan lingkungan wisata alam yang berbasis bisnis konservasi berdasarkan pada pengembagan jalur pariwisata dan model pengembangan bisnis konservasi. ABSTRACT Model environmental management of forests Meja Mountain Natural Park has achieved thenvironmental aspects of sustainability where ecological, economic and socio-cultural dynamic. At present a concept model of the environment, that can be permanently implied in its management is

  16. Generalizing a complex model for gully threshold identification in the Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, D.; Borselli, L.; Iaquinta, P.; Iovine, G.; Poesen, J.; Terranova, O.

    2012-04-01

    Among the physical processes leading to land degradation, soil erosion by water is the most important and gully erosion may contribute, at places, to 70% of the total soil loss. Nevertheless, gully erosion has often been neglected in water soil erosion modeling, whilst more prominence has been given to rill and interrill erosion. Both to facilitate the processing by agricultural machinery and to take advantage of all the arable land, gullies are commonly removed at each crop cycle, with significant soil losses due to the repeated excavation of the channel by the successive rainstorm. When the erosive forces of overland flow exceed the strength of the soil particles to detachment and displacement, water erosion occurs and usually a channel is formed. As runoff is proportional to the local catchment area, a relationship between local slope, S, and contributing area, A, is supposed to exists. A "geomorphologic threshold" scheme is therefore suitable to interpret the physical process of gully initiation: accordingly, a gully is formed when a hydraulic threshold for incision exceeds the resistance of the soil particles to detachment and transport. Similarly, it appears reasonable that a gully ends when there is a reduction of slope, or the concentrated flow meets more resistant soil-vegetation complexes. This study aims to predict the location of the beginning of gullies in the Mediterranean environment, based on an evaluation of S and A by means of a mathematical model. For the identification of the areas prone to gully erosion, the model employs two empirical thresholds relevant to the head (Thead) and to the end (Tend) of the gullies (of the type SA^ b>Thead, SA^ bsituations (usually after abandonment), and c) databases for cropland have been merged. Selected data have been examined and interpreted mathematically to assess a value to be taken as a constant for the exponent "b" of the above equation. Literature data on the problem of topological thresholds Tend are

  17. Preliminary paleoseismic observations along the western Denali fault, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Schwartz, D. P.; Rood, D. H.; Reger, R.; Wolken, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Denali fault in south-central Alaska, from Mt. McKinley to the Denali-Totschunda fault branch point, accommodates ~9-12 mm/yr of the right-lateral component of oblique convergence between the Pacific/Yakutat and North American plates. The eastern 226 km of this fault reach was part of the source of the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake. West of the 2002 rupture there is evidence of two large earthquakes on the Denali fault during the past ~550-700 years but the paleoearthquake chronology prior to this time is largely unknown. To better constrain fault rupture parameters for the western Denali fault and contribute to improved seismic hazard assessment, we performed helicopter and ground reconnaissance along the southern flank of the Alaska Range between the Nenana Glacier and Pyramid Peak, a distance of ~35 km, and conducted a site-specific paleoseismic study. We present a Quaternary geologic strip map along the western Denali fault and our preliminary paleoseismic results, which include a differential-GPS survey of a displaced debris flow fan, cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages for boulders on this fan, and an interpretation of a trench across the main trace of the fault at the same site. Between the Nenana Glacier and Pyramid Peak, the Denali fault is characterized by prominent tectonic geomorphic features that include linear side-hill troughs, mole tracks, anastamosing composite scarps, and open left-stepping fissures. Measurements of offset rills and gullies indicate that slip during the most recent earthquake was between ~3 and 5 meters, similar to the average displacement in the 2002 earthquake. At our trench site, ~ 25 km east of the Parks Highway, a steep debris fan is displaced along a series of well-defined left-stepping linear fault traces. Multi-event displacements of debris-flow and snow-avalanche channels incised into the fan range from 8 to 43 m, the latter of which serves as a minimum cumulative fan offset estimate. The trench, excavated into

  18. The role of rock fragment cover on soil erosion in conventional vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Jordán, Antonio; García-Díaz, Andrés; Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    and Vegetation Affect Soil Erosion in Eastern Spain. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63. doi:10.2136/sssaj1999.03615995006300020014x Cerdà, A., 1997. Soil erosion after land abandonment in a semiarid environment of southeastern Spain. Arid Soil Res. Rehabil. 11, 163-176. doi:10.1080/15324989709381469 Jiménez, M.N., Fernández-Ondoño, E., Ripoll, M.Á., Castro-Rodríguez, J., Huntsinger, L., Navarro, F.B., 2016. Stones and Organic Mulches Improve the Quercus Ilex L. Afforestation Success Under Mediterranean Climatic Conditions. Land Degrad. Dev. 27, 357-365. doi:10.1002/ldr.2250 Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A., Ramos, M.C., Ribes-Dasi, M., 2005. On-site effects of concentrated flow erosion in vineyard fields: some economic implications. Catena 60, 129-146. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2004.11.006 Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A., Tarolli, P., 2016. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.02.010 Rodrigo Comino, J., Brings, C., Lassu, T., Iserloh, T., Senciales, J., Martínez Murillo, J., Ruiz Sinoga, J., Seeger, M., Ries, J., 2015. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany). Solid Earth 6, 823-837. doi:10.5194/se-6-823-2015 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Lassu, T., Cerdà, A., Keestra, S.D., Prosdocimi, M., Brings, C., Marzen, M., Ramos, M.C., Senciales, J.M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2016. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards. Sci. Total Environ. 565, 1165-1174. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.163

  19. EVALUATION OF CATROSAT 1PAN STEREO AND RESOURCESAT LISS 4 MSS MERGED DATA FOR MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS, DELINEATION OF DRAINAGE BASINS AND CODIFICATION IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA AND AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital

  20. Influence of climate and land use changes on recent trend of soil erosion within the Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, Valentin; Yermolaev, Oleg; Rysin, Ivan; Litvin, Leonid; Kiryukhina, Zoya; Safina, Guzel

    2016-04-01

    The Russian Plain is one of the largest plains with an area of 460 × 106 ha. Soil erosion during snow-melting and rainstorms occurs mostly on arable lands at the Russian Plain. The relative contribution of different types of soil erosion changes from the central part of the Russian Plain to the south. Sheet and rill soil erosion during snow-melting and rainfall are practically equal in the forest zone, while rainfall erosion prevails in the forest-steppe zone and the northern part of the steppe zone. Mostly rainfall erosion is observed in the southern part of the steppe zone. Mean annual soil losses from cultivated lands change in the range from 1 to 3 t ha-1 within lowlands to 6 to 8 t ha-1 at uplands with the maximum (10 t ha-1) observed near the Caucasus Mountains in the Stavropolskiy Krai. The intensity of gully erosion is relatively low during the last two decades. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a serious crisis in the agriculture because of financial problems and structural reorganization. As a result, the area of arable lands decreased in the southern half of the Russian Plain in 1991 - 2003. To a greater extent it was observed in the south of the forest zone because of the low productivity of its soils compared with chernozem. More than one third of the arable lands were abandoned in the dry steppe - semi-desert zones because these lands were irrigated during the Soviet period. The reduction of the arable land occurred in the forest-steppe and steppe zones mostly because of funding limitations during the 1990s. Recently the area of arable lands in the steppe zone was practically restored to its pre-1991 size. Simultaneously the last 25 years are characterized by unusual warm winters - in particular, in the southern half of the Russian Plain because of the global warming. As a result, the coefficient of surface snow-melting runoff considerably decreased for both cultivated fields and compacted fields after harvesting. Accordingly, spring

  1. Evaluating uncertainty in 7Be-based soil erosion estimates: an experimental plot approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Abdelli, Wahid; Gaspar, Leticia; Barri, Bashar Al; Ryken, Nick; Mabit, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion remains a major concern for the international community and there is a growing need to improve the sustainability of agriculture to support future food security. High resolution soil erosion data are a fundamental requirement for underpinning soil conservation and management strategies but representative data on soil erosion rates are difficult to achieve by conventional means without interfering with farming practice and hence compromising the representativeness of results. Fallout radionuclide (FRN) tracer technology offers a solution since FRN tracers are delivered to the soil surface by natural processes and, where irreversible binding can be demonstrated, redistributed in association with soil particles. While much work has demonstrated the potential of short-lived 7Be (half-life 53 days), particularly in quantification of short-term inter-rill erosion, less attention has focussed on sources of uncertainty in derived erosion measurements and sampling strategies to minimise these. This poster outlines and discusses potential sources of uncertainty in 7Be-based soil erosion estimates and the experimental design considerations taken to quantify these in the context of a plot-scale validation experiment. Traditionally, gamma counting statistics have been the main element of uncertainty propagated and reported but recent work has shown that other factors may be more important such as: (i) spatial variability in the relaxation mass depth that describes the shape of the 7Be depth distribution for an uneroded point; (ii) spatial variability in fallout (linked to rainfall patterns and shadowing) over both reference site and plot; (iii) particle size sorting effects; (iv) preferential mobility of fallout over active runoff contributing areas. To explore these aspects in more detail, a plot of 4 x 35 m was ploughed and tilled to create a bare, sloped soil surface at the beginning of winter 2013/2014 in southwest UK. The lower edge of the plot was bounded by

  2. A storm-based CSLE incorporating the modified SCS-CN method for soil loss prediction on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenhai; Huang, Mingbin

    2017-04-01

    the storm-based CSLE. In addition, the surface runoff used by the storm-based CSLE was either obtained from measurements or from the values predicted by the modified Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method. When using the measured runoff, the storm-based CSLE had an E of 76.6%, whereas the use of the predicted runoff gave an E of 76.4%. The high E values indicated that the storm-based CSLE incorporating the modified SCS-CN method could accurately predict storm-event-based soil losses resulting from both sheet and rill erosion at the field scale on the Chinese Loess Plateau. This approach could be applicable to other areas of the world once the model parameters have been suitably calibrated.

  3. Changes in Storm Flow as a Result of Direct Seed Farming Practices on the Columbia Plateau Semiarid Croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Mass cultivation of the prairie and shrubland-steppe on the Columbia Plateau began in the 1880's. This region is characterized by very fertile, highly erodible silt-loam soils, developed on steep slopes over Miocene basalts. Early farming practices led to excessive soil loss; lower cropland productivity, fouled in-stream habitat for andronomous and non-andronomous salmonids and eels, and deposition of sediment in first, second, and third order channels that continues to migrate down stream during storm runoff events. Sixty years of soil and water conservation efforts have slowed soil loss from fields. Presently much of the sediment moved during stormflow originates from stream bank erosion, although the annual development of rills in many fields is still observed. To quantify the continuing contribution of sediment to streams, and to evaluate the effectiveness of direct seed farming practices to soil and water conservation, four first order drainages, and one hillslope were instrumented with flumes, weirs, and storm sediment samplers. The area of instrumented drainages and hillslope were, respectfully, 25.0, 18.1, 10.0, and 6.1 ha, and a 25 percent hillslope of 1.6 ha. The 6.1 ha drainage was managed using fallow and inversion tillage practices. In October 2002, the crop stubble was fall burned and the soil was inverted using a moldboard plow; the following spring and summer the drainage was field cultivated and rod-weeded three times to control weeds and prepare the seed bed for winter wheat in October 2003. All other drainages, and the hillslope site, were farmed using direct seed technology consisting of one pass using a direct seed drill to seed and fertilize the crop, one pass to harvest the crop, one pass to break-up crop stubble, and multiple passes to spray herbicides for weed control. Total crop year precipitation for 2002-03 and 2003-04 was 10 percent lower and 15 percent higher, respectively, than the long-term average, representing typical winter

  4. Propagation and composition of the flood wave on the upper Mississippi River, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    1995-01-01

    During spring and summer 1993, record flooding inundated much of the upper Mississippi River Basin. The magnitude of the damages-in terms of property, disrupted business, and personal trauma was unmatched by any other flood disaster in United States history. Property damage alone is expected to exceed $10 billion. Damaged highways and submerged roads disrupted overland transportation throughout the flooded region. The Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers were closed to navigation before, during, and after the flooding. Millions of acres of productive farmland remained under water for weeks during the growing season. Rills and gullies in many tilled fields are the result of the severe erosion that occurred throughout the Midwestern United States farmbelt. The hydrologic effects of extended rainfall throughout the upper Midwestern United States were severe and widespread. The banks and channels of many rivers were severely eroded, and sediment was deposited over large areas of the basin's flood plain. Record flows submerged many areas that had not been affected by previous floods. Industrial and agricultural areas were inundated, which caused concern about the transport and fate of industrial chemicals, sewage effluent, and agricultural chemicals in the floodwaters. The extent and duration of the flooding caused numerous levees to fail. One failed levee on the Raccoon River in Des Moines, Iowa, led to flooding of the city's water treatment plant. As a result, the city was without drinking water for 19 days.As the Nation's principal water-science agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in a unique position to provide an immediate assessment of some of the hydrological effects of the 1993 flood. The USGS maintains a hydrologic data network and conducts extensive water-resources investigations nationwide. Long-term data from this network and information on local and regional hydrology provide the basis for identifying and documenting the effects of the flooding

  5. Quantification of short-term erosion rates using the cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinand

    2012-12-01

    at the no-till plots was less than that at the tilled plots. The main conclusions of this work are: - The mathematical model developed during this study describes the transport of 7 Be in soils. It is the first extensive model proposed so far that despite of its many simplifications, adequately represents the exponential distribution of 7 Be profiles at disturbed and undisturbed or reference sites. - Main physical processes, which transport of 7 Be in soil are, diffusion and radioactive decay. Migration parameters and measurements confirm that sorption is the main physical process, which confines 7 Be concentration to soil surface. - Current erosion estimation methods with 7 Be available in the literature for estimating erosion rates for single rainfall event was successfully modified to quantify erosion rates for multiple rainfall events. - Erosion rates estimated with 7 Be technique were successfully used to differentiate between the rill-interrill, splash and surface erosion at the study plot. - The Diffusion model proposed in this study does not take into account the vegetation cover and thus overestimates the erosion rates or in some cases shows the occurrence of deposition on the plot.

  6. The potential for SLM, facing human constraints, the case of the semi-arid agro-pastoral lands in the Atlantic plateaus, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouina, A.; Chaker, M.; Aderghal, M.; Machouri, N.; Alkarkouri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The agro-pastoral activity through its evolution, in the Atlantic plateaus of Morocco, led to unsuitable forms of resources use, which carried damage in the balance of water and the stability of land. It was thus necessary to start a revision of these practices and to set up improved forms of land use. The research made in the framework of the DESIRE project concerns the Sehoul commune, which presents a high rate of poverty and illiteracy, in spite of its location near Rabat, the capital of the country. Farming has as main objective to feed the livestock. The rain-based cereal cultivations, which still occupy more than 80% of the agricultural surface, reveals the stagnation of the techniques adopted and of the local knowledge. In collaboration with various stakeholders, technicians and farmers, the assessment with the WOCAT approach permitted to identify the main factors of constraints, responsible of the current spreading of land degradation mechanisms (forest clearing, shrubs cutting on the pastoral slopes, soil erosion, constitution of rills in the recently ploughed fields, incision of gullies and channels, mass movements on the banks of the deepest channels). These constraints derive from social evolution of the population during the last 60 years and mainly the rapid transformation of the rural structure of families to a new kind of farmers, more interested by what they can earn during their frequent movements to the city than by their own traditional agriculture. Due to the penetration of urban investment, direct overgrazing and indirect effect related to mismanagement of land for fodder production, operate massive damages to the vegetation cover and to the soil. It is why the SLM behavior, approaches and techniques have a very low rate of chance for success, without a deep change in term of land ownership, law constraints, agrarian structures, relations between the city and its vicinity, etc. Scenarios were built, based on various rates of land management

  7. Mercury - the hollow planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    from orbit. Although the vent itself may have been excavated partly by explosive volcanism, the most recent event is collapse of a 7 km wide zone in the south centre of the vent. The sharpness of features within this (unmuted either by regolith-forming processes or by fall of volcanic ejecta) suggests that this collapse considerably post-dates the rest of the vent interior. It could reflect a late-stage minor 'throat clearing' explosive eruption, but (in the absence of evidence of associated volcanic ejecta) more likely reflects collapse into a void within the volcanic conduit, itself a result of magma-drainage. A class of 'hole' that is so far conspicuous by its absence on Mercury is sinuous rilles (as opposed to much straighter tectonic grabens) or aligned skylights representing collapsed or partly-collapsed drained lava tubes. Tube-fed flows are to be expected during emplacement of volcanic plains, and it will be surprising if no examples are revealed on MESSENGER and BepiColombo high-resolution images.

  8. The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter

  9. Quantification of short-term erosion rates using the cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Abhinand

    2012-12-15

    0.3{+-}0.5 kg m{sup -2}-2.0{+-}1.4 kg m{sup -2} respectively. The magnitude of erosion rates estimated at the no-till plots was less than that at the tilled plots. The main conclusions of this work are: - The mathematical model developed during this study describes the transport of {sup 7}Be in soils. It is the first extensive model proposed so far that despite of its many simplifications, adequately represents the exponential distribution of {sup 7}Be profiles at disturbed and undisturbed or reference sites. - Main physical processes, which transport of {sup 7}Be in soil are, diffusion and radioactive decay. Migration parameters and measurements confirm that sorption is the main physical process, which confines {sup 7}Be concentration to soil surface. - Current erosion estimation methods with {sup 7}Be available in the literature for estimating erosion rates for single rainfall event was successfully modified to quantify erosion rates for multiple rainfall events. - Erosion rates estimated with {sup 7}Be technique were successfully used to differentiate between the rill-interrill, splash and surface erosion at the study plot. - The Diffusion model proposed in this study does not take into account the vegetation cover and thus overestimates the erosion rates or in some cases shows the occurrence of deposition on the plot.

  10. Bagley Fire Sediment Study: Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; De La Fuente, J. A.; Hill, B.; Mai, C.; Mikulovsky, R. P.; Mondry, Z.; Rust, B.; Young, D.

    2013-12-01

    The US Forest Service is conducting a study of sediment mobilization, transport, and deposition on the Bagley Fire, which burned about 18,000 hectares in late summer, 2012, on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, south of McCloud, CA. The fire area is in steep terrain of the Eastern Klamath Mountains that are underlain primarily by metasedimentary rock. The watersheds affected drain into the headwaters of Squaw Creek, along with small streams tributary to the McCloud and Pit Rivers, all of which flow into Shasta Lake Reservoir. In November and December of 2012, intense storms occurred over the fire area with estimated return intervals of 25-50 years, based on 4-day storm totals in ranging from 38 to 56 cm. The Squaw Creek storm response was unique for this area, in that it remained turbid for about 2 months following the storms. Subsequent small storms through June, 2013 have also generated prolonged turbidity. This may be attributable to the remobilization of fine particles temporarily stored in the channel network. Preliminary observations from field reconnaissance include the following: a) Erosional processes were dominated by sheet, rill, and gully erosion, and the resulting sediment delivered to channels was rich in fine particles and gravels; b) Landslides were infrequent, and as a result, a limited amount of large rock and logs were delivered to channels; c) Sediment laden flows occurred in most burned low order channels, but classic debris flows, those scouring all vegetation from channel bottoms, were very uncommon; d) Most road stream crossing culverts failed in high severity burn areas; e) Low gradient stream reaches in Squaw Creek were aggraded with fine sediment; f) Sustained high levels of turbidity occurred in the main stem of Squaw Creek. The goals of this study are to characterize relative roles of surface erosion, landslides, and debris flows in delivering sediment to streams after the fire, and if possible, to develop a rough sediment budget

  11. Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands—a state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Moeyersons, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku; Lang, Andreas

    2004-02-01

    This review analyses the environmental evolution of the Ethiopian highlands in the late Quaternary. The late Pleistocene (20,000-12,000 14C years BP) was cold and dry, with (1) low lake levels in the Rift Valley, (2) large debris fans on the flanks of Lake Abhé basin, and (3) the Blue Nile transporting coarse bedload. Then, a period with abundant and less seasonal rains existed between 11,500 and 4800 14C years BP, as suggested by increased arboreal pollen, high river and lake levels, low river turbidities and soil formation. Around 5000-4800 14C years BP, there was a shift to more arid conditions and more soil erosion. Many phenomena that were previously interpreted as climate-driven might, however, well be of anthropic origin. Thick sediment deposits on pediments as well as an increase of secondary forest, scrub and ruderal species in pollen diagrams are witnesses of this human impact. One important aspect of the late Quaternary palaeoenvironment is unclear: changes in Nile flow discharges and Rift Valley lake levels have been linked to changes in precipitation depth. Most authors do not take into account changes in land use in the highlands, nor changes in the seasonality of rain, both of which can lead to a change in runoff coefficients. Tufa and speleothem deposition around 14,000 years ago tend to indicate that at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), conditions might have been wetter than generally accepted. The most important present-day geomorphic processes are sheet and rill erosion throughout the country, gullying in the highlands, and wind erosion in the Rift Valley and the peripheral lowlands. Based on existing sediment yield data for catchments draining the central and northern Ethiopian highlands, an equation was developed allowing to assess area-specific sediment yields: SY=2595A -0.29 (n=20; r 2=0.59) where SY=area-specific sediment yield (t km -2 year -1), and A=drainage area (km 2). With respect to recent environmental changes, temporal

  12. Mycorrhizal inoculation as a tool for sustainable bio-engineering measures in steep alpine environments? - Results of a three year field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Lüscher, Peter; Graf, Frank; Gärtner, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Global warming is anticipated to result in an increase of heavy precipitation events. In vegetation-free, steep Alpine areas intense rain fall events have distinct influences on erosional processes on slopes. These processes and (shallow) mass movements are directly linked with torrential rain falls, and for this lead to high erosion rates in those regions, resulting in an increased natural and socio-economic damage potential. For restoring and managing erosion-prone sites, bioengineering measures as a tool for hazard prevention gain more importance. Due to the rough environmental conditions, and hence, reduced germination capability and sprout vigour, it is difficult to establish a dense cover of pioneer vegetation. Thus, the question is what can be done to give planted saplings within bioengineering projects maximum support, to develop their above- and belowground structures to promote slope stabilization. Green-house and laboratory experiments have shown that mycorrhizal inoculum has a positive impact on plant development and soil structure, e.g. the formation of (stable) aggregates within several months. Based on these promising results, we intended to apply mycorrhizal inoculation in a field-experiment. In May 2010, we established experimental plots at an erosion-prone talus slope (inclination: ~40 - 45 °; elevation 1220 - 1360 m a.s.l.), located in the Eastern Swiss Alps. The slope, consisting of moraine and denudation-derived substrate, shows high geomorphic activity (e.g. debris flows, rill erosion). Two slope areas, 10m wide and 32m long, were stabilized with 1200 plants each. Additionally, mycorrhiza inoculum (INOQ Forst, 40 ml/plant) was added to one of the two areas. Within the stabilized areas, a mixture of eight saplings was planted per running meter in 15 rows. The assortment included four saplings of green alder and two of purple willow, as well as one tree (maple, birch, ash) and shrub species (e.g. guelder rose, honeysuckle). Finally, both areas

  13. Simwe model application on susceptibility analysis to linear erosion: a case study in Alto Douro wine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joana; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura; Faria, Ana; Moura, Rui; Gonçalves, José

    2016-04-01

    The wine production in Alto Douro Wine Region - one of the world's oldest regulated and demarcated wine region - is based on a slope system organized in agricultural terraces once supported exclusively by dry stone walls. It has been undergoing the necessary changes for the introduction of technological innovations partially associated to the mechanization of vineyards work. In this sense, different forms of terrain framing have been implemented, namely the substitution of stone walls by earth embankments. This evolution raises a group of problems related to the hydric soil erosion and landscape preservation, since Alto Douro Wine Region is classified as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. The study area is mostly occupied by vineyards planted in the agriculture terraces without continuous vegetation, the flow proceeds superficially influenced by the weak infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, because of this conditioning factor the erosive features present non-significant depth, and the length thereof is limited essentially by the slope of the land, where was registered 64 gullies and 78 rills This paper focuses on the evaluation of susceptibility to linear erosion, through the application of SIMWE (SIMulated Water Erosion), (Mitas and Mitasova, 1998), using a digital elevation model, with pixel of one square meter of spatial resolution, created through detail aerial photographs, (side pixel of 50 cm), submitted to automatic stereo-correlation procedures in Agisoft PhotoScan software. The results provided by the model are compared with hydrological characteristics of the soil, (infiltration capacity, and hydraulic conductivity), soil texture, and soil structure parameters (identified by electrical resistivity measurement) where obtained from field monitoring. This approach demonstrates an association between the spatial distribution of erosive features with high values of soil saturation, and reduced water discharge (10-110 cm3/s), that are

  14. Rainfall simulations as a tool for quantification of soil erosion processes caused by the trampling of sheep and goats in semi-arid and arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthenberg, Jonas; Tumbrink, Jonas; Wilms, Tobias; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Wirtz, Stefan; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    As there is a massive increase of livestock husbandry in semi-arid and arid landscapes, the investigation of trampling-induced soil erosion has become indispensable for a better understanding of erosive processes such as loosening and translocation of sediment, as well as the genesis of rill erosion and gully systems. Our work will support other studies focusing on desertification and land-use changes in the investigated landscapes. Up to this date, research on livestock-induced soil erosion, even in relation to other erosion processes such as aeolian and fluvial/pluvial sediment translocation, is very scarcely found in literature. The presented study on trampling-induced soil erosion by sheep and goats in arid and semi-arid landscapes aims to create a general understanding, an estimation and quantification of the influencing factors of these erosive processes. Within this study, we present the first results of several field rainfall experiments on rock fragment translocation as well as loosening and transportation of coarse and fine sediment depending on the motion sequence and the individual weight, size, and hoof beat of the animals. Furthermore, we conducted additional experiments to investigate the trampling-induced erosion processes for various other sediments, especially those in the range of clay, silt, and sand. To do so, we used a specially designed test plot, equipped with sediment traps on each side. For a clear and reliable analysis of the measured parameters, univariate as well as multivariate statistical methods have been used. For all field methods, we developed relevant statements concerning flock size. The rock fragment translocation experiments done so fare have shown that a flock of 45 sheep or goats moved 87 % of 320 spread out rock fragments with a mean translocation distance of 0.123 m when trampling across a test plot of 3.2 m^2. Besides that we found out that the soil surface was worked up in a way that the loosened fine sediment proved to

  15. Reassessment of soil erosion on the Chinese loess plateau: were rates overestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have estimated regional soil erosion rates (rill and interrill erosion) on the Chinese loess plateau using an erosion model such as the RUSLE (e.g. Fu et al., 2011; Sun et al., 2013). However, the question may be asked whether such estimates are realistic: studies have shown that the use of models for large areas may lead to significant overestimations (Quinton et al., 2010). In this study, soil erosion rates on the Chinese loess plateau were reevaluated by using field measured soil erosion data from erosion plots (216 plots and 1380 plot years) in combination with a careful extrapolation procedure. Data analysis showed that the relationship between slope and erosion rate on arable land could be well described by erosion-slope relationships reported in the literature (Nearing, 1997). The increase of average erosion rate with slope length was clearly degressive, as could be expected from earlier research. However, for plots with permanent vegetation (grassland, shrub, forest) no relationship was found between erosion rates and slope gradient and/or slope length. This is important, as it implies that spatial variations of erosion on permanently vegetated areas cannot be modeled using topographical functions derived from observations on arable land. Application of relationships developed for arable land will lead to a significant overestimation of soil erosion rates. Based on our analysis we estimate the total soil erosion rate in the Chinese Loess plateau averages ca. 6.78 t ha-1 yr-1 for the whole loess plateau, resulting in a total sediment mobilisation of ca. 0.38 Gt yr-1. Erosion rates on arable land average ca. 15.10 t ha-1 yr-1. These estimates are 2 to 3 times lower than previously published estimates. The main reason why previous estimates are likely to be too high is that the values of (R)USLE parameters such as K, P and LS factor were overestimated. Overestimations of the K factor are due to the reliance of nomograph calculations, resulting

  16. Developing an Erosion Rate Map for Myanmar Using USLE, GIS and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtehani, Sobhan; Rutten, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Predicting erosion and estimating sediment loads in rivers are of major tasks in water resources system planning and management. In Myanmar erosion and collapse of river banks is common during the rainy season and riverine communities are frequently forced to relocate as their homes are dangerously close to the disintegrating river banks (Mann 2013). Myanmar is one of climatically most diverse countries located in Southeast Asia, where sheet, rill, and gully erosion affect crop yields as well as livelihood strategies of many people (Htwe, Brinkmann et al. 2015). In Myanmar, soil erosion measurement and monitoring approaches are increasingly important for land management planning to effectively avoid erosion and soil degradation, but such monitoring is limited by the availability of data and budgetary constraints. Therefore, spatial modeling approaches using GIS and remote sensing techniques play an important role for rapid risk assessments (Htwe 2016). In this study ''Model Builder'' tool in ArcGIS was used to create a model which generates an erosion rate map using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). USLE is the product of five factors: rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P). Input data files for this model were acquired from online open source databases. Precipitation data was downloaded from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for calculation of R factor. The resolution of TRMM data is very coarse (0.25 degree × 0.25 degree), therefore it was spatially downscaled by developing a relation between TRMM and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using regression analysis method. Soil maps depicting percentages of sand, clay and silt were obtained from soilgrids website for calculation of K factor. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with resolution of 90 meters was taken from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for calculation of LS

  17. Modelling hydrological connectivity in semi-arid flat areas: effect of the flow accumulation algorithm on the spatial pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Much of the water and sediment fluxes in semi-arid landscapes are found to be concentrated in localized pathways. Identifying the location of these pathways is important for management and restoration. This task becomes more complicated in flat areas, such as alluvial terraces, where geomorphic features of concentrated overland flow (rills and ephemeral gullies) are scarce or inexistent. Field identification of sediment delivery pathways as well as depositional areas is also difficult and challenged. The concept of hydrological connectivity (HC) helps us to express the complexity of landscape non-linear responses to rainfall inputs. One of the unsolved issues in overland flow modelling studies is the choice of the right flow accumulation algorithm (FAA). There is an abundant literature on runoff generation under semi-arid conditions, and relating HC and land use management and changes. However, we found a scientific gap in the literature focussed on modelling of HC in flat areas under semi-arid conditions. This study aims to fill in this gap by modelling HC in alluvial terraces (28 ha) in NE Spain under semi-arid conditions (342 mm / year), mainly devoted to rain-fed cereal fields, by using eight FAA. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). The study area includes seven fields on flat alluvial terraces, three fields on a gentle slope, small patches of scrubland, and twelve grass buffer strips that are located between each set of fields. Gentle and flat areas (S drone (model eBee by senseFly Ltd.). In order to minimize the effect of the vegetation on the photogrammetry restitution technique, pictures were taken in early spring, before the growth of the cereals. Then, several DEMs were generated independently. For this study, we chose the DEM at 0.5 x 0.5 m of spatial resolution. Before running the IC model, the continuity of the flow path lines throughout the landscape was ensured by removing

  18. Set-up and calibration of an indoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassu, T.; Seeger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rainfall simulation is one of the most prevalent methods used in soil erosion studies on agricultural land. In-situ simulators have been used to relate soil surface characteristics and management to runoff generation, infiltration and erosion, eg. the influence of different cultivation systems, and to parameterise erosion models. Laboratory rainfall simulators have been used to determine the impact of the soil surface characteristics such as micro-topography, surface roughness, and soil chemistry on infiltration and erosion rates, and to elucidate the processes involved. The purpose of the following study is to demonstrate the set-up and the calibration of a large indoor, nozzle-type rainfall simulator (RS) for soil erosion, surface runoff and rill development studies. This RS is part of the Kraijenhoff van de Leur Laboratory for Water and Sediment Dynamics in Wageningen University. The rainfall simulator consists from a 6 m long and 2,5 m wide plot, with metal lateral frame and one open side. Infiltration can be collected in different segments. The plot can be inclined up to 15.5° slope. From 3,85 m height above the plot 2 Lechler nozzles 460.788 are sprinkling the water onto the surface with constant intensity. A Zehnder HMP 450 pump provides the constant water supply. An automatic pressure switch on the pump keeps the pressure constant during the experiments. The flow rate is controlled for each nozzle by independent valves. Additionally, solenoid valves are mounted at each nozzle to interrupt water flow. The flow is monitored for each nozzle with flow meters and can be recorded within the computer network. For calibration of the RS we measured the rainfall distribution with 60 gauges equally distributed over the plot during 15 minutes for each nozzle independently and for a combination of 2 identical nozzles. The rainfall energy was recorded on the same grid by measuring drop size distribution and fall velocity with a laser disdrometer. We applied 2 different

  19. Impacts of the post-fire erosion processes compared with the agricultural erosion rates for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Gonzalez Pelayo, Oscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-05-01

    after forest fires. The last forest fire in August 2011 burned 10% of the total area in the north-west part of the catchment. Post-fire management operations 9 month after the fire (clear-cutting and deep plowing operations) and after plantation of "Quercus robur" left the soil exposed, and relatively mild rainstorms led to large amounts of soil loss, including a large amount of rills and other erosion features. This constituted an opportunity to compare these erosion rates with the ones observed in agricultural fields for similar edapho-climatic conditions, and also observe distinct timing of erosion occurrence which was linked with different periods when soils are exposed. This communication presents the assessment of the impact of this fire on soil erosion rates, where results indicate that soil losses after soil preparation for forest replanting might be equivalent, in long-term, to soil losses in agricultural fields.

  20. The Effects of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Hydrology and Erosion in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, A. V. F. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Souza, A. P.; Miranda, J. P.; Rocha, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional tillage usually imposes a variety of modifications on soil properties that can lead to important changes in the type and magnitude of the hydrological processes that take place at the upper portion of the soil profile. Plough pan formation, for example, is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in southeastern Brazil, decreasing infiltration rates and contributing to soil erosion, especially in steep slopes. In order to characterize the changes in soil properties and soil hydrology due to the plough pan formation we carried out detailed investigations in two experimental plots in Paty do Alferes region, located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil, close to Rio de Janeiro city. Farming activities are very important in this area, in particular the ones related to the tomato production. The local hilly topography with short and steep hillslopes, as well as an average annual rainfall of almost 2000 mm, favor surface runoff and the evolution of rill and gully erosion. The two runoff plots are 22m long by 4m wide and were installed side by side along a representative hillslope, both in terms of soil (Oxisol) and steepness. At the lower portion of each plot there is a collecting trough connected by a PVC pipe to a 500 and 1000 liters sediment storage boxes. Soil tillage treatments used in the two plots were: Conventional Tillage (CT), with one plowing using disc-type plow (about 18 cm depth) and one downhill tractor leveling, in addition to burning residues from previous planting; and Minimum Tillage (MT), which did not allow burning residues from previous planting and preserved a vegetative cover between plantation lines. Runoff and soil erosion measurements were carried out in both plots immediately after each rainfall event. In order to characterize soil water movements under the two tillage systems (CT and MT), 06 nests of tensiometers and 04 nests of Watermark sensors were installed in each

  1. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Peters, Ronald

    2002-11-01

    channel forms. In addition, ponds have been constructed to trap sediment from rill and gully erosion associated with agricultural practices, and to provide flow enhancement and ameliorate elevated stream temperatures during the summer base flow period. The implementation of restoration efforts that target the key habitats and lifestages for resident westslope cutthroat trout on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation is one means the Tribe is using to partially mitigate for lost anadromous fisheries. In this context, restoration is consistent with the definition provided by Ebersole et al. (1997), who described stream restoration as the reexpression of habitat capacity in a stream system. At the reach scale, habitat capacity is affected by biotic (e.g., riparian vegetation) and physical (e.g., flooding) processes. Superimposed on the natural biotic and physical processes are anthropogenic stressors (e.g., logging, roads and grazing) that suppress habitat capacity and can result in simplified, degraded stream reaches. The effectiveness of habitat restoration, measured as an increase in native trout abundance, is dependent on reducing limiting factors (e.g., passage barriers, high water temperatures, sediment transport from source areas) in areas that are critical for spawning and rearing lifestages. This plan outlines a monitoring strategy to help determine the effectiveness of specific restoration/enhancement treatments and to track the status of trout populations in four target watersheds.

  2. Spatial and temporal dynamics of sediment in contrasted mountainous watersheds (Mexican transvolcanic belt and French Southern Alps) combining river gauging, elemental geochemistry and fallout radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Navratil, O.; Gratiot, N.; Némery, J.; Duvert, C.; Ayrault, S.; Lefèvre, I.; Legout, C.; Bonté, P.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    affected by gully erosion, rill or sheet erosion have been delineated. Furthermore, the measurement of radionuclide content in suspended sediment after the snowmelt suggests that most of this sediment consists in resuspended material rather than on newly eroded soil. In the Mexican watershed, a different contribution of andisols and acrisols to erosion is suspected. Overall, the bulk of erosion is generated by rather small areas within the watershed. In this region characterised by a succession of wet and dry seasons, the Be-7 content in rainfall and sediment has been measured at the scale of a 2.5 km2 sub-watershed in order to better understand the erosion transfer between hillslopes and rivers during the rainy season. This outlines the contribution of individual storms to seasonal erosion. Overall, this study brings important insights about sediment sources and fluxes within these watersheds located in contrasted environments. A further step consists in comparing experimental results with model outputs, and to evaluate the impact of on-going erosion mitigation measures.

  3. Piping dynamics in mid-altitude mountains under a temperate climate: the Bieszczady Mts., the Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Jakiel, Michał; Krzemień, Kazimierz

    2017-04-01

    problem. The scale of piping in the study area is at least by three orders of magnitude higher than surface erosion rates (i.e. sheet and rill erosion) under a similar land use (grasslands), and it is comparable to the scale of surface soil erosion on arable lands. It means that piping is an important sediment source for fluvial systems, and it leads to significant soil loss in mid-altitude mountains under a temperate climate. This study is supported by the National Science Centre of Poland, as a part of the first author's project - PRELUDIUM 3 (DEC-2012/05/N/ST10/03926). The first author was also granted the ETIUDA 3 doctoral scholarship (UMO-2015/16/T/ST10/00505) financed by the National Science Centre of Poland.

  4. Mass movements of lowland areas in long range TLS and ALS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The development of geodynamic processes in lowland areas remains an interesting issue for geomorphology and geology as well as civil engineering. Landslides, slumps, slope washes, rills and gully erosion are considered both geomorphological processes and natural hazards. In order to know precisely their origin and development, it is crucial to determine the rate and direction of their change. Previously such studies used geodesy and photogrammetry but the recent progress in the LiDAR technology allows collecting the data in a wider range and comparable or higher precision than most of geodetic methods. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is also a good tool, but high costs and low frequency of the surveys make it difficult to trace the dynamics of the studied phenomena and processes. Nevertheless, this method enables gathering information from large areas, which is useful for the preliminary identification of the research issues and nomination of the areas for subsequent case studies. It is, however, more common to use Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for the detailed studies of morphology and its change. This method provides mobility and high accuracy, and enables frequent measurements. The problem in the analysis of many geoprocesses lies in the limited range of this method. This study concerns the Lower Vistula Valley located in northern Poland. It presents the results of measurements of landslides located in the escarpment zone of a big river valley. The object of the studies is mass movements developing within the quaternary deposits on the valley slopes. These processes were monitored in previous years with the traditional survey methods, mainly based on the geodesy field observations (benchmark) as well as the analyses of historical maps and archives. The ALS method used during the study enabled gathering the data on the valley with the density of 8 points per sq m, which provided the background for the consecutive monitoring study. In the surveys a terrestrial

  5. MENGGAGAS PENDIDIKAN BERWAWASAN KEWIRAUSAHAAN DI PERGURUAN TINGGI ISLAM: STUDI KASUS FAKULTAS SYARI`AH DAN EKONOMI ISLAM IAIN “SMH” BANTEN 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR HIDAYAH

    2016-03-01

    Abstrak. Menggagas Pendidikan Berwawasan Kewirausahaan Di Perguruan Tinggi Islam: Studi Kasus Fakultas Syari`Ah Dan Ekonomi Islam Iain “Smh” Banten 2014-2015. Penelitian ini berangkat dari keprihatinan terhadap tingginya tingkat pengangguran di kalangan para sarjana lulusan perguruan tinggi (Islam dan masih rendahnya proporsi pengusaha di Indonesia. Padahal tingginya proporsi pengusaha dapat menjadi salah satu indikator kemakmuran sebuah negara. Oleh karena itu timbul pertanyaan sejauh mana nilai-nilai Islam mendorong budaya wirausaha di kalangan umatnya? Dan bagaimana budaya wirausaha ditumbuh-kembangkan di lembaga pendidikan tinggi Islam? Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif eskploratif dengan studi kasus pendidikan kewirausahaan di Fakultas Syari`ah dan Ekonomi Islam (FSEI IAIN “SMH” Banten. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kurikulum prodi-prodi yang ada di FSEI belum sepenuhnya berwawasan kewirausahaan. Mahasiswa umumnya banyak dibekali dengan kompetensi dan ketrampilan yang mempersiapkan mereka sebagai sarjana ekonomi syari`ah yang akan mengisi profesi-profesi yang membutuhkan kompetensi di bidang ini seperti manajer, dosen, peneliti, dewan pengawas syariah, dan sebagainya, ketimbang profesi wirausahawan yang berkompetensi untuk merintis usaha dari bawah. Untuk membangun prodi kewirausahaan Islam/bisnis syari`ah di FSEI IAIN SMHB dibutuhkan political will yang kuat dari tidak hanya pihak kampus tetapi juga lembaga otoritas seperti Diktis Kemenag untuk memfasilitasi berdirinya prodi ini baik dari segi perizinan maupun pendanaan. Studi kelayakan awal yang lebih komprehensif perlu dilakukan untuk memetakan kebutuhan sarana dan prasarana seperti kebutuhan formasi dosen yang qualified di bidangnya, struktur kurikulum yang dapat membekali mahasiswa dengan berbagai karakter dan ketrampilan sebagai (calon pengusaha handal, dan sistem perekrutan untuk menjaring calon mahasiswa unggul. Mengingat profesi ini sangat berhubungan erat dengan sektor rill, perlu dibangun

  6. Occurrence and Magnitude of High Reflectance Materials on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno, R. G.; Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    reflectance of its ray system may be due to both composition and maturity. Some relatively small isolated features exhibit high reflectance, such as the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (0.24) and rilles in the floor of Compton crater (0.27). Features associated with pure anorthosite [4] are also found to have high reflectance values, such as occurrences in Mare Orientale (0.22). Since the photometric normalization accounted for topography up to the 300-m horizontal spatial scale, uncertainties remain for steep crater walls. We are currently reducing these uncertainties for selected craters with high resolution (15 meter baseline) stereo-based NAC DTMs. References: [1] Robinson et al. (2010), Space Sci. Rev. [2] Boyd et al. (2013) AGU, this conference. [3] Scholten et al. (2012) JGR. [4] Ohtake et al. (2009) Nature.

  7. Using tracer-based sediment budgets to quantify erosion and deposition within harvested forests in south-east NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, P.J.; Roddy, B.P.; Olley, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The total impact of forest operations on the store of soil material within harvested coupes can be difficult to quantify. A study was recently undertaken in a small (∼12 ha) basin near Bombala, south-east NSW to measure both the net amount of soil erosion from the basin, and the redistribution of eroded soils and sediments within it. The dry sclerophyll study area was divided into several distinct elements: log landings, snig tacks, general harvest area (GHA), cross banks, and the filter strip of native vegetation left adjacent to the major streamline Measurements of two radionuclide tracers ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb-excess) in each of these locations were then integrated into budgets describing the movement of soil within and between the various landscape elements. The 137 Cs budget showed that no net loss of soil material had occurred from within the study area, with retention of 109 ± 14 %. Conversely, the 210 Pb-excess budget showed a total retention of 78 ± 12 %. The deficit of 2 10 Pb compared to that of 137 Cs was explained by a combination of analytical and sampling uncertainties, losses of 2 10 Pb associated with combustion and/or transport of litter and organic matter from the site, and some small loss of surface soil (to a depth of 2 mm). However, no evidence of surface-derived topsoil material was found in sediments currently being transported from the site. Both tracer budgets showed that a net loss of soil from the snig tracks and log landings had occurred. This was quantified to be 28 ± 13 mm and 48 ± 29 mm depth from these land forms respectively. Up to 30 % of this loss could be directly attributable to the creation of the cross banks by bulldozer blading. The remainder was associated with mechanical losses due to export on truck tyres and bark, dust during the dry summer harvesting phase, and losses associated with sheet and rill erosion during storm events over the intervening years. Soil material eroded from the log landings was

  8. Human Resources: Strategic Management Aspects Žmogiškieji ištekliai: strateginio valdymo aspektai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Chlivickas

    2011-02-01

    organization strategy. “Four-C” model competence, commitment, compliance and cost efficiency is helpful in assessing the effectiveness of organization human resources policies conformity with its strategy.

    Keywords: human resource, human resource management, strategic management.

    Siekis įsitvirtinti rinkos ekonomikoje, restruktūrizacija, globalizacija, technikos ir technologijų tobulėjimas, informacinės visuomenės formavimasis, žinių ekonomikos kūrimas, visuomenės ekonominės padėties kaita, demokratiniai procesai kelia naujų iššūkių organizacijoms. Nuolat kintančioje aplinkoje formuojasi naujas požiūris į organizaciją kaip veiklos sistemą, kurioje darbuotojai, t. y. žmogiškieji ištekliai, tampa svarbiausia ir aktyviąja sistemos dalimi, lemiančia organizacijos veiklos efektyvumą. Žmogiškųjų išteklių efektyvus valdymas yra gyvybiškai svarbus veiksnys, siekiant organizacijos tikslų bei naudos kiekvienam individui, organizacijai ir visuomenei. Mokslinėje literatūroje pateiktos teorinės nuostatos apie žmogiškųjų išteklių valdymą patvirtina šios funkcinės valdymo srities įtaką bendriems organizacijos veiklos rezultatams. Aktyvi konkurencija šiandieninėje rinkoje lemia sparčią ir įvairiapusę organizacijų plėtrą, siejamą su žmogiškųjų išteklių valdymo tikslų įgyvendinimu. Organizacijai, veikiančiai globalioje rinkoje, yra itin svarbu efektyviai valdyti turimus arba potencialiai prieinamus darbo išteklius. Straipsnio tikslas – atskleisti žmogiškųjų išteklių valdymo proceso teorinius aspektus, atliekant mokslinės literatūros pirminių šaltinių ir kitų publikacijų studij

  9. Comentario a la presentación del Libro "Los Versos Melánicos"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez Vesga

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Apreciados señoras y señores, académicos: Todos plenos de títulos y honores nos reunimos hoy -menos endémicos- esquivando las funciones de doctores en torno a la obra de Efraím Otero y su relación un tanto iconoclasta de una vida que vivió por el alero de la medicina nuclear, que no le basta para hacer feliz su alma de poeta a Dios gracias, o gracias a algún hado y su saeta.

    Como ven no fallé ni un ápice en la rima pero sí -y totalmente- en la mesura aún así, contrario un tris la compostura y procedo a saludar a la Junta Directiva. Al Secretario Perpetuo que tiene un apellido muy difícil de rimar en nuestro idioma lo llamaré Hernando-como hemos convenido- Además … él sabe que es en broma. Sigue ahora nuestro augusto Presidente cuyo caso es todo lo contrario pues rimar con Juan en este horario bien merece un elogio del ausente. El Vicepresidente -aquí si estoy desamparado- fue para mí casi imposible, y “doy lo” que me pidan, aún doy mi doctorado, por rimar por fin con Cuellar o con Zoilo.

    A Germán Peña -Secretario- ahora elijo, por él siento especial y muy curiosa inclinación, por un lado, porque conocí bien a su hijo y por otro, a causa del vinito que tomamos al final de cada reunión. El último en la lista es Es guerra el Tesorero de Marly, muy activo calculista ha resultado con él no parece que nos faltará el dinero para darle buen sentido a las políticas de estado. Ahora bien, más que conceptos eruditos de un sesudo estudio literario quiero leerles mis versos favoritos a manera de muy corto comentario. El libro de Efraím, que he disfrutado tiene forma de auto-biografía como Juan de Castellanos ha rimadocada evento y sentimiento de su vida.

    Capítulo primero

    Inicia recordando lecturas escolares e incluye medievales y renacentistas repasando luego versos populares y algunas ocurrencias de amigos repentistas. Entre éstas leeré un verso muy sabroso que nos dice

  10. Lithuanian Cluster of Sea Economics – Instrument of Sustainable Regional Development Lietuvos jūrų ūkio klasteris – darnios regiono plėtros instrumentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Grublienė

    2011-02-01

    ;">Pasaulio ir Lietuvos ekonomikoje vyksta gilūs ir fundamentalūs pokyčiai, iš esmės keičiantys nusistovėjusias tarptautinės konkurencijos žaidimo taisykles. Klasterių reiškinys nagrinėjamas, klasteriai sąmoningai formuojami jau beveik du dešimtmečius. Todėl pagrindinis klasterių politikos objektas yra ne pavienės įmonės, bet visos regiono pramonės sistemos, palaikančios produktyvius veikėjų ryšius, sukūrimas. Pasaulinė patirtis rodo, kad klasterių požiūriu grindžiama politika atspindi besikeičiantį valstybės vaidmenį pramonės politikoje iš tiesioginės intervencijos į netiesioginę įtaką. Tokios šalys kaip Lietuva, įgyvendindamos klasterių politiką, susiduria su papildomomis problemomis. Klasterių politika reikalauja visiškai kitokios viešojo administravimo kompetencijos kokybės nei buvo įprasta pastaraisiais 50 metų. Klasterizacijos svarbą lemia pati ekonominės veiklos ir bendrųjų pramonės ir verslo raidos tendencijų logika. Lietuvoje šiuo metu egzistuojanti ūkio struktūra lemia tai, kad įmonėms neišvengiamai teks suderinti dvi kokybes: gebėjimą konkuruoti žemesne kaina ir novatoriškumą. Šiuo metu Lietuvos ūkis yra tokiame raidos etape, kuriame sėkmę visų pirma lemia efektyvumas ir valdymo kokybė. Straipsnio tikslas aptarti Lietuvos jūrų žuvininkystės sektoriaus būklę, įvertinti klasterio suformavimo galimybę darnios regiono plėtros kontekste.

  11. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwest part of Rio de Janeiro state water availability is one of the main limiting factors for human development and crop productivity. In the same way that shortage of freshwater is one of the main problems, the tomato production systems waste water and highly degrade the environment. The search for the water use efficiency is a challenge in tomato sustainable development production systems. This study aimed to contribute towards the development of sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in the northwestern part or Rio de Janeiro state, as well as increase water use efficiency and the improvement of our understanding on the role played by soil and water management practices on soil hydrology, especially on the amount of water available for the plants. The study was carried out at an experimental watershed in the city of São José do Ubá, in the northwestern portion of Rio de Janeiro state. This city has one of the worst human development index (HDI = 0718) of the state, occupying one of the last 6 positions (85 in 91), with serious problems of education, sanitation, water supply and public health. This area is characterized by an extensive steep hilly topography constituted by long convex-concave hillslopes separated by flat valley-bottoms. The original Atlantic Forest was continuously removed for the introduction of farming and grazing activities, which currently dominate the landscape of the region. The combination of such topographic and land-use characteristics tend to generate a variety of erosional processes, including rill and interrill erosion, gullies and even landslides. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 1,171 mm, with most of rain concentrated during the summer season, making December the wetter and July the drier months. The water balance is negative for most of the year, with the exception of the period from November to January. The cultivation in the area is traditionally done using production systems that

  12. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    investigation has been carried out, integrating the method of ERT (a multielectrode system with a Wenner-Schlumberger array layout) with the GPR (profiles were obtained using a SIR 2000-GSSI system equipped with two antennas of 400 and 200 MHz, connected by fiber-optic cables to the control unit) profiling. During the field survey, four ERT measurements and eight GPR profiles were carried out along the road network of Rabatana. The field survey permitted to evidence, for the Rabatana historical site, about 100 caves for which it is possible to see clear entrances, while at least 300 other caves are located in Tursi urban area and surroundings. This survey excludes all the caves and cisterns not directly ispectionable, but well showed in geophysical data. Since 1973, this site was subjected to the evacuation of its inhabitants in a new urban site due to catastrophic landslides caused by intense rainfalls that occurred on January 1972. Starting from 1974, the Rabatana has been almost completely deserted. Recently, a renewed interest for this site has been developed to recover the historical center, removing the current constraint of total evacuation. However at present, the site is still characterized by a particular morphological history and environmental factors that generate widespread risk conditions for the inhabitants and built-up areas. Morphological evolution of the sandy hillslopes on which Tursi town rises is characterized by very intense erosive phenomena such as landslides, deep gullies, rills, and piping, which affect the whole perimeter of urban settlements and threaten the conservation of these sites. From the point of view of the process of physical degradation, the sandy facies are characterized by desiccation cracks to which the piping erosion and detachment blocks along the slopes are closely linked. In some cases large voids do not develop, but seepage erosion and running sand cause morphologically similar surface collapse phenomena (sinkholes). Outlets

  13. Time since plantation is the most important determining factor for soil erosion rates in vineyards. A case study in the valley of Les Alcusses valley, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrígo Comino, Jesús; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; García Díaz, Andrés; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    .D., Prosdocimi, M., Brings, C., Marzen, M., Ramos, M.C., Senciales, J.M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2016b. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards. Sci. Total Environ. 565, 1165-1174. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.163 Rodrigo-Comino, J., Brings, C., Lassu, T., Iserloh, T., Senciales, J.M., Martínez Murillo, J.F., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany). 2015. Solid Earth, 6 (3), pp. 823-837. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/se-6-823-2015 Rodrigo-Comino, J., M. Seeger, J. M. Senciales, J. D. Ruiz-Sinoga, and J. B. Ries. 2016c. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Hydrological Processes on Steep Slope Vineyards (Ruwel-Mosel Valley, Gemany). Cuadernos De Investigacion Geografica 42 (1): 281-306. doi:10.18172/cig.2934.

  14. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment has long been recognized as an important contaminant affecting water resources. Besides its direct role in determining water clarity, bridge scour and reservoir storage, sediment serves as a vehicle for the transport of many binding contaminants, including nutrients, trace metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, a nd numerous pesticides (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000a). Recent efforts to addr ess water-quality concerns through the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process have iden tified sediment as the single most prevalent cause of impairment in the Nation’s streams a nd rivers (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000b). Moreover, sediment has been identified as a medium for the tran sport and sequestration of organic carbon, playing a potentia lly important role in understa nding sources and sinks in the global carbon budget (Stallard, 1998). A comprehensive understanding of sediment fate a nd transport is considered essential to the design and implementation of effective plans for sediment management (Osterkamp and others, 1998, U.S. General Accounting Office, 1990). An exte nsive literature addr essing the problem of quantifying sediment transport has produced a nu mber of methods for estimating its flux (see Cohn, 1995, and Robertson and Roerish, 1999, for us eful surveys). The accuracy of these methods is compromised by uncertainty in the concentration measurements and by the highly episodic nature of sediment movement, particul arly when the methods are applied to smaller basins. However, for annual or decadal flux es timates, the methods are generally reliable if calibrated with extended periods of data (Robertson and Roerish, 1999). A substantial literature also supports the Universal Soil Loss Equation (U SLE) (Soil Conservation Service, 1983), an engineering method for estimating sheet and rill erosion, although the empirical credentials of the USLE have recently been questioned (Tri mble and Crosson, 2000

  15. Catchment organisation, free energy dynamics and network control on critical zone water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Kleidon, A.; Jackisch, C.; Scherer, U.; Blume, T.

    2012-04-01

    as that these flow structures organize and dominate flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments during rainfall driven conditions at various scales: - Surface connected vertical flow structures of anecic worm burrows or soil cracks organize and dominated vertical flows at the plot scale - this is usually referred to as preferential flow; - Rill networks at the soil surface organise and dominate hillslope scale overland flow response and sediment yields; - Subsurface pipe networks at the bedrock interface organize and dominate hillslope scale lateral subsurface water and tracer flows; - The river net organizes and dominates flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments to the catchment outlet and finally across continental gradients to the sea. Fundamental progress with respect to the parameterization of hydrological models, subscale flow networks and to understand the adaptation of hydro-geo ecosystems to change could be achieved by discovering principles that govern the organization of catchments flow networks in particular at least during steady state conditions. This insight has inspired various scientists to suggest principles for organization of ecosystems, landscapes and flow networks; as Bejans constructural law, Minimum Energy Expenditure , Maximum Entropy Production. In line with these studies we suggest that a thermodynamic/energetic treatment of the catchment is might be a key for understanding the underlying principles that govern organisation of flow and transport. Our approach is to employ a) physically based hydrological model that address at least all the relevant hydrological processes in the critical zone in a coupled way, behavioural representations of the observed organisation of flow structures and textural elements, that are consistent with observations in two well investigated research catchments and have been tested against distributed observations of soil moisture and catchment scale discharge; to simulate the full concert of hydrological

  16. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  17. Connectivity of rainfall and human activity impacts on soil erosion processes in Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Terol Esparza, Enric; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soils are recognized as one of the most important components characterizing a terroir (Vaudour et al., 2015). However, the soils of vineyards are one of the most degraded in comparison to other cultivated context due to traditional tillage management (Prosdocimi et al., 2016). The key factor to understand the connectivity between topsoil redistribution and overland flow is the human activity as the management, who can reduce or increase these geomorphological interchanges (sediment and runoff) and changes the soil properties such it was found in different regions and under different crops (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2016). In order to assess this topsoil redistribution in vineyards, the Stock Unearthing Method (SUM) has been accepted to be a reliable method to assess erosion rates and spatial evolution and interchanging of the topsoil, sediments and water flux directions at long-term time scales in vineyards (Brenot et al., 2008; Paroissien et al., 2010; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). The SUM is based on the measurement of the distance from the topsoil to the grafted vine stock, confirmed as a passive indicator of topsoil movements since the initial planting of vine stocks. Therefore, the aims of this work are: i) to quantify the soil erosion rates by means of Stock Unearthing Method; ii) to measure the impact of plantation of new vineyards; iii) to compare sediment transport, water flux directions and topsoil redistributions between different soil types, land management (bare soil, amendments, straw mulch…) and soil tillage practices; iv) to assess sediment budgets and water flux direction conditioned by the micro-topographical variations; and, v) to detect key factors and impact on the surface features within the detected connectivity processes (rills and inter-rills…) using cartography. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the COST Action (Connecting European Connectivity Research): ES1306 and the European Union

  18. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment has long been recognized as an important contaminant affecting water resources. Besides its direct role in determining water clarity, bridge scour and reservoir storage, sediment serves as a vehicle for the transport of many binding contaminants, including nutrients, trace metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, and numerous pesticides (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000a). Recent efforts to address water-quality concerns through the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process have identified sediment as the single most prevalent cause of impairment in the Nation’s streams and rivers (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000b). Moreover, sediment has been identified as a medium for the transport and sequestration of organic carbon, playing a potentially important role in understanding sources and sinks in the global carbon budget (Stallard, 1998).A comprehensive understanding of sediment fate and transport is considered essential to the design and implementation of effective plans for sediment management (Osterkamp and others, 1998, U.S. General Accounting Office, 1990). An extensive literature addressing the problem of quantifying sediment transport has produced a number of methods for estimating its flux (see Cohn, 1995, and Robertson and Roerish, 1999, for useful surveys). The accuracy of these methods is compromised by uncertainty in the concentration measurements and by the highly episodic nature of sediment movement, particularly when the methods are applied to smaller basins. However, for annual or decadal flux estimates, the methods are generally reliable if calibrated with extended periods of data (Robertson and Roerish, 1999). A substantial literature also supports the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) (Soil Conservation Service, 1983), an engineering method for estimating sheet and rill erosion, although the empirical credentials of the USLE have recently been questioned (Trimble and Crosson, 2000). Conversely, relatively

  19. Minidisk against ring infiltrometer measurements to assess the saturated hydraulic conductivity in Mediterranean vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) under Tillage and No-Tillage managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35 (1): 319-328. doi: 10.1029/98WR01659 Decagon Devices, Inc. 2005. Minidisk Infiltrometer, User's Manual. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Green, W.H. and G. Ampt. 1911. Studies of soil physics, part I - the flow of air and water through soils. J. Ag. Sci. 4:1-24. Horton, R. 1941. An approach toward a physical interpretation of infiltration-capacity. Soil science society of America journal. Leonard, J., Andrieux, P. 1998. Infiltration characteristics of soils in Mediterranean vineyards in Southern France. Catena, 32: 209-223. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00049-6 Lieskovský, J., Kenderessy, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: A case study in vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM. Land Degradation and Development, 25 (3): 288-296. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2162 Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 2015. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/ Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S.S., Santoro, A., Cerdà, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil & Tillage Research, 117: 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.09.007 Polo, M.J., Lafuente, P., Giráldez, J.V. 2003. Variabilidad espacial de la conductividad hidráulica saturada en suelos de olivar y su influencia en el balance hidrológico global. Estudios de la Zona No Saturada del Suelo, Vol. VI, 209. Rodrigo Comino, J., Brings, C., Lassu, T., Iserloh, T., Senciales, J. M., Martínez Murillo, J.F., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B. 2015. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany). Solid Earth 6: 823-837. doi:10.5194/se-6-823-2015 Wine Institute. 2014. http://www.wineinstitute.org/

  20. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Bagarello, V., Castellini, M., Di Prima, S., & Iovino, M. (2014). Soil hydraulic properties determined by infiltration experiments and different heights of water pouring. Geoderma, 213, 492-501. Bagarello, V., Elrick, D. E., Iovino, M., & Sgroi, A. (2006). A laboratory analysis of falling head infiltration procedures for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of soils. Geoderma, 135, 322-334. Ben Slimane, A., Raclot, D., Evrard, O., Sanaa, M., Lefevre, I., & Le Bissonnais, Y. (2016). Relative contribution of Rill/Interrill and Gully/Channel erosion to small reservoir siltation in mediterranean environments. Land Degradation and Development, 27(3), 785-797. doi:10.1002/ldr.2387 Cerdà, A. (1996). Seasonal variability of infiltration rates under contrasting slope conditions in southeast spain. Geoderma, 69(3-4), 217-232. Cerdà, A. (1999). Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35(1), 319-328. doi:10.1029/98WR01659 Cerdà, A. (2001). Effects of rock fragment cover on soil infiltration, interrill runoff and erosion. European Journal of Soil Science, 52(1), 59-68. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00354.x Cerdà, A., Morera, A. G., & Bodí, M. B. (2009). Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34(13), 1822-1830. doi:10.1002/esp.1889 di Prima, S., Lassabatère, L., Bagarello, V., Iovino, M., & Angulo-Jaramillo, R. (2016). Testing a new automated single ring infiltrometer for Beerkan infiltration experiments. Geoderma, 262, 20-34. Iovino, M., Castellini, M., Bagarello, V., & Giordano, G. (2016). Using static and dynamic indicators to evaluate soil physical quality in a sicilian area. Land Degradation and Development, 27(2), 200-210. doi:10.1002/ldr.2263 Laudicina, V. A., Novara, A., Barbera, V., Egli, M., & Badalucco, L. (2015). Long-term tillage and cropping system effects on

  1. The positive impact of European subsidies on soil erosion rates in orange plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Taguas, Tani; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    . Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards. Sci. Total Environ. 565, 1165-1174. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.163 Rodrigo-Comino, J., M. Seeger, J. M. Senciales, J. D. Ruiz-Sinoga, and J. B. Ries. 2016. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Hydrological Processes on Steep Slope Vineyards (Ruwel-Mosel Valley, Gemany). Cuadernos De Investigacion Geografica 42 (1): 281-306. doi:10.18172/cig.2934. Taguas, E. V., E. Guzmán, G. Guzmán, T. Vanwalleghem, and J. A. Gómez. 2015. Characteristics and Importance of Rill and Gully Erosion: A Case Study in a Small Catchment of a Marginal Olive Grove. Cuadernos De Investigacion Geografica 41 (1): 107-126. doi:10.18172/cig.2644.

  2. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the use of soil bacterial 16S rDNA DNA markers in sediment fingerprinting in two small endorheic lagoons in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Landa del Castillo, Blanca; Guzman, Gema; Petticrew, Ellen L.; Owens, Phillip N.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, several studies have shown the effect of soil management on the soil microbial community in olive orchards, how this might differ due to a combination of management and soil type, and how these can be identified using DNA markers (Landa et al., 2014). Using DNA markers of soil bacteria seems to have the potential to detect differences in soil properties between different areas (Joe-Strack and Petticrew, 2012), particularly in those that by their location and characteristics might not present differences in other chemical or geochemical soil properties. This presentation describes the preliminary results of an exploratory survey to evaluate the potential of soil bacteria community composition in determining the origin of the sediment in two small endorheic lagoons in southern Spain. Two lagoons (Zoñar and Dulce) in southern Spain with a small contributing area (877 and 263 ha respectively) were selected for this study. These lagoons were chosen because of their environmental relevance and increasing siltation problems. The dominant land use in most of their contributing catchments is rain-fed olive tree cultivation. In May 2015, two small subcatchments within each of the lagoon's contributing area were sampled. At each sampling point, a composite sample was collected of three subsamples taken within a 5 m radiusa. We differentiated between 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil depth. Additionally, in both lagoons samples were taken from the sedimentation of the stream draining the subcatchment into the lagoon shores, at 0-20 -cm depth. Prior to each sampling each of the the two subcatchments were explored for indications of different properties or management that could help divide it into different "homogeneous" units, including: soil management, visual indications of erosion symptoms (e.g. rills, soil mounds around olive trees), colour, and landscape position. As a result, the subcatchment in each lagoon was divided into three areas (referred to as 1, 2 and 3). The

  4. California State Waters Map Series — Offshore of Point Conception, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2018-04-20

    attractive to groundfish. Below the steep shelf break, soft, unconsolidated sediment is interrupted by the heads of several submarine canyons, gullies, and rills, also good potential habitat for rockfish. The map area includes the large (58.3 km2) Point Conception State Marine Reserve.

  5. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Gaviota, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2018-04-20

    or continental slope) megahabitats. The fairly homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides characteristic habitat for rockfish, groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms. Several areas of smooth sediment form nearshore terraces that have relatively steep, smooth fronts, which may be attractive to groundfish. Below the steep shelf break, soft, unconsolidated sediment is interrupted by the heads of several submarine canyons and rills, some bedrock exposures, and small carbonate mounds associated with asphalt mounds and pockmarks, also good potential habitat for rockfish. The map area includes the relatively small (5.2 km2) Kashtayit State Marine Conservation Area, which largely occupies the inner part of the Gaviota sediment bar.

  6. The contribution of mulches to control high soil erosion rates in vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena; José Marqués, María; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion take place in degraded ecosystem where the lack of vegetation, drought, erodible parent material and deforestation take place (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). Agriculture management developed new landscapes (Ore and Bruins, 2012) and use to trigger non-sustainable soil erosion rates (Zema et al., 2012). High erosion rates were measured in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), but it is also possible to develop managements that will control the soil and water losses, such as organic amendments (Marqués et al., 2005), plant cover (Marqués et al., 2007) and geotextiles (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). The most successful management to restore the structural stability and the biological activity of the agriculture soil has been the organic mulches (García Orenes et al; 2009; 2010; 2012). The straw mulch is also very successful on bare fire affected soil (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b), which also contributes to a more stable soil moisture content (García-Moreno et al., 2013). The objective of this research is to determine the impact of two mulches: wheat straw and chipped branches, on the soil erosion rates in a rainfed vineyard in Eastern Spain. The research site is located in the Les Alcusses Valley within the Moixent municipality. The Mean annual temperature is 13 ºC, and the mean annual rainfall 455 mm. Soil are sandy loam, and are developed at the foot-slope of a Cretaceous limestone range, the Serra Grossa range. The soils use to be ploughed and the features of soil erosion are found after each thunderstorm. Rills are removed by ploughing. Thirty rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in summer 2011 during the summer drought period. The simulated rainfall lasted during 1 hour at a 45 mmh-1 intensity on 1 m2 plots (Cerdà and Doerr, 2010; Cerdà and Jurgensen 2011). Ten experiments were carried out on the control plots (ploughed), 10 on straw mulch covered plots, and 10 on chipped branches covered

  7. Soil erosion measurements by means of experimental plots to determine best land management strategies in vineyards and olive orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordan, Antonio; Brevik, Erik; Nova, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Azorín-Molina, César; Yazdanpanah, Najme; Mahmoodabadi, Majid; Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    ., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Jordán, A., & Martínez-Zavala, L. 2008. Soil loss and runoff rates on unpaved forest roads in southern Spain after simulated rainfall. Forest Ecology and Management, 255(3), 913-919. Keesstra, S.D. 2007. Impact of natural reforestation on floodplain sedimentation in the Dragonja basin, SW Slovenia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32(1): 49-65. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1360 Ligonja, P.J., Shrestha, R.P. 2015. Soil erosion assessment in kondoa eroded area in Tanzania using universal soil loss equation, geographic information systems and socioeconomic approach (2015) Land Degradation and Development, 26 (4), pp. 367-379. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2215 Nanko, K., Giambelluca, T.W., Sutherland, R.A., Mudd, R.G., Nullet, M.A., Ziegler, A.D. 2015.Erosion potential under miconia calvescens stands on the island of hawai'i. Land Degradation and Development, 26 (3), pp. 218-226. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2200 Pereira, P., Giménez-Morera, A., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Jordán, A., Masto, R. E., Brevik, E., Azorin-Molina, C. Cerdà, A. 2015. The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 12, 12947-12985. Prosdocimi,M., Jordán, A., Tarolli, P., Keesstra, S., Novara, A., Cerdà, A. 2016. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of The Total Environment, 547, 15 ,323-330, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.076 Seutloali, K.E., Beckedahl, H.R. 2015. Understanding the factors influencing rill erosion on roadcuts in the south eastern region of South Africa. Solid Earth, 6 (2) 633-641. DOI: 10.5194/se-6-633-2015

  8. The Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    obvious; and for ancient highland samples, never obvious. The closest approach toin situ sampling of bedrock came on the Apollo 15 mission. The regolith is very thin near the edge of the Hadley Rille, and many samples of clearly comagmatic basalts were acquired within meters of their 3.3 Ga "young," nearly intact, lava flow, so that their collective provenance is certain (Ryder and Cox, 1996). Even the regional provenance of any individual lunar sample is potentially allocthonous. However, most lunar rocks, even ancient highland rocks, are found within a few hundred kilometers of their original locations. This conclusion stems from theoretical modeling of cratered landscapes ( Shoemaker et al., 1970; Melosh, 1989), plus observational evidence such as the sharpness of geochemical boundaries between lava-flooded maria and adjacent highlands (e.g., Li and Mustard, 2000).Besides breaking up rock into loose debris, impacts create melt. Traces of melt along grain boundaries may suffice to produce new rock out of formerly loose debris; the resultant rock would be classified as either regolith breccia or fragmental breccia, depending upon whether surface fines were important, or not, respectively, in the precursor matter (Stöffler et al., 1980). Features diagnostic of a surface component include the presence of glass spherules (typically a mix of endogenous mare-pyroclastic glasses and impact-splash glasses) or abundant solar-wind-implanted noble gases (e.g., Eugster et al., 2000).Elsewhere, especially in the largest events in which a planet's gravitational strength limits displacement and the kinetic energy of impact is mainly partitioned into heat (Melosh, 1989), impact melt may constitute a major fraction of the volume of the material that becomes new rock. Rocks formed in this manner are classified as impact-melt breccias and subclassified based on whether they are clast-poor or clast-rich, and whether their matrix is crystalline or glassy ( Stöffler et al., 1980). Obvious

  9. The scale effect on soil erosion. A plot approach to understand connectivity on slopes under cultivation at variable plot sizes and under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Ferro, Vito; Iovino, Massimo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; González Camarena, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion changes along time and seasons and attention was paid to this issue in the past (González Hidalgo et al., 2010; 2012). However, although the scientific community knows that soil erosion is also a time spatial scale-scale dependent process (Parsons et al., 1990; Cerdà et al., 2009; González Hidalgo et al., 2013; Sadeghi et al., 2015) very little is done on this topic. This is due to the fact that at different scales, different soil erosion mechanisms (splash, sheetflow, rill development) are active and their rates change with the scale of measurement (Wainwright et al., 2002; López-Vicente et al., 2015). This is making the research on soil erosion complex and difficult, and it is necessary to develop a conceptual framework but also measurements that will inform about the soil erosion behaviour. Connectivity is the key concept to understand how changes in the scale results in different rates of soil and water losses (Parsons et al., 1996; Parsons et al., 2015; Poeppl et al., 2016). Most of the research developed around the connectivity concept was applied in watershed or basin scales (Galdino et al., 2016; Martínez-Casasnovas et al., 2016; López Vicente et al., 2016; Marchamalo et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016), but very little is known about the connectivity issue at slope scale (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). El Teularet (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) and Sparacia (Sicily) soil erosion experimental stations are being active for 15 years and data collected on different plots sizes can shed light into the effect of scale on runoff generation and soil losses at different scales and give information to understand how the transport of materials is determined by the connectivity between pedon to slope scale (Cerdà et al., 2014; Bagarello et al., 2015a; 2015b). The comparison of the results of the two research stations will shed light into the rates of soil erosion and mechanisms involved that act under different scales. Our

  10. The impact of olive leaves, mosses and the burrowing of wild boars on soil erosion in olive orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Brevik, Eric C.; Pulido, Manuel; Maestre, Fermando T.; Taguas, Tani; Novara, Agata; Keesstra, Saskia; Cammeraat, Erik; Parras-Alcantara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    ., Quiquerez, A., Follain, S., Raclot, D., Le Bissonnais, Y., Casalí, J., Giménez, R., Cerdà, A., Keesstra, S.D., Brevik, E.C., Pereira, P., Senciales, J.M., Seeger, M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Ries, J.B., 2016. Soil erosion in sloping vineyards assessed by using botanical indicators and sediment collectors in the Ruwer-Mosel valley. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 233, 158-170. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.09.009 Taguas, E. V., E. Guzmán, G. Guzmán, T. Vanwalleghem, and J. A. Gómez. 2015. Characteristics and Importance of Rill and Gully Erosion: A Case Study in a Small Catchment of a Marginal Olive Grove. Cuadernos De Investigacion Geografica 41 (1): 107-126. doi:10.18172/cig.2644. Van Eck, C. M., Nunes, J. P., Vieira, D. C. S., Keesstra, S., & Keizer, J. J. (2016). Physically-based modelling of the post-fire runoff response of a forest catchment in central portugal: Using field versus remote sensing based estimates of vegetation recovery. Land Degradation and Development, 27(5), 1535-1544. doi:10.1002/ldr.2507 van Hall, R. L., Cammeraat, L. H., Keesstra, S. D., & Zorn, M. (2017). Impact of secondary vegetation succession on soil quality in a humid mediterranean landscape. Catena, 149, 836-843. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.05.021 Zema, D. A., Denisi, P., Taguas Ruiz, E. V., Gómez, J. A., Bombino, G., & Fortugno, D. (2016). Evaluation of surface runoff prediction by AnnAGNPS model in a large mediterranean watershed covered by olive groves. Land Degradation and Development, 27(3), 811-822. doi:10.1002/ldr.2390

  11. Long-term water repellency in organic olive orchards in the Cànyoles River watershed. The impact of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Neris, Jonay

    2015-04-01

    Soil water repellency is being researched in many enviroments of the world due to the fact that after two decades of intense investigations we found that soil water repellency is a soil property that can be found at any ecosystem (Atanassava and Doerr, 2011; Goebel et al., 2011; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Roper et al., 2013; Young et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2014). Soil water repellency inhibits or delays infiltration, encourage surface runoff but also the preferential flow in cracks and other macropores (Arye et al., 2011; Jordán et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; Spohn and Rilling, 2012; García-Moreno et al., 2013; Hallin et al., 2013). Water repellency has been found in many soil types and it is present after forest fire, on forested land and also in agriculture soils (Granjed et al., 2013; Bodí et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Dlapa et al., 2013; González-Peñaloza et al., 2012; López Garrido et al., 2012; León et al., 2013; Hewelke et al., 2014; Santos et al., 2014; Kröpfl et al., 2013). This paper show the measurements caried out by means of the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method in olive plantation in the Cànyoles watershed in Eastern Spain. Conservation practices applied such as no-tillage, manure addition, application of herbicides may contribute to increase soil organic matter and, hence, soil water repellency, and this is unknow under Mediterranean type ecosystems. The effect of long-term addition of plant residues and organic manure, no-tillage and no chemical fertilization (MNT), annual addition of plant residues and no-tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no-tillage (H), and conventional tillage (CT) on soil water repellency in Mediterranean calcareous citrus-cropped soils (Eastern Spain) has been studied. Water repellency was observed in MNT soils, which may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic

  12. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Eriksson

    1987-06-01

    tarkoitusperå kuin tåsså tutkimuksessa kåsiteltåvien lååninosien laiduntamahdollisuuksien arvioiminen. Mahdollisuudet varmojen johtopååtosten tekoon lisååntyvåt yhdesså parempien perustietojen myotå kåytetyistå yhteyksistå ja tiedoista. Maantieteellinen jako lååninosiin johtuu valtakunnanmetsånarvioinin rakenteesta. Olosuhteet voivat tie-tysti vaihdella nåiden lååninosien sisållå, joista jokainen sisåltåå useamman paliskunnan. Tuloksia ei siis saa tulkita paliskunta kohtaisesti. Tutkielma esittåå tavan valoittaa kuinka porohoidon jåkålålaitumet kehittyvåt suhteessa puuntuotantoon. Tulokset ovat kuitenkin liian epåvarmoja, jotta niistå voitaisiin vetåå varmoja loppupååtelmiå. Tulokset viittaavat kuitenkin, ettå tietyillå alueilla on jo talla hetkellå pula jåkålålaitumista niillå poromåårillå, joilla tassa tutkielmassa on laskettu. Laskelmat viittaavat, ettå tuotanto våhenee tulevaisuudessa, minkå pitåisi motivoida laajempaa tutkimukseen tållå alueella. Jos tulokset tåsså tutkimuksessa ovat oikeat ja jos puuntuotannollinen metsåtalous kehittyy esimerkin mu-kaisesti, pitåå poronomistajien jatkaa tai lisåtå tukiruokintaa ja/tai våhentåå porojen lukumååråå huomatta-vasti. He joutuvat my os hyodyntåmåån kaikki laiduntamiskelpoiset alueet, my os sellaiset jotka tållå hetkellå ovat våhemmån tårkeitå. Toinen tapa par ant aa tasapainoa on sopeuttaa jåkålåalueiden puuntuotannollinen metsåtalous suuremmassa måårin kuin tåsså analysoitavassa vaihtoehdossa tehdåån.

  13. Prémiers éléments d'une approche écologique du versant de Pampas-La Florida-San Juan-Huascoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    and the substratum which affect the plants are given by breaking down the relief into its components -altitude, slope, exposure, topographic position. This allows a better understanding of location of various types of human settlements and the large scale variations in the vegetation. A difference in altitude of over 3000 m (from 1550 to 4900 m, steep slopes (30 to 45º mostly, and exposures chiefly to the North and to the West, constitute the main relief features. The average annual temperature varies from 20ºC in the lowest zones to 2°C in the highest. Annual amplitude is very small, about 1.6°C, while daily amplitude is high. There are also marked differences between temperatures in the shade and in the light. Frost occurs practically every night in Cancau, appearing at nearly every altitude, as well. Annual precipitations, below 250 mm, in the low zone, do not exceed 700 mm in the highest part. But this higher quantity, combined with lower temperatures and with a better annual distribution of rainfall allows among other things, farming without irrigation over 3500 m. Below this altitude water is a limitation and straining factor. Rainfall occurs mainly between October and April. Other factors become important with altitude at the Cancau height of 2600 m, atmospheric pressure is reduced to less than 60% of that at sea level. Oxygen and carbonic gas are reduced in the same proportions. Ultraviolet and infrared radiation in the atmosphere is increased considerably. All these factors contribute to the reduction in size and densification of plants (bunch grass, pulvinates. Apart from rocky outcrops, bare landslips and rare humifer soils, most substrata are made up of loam and sand soils, acid, poor in organic material, easily mobilized in the dry season (tramping, wind, as well as in the wet season (mass movements, rills. Man has exerted a strong pressure on the environment for a long time, a pressure more severely felt at times because of climatic conditions