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Sample records for ril population derived

  1. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  2. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between two RIL populations derived from Peking x 7605 under two ecological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchun; Guo, Na; Zhao, Jinming; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ran; Ding, Hui; Zhao, Weiguo; Gai, Junyi; Xing, Han

    2016-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a plant-parasitic nematode that feeds on the roots of soybean and most economically devastating pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most effective control method. To understand SCN resistance in different environments, two recombinant-inbred lines (RILs) populations NJ(RN)P7 (217 F 2:8:11 lines) and JN(RN)P7 (248 F 2:7:9 lines) were developed from the cross of the cultivars Peking x 7605 in Nanjing and Jinan, respectively, and examined in this study. Peking is resistant to SCN race 1 (HG types 2.5.7), while 7605 is highly susceptible. Chi-square test of frequency distribution of families' female index (FI) showed that resistance to SCN was significantly different between NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. Three recessive genes conditioned the inheritance of resistance to SCN race 1 in both populations, but significant difference was detected for the mean of FI on two populations (DM= -16.68, P< 0.01). This indicated that natural selection may affect resistance to SCN. By analysing the variation of phenotype, the genetic structure of the two populations was determined to be different. The inheritance and variation of resistance were confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. For the two populations, 10 SSR markers showed polymorphism of resistant and susceptible DNA bulks. Some markers associated with the resistance of SCN races 1, 2, 3 and 5, and two markers, Satt163 and Satt309, reportedly related to rgh1 were detected both in NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. The results support the view that a disease acts as a selective force on plant resistance characteristics, which may alter the relative fitness of resistance alleles.

  3. Identification of QTLs for seed germination capability after various storage periods using two RIL populations in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Yong-Mei; Qiao, Yongli; Piao, Rihua; Jang, Sun Mi; Woo, Mi-Ok; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Liu, Xianhu; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2011-04-01

    Seed germination capability of rice is one of the important traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive × additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.

  4. Integrated genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut by three RIL populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin Song; Huifang Jiang; Huaiyong Luo; Li Huang; Yuning Chen; Weigang Chen; Nian Liu; Xiaoping Ren; Bolun Yu; Jianbin Guo

    2017-01-01

    High-density and precise genetic linkage map is fundamental to detect quanti-tative trait locus (QTL) of agronomic and quality related traits in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In this study, three linkage maps from three RIL (recombinant inbred line) populations were used to construct an integrated map. A total of 2,069 SSR and transposon markers were anchored on the high-density integrated map which covered 2,231.53 cM with 20 linkage groups. Totally, 92 QTLs correlating with pod length (PL), pod width (PW), hun-dred pods weight (HPW) and plant height (PH) from above RIL populations were mapped on it. Seven intervals were found to harbor QTLs controlling the same traits in different pop-ulations, including one for PL, three for PW, two for HPW, and one for PH. Besides, QTLs controlling different traits in different populations were found to be overlapped in four inter-vals. Interval on A05 contains 17 QTLs for different traits from two RIL populations. New markers were added to these intervals to detect QTLs with narrow confidential intervals. Results obtained in this study may facilitate future genomic researches such as QTL study, fine mapping, positional cloning and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in peanut.

  5. Identification of QTLs for Arsenic Accumulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using a RIL Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Song, Guiliang; Qi, Hongyuan; Liu, Jingbao; Tang, Jihua

    2011-01-01

    The Arsenic (As) concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels. PMID:22028786

  6. Identification of QTLs for arsenic accumulation in maize (Zea mays L. using a RIL population.

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    Dong Ding

    Full Text Available The Arsenic (As concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels.

  7. Identification of QTLs for shoot and root growth under ionic-osmotic stress in Lotus, using a RIL population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quero, Gastón; Gutíerrez, Lucía; Lascano, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The genus Lotus includes a group of forage legume species including genotypes of agronomic interest and model species. In this work, an experimental hydroponic growth system allowed the discrimination of growth responses to ionic-osmotic stress in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs...

  8. QTL mapping for controlling anthesis-silking interval based on RIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To realize the genetic basis of ASI, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 239 RILs, derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4, was used to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling ASI under different N environments. As a result, 6 QTLs were detected under high N environment on ...

  9. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population

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    Giband Marc

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb and G. hirsutum (Gh, differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh × Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. Results The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2, 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Conclusions Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and

  10. Meta-analysis of cotton fiber quality QTLs across diverse environments in a Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacape, Jean-Marc; Llewellyn, Danny; Jacobs, John; Arioli, Tony; Becker, David; Calhoun, Steve; Al-Ghazi, Yves; Liu, Shiming; Palaï, Oumarou; Georges, Sophie; Giband, Marc; de Assunção, Henrique; Barroso, Paulo Augusto Vianna; Claverie, Michel; Gawryziak, Gérard; Jean, Janine; Vialle, Michèle; Viot, Christopher

    2010-06-28

    Cotton fibers (produced by Gossypium species) are the premier natural fibers for textile production. The two tetraploid species, G. barbadense (Gb) and G. hirsutum (Gh), differ significantly in their fiber properties, the former having much longer, finer and stronger fibers that are highly prized. A better understanding of the genetics and underlying biological causes of these differences will aid further improvement of cotton quality through breeding and biotechnology. We evaluated an inter-specific Gh x Gb recombinant inbred line (RIL) population for fiber characteristics in 11 independent experiments under field and glasshouse conditions. Sites were located on 4 continents and 5 countries and some locations were analyzed over multiple years. The RIL population displayed a large variability for all major fiber traits. QTL analyses were performed on a per-site basis by composite interval mapping. Among the 651 putative QTLs (LOD > 2), 167 had a LOD exceeding permutation based thresholds. Coincidence in QTL location across data sets was assessed for the fiber trait categories strength, elongation, length, length uniformity, fineness/maturity, and color. A meta-analysis of more than a thousand putative QTLs was conducted with MetaQTL software to integrate QTL data from the RIL and 3 backcross populations (from the same parents) and to compare them with the literature. Although the global level of congruence across experiments and populations was generally moderate, the QTL clustering was possible for 30 trait x chromosome combinations (5 traits in 19 different chromosomes) where an effective co-localization of unidirectional (similar sign of additivity) QTLs from at least 5 different data sets was observed. Most consistent meta-clusters were identified for fiber color on chromosomes c6, c8 and c25, fineness on c15, and fiber length on c3. Meta-analysis provided a reliable means of integrating phenotypic and genetic mapping data across multiple populations and

  11. Construction of a genetic linkage map in Lilium using a RIL mapping population based on SRAP marker

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    Chen Li-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A genetic linkage map of lily was constructed using RILs (recombinant inbred lines population of 180 individuals. This mapping population was developed by crossing Raizan No.1 (Formolongo and Gelria (Longiflomm cultivars through single-seed descent (SSD. SRAPs were generated by using restriction enzymes EcoRI in combination with either MseI. The resulting products were separated by electrophoresis on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The segregation of each marker and linkage analysis was done using the program Mapmaker3.0. With 50 primer pairs, a total of 189 parental polymorphic bands were detected and 78 were used for mapping. The total map length was 2,135.5 cM consisted of 16 linkage groups. The number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 1 to 12. The length of linkage groups was range from 11.2 cM to 425.9 cM and mean marker interval distance range from 9.4 cM to 345.4 cM individually. The mean marker interval distance between markers was 27.4 cM. The map developed in the present study was the first sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers map of lily constructed with recombinant inbred lines, it could be used for genetic mapping and molecular marker assisted breeding and quantitative trait locus mapping of Lilium.

  12. Mapping QTLs controlling kernel dimensions in a wheat inter-varietal RIL mapping population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruiru; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Liwei; Xie, Quan; Jia, Haiyan; Yu, Dong; Huang, Yulong; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2017-07-01

    Seven kernel dimension QTLs were identified in wheat, and kernel thickness was found to be the most important dimension for grain weight improvement. Kernel morphology and weight of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affect both yield and quality; however, the genetic basis of these traits and their interactions has not been fully understood. In this study, to investigate the genetic factors affecting kernel morphology and the association of kernel morphology traits with kernel weight, kernel length (KL), width (KW) and thickness (KT) were evaluated, together with hundred-grain weight (HGW), in a recombinant inbred line population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai, with data from five trials (two different locations over 3 years). The results showed that HGW was more closely correlated with KT and KW than with KL. A whole genome scan revealed four QTLs for KL, one for KW and two for KT, distributed on five different chromosomes. Of them, QKl.nau-2D for KL, and QKt.nau-4B and QKt.nau-5A for KT were newly identified major QTLs for the respective traits, explaining up to 32.6 and 41.5% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Increase of KW and KT and reduction of KL/KT and KW/KT ratios always resulted in significant higher grain weight. Lines combining the Nanda 2419 alleles of the 4B and 5A intervals had wider, thicker, rounder kernels and a 14% higher grain weight in the genotype-based analysis. A strong, negative linear relationship of the KW/KT ratio with grain weight was observed. It thus appears that kernel thickness is the most important kernel dimension factor in wheat improvement for higher yield. Mapping and marker identification of the kernel dimension-related QTLs definitely help realize the breeding goals.

  13. QTL analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a black bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) but it has a low efficiency to fix nitrogen. The objective of this study is to map the genes controlling nitrogen fixation in common bean. A mapping population consisting of 122 recomb...

  14. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

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    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes.A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8, "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11 and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39.The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4. The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps.This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  15. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Duygu; Aldemir, Secil; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Erdogmus, Semih; Nemli, Seda; Kahriman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2018-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14), self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes. A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8), "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11) and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39). The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4). The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps. This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  16. Genetic and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Cell Wall Components and Forage Digestibility in the Zheng58 × HD568 Maize RIL Population at Anthesis Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Hongwu; Hu, Xiaojiao; Ma, Feiqian; Wu, Yujin; Wang, Qi; Liu, Zhifang; Huang, Changling

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall plays vital roles in various aspects of the plant life cycle. It provides a basic structure for cells and gives mechanical rigidity to the whole plant. Some complex cell wall components are involved in signal transduction during pathogenic infection and pest infestations. Moreover, the lignification level of cell walls strongly influences the digestibility of forage plants. To determine the genetic bases of cell wall components and digestibility, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for six related traits were performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between Zheng58 and HD568. Eight QTL for in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility were observed, out of which only two increasing alleles came from HD568. Three QTL out of ten with alleles increasing in vitro dry matter digestibility also originated from HD568. Five-ten QTL were detected for lignin, cellulose content, acid detergent fiber, and NDF content. Among these results, 29.8% (14/47) of QTL explained >10% of the phenotypic variation in the RIL population, whereas 70.2% (33/47) explained ≤10%. These results revealed that in maize stalks, a few large-effect QTL and a number of minor-effect QTL contributed to most of the genetic components involved in cell wall biosynthesis and digestibility.

  17. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

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    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  18. Mapping of stripe rust resistance QTL in Cappelle-Desprez × PBW343 RIL population effective in northern wheat belt of India.

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    Pawar, Sushma Kumari; Sharma, Davinder; Duhan, Joginder Singh; Saharan, Mahender Singh; Tiwari, Ratan; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is most important and devastating disease of wheat worldwide, which affects the grain yields, quality and nutrition. To elucidate, the genetic basis of resistance, a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines was developed from a cross between resistant Cappelle-Desprez and susceptible cultivar PBW343 using single-seed descent. Variety PBW343 had been one of the most popular cultivars of North Western Plains Zone, for more than a decade, before succumbing to the stripe rust. Cappelle-Desprez, a source of durable adult plant resistance, has maintained its resistance against stripe rust for a long time in Europe. Map construction and QTL analysis were completed with 1012 polymorphic (DArT and SSR) markers. Screenings for stripe rust disease were carried out in field condition for two consecutive crop seasons (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). Susceptible parent (PBW343) achieved a significant level of disease i.e., 100 % in both the years. In present investigations, resistance in Cappelle-Desprez was found stable and response to the rust ranged from 0 to 1.5 % over the years. The estimated broad-sense heritability (h 2 ) of stripe rust rAUDPC in the mapping population was 0.82. The relative area under the disease progress curve data showed continuous distributions, indicating that trait was controlled multigenically. Genomic region identified on chromosome 2D, was located within the short arm, with flanking markers (Xgwm484-Xcfd73), explained phenotypic variation (PVE) ranged from 13.9 to 31.8 %. The genomic region identified on chromosome 5B was found with the effect of maximum contribution with flanking DArT markers (1376633|F|0-1207571|F|0), PVE ranged from 24 to 27.0 %. This can, therefore, be utilized for marker assisted selection in developing much needed stripe rust resistant lines for the northern wheat belt of India.

  19. A genetic linkage map with 178 SSR and 1 901 SNP markers constructed using a RIL population in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hui-jie; FENG Zhi-yu; LIU Xin-ye; CHENG Xue-jiao; PENG Hui-ru; YAO Ying-yin; SUN Qi-xin; NI Zhong-fu

    2015-01-01

    The construction of high density genetic linkage map provides a powerful tool to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling agronomically important traits. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and Illumina 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genechip were employed to construct one genetic linkage map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross Yu 8679xJing 411. This map included 1 901 SNP loci and 178 SSR loci, covering 1 659.9 cM and 1 000 marker bins, with an average interval distance of 1.66 cM. A, B and D genomes covered 719.1,703.5 and 237.3 cM, with an average interval distance of 1.66, 1.45 and 2.9 cM, respectively. Notably, the genetic linkage map covered 20 chromosomes, with the exception of chromosome 5D. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 1 754 (92.27%) of 1 901 mapped SNP loci could be aligned to 1 215 distinct wheat unigenes, among which 1 184 (97.4%) were located on one single chromosome, and the rest 31 (2.6%) were located on 2 to 3 chromosomes. By performing in silico comparison, 214 chromosome deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 1 043 Brachypodium genes and 1 033 rice genes were further added onto the genetic linkage map. This map not only integrated genetic and physical maps, SSR and SNP loci, respectively, but also provided the information of Brachypodium and rice genes corresponding to 1 754 SNP loci. Therefore, it will be a useful tool for comparative genomics analysis, fine mapping of QTL/gene controlling agronomically important traits and marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat.

  20. Genetic analysis on yield, panicle and grain traits in rice RIL population of long panicle and big grain%水稻长穗大粒RIL群体产量、穗部和谷粒性状的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志强; 郑燕; 蔡英杰; 黄姗; 李志勇; 沈伟伟; 郑秀娟; 梁康迳

    2011-01-01

    The yield-related traits of rice on an RIL population of long panicle and big grain character was studied for exploring the inheritance of the yield-related traits of rice. We genetically analyzed 18 yield, panicle and grain traits by using the recombinant inbred lines population (RILs) F9 of the 130 lines which were derived from MIYANG 46/FJCD. The FJCD variety was bred by ourselves and had the characteristics of long panicle and big grain. The analytical method was based on the mixed inheritance model of major genes and polygenes of the quantitative traits in plants. The genetic analysis was conducted about 18 traits of the recombinant inbred lines population. The main research results were as follows; grain thickness ( CT) and grain width/grain thickness ( GW/ GT) were controlled only by polygenes, 1000-grain weight (1000 GW) was controlled by a pair of major genes and polygenes, grain width ( GW) was controlled by three pairs of major genes and polygenes, the other yield-related traits of rice were all controlled by two pairs of major genes and polygenes. The traits of grain weight per plant ( GWPP) , rate of seed setting (RSS) , panicles number of per plant (PN) , PL, number of first branch ( NFB) , length of Eirst branch ( LFB) , length of second branch ( LSB) , grain length/grain width ( GL/GW) , GW were controlled by the heritability of major genes. Grain length ( GL) , grain length/grain thickness ( GL/GT) were controlled by the heritability of polygenes. And the major QTLs may be detected in the traits of 1000 GW and GW.Rice ( Oryza saliva L. ) ; recombinant inbred lines population ( RIL) ; quantitative traits; inheritance model; inheritance parametersBased on the meteorological data from 1971 to 2007 at the meteorological stations in Qujing City, climatic feasibility to tobacco growing was evaluated comprehensively by using the method of fuzzy math and multivariate statistical analysis. The method of PCCA (principal component cluster analysis) was used

  1. Combining QTL mapping and transcriptome profiling of bulked RILs for identification of functional polymorphism for salt tolerance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Awadhesh; Rai, Vandna; Bal, Subhashis; Sinha, Shikha; Kumar, Vinod; Chauhan, Mahesh; Gautam, Raj K; Singh, Rakesh; Sharma, Prakash C; Singh, Ashok K; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Singh, Nagendra K

    2010-08-01

    Identification of genes for quantitative traits is difficult using any single approach due to complex inheritance of the traits and limited resolving power of the individual techniques. Here a combination of genetic mapping and bulked transcriptome profiling was used to narrow down the number of differentially expressed salt-responsive genes in rice in order to identify functional polymorphism of genes underlying the quantitative trait loci (QTL). A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross between salt-tolerant variety CSR 27 and salt-sensitive variety MI 48 was used to map QTL for salt ion concentrations in different tissues and salt stress susceptibility index (SSI) for spikelet fertility, grain weight, and grain yield. Eight significant QTL intervals were mapped on chromosomes 1, 8, and 12 for the salt ion concentrations and a QTL controlling SSI for spikelet fertility was co-located in one of these intervals on chromosome 8. However, there were total 2,681 genes in these QTL intervals, making it difficult to pinpoint the genes responsible for the functional differences for the traits. Similarly, transcriptome profiling of the seedlings of tolerant and sensitive parents grown under control and salt-stress conditions showed 798 and 2,407 differentially expressed gene probes, respectively. By analyzing pools of RNA extracted from ten each of extremely tolerant and extremely sensitive RILs to normalize the background noise, the number of differentially expressed genes under salt stress was drastically reduced to 30 only. Two of these genes, an integral transmembrane protein DUF6 and a cation chloride cotransporter, were not only co-located in the QTL intervals but also showed the expected distortion of allele frequencies in the extreme tolerant and sensitive RILs, and therefore are suitable for future validation studies and development of functional markers for salt tolerance in rice to facilitate marker-assisted breeding.

  2. Registration of Wyandot × PI 567301B soybean recombinant inbred line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] mapping population (Reg. No., SNL MAP) consisting of 357 F7-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) in Wooster, OH. The population was ...

  3. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  4. Localization of Reversion-Induced LIM Protein (RIL) in the Rat Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yuko; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Morishima, Tetsuro; Sasano, Hiroshi; Asai, Kiyofumi; Sobue, Kazuya; Takata, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    Reversion-induced LIM protein (RIL) is a member of the ALP (actinin-associated LIM protein) subfamily of the PDZ/LIM protein family. RIL serves as an adaptor protein and seems to regulate cytoskeletons. Immunoblotting suggested that RIL is concentrated in the astrocytes in the central nervous system. We then examined the expression and localization of RIL in the rat central nervous system and compared it with that of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). RIL was concentrated in the cells of ependyma lining the ventricles in the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord. In most parts of the central nervous system, RIL was expressed in the astrocytes that expressed AQP4. Double-labeling studies showed that RIL was concentrated in the cytoplasm of astrocytes where glial fibrillary acidic protein was enriched as well as in the AQP4-enriched regions such as the endfeet or glia limitans. RIL was also present in some neurons such as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and some neurons in the brain stem. Differential expression of RIL suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of the central nervous system

  5. New records of Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale (Duméril and Bibron, 1851 from the Central Cordillera of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Arango-L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We record the presence of Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale (DUMÉRIL and BIBRON, 1851 populations in the department of Quindío, Central Cordillera of Colombia. Despite the turtle is found in the neighboring departments of Tolima and Valle del Cauca, this is the first evidence of its distribution on this locality. We present biological and ecological records of individuals in the lower and middle area of La Vieja basin inhabiting small tributaries and ponds between pastures. Currently it is unknown whether the species was introduced or ignored until now.

  6. Mapping and characterization of the new adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr77 derived from Santa Fe winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James A; Su, Zhenqi; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Chao, Shiaoman

    2018-04-25

    A new gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance in wheat was mapped to chromosome 3BL. This gene was designated as Lr77. 'Santa Fe' is a hard red winter cultivar that has had long-lasting resistance to the leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosome location of the adult plant leaf rust resistance in Santa Fe wheat. A partial backcross line of 'Thatcher' (Tc) wheat with adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Santa Fe was crossed with Thatcher to develop a Thatcher//Tc*2/Santa Fe F 6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The RIL population and parental lines were evaluated for segregation of leaf rust resistance in three field plot tests and in an adult plant greenhouse test. A genetic map of the RIL population was constructed using 90,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with the Illumina Infinium iSelect 90K wheat bead array. A significant quantitative trait locus for reduction of leaf rust severity in all four tests was found on chromosome 3BL that segregated as a single adult plant resistance gene. The RILs with the allele from the resistant parent for SNP marker IWB10344 had lower leaf rust severity and a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response compared to the susceptible RILs and Thatcher. The gene derived from Santa Fe on chromosome 3BL was designated as Lr77. Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay markers linked to Lr77 on 3BL should be useful for selection of wheat germplasm with this gene.

  7. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F14 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00–14.17% of phenotype variation (PV and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13–34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  8. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Shang, Lianguang; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F 14 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC) population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00-14.17% of phenotype variation (PV) and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13-34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  9. Association analysis of IL10, TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 SNPs with Behçet's disease risk in Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouahiba eKhaib Dit Naib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have conducted the first study of the association of interleukin (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 regionSNPswith Behçet's disease (BD in Western Algeria. Methods: A total of 51 BD patients and 96 unrelated controls from West region of Algeria were genotyped by direct sequencing for 11 SNPs including 2 SNPsfrom the IL10 promoter [c.-819T>C (rs1800871, c.-592A>C (rs1800872], 6 SNPs from the TNF-α promoter [c.-1211T>C (rs1799964, c.-1043C>A (rs1800630, c.-1037C>T (rs1799724, c.-556G>A (rs1800750, c.-488G>A (rs1800629 and c.-418G>A (rs361525], and 3 SNPs from the IL23R-IL12RB2 region [g.67747415A>C (rs12119179, g.67740092G>A (rs11209032 and g.67760140T>C (rs924080]. Results: The minor alleles c.-819T and c.-592A were significantly associated with BD (OR= 2.18; 95% CI 1.28-3.73, p = 0.003; whereas, there was weaker association between TNF-αpromoter SNPs or IL23R-IL12RB2 region and disease risk.Conclusion: Unlike the TNF-αand the IL23R-IL12RB2 region SNPs, the two IL10 SNPs were strongly associated with BD. The -819T, and -592A alleles and the -819TT, -819CT, and -592AA and -592CA genotypes seem to be highly involved in the risk of developing of BD in the population of Western Algeria.

  10. Individual characterization of Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril venoms, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Marisa M. T. da; Furtado, Maria de F. D.

    2005-01-01

    Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 é uma serpente de importância em saúde pública, com ampla distribuição geográfica, desde o Mato Grosso do Sul até o sudeste do Brasil, chegando até a Argentina e Uruguai, ocupando vários domínios morfoclimáticos. Neste trabalho investigou-se a variação do veneno de adultos de Bothrops alternatus, em função de sua distribuição geográfica no Brasil, comparativamente ao veneno elaborado sob a forma de "pool" desta espécie (veneno referência), q...

  11. RIVER INTER-LINKING (RIL) PROJECT: A QUESTION ON INDIAN FEDERALISM.

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Waheed; Pradip Kumar Jha.

    2017-01-01

    The Supreme Court of India, in 2002 directed the central government to link major Indian rivers within 10 years. In December 2002, the government appointed a task force on interlinking of 37 rivers and the dead line was extended by 2016. The RIL project not only raises national issue but also give way to international conflict in South Asia over sharing of river waters. The paper examines the impact of the RIL project on the paradigms and working of Indian federalism. It is based on triangula...

  12. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations ... Both cluster and principal component analyses revealed two major groups ...... simulations. Theor ... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics.

  13. Development of CACTA transposon derived SCAR markers and their use in population structure analysis in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Neha Samir; Park, Kyong-Cheul; Lee, Sung-Il; Im, Min-Ji; Ramekar, Rahul Vasudeo; Kim, Nam-Soo

    2018-02-01

    Molecular marker technologies have proven to be an important breakthrough for genetic studies, construction of linkage maps and population genetics analysis. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute major fractions of repetitive sequences in plants and offer a wide range of possible areas to be explored as molecular markers. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker development provides us with a simple and time saving alternative approach for marker development. We employed the CACTA-TD to develop SCARs and then integrated them into linkage map and used them for population structure and genetic diversity analysis of corn inbred population. A total of 108 dominant SCAR markers were designed out of which, 32 were successfully integrated in to the linkage map of maize RIL population and the remaining were added to a physical map for references to check the distribution throughout all chromosomes. Moreover, 76 polymorphic SCARs were used for diversity analysis of corn accessions being used in Korean corn breeding program. The overall average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.34, expected heterozygosity was 0.324 and Shannon's information index was 0.491 with a percentage of polymorphism of 98.67%. Further analysis by associating with desirable traits may also provide some accurate trait specific tagged SCAR markers. TE linked SCARs can provide an added level of polymorphism as well as improved discriminating ability and therefore can be useful in further breeding programs to develop high yielding germplasm.

  14. Association study of IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 in Iranian patients with Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana M; Shahram, Farhad; Davatchi, Fereydoun; Rosa, Alexandra; Crespo, Jorge; Abdollahi, Bahar Sadeghi; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Jesus, Gorete; Barcelos, Filipe; Patto, José Vaz; Shafiee, Niloofar Mojarad; Ghaderibarim, Fahmida; Oliveira, Sofia A

    2012-08-01

    Independent replication of the findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) remains the gold standard for results validation. Our aim was to test the association of Behçet's disease (BD) with the interleukin-10 gene (IL10) and the IL-23 receptor-IL-12 receptor β2 (IL23R-IL12RB2) locus, each of which has been previously identified as a risk factor for BD in 2 different GWAS. Six haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 and 42 in IL23R-IL12RB2 were genotyped in 973 Iranian patients with BD and 637 non-BD controls. Population stratification was assessed using a panel of 86 ancestry-informative markers. Subtle evidence of population stratification was found in our data set. In IL10, rs1518111 was nominally associated with BD before and after adjustment for population stratification (odds ratio [OR] for T allele 1.20, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-1.40, unadjusted P [P(unadj) ] = 2.53 × 10(-2) ; adjusted P [P(adj) ] = 1.43 × 10(-2) ), and rs1554286 demonstrated a trend toward association (P(unadj) = 6.14 × 10(-2) ; P(adj) = 3.21 × 10(-2) ). Six SNPs in IL23R-IL12RB2 were found to be associated with BD after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the most significant of which were rs17375018 (OR for G allele 1.51, 95% CI 1.27-1.78, P(unadj) = 1.93 × 10(-6) ), rs7517847 (OR for T allele 1.48, 95% CI 1.26-1.74, P(unadj) = 1.23 × 10(-6) ), and rs924080 (OR for T allele 1.29, 95% CI 1.20-1.39, P = 1.78 × 10(-5) ). SNPs rs10489629, rs1343151, and rs1495965 were also significantly associated with BD in all tests performed. Results of meta-analyses of our data combined with data from other populations further confirmed the role of rs1518111, rs17375018, rs7517847, and rs924080 in the risk of BD, but no epistatic interactions between IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 were detected. Results of imputation analysis highlighted the importance of IL23R regulatory regions in the susceptibility to BD. These findings independently confirm

  15. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  16. Calculating second derivatives of population growth rates for ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shyu, E.; Caswell, H.

    2014-01-01

    Second derivatives of the population growth rate measure the curvature of its response to demographic, physiological or environmental parameters. The second derivatives quantify the response of sensitivity results to perturbations, provide a classification of types of selection and provide one way

  17. The Role of Cedex s Railway Inter operability Laboratory (RIL) in the European ERTMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamarit Rodriguez de Huici, J.

    2015-01-01

    The RIL is the most recently laboratory set up within CEDEXs premises. From the start, it has aimed to support the development of rail transport at both European and Spanish levels. This article describes the role played by CEDEX-RIL in the development of ERTMS, and the close link which from its inception, has existed between this system and the EMSET project, in which the feasibility of the European Railway inter operability was demonstrated with the participation of the whole European signalling industry. The key factor for the success of this project was the creation of both and independent laboratory and testing sites which, right from the very beginning, enjoyed the confidence of the industry, thus allowing for the first time the execution of cross tests between companies. Finally, and equally important, this paper shows the fruitful evolution followed by the laboratory aforementioned, which, from its establishment, has evolved from performing tests on generic ERTMS constituents to undertaking, first, remote tests jointly carried out between specific commercial projects with different suppliers on track and on-board; and, second, Handover tests between diverse RBC suppliers. (Author)

  18. [Constant Duméril (1774-1860) anatomist doctor and naturalist, about a portrait by G. Devers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2008-12-01

    André, Marie, Constant Duméril (1774-1860) served as a professor in the from 1801 to 1855. He was also chairman of herpetology and ichthyology of the in Paris. The Paris-Descartes University (department of anatomy) owns a great, framed portrait which is an oil painting by Giuseppe Devers, 1855, representing C. Duméril sat on a chair. The study of his portrait, biography and bibliography brings precisions on a noticeable scholar of the anatomical and naturalistic field in Paris in the first half of the 19th century.

  19. Lysis of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts by rIL-2 activated autologous natural killer cells from HIV-infected viremic individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fogli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cellular mechanisms that ensure an appropriate innate immune response against viral pathogens is an important challenge of biomedical research. In vitro studies have shown that natural killer (NK cells purified from healthy donors can kill heterologous cell lines or autologous CD4+ T cell blasts exogenously infected with several strains of HIV-1. However, it is not known whether the deleterious effects of high HIV-1 viremia interferes with the NK cell-mediated cytolysis of autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we stimulate primary CD4+ T cells, purified ex vivo from HIV-1-infected viremic patients, with PHA and rIL2 (with or without rIL-7. This experimental procedure allows for the significant expansion and isolation of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts detected by intracellular staining of p24 HIV-1 core antigen. We show that, subsequent to the selective down-modulation of MHC class-I (MHC-I molecules, HIV-1-infected p24(pos blasts become partially susceptible to lysis by rIL-2-activated NK cells, while uninfected p24(neg blasts are spared from killing. This NK cell-mediated killing occurs mainly through the NKG2D activation pathway. However, the degree of NK cell cytolytic activity against autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cell blasts that down-modulate HLA-A and -B alleles and against heterologous MHC-I(neg cell lines is particularly low. This phenomenon is associated with the defective surface expression and engagement of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs and with the high frequency of the anergic CD56(neg/CD16(pos subsets of highly dysfunctional NK cells from HIV-1-infected viremic patients. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the chronic viral replication of HIV-1 in infected individuals results in several phenotypic and functional aberrancies that interfere with the NK cell-mediated killing of autologous p24(pos blasts derived from primary T cells.

  20. Investigation of the Influence of Leaf Thickness on Canopy Reflectance and Physiological Traits in Upland and Pima Cotton Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Pauli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many systems for field-based, high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP quantify and characterize the reflected radiation from the crop canopy to derive phenotypes, as well as infer plant function and health status. However, given the technology's nascent status, it remains unknown how biophysical and physiological properties of the plant canopy impact downstream interpretation and application of canopy reflectance data. In that light, we assessed relationships between leaf thickness and several canopy-associated traits, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, which was collected via active reflectance sensors carried on a mobile FB-HTP system, carbon isotope discrimination (CID, and chlorophyll content. To investigate the relationships among traits, two distinct cotton populations, an upland (Gossypium hirsutum L. recombinant inbred line (RIL population of 95 lines and a Pima (G. barbadense L. population composed of 25 diverse cultivars, were evaluated under contrasting irrigation regimes, water-limited (WL and well-watered (WW conditions, across 3 years. We detected four quantitative trait loci (QTL and significant variation in both populations for leaf thickness among genotypes as well as high estimates of broad-sense heritability (on average, above 0.7 for both populations, indicating a strong genetic basis for leaf thickness. Strong phenotypic correlations (maximum r = −0.73 were observed between leaf thickness and NDVI in the Pima population, but not the RIL population. Additionally, estimated genotypic correlations within the RIL population for leaf thickness with CID, chlorophyll content, and nitrogen discrimination (r^gij = −0.32, 0.48, and 0.40, respectively were all significant under WW but not WL conditions. Economically important fiber quality traits did not exhibit significant phenotypic or genotypic correlations with canopy traits. Overall, our results support considering variation in leaf thickness as a potential

  1. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  2. Niche-dependent development of functional neuronal networks from embryonic stem cell-derived neural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebler Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work was performed to investigate the ability of two different embryonic stem (ES cell-derived neural precursor populations to generate functional neuronal networks in vitro. The first ES cell-derived neural precursor population was cultivated as free-floating neural aggregates which are known to form a developmental niche comprising different types of neural cells, including neural precursor cells (NPCs, progenitor cells and even further matured cells. This niche provides by itself a variety of different growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that influence the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor and progenitor cells. The second population was cultivated adherently in monolayer cultures to control most stringently the extracellular environment. This population comprises highly homogeneous NPCs which are supposed to represent an attractive way to provide well-defined neuronal progeny. However, the ability of these different ES cell-derived immature neural cell populations to generate functional neuronal networks has not been assessed so far. Results While both precursor populations were shown to differentiate into sufficient quantities of mature NeuN+ neurons that also express GABA or vesicular-glutamate-transporter-2 (vGlut2, only aggregate-derived neuronal populations exhibited a synchronously oscillating network activity 2–4 weeks after initiating the differentiation as detected by the microelectrode array technology. Neurons derived from homogeneous NPCs within monolayer cultures did merely show uncorrelated spiking activity even when differentiated for up to 12 weeks. We demonstrated that these neurons exhibited sparsely ramified neurites and an embryonic vGlut2 distribution suggesting an inhibited terminal neuronal maturation. In comparison, neurons derived from heterogeneous populations within neural aggregates appeared as fully mature with a dense neurite network and punctuated

  3. Reproductive value, sensitivity, and nonlinearity: Population-management heuristics derived from classical demography

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten R.; Teismann H.; Vogels A.

    2013-01-01

    In classical demographic theory, reproductive value and stable age distribution are proportional to the sensitivities of the asymptotic population size to changes in mortality and maternity, respectively. In this note we point out that analogous relationships hold if the maternity function is allowed to depend on the population density. The relevant formulae can essentially be obtained by replacing the growth rate ("Lotka'sr") with zero. These facts may be used to derive heuristics for popula...

  4. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan AO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  5. Reproductive value, sensitivity, and nonlinearity: population-management heuristics derived from classical demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Richard; Teismann, Holger; Vogels, Angela

    2013-05-01

    In classical demographic theory, reproductive value and stable age distribution are proportional to the sensitivities of the asymptotic population size to changes in mortality and maternity, respectively. In this note we point out that analogous relationships hold if the maternity function is allowed to depend on the population density. The relevant formulae can essentially be obtained by replacing the growth rate ("Lotka's r") with zero. These facts may be used to derive heuristics for population management (pest control). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡

  7. Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Ryoichi; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Shiratori-Hayashi, Miho; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates spinal microglia that are necessary for neuropathic pain. Recent studies using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice have reported that after PNI, circulating BM-derived cells infiltrate into the spinal cord and differentiate into microglia-like cells. This raises the possibility that the population of spinal microglia after PNI may be heterogeneous. However, the infiltration of BM cells in the spinal cord remains controversial because of experimental adverse effects of strong irradiation used for generating BM chimeric mice. In this study, we evaluated the PNI-induced spinal infiltration of BM-derived cells not only by irradiation-induced myeloablation with various conditioning regimens, but also by parabiosis and mice with genetically labelled microglia, models without irradiation and BM transplantation. Results obtained from these independent approaches provide compelling evidence indicating little contribution of circulating BM-derived cells to the population of spinal microglia after PNI. PMID:27005516

  8. Genealogical analyses in open populations: the case of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Molina, A; Goyache, F; Valera, M

    2009-10-01

    This research assesses the genetic composition of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds as an example to highlight the major shortcomings related to genealogical analyses in open populations and to propose approaches useful to deal with this task. The studbooks of three Spanish Arab (SA)-derived horse breeds, Spanish Anglo-Arab (dAA), Hispano-Arab (dHA) and Spanish Sport Horse (dSSH) and those of their parental breeds SA, Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Thoroughbred (TB), totalling 211 754 individuals, were available. The genealogies of the dAA, dHA and dSSH were analysed not only using the corresponding studbook (breed exclusive dataset) but also including the genealogies of the founders from parental breeds (completed dataset). Coancestry analyses revealed that the present SA-derived populations share more genes with the Arab than with the other parental breeds. Effective population size was computed by accounting for migration rates to obtain an equivalent closed-population effective size ((eq)N(e)) of 39.2 for the dAA, 56.3 for dHA and 114.1 for dSSH. The essayed methodologies were useful for characterising populations involving migration. The consequences of the management of the analysed breeds are discussed. The results emphasize the need to include the complete genealogies of the individuals to attain reliable genealogical parameters.

  9. HABSEED: a Simple Spatially Explicit Meta-Populations Model Using Remote Sensing Derived Habitat Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, B. W.; Guichard, F.; Seaquist, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    The HABSEED model uses remote sensing derived NPP as a surrogate for habitat quality as the driving mechanism for population growth and local seed dispersal. The model has been applied to the Sahel region of Africa. Results show that the functional response of plants to habitat quality alters population distribution. Plants more tolerant of medium quality habitat have greater distributions to the North while plants requiring only the best habitat are limited to the South. For all functional response types, increased seed production results in diminishing returns. Functional response types have been related to life history tradeoffs and r-K strategies based on the results. Results are compared to remote sensing derived vegetation land cover.

  10. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Huimin Dai; Lei Qian; Qing Tian; Lei Xiao; Xiaojun Tan; Hui Li; Lingjun Rao; Lixiazi He; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Zhenyu Zuo; Qiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types in the human body. Therefore, they are valuable in regenerative medicine, human developmental biology and drug discovery. A number of hESC lines have been derived from the Chinese population,but limited of them are available for research purposes. Here we report the derivation and characterization of two hESC lines derived from human blastocysts of Chinese origin. These hESCs express alkaline phosphatase and hESC-specific markers, including Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4,TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. They also have high levels of telomerase activity and normal karyotypes. These cells can form embryoid body in vitro and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vivo by teratoma formation. The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes.The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups.

  11. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eggert

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL, while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  12. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  13. Analysis of in vitro secretion profiles from adipose-derived cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaber Sinead P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue is an attractive source of cells for therapeutic purposes because of the ease of harvest and the high frequency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Whilst it is clear that MSCs have significant therapeutic potential via their ability to secrete immuno-modulatory and trophic cytokines, the therapeutic use of mixed cell populations from the adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF is becoming increasingly common. Methods In this study we have measured a panel of 27 cytokines and growth factors secreted by various combinations of human adipose-derived cell populations. These were 1. co-culture of freshly isolated SVF with adipocytes, 2. freshly isolated SVF cultured alone, 3. freshly isolated adipocytes alone and 4. adherent adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs at passage 2. In addition, we produced an ‘in silico’ dataset by combining the individual secretion profiles obtained from culturing the SVF with that of the adipocytes. This was compared to the secretion profile of co-cultured SVF and adipocytes. Two-tailed t-tests were performed on the secretion profiles obtained from the SVF, adipocytes, ADSCs and the ‘in silico’ dataset and compared to the secretion profiles obtained from the co-culture of the SVF with adipocytes. A p-value of  Results A co-culture of SVF and adipocytes results in a distinct secretion profile when compared to all other adipose-derived cell populations studied. This illustrates that cellular crosstalk during co-culture of the SVF with adipocytes modulates the production of cytokines by one or more cell types. No biologically relevant differences were detected in the proteomes of SVF cultured alone or co-cultured with adipocytes. Conclusions The use of mixed adipose cell populations does not appear to induce cellular stress and results in enhanced secretion profiles. Given the importance of secreted cytokines in cell therapy, the use of a mixed cell population such as the

  14. POPULATION EFFECTS ON THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION DERIVED FROM THE RED GIANT BRANCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata

    2015-01-01

    We have tested the reliability of the red giant branch (RGB) as a metallicity indicator accounting for observational errors as well as the complexity of star formation histories and chemical evolution histories observed in various stellar systems. We generate model color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) produced with a variety of evolutionary histories and compare the resultant metallicity estimates from the colors and magnitudes of RGB stars to the true input metallicities. We include realistic models for photometric errors and completeness in our synthetic CMDs. As expected, for simple simple stellar populations dominated by old stars, the RGB provides a very accurate estimate of the modular metallicity value for a population. An error in the age of a system targeted for this type of study may produce metallicity errors of a few tenths of a dex. The size of this metallicity error depends linearly on the age error, and we find this dependence to be stronger with more precise photometry. If the population has experienced any significant star formation within the last ∼6 Gyr, the metallicity estimates, [M/H], derived from the RGB may be in error by up to ∼0.5 dex. Perhaps the most important consideration for this technique is an accurate, independent estimate of the average age for the target stellar system, especially if it is probable that a significant fraction of the population formed less than ∼6 Gyr ago

  15. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Crocker, Alison F.; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Naab, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS 3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α dyn ≡ (M/L) stars /(M/L) Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α dyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α dyn -[α/Fe] and α dyn –Age correlations and no significant α dyn –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis

  16. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermid, Richard M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Alatalo, Katherine [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp- CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocker, Alison F. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krajnović, Davor [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: richard.mcdermid@mq.edu.au [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  17. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡ (M/L)stars/(M/L)Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of αdyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak αdyn-[α/Fe] and αdyn -Age correlations and no significant αdyn -[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  18. CD71(high) population represents primitive erythroblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruihua; Gong, Xueping; Wang, Libo; Wang, Pengxiang; Wang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The CD71/Ter119 combination has been widely used to reflect dynamic maturation of erythrocytes in vivo. However, because CD71 is expressed on all proliferating cells, it is unclear whether it can be utilized as an erythrocyte-specific marker during differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In this study, we revealed that a population expressing high level of CD71 (CD71(high)) during mouse ESC differentiation represented an in vitro counterpart of yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts (EryPs) isolated at 8.5days post coitum. In addition, these CD71(high) cells went through "maturational globin switching" and enucleated during terminal differentiation in vitro that were similar to the yolk sac-derived EryPs in vivo. We further demonstrated that the formation of CD71(high) population was regulated differentially by key factors including Scl, HoxB4, Eaf1, and Klf1. Taken together, our study provides a technical advance that allows efficient segregation of EryPs from differentiated ESCs in vitro for further understanding molecular regulation during primitive erythropoiesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Distinguishing plant population and variety with UAV-derived vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joseph; Balota, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Variety selection and seeding rate are two important choice that a peanut grower must make. High yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional input costs, while seeding rate often determines input cost a grower will incur from seed costs. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect that seeding rate has on different peanut varieties. With the advent of new UAV technology, we now have the possibility to use indices collected with the UAV to measure emergence, seeding rate, growth rate, and perhaps make yield predictions. This information could enable growers to make management decisions early in the season based on low plant populations due to poor emergence, and could be a useful tool for growers to use to estimate plant population and growth rate in order to help achieve desired crop stands. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) images were collected from a UAV platform starting two weeks after planting and continued weekly for the next six weeks. Ground NDVI was also collected each time aerial images were collected. Vegetation indices were derived from both the RGB and NIR images. Greener area (GGA- the proportion of green pixels with a hue angle from 80° to 120°) and a* (the average red/green color of the image) were derived from the RGB images while Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) was derived from NIR images. Aerial indices were successful in distinguishing seeding rates and determining emergence during the first few weeks after planting, but not later in the season. Meanwhile, these aerial indices are not an adequate predictor of yield in peanut at this point.

  20. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M Shulman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95% documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6 and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6 and 5x10(4. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0 amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5. SIGNIFICANCE: VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of

  1. The impact of maternally derived immunity on influenza A virus transmission in neonatal pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerson, Matt; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan E; Gramer, Marie R; Joo, Han Soo; Romagosa, Anna; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-07

    The commonality of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure and vaccination on swine farms in the United States ensures that the majority of neonatal pigs will have some degree of maternal immunity to IAV. The influence of maternal immunity on IAV transmission in neonatal pig populations will impact virus prevalence and infection dynamics across pig populations. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of maternally derived immunity on IAV transmission in an experimental setting. Neonatal pigs suckled colostrum and derived maternal (passive) immunity from sows in one of three treatment groups: (a) non-vaccinated control (CTRL) or vaccinated with (b) homologous (PASSV-HOM) or (c) heterologous (PASSV-HET) inactivated experimental IAV vaccines. Sentinel neonatal pigs derived from the groups above were challenged with IAV via direct contact with an experimentally infected pig (seeder pig) and monitored for IAV infection daily via nasal swab sampling. A susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) experimental model was used to obtain and estimate transmission parameters in each treatment group via a generalized linear model. All sentinel pigs in the CTRL (30/30) and PASSV-HET (30/30) groups were infected with IAV following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimates (95% confidence interval) were 10.4 (6.6-15.8) and 7.1 (4.2-11.3), respectively. In contrast, 1/20 sentinel pigs in the PASSV-HOM group was infected following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimate was significantly lower compared to the CTRL and PASSV-HET groups at 0.8 (0.1-3.7). Under the conditions of this study, IAV transmission was reduced in neonatal pigs with homologous maternal immunity compared to seronegative neonatal pigs and pigs with heterologous maternal immunity as defined in this study. This study provides estimates for IAV transmission in pigs with differing types of maternal immunity which may describe the influence of maternal immunity on

  2. Interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and their precursors express the VGO1 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denegri, J.F.; Peterson, J.; Tilley, P.

    1989-01-01

    Precursor and effector cells of recombinant interleukin-2 (r-IL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity were investigated for their expression of VGO1. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal donors were purified and separated in a FACS 420 into VGO1+- and VGO1- cell fractions before and after culture for 96 hr with 100 U/ml of r-IL-2. Their lytic activity against K 562 and Daudi cells was measured in a 51Cr release assay. The majority, if not all, of the LAK effector and precursor cells was VGO1+ lymphocytes. The expression of VGO1 by LAK precursor cells remained stable under the culture conditions used in our experiments. VGO1- lymphocytes cultured with r-IL-2 demonstrated neither LAK-induced activity nor expression of VGO1 antigen

  3. Estimating the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol on stochastic population growth rate of fathead minnows: a population synthesis of empirically derived vital rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Urban freshwater streams in arid climates are wastewater effluent dominated ecosystems particularly impacted by bioactive chemicals including steroid estrogens that disrupt vertebrate reproduction. However, more understanding of the population and ecological consequences of exposure to wastewater effluent is needed. We used empirically derived vital rate estimates from a mesocosm study to develop a stochastic stage-structured population model and evaluated the effect of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the estrogen in human contraceptive pills, on fathead minnow Pimephales promelas stochastic population growth rate. Tested EE2 concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 10.9 ng L−1 and produced stochastic population growth rates (λ S ) below 1 at the lowest concentration, indicating potential for population decline. Declines in λ S compared to controls were evident in treatments that were lethal to adult males despite statistically insignificant effects on egg production and juvenile recruitment. In fact, results indicated that λ S was most sensitive to the survival of juveniles and female egg production. More broadly, our results document that population model results may differ even when empirically derived estimates of vital rates are similar among experimental treatments, and demonstrate how population models integrate and project the effects of stressors throughout the life cycle. Thus, stochastic population models can more effectively evaluate the ecological consequences of experimentally derived vital rates.

  4. Intrinsically active and pacemaker neurons in pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Sebastian; Jakab, Martin; Beyer, Felix; Gelfert, Renate; Couillard-Despres, Sébastien; Schnitzler, Alfons; Ritter, Markus; Aigner, Ludwig

    2014-03-11

    Neurons generated from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) self-organize into functional neuronal assemblies in vitro, generating synchronous network activities. Intriguingly, PSC-derived neuronal assemblies develop spontaneous activities that are independent of external stimulation, suggesting the presence of thus far undetected intrinsically active neurons (IANs). Here, by using mouse embryonic stem cells, we provide evidence for the existence of IANs in PSC-neuronal networks based on extracellular multielectrode array and intracellular patch-clamp recordings. IANs remain active after pharmacological inhibition of fast synaptic communication and possess intrinsic mechanisms required for autonomous neuronal activity. PSC-derived IANs are functionally integrated in PSC-neuronal populations, contribute to synchronous network bursting, and exhibit pacemaker properties. The intrinsic activity and pacemaker properties of the neuronal subpopulation identified herein may be particularly relevant for interventions involving transplantation of neural tissues. IANs may be a key element in the regulation of the functional activity of grafted as well as preexisting host neuronal networks.

  5. Enrichment of skin-derived neural precursor cells from dermal cell populations by altering culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Vahid; Gazor, Rohoullah; Nejatbakhsh, Reza; Negad Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    As stem cells play a critical role in tissue repair, their manipulation for being applied in regenerative medicine is of great importance. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) may be good candidates for use in cell-based therapy as the only neural stem cells which can be isolated from an accessible tissue, skin. Herein, we presented a simple protocol to enrich neural SKPs by monolayer adherent cultivation to prove the efficacy of this method. To enrich neural SKPs from dermal cell populations, we have found that a monolayer adherent cultivation helps to increase the numbers of neural precursor cells. Indeed, we have cultured dermal cells as monolayer under serum-supplemented (control) and serum-supplemented culture, followed by serum free cultivation (test) and compared. Finally, protein markers of SKPs were assessed and compared in both experimental groups and differentiation potential was evaluated in enriched culture. The cells of enriched culture concurrently expressed fibronectin, vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors as compared to control culture. In addition, they possessed a multipotential capacity to differentiate into neurogenic, glial, adipogenic, osteogenic and skeletal myogenic cell lineages. It was concluded that serum-free adherent culture reinforced by growth factors have been shown to be effective on proliferation of skin-derived neural precursor cells (skin-NPCs) and drive their selective and rapid expansion.

  6. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45(+) and CD45(-) skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvistgaard; Jensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    transcripts associated with endothelial cells, Notch signaling and myogenic precursors. By comparing the mRNA signatures of mSPs with those of adipose tissue-derived SP populations, a common endothelial component seemed to reside in both muscle and fat-derived SPCD45(-) entities. However, each SP subset......The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...... describe the isolation of adult mouse normal skeletal muscle residing SPCD45(+) and SPCD45(-) cells from a parent mononuclear muscle-derived cell (MDC) population. Relative quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) of 64 genes revealed that mSPCD45(-) compared with mSPCD45(+) was enriched for cells expressing...

  7. Astronaut Bone Medical Standards Derived from Finite Element (FE) Models of QCT Scans from Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Feiveson, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    This work was accomplished in support of the Finite Element [FE] Strength Task Group, NASA Johnson Space Center [JSC], Houston, TX. This group was charged with the task of developing rules for using finite-element [FE] bone-strength measures to construct operating bands for bone health that are relevant to astronauts following exposure to spaceflight. FE modeling is a computational tool used by engineers to estimate the failure loads of complex structures. Recently, some engineers have used this tool to characterize the failure loads of the hip in population studies that also monitored fracture outcomes. A Directed Research Task was authorized in July, 2012 to investigate FE data from these population studies to derive these proposed standards of bone health as a function of age and gender. The proposed standards make use of an FE-based index that integrates multiple contributors to bone strength, an expanded evaluation that is critical after an astronaut is exposed to spaceflight. The current index of bone health used by NASA is the measurement of areal BMD. There was a concern voiced by a research and clinical advisory panel that the sole use of areal BMD would be insufficient to fully evaluate the effects of spaceflight on the hip. Hence, NASA may not have a full understanding of fracture risk, both during and after a mission, and may be poorly estimating in-flight countermeasure efficacy. The FE Strength Task Group - composed of principal investigators of the aforementioned population studies and of FE modelers -donated some of its population QCT data to estimate of hip bone strength by FE modeling for this specific purpose. Consequently, Human Health Countermeasures [HHC] has compiled a dataset of FE hip strengths, generated by a single FE modeling approach, from human subjects (approx.1060) with ages covering the age range of the astronauts. The dataset has been analyzed to generate a set of FE strength cutoffs for the following scenarios: a) Qualify an

  8. Comportamento alimentar e dieta de Phrynops hilarii (Duméril & Bibron em cativeiro (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae Feeding behavior and diet of Phrynops hilarii (Duméril & Bibron in captivity (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio de Barros Molina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1985 the biology and behavior of Phrynops hilarii (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 at São Paulo Zoo is being studied. Feeding behavior is divided in five phases (foraging, approach, capture, dilaceration and ingestion, but not necessarily all of them happen. During phase 1 the food or prey seems to be visually located. During phase 2 the food itens and stationaty preys are approached and examined by olfaction. Moving preys are pursued and there is no olfactory examination. During phase 3 the food is captured by suction. When food is bigger than turtle mouth it is dilacerated by one or both forefeet used alternately (phase 4. Ingestion is accomplished by gradual suction (phase 5. Intra and inter-specific cleptoparasitism was observed. Success in capture and ingestion of food seems not be dependent on species or size of the turtle. Adults, young, and hatchlings of P. hilarii are primarily carnivorous and vegetables were rarely eaten.

  9. A New Method for Deriving the Stellar Birth Function of Resolved Stellar Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, M.; Tchernyshyov, K.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color-magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Genetic Variation among the White-striped Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Comparison with a Trok Nong-derived Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Kongratarpon, Titima; Thannarin, Thodsapol; Sungsinleart; Kwanpisut

    2011-06-01

    Full text: A white-striped strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) had been developed for the fruit fly population control using the radiation-induced sterile insect technique (SIT). This report aimed at elucidating the inheritance of the white-striped phenotype and the genetic differences between the white-striped strain and the strain derived from Trok Nong sub district, Khlung district, Chantaburi. The white-striped phenotype appeared recessive to the wild type. Meanwhile, twelve ISSR primers yielded DNA bands with significantly different frequencies between the two populations. The analysis indicated four DNA bands which were absent from the white-striped population but apparent at frequencies 0.4 to 0.9 among the Trok Nong-derived population. Another four DNA bands were found absent from the Trok Nong-derived population but existed at frequencies 0.3 to 0.5 among the white-striped population. These data may benefit the monitoring of gene flow from the white-striped fruit flies to the natural population when released in a SIT program. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), SIT, genetic

  11. Association of OCT derived drusen measurements with AMD associated-genotypic SNPs in Amish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Diniz, Bruno; Huang, Jiayan; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Sadda, SriniVas R; Stambolian, Dwight

    To investigate the association of OCT derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen area, volume and regions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy using a Cirrus High- Definition-OCT. Measurements were obtained in the macula region within a central circle (CC) of 3 mm diameter and a surrounding perifoveal ring (PR) of 3 to 5 mm diameter using the Cirrus OCT RPE analysis software. Other demographic information including age, gender and smoking status were collected. Study subjects were further genotyped to determine their risk for the AMD associated SNPs in SYN3, LIPC, ARMS2, C3, CFB, CETP, CFI and CFH genes using TaqMan genotyping assays. The association of genotypes with OCT measures were assessed using linear trend p-values calculated from univariate and multivariate generalized linear models. 432 eyes were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis (adjusted by age, gender and smoking status) confirmed the known significant association between AMD and macular drusen with the number of CFH risk alleles for drusen area (area increased 0.12 mm 2 for a risk allele increase, pAmish AMD population.

  12. Derivation of keratinocytes from chicken embryonic stem cells: Establishment and characterization of differentiated proliferative cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Couteaudier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge in avian cell biology is the generation of differentiated cell-lines, especially in the keratinocyte lineage. Only a few avian cell-lines are available and very few of them show an interesting differentiation profile. During the last decade, mammalian embryonic stem cell-lines were shown to differentiate into almost all lineages, including keratinocytes. Although chicken embryonic stem cells had been obtained in the 1990s, few differentiation studies toward the ectodermal lineage were reported. Consequently, we explored the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells toward the keratinocyte lineage by using a combination of stromal induction, ascorbic acid, BMP4 and chicken serum. During the induction period, we observed a downregulation of pluripotency markers and an upregulation of epidermal markers. Three homogenous cell populations were derived, which were morphologically similar to chicken primary keratinocytes, displaying intracellular lipid droplets in almost every pavimentous cell. These cells could be serially passaged without alteration of their morphology and showed gene and protein expression profiles of epidermal markers similar to chicken primary keratinocytes. These cells represent an alternative to the isolation of chicken primary keratinocytes, being less cumbersome to handle and reducing the number of experimental animals used for the preparation of primary cells.

  13. Caracterização individual do veneno de Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril em função da distribuição geográfica no Brasil (Serpentes,Viperidae Individual characterization of Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril venoms, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa M. T. da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 é uma serpente de importância em saúde pública, com ampla distribuição geográfica, desde o Mato Grosso do Sul até o sudeste do Brasil, chegando até a Argentina e Uruguai, ocupando vários domínios morfoclimáticos. Neste trabalho investigou-se a variação do veneno de adultos de Bothrops alternatus, em função de sua distribuição geográfica no Brasil, comparativamente ao veneno elaborado sob a forma de "pool" desta espécie (veneno referência, que inclui serpentes, em sua maioria, da região do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas as atividades letal, coagulante sobre o plasma, proteolítica sobre a caseína e miotóxica, bem como os padrões eletroforéticos de 61 amostras individuais de veneno contrapostas ao "pool". Os resultados mostraram que o veneno de B. alternatus é pouco ativo, comparativamente ao de outros Bothrops Wagler, 1824. A variação individual prevaleceu, não apresentando correlação com as áreas de distribuição geográfica e domínios morfoclimáticos, porém a atividade coagulante das amostras de veneno provenientes do nordeste da distribuição geográfica apresentaram-se menos ativas comparativamente às da porção central da distribuição. Os venenos provenientes das bordas da distribuição apresentaram ações proteolíticas e miotóxicas mais intensas, que estatisticamente não foram significativamente diferentes. As variações individuais prevaleceram.Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 snakebites are an important public health problem in Brazil. Such snakes are found from Mato Grosso do Sul (central Brazil to southeastern Brazil, reaching even Argentina and Uruguay and thereby occupying different morphoclimatic domains. This work investigated venom variation occurring in adult specimens of B. alternatus specimens, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil. The standard venom pool (reference venom produced by

  14. QTL mapping of downy and powdery mildew resistances in PI 197088 cucumber with genotyping-by-sequencing in RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; VandenLangenberg, Kyle; Wen, Changlong; Wehner, Todd C; Weng, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    Host resistances in PI 197088 cucumber to downy and powdery mildew pathogens are conferred by 11 (3 with major effect) and 4 (1 major effect) QTL, respectively, and three of which are co-localized. The downy mildew (DM) and powdery mildew (PM) are the two most important foliar diseases of cucurbit crops worldwide. The cucumber accession PI 197088 exhibits high-level resistances to both pathogens. Here, we reported QTL mapping results for DM and PM resistances with 148 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between PI 197088 and the susceptible line 'Coolgreen'. Phenotypic data on responses to natural DM and PM infection were collected in multi-year and multi-location replicated field trials. A high-density genetic map with 2780 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genotyping-by-sequencing and 55 microsatellite markers was developed, which revealed genomic regions with segregation distortion and mis-assemblies in the '9930' cucumber draft genome. QTL analysis identified 11 and 4 QTL for DM and PM resistances accounting for more than 73.5 and 63.0% total phenotypic variance, respectively. Among the 11 DM resistance QTL, dm5.1, dm5.2, and dm5.3 were major-effect contributing QTL, whereas dm1.1, dm2.1, and dm6.2 conferred susceptibility. Of the 4 QTL for PM resistance, pm5.1 was the major-effect QTL explaining 32.4% phenotypic variance and the minor-effect QTL pm6.1 contributed to disease susceptibility. Three PM QTL, pm2.1, pm5.1, and pm6.1, were co-localized with DM QTL dm2.1, dm5.2, and dm6.1, respectively, which was consistent with the observed linkage of PM and DM resistances in PI 197088. The genetic architecture of DM resistance in PI 197088 and another resistant line WI7120 (PI 330628) was compared, and the potential of using PI 197088 in cucumber breeding for downy and powdery mildew resistances is discussed.

  15. QTL analysis of Fusarium root rot resistance in an Andean x Middle American common bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims Fusarium root rot (FRR) is a soil-borne disease that constrains common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. FRR causal pathogens include clade 2 members of the Fusarium solani species complex. Here we characterize common bean reaction to four Fusarium species and identify genomic regions as...

  16. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J. T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,

  17. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J.T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,

  18. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45+ and CD45- skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditte Caroline Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvist; Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we desc...... a satellite cell subpopulation) remain in the mSPCD45(-) fraction, and we show that these cells express high levels of many of the known myogenic precursor/stem cell related markers, including Pax7 and Myf5.......The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...... describe the isolation of adult mouse normal skeletal muscle residing SPCD45(+) and SPCD45(-) cells from a parent mononuclear muscle-derived cell (MDC) population. Relative quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) of 64 genes revealed that mSPCD45(-) compared with mSPCD45(+) was enriched for cells expressing...

  19. Derivation of cell population kinetic parameters from clinical statistical data (program RAD3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Cellular lethality models generally require up to 6 parameters to simulate a clinical course of fractionated radiation therapy and to derive an estimate of the cellular surviving fraction for a given treatment scheme. These parameters are the mean cellular lethal dose, the extrapolation number, the ratio of sublethal to irreparable events, the regeneration rate, the repopulation limit (cell cycles), and a field-size or tumor-volume factor. A computer program (RAD3) was designed to derive best-fitting values for these parameters in relation to available clinical data based on the assumption that if a number of different fractionation schemes yield similar reactions, the cellular surviving fractions will be about equal in each instance. Parameters were derived for a variety of human tissues from which realistic iso-effect functions could be generated

  20. Oesophageal-cancer-derived death in the population of Belgrade in a period 1989-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Janko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of death from all malignant tumors in the world (fifth in men, eighth in women. This cancer was estimated to account for about 529 000 new cases and about 442 000 deaths in the year 2007. In the year 2002 the highest standardized mortality rates (per 100 000 habitants of oesophageal carcinoma were noticed in the East Asia (men/women: 18.8/7.7 and East Africa (18.6/7.8, while the lowest were noticed in the Middle Africa (1.4/0.2 and West Africa (1.3/0.5. The aim of this descriptive epidemiologic study was to analyze epidemiologic situation of oesophageal cancer in Belgrade population during the period 1989-2006, using mortality data. Methods. Mortality data were collected from the City Organization for Statistics. In data analysis we used mortality rates which were standardized directly using those of the world population as the standard, and proportions. A denominator for mortality rates was calculated using the Belgrade population which was an average of the two latest register years (1991 and 2002. In order to analyze trend mortality from oesophageal cancer we used linear trend. Results. In Belgrade deaths from oesophageal cancer accounted for about 5.2% of all malignant tumors of intestinal system in male population, and 2.4% in female population. This cancer is, according to standardized mortality rates (per 100 000 habitants, on the fifth place in Belgrade population behind colorectal, stomach, pancreatic, liver and cholecystic cancer. During the period 1989-2006 in Belgrade 44 persons died from oesophageal carcinoma on the average each year, mainly men (75%, and the rest were women (25%. In male population during the same period we noticed a significant increase in trend mortality (y = 1.61 + 0.06x, p = 0.001, while in female population the increase of mortality was not significant. The male/female oesophageal cancer mortality ratio was 3:1. Mortality rates for oesophageal

  1. Molecular characterisation of stromal populations derived from human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, L.; Twine, N. A.; Abu Dawud, R.

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (BM-hMSC) are being employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration. A limiting factor for their clinical use is the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can provide an un...

  2. Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Vuong, Tri D; Kale, Sandip; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Xiaolei; Bai, Yonghe; Yungbluth, Dennis; Lu, Fang; Kumpatla, Siva; Grover Shannon, J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Nguyen, Henry T

    2018-04-04

    The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil and high sucrose. In this study, an inter-specific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3x depth. Based on 91,342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4,070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, QTL analysis for protein, oil and sucrose was performed using 3,343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 Kb to 50 Kb). A total of 5, 9 and 4 QTLs were identified for protein, oil and sucrose content, respectively and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil was mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL was identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbors putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association (GWAS) using 91,342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL based haplotype using whole genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism of derivation of radioresistance in HeLa cell population after repeated x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Kihei; Koiwai, Soichiro; Morita, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    The Radioresistant strain (X-8-5) was obtained from HeLa-SC population X-irradiated repeatedly for five times with 800 rad. The mean lethal dose (D 0 ) was 196 rad for X-8-5 cells, while it was 166 rad for control HeLa-SC cells. The fraction of cells containing an unusually long acrocentric chromosome (LA 2) exclusively increased with increasing number of irradiation of HeLa-SC population. A clonal strain with LA 2 marker was isolated from X-8-5 population and named RC-355. Since the RC-355 cells were more resistant (D 0 = 220 rad)than parental X-8-5 cells (D 0 = 196 rad), it was suggested that the cells with LA 2 were responsible for the radioresistance of X-8-5 population. The RC-355 cells were further subjected to the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes and it was observed that 18 types of specific markers (rm 1-17 and LA 2) were included in RC-355 cells in addition to 12 types of markers observed in most of HeLa-SC cells. Since the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes of RC-355 cells showed that RC-355 specific markers were not produced by radiation-induced rearrangements of HeLa-SC chromosomes, because twelve kinds of HeLa-SC markers were presented in RC-355 cells without any change, it was concluded that a small number of cells with LA 2 marker were originally presented in the control population and the relative fraction of them occupied increased after irradiation. (author)

  4. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  5. Estimates for Genetic Variance Components in Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Populations Derived from Maize Single-Cross Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Costa dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain the estimates of genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation in the original populations (C0 and in the third cycle (C3 of reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS which allows breeders to define the best breeding strategy. For that purpose, the half-sib progenies of intrapopulation (P11 and P22 and interpopulation (P12 and P21 from populations 1 and 2 derived from single-cross hybrids in the 0 and 3 cycles of the reciprocal recurrent selection program were used. The intra- and interpopulation progenies were evaluated in a 10×10 triple lattice design in two separate locations. The data for unhusked ear weight (ear weight without husk and plant height were collected. All genetic variance and covariance components were estimated from the expected mean squares. The breakdown of additive variance into intrapopulation and interpopulation additive deviations (στ2 and the covariance between these and their intrapopulation additive effects (CovAτ found predominance of the dominance effect for unhusked ear weight. Plant height for these components shows that the intrapopulation additive effect explains most of the variation. Estimates for intrapopulation and interpopulation additive genetic variances confirm that populations derived from single-cross hybrids have potential for recurrent selection programs.

  6. An Increased Risk of Reversible Dementia May Occur After Zolpidem Derivative Use in the Elderly Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Hsin-I; Lin, Che-Chen; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluate the effects of zolpidem use to develop dementia or Alzheimer disease from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A retrospective population-based nested case–control study. Newly diagnosed dementia patients 65 years and older and controls were sampled. A total of 8406 dementia and 16,812 control subjects were enrolled from Taiwan NHIRD during 2006 to 2010. The relationships between zolpidem use and dementia were measured using odds and adjusted od...

  7. Genetic and environmental determinants of the susceptibility of Amerindian derived populations for having hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Here, we discuss potential explanations for the higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in populations with an Amerindian background. Although environmental factors are the triggers, the search for the ethnic related factors that explains the increased susceptibility of the Amerindians is a promising area for research. The study of the genetics of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanic populations faces several challenges. Ethnicity could be a major confounding variable to prove genetic associations. Despite that, the study of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanics has resulted in significant contributions. Two GWAS reports have exclusively included Mexican mestizos. Fifty percent of the associations reported in Caucasians could be generalized to the Mexicans, but in many cases the Mexican lead SNP was different than that reported in Europeans. Both reports included new associations with apo B or triglycerides concentrations. The frequency of susceptibility alleles in Mexicans is higher than that found in Europeans for several of the genes with the greatest effect on triglycerides levels. An example is the SNP rs964184 in APOA5. The same trend was observed for ANGPTL3 and TIMD4 variants. In summary, we postulate that the study of the genetic determinants of hypertriglyceridemia in Amerindian populations which have major changes in their lifestyle, may prove to be a great resource to identify new genes and pathways associated with hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24768220

  8. ECG-derived Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing in healthy and hospitalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Adelita; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao; Mortara, David; Cooper, Bruce A; Pelter, Michele M

    2017-11-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) has been investigated primarily in outpatients with heart failure. In this study we compare CSR and periodic breathing (PB) between healthy and cardiac groups. We compared CSR and PB, measured during 24 hr of continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter recording, in a group of 90 hospitalized patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to a group of 100 healthy ambulatory participants. We also examined CSR and PB in the 90 patients presenting with ACS symptoms, divided into a group of 39 (43%) with confirmed ACS, and 51 (57%) with a cardiac diagnosis but non-ACS. SuperECG software was used to derive respiration and then calculate CSR and PB episodes from the ECG Holter data. Regression analyses were used to analyze the data. We hypothesized SuperECG software would differentiate between the groups by detecting less CSR and PB in the healthy group than the group of patients presenting to the emergency department with ACS symptoms. Hospitalized patients with suspected ACS had 7.3 times more CSR episodes and 1.6 times more PB episodes than healthy ambulatory participants. Patients with confirmed ACS had 6.0 times more CSR episodes and 1.3 times more PB episodes than cardiac non-ACS patients. Continuous 12-lead ECG derived CSR and PB appear to differentiate between healthy participants and hospitalized patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal beta III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  10. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal β III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders

  11. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-09-06

    Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids and an Admixture Population Derived from Panicum amarum × P. virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heffelfinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass ( L. and its relatives are regarded as top bioenergy crop candidates; however, one critical barrier is the introduction of useful genetic diversity and the development of new cultivars and hybrids. Combining genomes from related cultivars and species provides an opportunity to introduce new traits. In switchgrass, a breeding advantage would be achieved by combining the genomes of intervarietal ecotypes or interspecific hybrids. The recovery of wide crosses, however, is often tedious and may involve complicated embryo rescue and numerous backcrosses. Here, we demonstrate a straightforward approach to wide crosses involving the use of a selectable transgene for recovery of interspecific [ cv. Alamo × Ell var or Atlantic Coastal Panicgrass (ACP] F hybrids followed by backcrossing to generate a nontransgenic admixture population. A nontransgenic herbicide-sensitive (HbS admixture population of 83 FBC progeny was analyzed by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to characterize local ancestry, parental contribution, and patterns of recombination. These results demonstrate a widely applicable breeding strategy that makes use of transgenic selectable resistance to identify and recover true hybrids.

  13. An evaluation of the performance of tag SNPs derived from HapMap in a Caucasian population.

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    Alexandre Montpetit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haplotype Map (HapMap project recently generated genotype data for more than 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in four population samples. The main application of the data is in the selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs to use in association studies. The usefulness of this selection process needs to be verified in populations outside those used for the HapMap project. In addition, it is not known how well the data represent the general population, as only 90-120 chromosomes were used for each population and since the genotyped SNPs were selected so as to have high frequencies. In this study, we analyzed more than 1,000 individuals from Estonia. The population of this northern European country has been influenced by many different waves of migrations from Europe and Russia. We genotyped 1,536 randomly selected SNPs from two 500-kbp ENCODE regions on Chromosome 2. We observed that the tSNPs selected from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain from Utah (CEU HapMap samples (derived from US residents with northern and western European ancestry captured most of the variation in the Estonia sample. (Between 90% and 95% of the SNPs with a minor allele frequency of more than 5% have an r2 of at least 0.8 with one of the CEU tSNPs. Using the reverse approach, tags selected from the Estonia sample could almost equally well describe the CEU sample. Finally, we observed that the sample size, the allelic frequency, and the SNP density in the dataset used to select the tags each have important effects on the tagging performance. Overall, our study supports the use of HapMap data in other Caucasian populations, but the SNP density and the bias towards high-frequency SNPs have to be taken into account when designing association studies.

  14. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratore, Massimo, E-mail: M.Muratore@ed.ac.uk [Institute of Integrated Micro and Nano System, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Steve [Institute of Molecular Plant Science, School of Biological Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Waterfall, Martin [Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dielectrophoretic separation/sorting of multipotent cells. •Plasma membrane microvilli structure of C2C12 and fibroblasts by SEM microscopy. •Cell cycle determination by Ki-67 in DEP-sorted cells. •Plasma membrane differences responsible for changes in membrane capacitance. -- Abstract: Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Dielectrophoretic separation/sorting of multipotent cells. •Plasma membrane microvilli structure of C2C12 and fibroblasts by SEM microscopy. •Cell cycle determination by Ki-67 in DEP-sorted cells. •Plasma membrane differences responsible for changes in membrane capacitance. -- Abstract: Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy

  16. Correlates of early pregnancy serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Levey, Elizabeth; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations during early pregnancy is lacking. The aim of the study is to examine the correlates of early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. A total of 982 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited in early pregnancy. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relation between BDNF concentrations and continuous covariates. Analysis of variance and generalized linear models were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted BDNF concentrations according to categorical variables. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to determine the factors that influence early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. In bivariate analysis, early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations were positively associated with maternal age (r = 0.16, P BDNF concentrations. Participants with moderate antepartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10) had lower serum BDNF concentrations compared with participants with no/mild antepartum depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score BDNF concentrations in low-income Peruvian women. Biological changes of CRP during pregnancy may affect serum BDNF concentrations.

  17. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  18. Identificação sexual através do estudo anatômico do sistema urogenital em recém-eclodidos e jovens de Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae Sexual identification using anatomical study of urogenital system in hatchlings and juveniles of tracHemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Malvasio

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 less than 12 months old are examined for sexual identification through anatomical study of urogenital system. Histological analysis is used to confirm sexual identification. It is concluded that accurate sexual identification is possible in hatchlings using gonadal morphology. Differences between testes and ovaries are clear so histological analysis is necessary for this species only in case of doubts.

  19. NCEI--Ap-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to make statements - inferences - about one or more un- known features ... use the observed responses in the sample to make state- ments about O. .... What does this mean? Simply that, if ... Example 2. A blood test is to be conducted to help.

  20. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Soda, El M.; Kim, H.K.; Fritsche, S.; Jung, C.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

  1. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, E; Stronks, K; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A; Snijder, M B; Mocking, R J T; Derks, E M; Schene, A H; Nicolaou, M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands were included. Diet was measured using ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were measured with the nine-item patient health questionnaire. By performing RRR in the whole population and per ethnic group, comparable dietary patterns were identified and therefore the dietary pattern for the whole population was used for subsequent analyses. We identified a dietary pattern that was strongly related to eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid, folate, magnesium and zinc (response variables) and which was characterized by milk products, cheese, whole grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts, potatoes and red meat. After adjustment for confounders, a statistically significant inverse association was observed in the whole population (B: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.00, P=0.046) and among Moroccan (B: -0.09, 95% CI: -0.13, -0.04, P=0.027) and South-Asian Surinamese participants (B: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01, P=dietary pattern and significant depressed mood in any of the ethnic groups. No consistent evidence was found that consumption of a dietary pattern, high in nutrients that are hypothesized to protect against depression, was associated with lower depressive symptoms across different ethnic groups.

  2. The Role of Cedex s Railway Inter operability Laboratory (RIL) in the European ERTMS; Actuaciones del Laboratorio de Interoperabilidad ferroviaria (LIF) del CEDEX en el despliegue Europeo ERTMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamarit Rodriguez de Huici, J.

    2015-07-01

    The RIL is the most recently laboratory set up within CEDEXs premises. From the start, it has aimed to support the development of rail transport at both European and Spanish levels. This article describes the role played by CEDEX-RIL in the development of ERTMS, and the close link which from its inception, has existed between this system and the EMSET project, in which the feasibility of the European Railway inter operability was demonstrated with the participation of the whole European signalling industry. The key factor for the success of this project was the creation of both and independent laboratory and testing sites which, right from the very beginning, enjoyed the confidence of the industry, thus allowing for the first time the execution of cross tests between companies. Finally, and equally important, this paper shows the fruitful evolution followed by the laboratory aforementioned, which, from its establishment, has evolved from performing tests on generic ERTMS constituents to undertaking, first, remote tests jointly carried out between specific commercial projects with different suppliers on track and on-board; and, second, Handover tests between diverse RBC suppliers. (Author)

  3. The osteo-inductive activity of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells resides within the CD14+ population and is independent of the CD34+ population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, D; Seebach, C; Verboket, R; Schaible, A; Marzi, I; Bonig, H

    2018-03-06

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population. To test this hypothesis, bone remodelling studies were performed in an established athymic rats critical-size femoral defect model, with β-TCP scaffolds augmented with complete BMC or BMC immunomagnetically depleted of stem cells (CD34+) or monocytes/macrophages (CD14+). Bone healing was assessed 8 weeks after transplantation. Compared to BMC-augmented controls, when CD14- BMC, but not CD34- BMC were transplanted into the bone defect, femora possessed dramatically decreased biomechanical stability and new bone formation was markedly reduced, as measured by histology. The degree of vascularisation did not differ between the two groups. It was concluded that the monocyte fraction within the BMC provided critical osteo-inductive cues during fracture healing. Which factors were responsible at the molecular levels remained elusive. However, this study marked a significant progress towards elucidating the mechanisms by which BMC elicit their therapeutic effects, at least in bone regeneration.

  4. Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Roy; Stenger, Drake C.

    2005-01-01

    Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged ∼5.0 x 10 -4 /nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10 -4 /nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage

  5. Molecular heterogeneity in a patient-derived glioblastoma xenoline is regulated by different cancer stem cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Meagan Garner

    Full Text Available Malignant glioblastoma (GBM is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Genomic profiling of GBM samples has identified four molecular subtypes (Proneural, Neural, Classical and Mesenchymal, which may arise from different glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSC populations. We previously showed that adherent cultures of GSCs grown on laminin-coated plates (Ad-GSCs and spheroid cultures of GSCs (Sp-GSCs had high expression of stem cell markers (CD133, Sox2 and Nestin, but low expression of differentiation markers (βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein. In the present study, we characterized GBM tumors produced by subcutaneous and intracranial injection of Ad-GSCs and Sp-GSCs isolated from a patient-derived xenoline. Although they formed tumors with identical histological features, gene expression analysis revealed that xenografts of Sp-GSCs had a Classical molecular subtype similar to that of bulk tumor cells. In contrast xenografts of Ad-GSCs expressed a Mesenchymal gene signature. Adherent GSC-derived xenografts had high STAT3 and ANGPTL4 expression, and enrichment for stem cell markers, transcriptional networks and pro-angiogenic markers characteristic of the Mesenchymal subtype. Examination of clinical samples from GBM patients showed that STAT3 expression was directly correlated with ANGPTL4 expression, and that increased expression of these genes correlated with poor patient survival and performance. A pharmacological STAT3 inhibitor abrogated STAT3 binding to the ANGPTL4 promoter and exhibited anticancer activity in vivo. Therefore, Ad-GSCs and Sp-GSCs produced histologically identical tumors with different gene expression patterns, and a STAT3/ANGPTL4 pathway is identified in glioblastoma that may serve as a target for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Pdx1 and Ngn3 overexpression enhances pancreatic differentiation of mouse ES cell-derived endoderm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Stull, Robert; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Bonham, Kristina; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Sho, Masayuki; Iwano, Masayuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Keller, Gordon; Snodgrass, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    In order to define the molecular mechanisms regulating the specification and differentiation of pancreatic β-islet cells, we investigated the effect of upregulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 during the differentiation of the β-islet-like cells from murine embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived activin induced-endoderm. Induced overexpression of Pdx1 resulted in a significant upregulation of insulin (Ins1 and Ins2), and other pancreas-related genes. To enhance the developmental progression from the pancreatic bud to the formation of the endocrine lineages, we induced the overexpression express of Ngn3 together with Pdx1. This combination dramatically increased the level and timing of maximal Ins1 mRNA expression to approximately 100% of that found in the βTC6 insulinoma cell line. Insulin protein and C-peptide expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. These inductive effects were restricted to c-kit(+) endoderm enriched EB-derived populations suggesting that Pdx1/Ngn3 functions after the specification of pancreatic endoderm. Although insulin secretion was stimulated by various insulin secretagogues, these cells had only limited glucose response. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate the expression of a broad spectrum of pancreatic endocrine cell-related genes as well as genes associated with glucose responses. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of manipulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 expression in a stage-specific manner as an important new strategy for the efficient generation of functionally immature insulin-producing β-islet cells from ES cells.

  7. Pdx1 and Ngn3 overexpression enhances pancreatic differentiation of mouse ES cell-derived endoderm population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kubo

    Full Text Available In order to define the molecular mechanisms regulating the specification and differentiation of pancreatic β-islet cells, we investigated the effect of upregulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 during the differentiation of the β-islet-like cells from murine embryonic stem (ES cell-derived activin induced-endoderm. Induced overexpression of Pdx1 resulted in a significant upregulation of insulin (Ins1 and Ins2, and other pancreas-related genes. To enhance the developmental progression from the pancreatic bud to the formation of the endocrine lineages, we induced the overexpression express of Ngn3 together with Pdx1. This combination dramatically increased the level and timing of maximal Ins1 mRNA expression to approximately 100% of that found in the βTC6 insulinoma cell line. Insulin protein and C-peptide expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. These inductive effects were restricted to c-kit(+ endoderm enriched EB-derived populations suggesting that Pdx1/Ngn3 functions after the specification of pancreatic endoderm. Although insulin secretion was stimulated by various insulin secretagogues, these cells had only limited glucose response. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate the expression of a broad spectrum of pancreatic endocrine cell-related genes as well as genes associated with glucose responses. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of manipulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 expression in a stage-specific manner as an important new strategy for the efficient generation of functionally immature insulin-producing β-islet cells from ES cells.

  8. Systematic selection for increased fruit yield in populations derived from hybridization only, F1 irradiation, and hybridization following parental irradiation in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, D.A.; Wynne, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Three hybrid peanut populations involving a single pair of high yielding parents were developed to determine the effects of irradiation prior to and after hybridization on the response to selection for fruit yield. The control-hybrid population was produced by making reciprocal crosses between the two parents. The pre-hybrid-irradiated population was initiated by making reciprocal crosses between the M 1 plants of the two parents irradiated as seeds. The post-hybrid-irradiated population was developed by irradiating the mature F 1 embryos of crosses between the same parents. Each of the three original populations consisted of 55 F 1 plants. Ten F 2 plants were grown from each F 1 and one F 3 plant from each F 2 was used to initiate the yield tests. Selection for increased yield was practiced systematically and uniformly in each population over the F 3 to F 5 generations until the number of lines derived from single F 1 plants was reduced to five and the number of sublines descended from particular F 2 plants to three per line for yield trials in the F 6 generation. The mean yields of the F 1 derived lines of the irradiated populations were considerably below that of the control hybrid population when selection began but they reached 99% of the control mean in the F 6 generation. Selection gains in the irradiated populations appeared to result from the removal of inferior yielding sublines since greatest progress was made by raising the lower extremities of mean F 2 derived subline ranges rather than by extending the upper extremities of the ranges. The three highest yielding lines in the F6 generation occurred in the irradiated populations while the three highest yielding sublines were found in the hybrid-control population. No incidental association between size and yield of fruit was noted and a wide range of fruit sizes was found among the high yielding lines and sublines in all populations. (author)

  9. Occurrence and risk assessment of population exposed to deoxynivalenol in foods derived from wheat flour in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Milena Veronezi; Pante, Giseli Cristina; Romoli, Jéssica Cristina Zoratto; de Souza, Alexandra Perdigão Maia; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Feijó, Adriane Lettnin Roll; Moscardi, Salesia Maria Prodócimo; de Paula, Karina Ruaro; Bando, Erika; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Machinski, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important of the trichothecenes in terms of amounts and occurrence in wheat. This compound was shown to be associated with a glomerulonephropathy involving an increase of immunoglobulin A in humans. This study assessed the occurrence of DON in wheat flour and the exposure of Brazilian teenagers, adults and elderly to this mycotoxin due to intake of wheat flour-based products. DON extraction in wheat flour was carried out by solid phase extraction and the quantification was performed by ultra-high proficiency liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. A total of 77.9% of all samples were positive for DON, with concentrations ranging from 73.50 to 2794.63 µg kg -1 . The intake was calculated for the average and 90th percentile of the contamination levels of DON in foods based-wheat for teenagers, adults and elderly in Brazil, and compared with the provisional maximum tolerable daily intakes (PMTDI). Females of all age groups were exposed to DON at higher levels when compared to males in regard of consumption of breads and pastas. Teenagers were the main consumers of foods derived from wheat flour, with maximum probable daily intakes of 1.28 and 1.20 µg kg -1 b.w. day -1 for females and males, respectively. This population is at an increased risk of exposure to DON due to consumption of wheat flour-based foods in Brazil.

  10. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Frank

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced rank regression (RRR is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668 dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001. The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides.

  11. Genetic Dissection of Nutrition-Induced Plasticity in Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling and Median Life Span in a Drosophila Multiparent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patrick D; Ng'oma, Enoch; O'Day, Siri; King, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    The nutritional environments that organisms experience are inherently variable, requiring tight coordination of how resources are allocated to different functions relative to the total amount of resources available. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that key endocrine pathways play a fundamental role in this coordination. In particular, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways have been implicated in nutrition-dependent changes in metabolism and nutrient allocation. However, little is known about the genetic basis of standing variation in IIS/TOR or how diet-dependent changes in expression in this pathway influence phenotypes related to resource allocation. To characterize natural genetic variation in the IIS/TOR pathway, we used >250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a multiparental mapping population, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, to map transcript-level QTL of genes encoding 52 core IIS/TOR components in three different nutritional environments [dietary restriction (DR), control (C), and high sugar (HS)]. Nearly all genes, 87%, were significantly differentially expressed between diets, though not always in ways predicted by loss-of-function mutants. We identified cis ( i.e. , local) expression QTL (eQTL) for six genes, all of which are significant in multiple nutrient environments. Further, we identified trans ( i.e. , distant) eQTL for two genes, specific to a single nutrient environment. Our results are consistent with many small changes in the IIS/TOR pathways. A discriminant function analysis for the C and DR treatments identified a pattern of gene expression associated with the diet treatment. Mapping the composite discriminant function scores revealed a significant global eQTL within the DR diet. A correlation between the discriminant function scores and the median life span ( r = 0.46) provides evidence that gene expression changes in response to diet are

  12. Population genetics of indigenous quercus robur L. populations and of derived half-sib families has implications for the reproductive management of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.G.; Dam, van B.C.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands indigenous Quercus robur L. populations are rare and have been maintained as patches in ancient woodland. For adequate conservation of these populations, information about genetic variation and population structure is necessary. in order to assess the genetic variation and

  13. Awakened by cellular stress: isolation and characterization of a novel population of pluripotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Heneidi

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell therapy face major clinical limitations, particularly challenged by low rates of post-transplant cell survival. Hostile host factors of the engraftment microenvironment such as hypoxia, nutrition deprivation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species can each contribute to unwanted differentiation or apoptosis. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new population of adipose tissue (AT derived pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress-Enduring (Muse Cells, which are isolated using severe cellular stress conditions, including long-term exposure to the proteolytic enzyme collagenase, serum deprivation, low temperatures and hypoxia. Under these conditions, a highly purified population of Muse-AT cells is isolated without the utilization of cell sorting methods. Muse-AT cells grow in suspension as cell spheres reminiscent of embryonic stem cell clusters. Muse-AT cells are positive for the pluripotency markers SSEA3, TR-1-60, Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2, and can spontaneously differentiate into mesenchymal, endodermal and ectodermal cell lineages with an efficiency of 23%, 20% and 22%, respectively. When using specific differentiation media, differentiation efficiency is greatly enhanced in Muse-AT cells (82% for mesenchymal, 75% for endodermal and 78% for ectodermal. When compared to adipose stem cells (ASCs, microarray data indicate a substantial up-regulation of Sox2, Oct3/4, and Rex1. Muse-ATs also exhibit gene expression patterns associated with the down-regulation of genes involved in cell death and survival, embryonic development, DNA replication and repair, cell cycle and potential factors related to oncogenecity. Gene expression analysis indicates that Muse-ATs and ASCs are mesenchymal in origin; however, Muse-ATs also express numerous lymphocytic and hematopoietic genes, such as CCR1 and CXCL2, encoding chemokine receptors and ligands involved in stem cell

  14. Correlation Analysis on Agronomic Characters in F1 population derived from a cross of Pongsu Seribu 2 and MR 264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aishah, H.; Abdul Rahim Harun; Norain, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Agronomic characters play a vital role in grain yield performance. However, the information related to the relationships between agronomic characters and grain yield in Malaysia are particularly very limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the correlation between grain yield performance with nine (n=9) agronomic characters namely plant height, panicle length, total grain number, filled grains per panicle, grain length, number of tillers, flag leaf area, flag leaf width and 1000-grains weight. Twenty (n=20) F 1 population derived from a cross of Pongsu Seribu 2 and MR 264 were used and were grown at Malaysian Nuclear Agency Greenhouse, Bangi. Result of correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant at (p ≤ 0.01) relation between 1000-grains weight with total grains number (r = 0.647), filled grains per panicle (r = 0.603), grain length (r = 0.834), flag leaf area (r = 0.701) and flag leaf width (r = 0.894). However, the negative (inverse) correlation was observed between panicle length with total grain number, number of tiller and filled grain per panicle. Regression analysis revealed that flag leaf width (4.162) has highest direct effect on the yield followed by grain length (2.801), flag leaf area (0.048) and total grain no (0.07) respectively. Whereas, plant height (-0.05), plant length (-0.223), filled grains per panicle (-0.005) and number of tillers (-0.071) has indirect effect on the yield. This study indicated that selection based flag leaf width and grain length will be highly effective for yield improvement can be consider in selection of breeding lines and highly effective for yield improvement in rice breeding program. (author)

  15. Dissection of Recombination Attributes for Multiple Maize Populations Using a Common SNP Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Guan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination is a vital characteristic for quantitative trait loci mapping and breeding to enhance the yield potential of maize. However, recombination characteristics in globally used segregating populations have never been evaluated at similar genetic marker densities. This study aimed to divulge the characteristics of recombination events, recombinant chromosomal segments, and recombination frequency for four dissimilar populations. These populations were doubled haploid (DH, recombination inbred line (RIL, intermated B73xMo17 (IBM, and multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC, using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip to provide markers. Our results revealed that the average number of recombination events was 16, 41, 72, and 86 per line in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Accordingly, the average length of recombinant chromosomal segments was 84.8, 47.3, 29.2, and 20.4 Mb in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Furtherly, the recombination frequency varied in different genomic regions and population types [DH (0–12.7 cM/Mb, RIL (0–15.5 cM/Mb, IBM (0–24.1 cM/Mb, MAGIC (0–42.3 cM/Mb]. Utilizing different sub-sets of lines, the recombination bin number and size were analyzed in each population. Additionally, different sub-sets of markers and lines were employed to estimate the recombination bin number and size via formulas for relationship in these populations. The relationship between recombination events and recombination bin length was also examined. Our results contribute to determining the most suitable number of genetic markers, lines in each population, and population type for successful mapping and breeding.

  16. Total external dose equivalent and effective dose derived to the Piedmont population in the period 30 Apr 1986 - 22 Sep 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortissone, C.; Giacomelli, R.; Spezzano, P.; Porzio, L.

    1988-01-01

    Some dosimetric evaluations concerning the population of the Piemonte Region, obtained after the measurements made following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The individual effective mean dose equivalent derived from the exposure and intake in the period April 30, 1986 - September 22, 1987, is about 0.50 mSv

  17. Cyclophosphamide-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cell population is immunosuppressive but not identical to myeloid-derived suppressor cells induced by growing TC-1 tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Polláková, Veronika; Bieblová, Jana; Šímová, Jana; Reiniš, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2012), s. 374-384 ISSN 1524-9557 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/11/P220; GA ČR GA301/09/1024; GA ČR GA301/07/1410 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : myeloid-derived suppressor cells * cyclophosphamide * all-trans-retinoic acid * IL-12 * HPV16 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.463, year: 2012

  18. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Association of OCT-Derived Drusen Measurements with AMD-Associated Genotypic SNPs in the Amish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Murthy Chavali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the association of optical coherence tomography (OCT-derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Methods: Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen area, volume and regions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE atrophy using a Cirrus High-Definition OCT. Measurements were obtained in the macula region within a central circle (CC of 3 mm in diameter and a surrounding perifoveal ring (PR of 3 to 5 mm in diameter using the Cirrus OCT RPE analysis software. Other demographic information, including age, gender and smoking status, were collected. Study subjects were further genotyped to determine their risk for the AMD-associated SNPs in the SYN3, LIPC, ARMS2, C3, CFB, CETP, CFI and CFH genes using TaqMan genotyping assays. The association of genotypes with OCT measures were assessed using linear trend p-values calculated from univariate and multivariate generalized linear models. Results: 432 eyes were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis (adjusted by age, gender and smoking status confirmed the known significant association between AMD and macular drusen with the number of CFH risk alleles for the drusen area (the area increased 0.12 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p < 0.01, drusen volume (the volume increased 0.01 mm3 for a risk allele increase, p ≤ 0.05 and the area of RPE atrophy (the area increased 0.43 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.003. SYN3 risk allele G is significantly associated with larger area PR (the area increased 0.09 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.03 and larger drusen volume in the central circle (the volume increased 0.01 mm3 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.04. Conclusion: Among the genotyped SNPs tested, the CFH risk genotype appears to play a major role in determining the drusen phenotype in the Amish AMD population.

  20. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Fraction Contained in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Populations Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Duttenhoefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bone tissue engineering (TE endothelial cell-osteoblast cocultures are known to induce synergies of cell differentiation and activity. Bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMCs are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs able to develop an osteogenic phenotype. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are also present within BMC. In this study we investigate the effect of EPCs present in the BMC population on MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Human BMCs were isolated and separated into two populations. The MSC population was selected through plastic adhesion capacity. EPCs (CD34+ and CD133+ were removed from the BMC population and the resulting population was named depleted MSCs. Both populations were cultured over 28 days in osteogenic medium (Dex+ or medium containing platelet lysate (PL. MSC population grew faster than depleted MSCs in both media, and PL containing medium accelerated the proliferation for both populations. Cell differentiation was much higher in Dex+ medium in both cases. Real-time RT-PCR revealed upregulation of osteogenic marker genes in depleted MSCs. Higher values of ALP activity and matrix mineralization analyses confirmed these results. Our study advocates that absence of EPCs in the MSC population enables higher osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization and therefore may lead to advanced bone neoformation necessary for TE constructs.

  1. Use of Multicolor Flow Cytometry for Isolation of Specific Cell Populations Deriving from Differentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengarelli, Isabella; Fryga, Andrew; Barberi, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Flow Cytometry-Sorting (FCM-Sorting) is a technique commonly used to identify and isolate specific types of cells from a heterogeneous population of live cells. Here we describe a multicolor flow cytometry technique that uses five distinct cell surface antigens to isolate four live populations with

  2. Crop characteristics and weed Interactions of diverse Rrecurrent Inbred Lines (RILs) from a weed-suppressive x non-suppressive rice mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ndica rice genotypes with enhanced weed suppression traits have been previously identified as potentially useful in supplementing weed control efforts in drill-seeded systems in the southern USA. A particularly weed-suppressive indica genotype (PI 312777) that was also high tillering and high yield...

  3. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling cold tolerance in chickpea recombinant RIL population (CRIL2) from Cicer arietinum L. x Cicer reticulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published yields for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are higher when the crop is planted in the fall rather than in the spring seasons (Singh et al 1989, Singh et al 1997). Because of its lack of cold hardiness alleles to survive freezing temperatures, chickpea is planted in the spring in temperate re...

  4. Desarrollo y producción de cefazolina 500 mg y 1 g, polvo estéril para inyección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Serrate Merino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo de la formulación para la obtención de cefazolina 500 mg y 1 g, polvo estéril para inyección, con la calidad requerida, así como el estudio de estabilidad para determinar su vida útil, tanto en forma de polvo como después de reconstituida. Se desarrolló este medicamento con calidad similar a las firmas internacionales al contar con la infraestructura necesaria, el personal técnico calificado y la posibilidad de adquirir la materia prima, además de reducir los costos, lo que garantiza un gran beneficio social y económico.The development of the formulation for obtaining 500 mg and 1 mg quality cefazolin, sterile powder for injection, together with the stability studies to determine this drug lifetime cither as powder or as reconstituted substance are described. The quality of the drug obtained was similar to that stated by the international manufacturers since the necessary infrastructure, required skilled personnel, adequate supply of raw material and reduced costs were assured. All this guarantees a great social and economic benefit.

  5. Screening of IR50 x Rathu Heenati F7 RILs and identification of SSR markers linked to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; M Sheba, Jennifer; Marappan, Maheshwaran; Ponnuswamy, Shanmugasunderam; Seetharaman, Suresh; Pothi, Nagarajan; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Natesan, Senthil

    2010-09-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the major insect pests of rice. A Sri Lankan indica rice cultivar Rathu Heenati was found to be resistant to all biotypes of the brown planthopper. In the present study, a total of 268 F(7) RILs of IR50 and Rathu Heenati were phenotyped for their level of resistance against BPH by the standard seedbox screening test (SSST) in the greenhouse. A total of 53 SSR primers mapped on the chromosome 3 were used to screen the polymorphism between the parents IR50 and Rathu Heenati, out of which eleven were found to be polymorphic between IR50 and Rathu Heenati. The eleven primers that have shown polymorphism between the IR50 and Rathu Heenati parents were genotyped in a set of five resistant RILs and five susceptible RILs along with the parents for co-segregation analysis. Among the eleven primers, two primers namely RM3180 (18.22 Mb) and RM2453 (20.19 Mb) showed complete co-segregation with resistance. The identification of SSR markers linked with BPH resistant could be used for the maker assisted selection (MAS) program in rice breeding and to map the resistant genes on rice chromosomes for further gene cloning.

  6. Non-cultured adipose-derived CD45(-) side population cells are enriched for progenitors that give rise to myofibres in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Schrøder, Henrik D; Jensen, Charlotte H

    2008-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells are highly able to exclude the Hoechst 33342 dye through membrane transporters, a feature associated with cell immaturity and therefore proposed as a marker of stem cells. Herein we demonstrate that the adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains...... skeletal muscle repair mainly relies on the satellitecell, several reports have shown that vessel-associated cells may adopt a myogenic phenotype when exposed to a muscle environment. In accordance with these findings, we also observed invitro myogenic specification of SPCD45(-) cells when cocultured...... a novel population of non-haematopoietic "side population" (SPCD45(-)) cells. Simultaneous qRT-PCR of 64 genes revealed that the freshly isolated SPCD45(-) was highly enriched for cells expressing genes related to stem cells, the Notch pathway, and early vascular precursors. Notably, the expression...

  7. PARTIAL REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION OF A RECENTLY DERIVED RESIDENT-FRESHWATER POPULATION OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACK (GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS) FROM ITS PUTATIVE ANADROMOUS ANCESTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furin, Christoff G.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; Bell, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We used no-choice mating trials to test for assortative mating between a newly derived resident-freshwater population (8 – 22 generations since founding) of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Loberg Lake, Alaska and its putative anadromous ancestor as well as a morphologically convergent but distantly related resident-freshwater population. Partial reproductive isolation has evolved between the Loberg Lake population and its ancestor within a remarkably short time period. However, Loberg stickleback readily mate with morphologically similar, but distantly related resident-freshwater stickleback. Partial pre-mating isolation is asymmetrical; anadromous females and smaller, resident-freshwater males from Loberg Lake readily mate, but the anadromous males and smaller Loberg females do not. Our results indicate that pre-mating isolation can begin to evolve in allopatry within a few generations after isolation as a correlated effect of evolution of reduced body size. PMID:23025615

  8. Association of OCT-Derived Drusen Measurements with AMD-Associated Genotypic SNPs in the Amish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Diniz, Bruno; Huang, Jiayan; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Stambolian, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Methods: Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen area, volume and regions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy using a Cirrus High-Definition OCT. Measurements were obtained in the macula region within a central circle (CC) of 3...

  9. Who were the male founders of rural Brazilian Afro-derived communities? A proposal based on three populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme Galvarros Bueno Lobo; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Barcelos, Rejane da Silva Sena; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Junior, Wilson Araujo da Silva; Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana de

    2011-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombos are Afro-derived communities founded mainly by fugitive slaves between the 16(th) and 19(th) centuries; they can be recognized today by ancestral and cultural characteristics. Each of these remnant communities, however, has its own particular history, which includes the migration of non-African derived people. The present work presents a proposal for the origin of the male founder in Brazilian quilombos based on Y-haplogroup distribution. Y haplogroups, based on 16 binary markers (92R7, SRY2627, SRY4064, SRY10831.1 and .2, M2, M3, M09, M34, M60, M89, M213, M216, P2, P3 and YAP), were analysed for 98 DNA samples from genetically unrelated men from three rural Brazilian Afro-derived communities-Mocambo, Rio das Rãs and Kalunga-in order to estimate male geographic origin. Data indicated significant differences among these communities. A high frequency of non-African haplogroups was observed in all communities. This observation suggested an admixture process that has occurred over generations and directional mating between European males and African female slaves that must have occurred on farms before the slaves escaped. This means that the admixture occurred before the slaves escaped and the foundation of the quilombo.

  10. A phantom based method for deriving typical patient doses from measurements of dose-area product on populations of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapple, C.-L.; Broadhead, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the chief sources of uncertainty in the comparison of patient dosimetry data is the influence of patient size on dose. Dose has been shown to relate closely to the equivalent diameter of the patient. This concept has been used to derive a prospective, phantom based method for determining size correction factors for measurements of dose-area product. The derivation of the size correction factor has been demonstrated mathematically, and the appropriate factor determined for a number of different X-ray sets. The use of phantom measurements enables the effect of patient size to be isolated from other factors influencing patient dose. The derived factors agree well with those determined retrospectively from patient dose survey data. Size correction factors have been applied to the results of a large scale patient dose survey, and this approach has been compared with the method of selecting patients according to their weight. For large samples of data, mean dose-area product values are independent of the analysis method used. The chief advantage of using size correction factors is that it allows all patient data to be included in a survey, whereas patient selection has been shown to exclude approximately half of all patients. (author)

  11. Disappointing performance of literature-derived selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an inner-city population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I G; Boeke, A J; Morré, S A; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Devillé, W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an inner-city population with a low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, selective screening may be indicated to increase the efficiency of screening. GOAL: To evaluate the performance of sets of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection

  12. Fracture risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) compared with fracture risk derived from population fracture rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Swedish version of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)) without bone mass density (BMD) in a Danish population to examine the possibility of applying this version to Danish women. METHODS: From the Danish National Register of social security numbers, we...

  13. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an

  14. Fragrance analysis using molecular and biochemical methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through Single seed descent (SSD) method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material ...

  15. Characterization of field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry1F δ-endotoxin in Spodoptera frugiperda populations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, Desmi I; Signorini, Ana M; Abratti, Gustavo; Storer, Nicholas P; Olaciregui, Magdalena L; Alves, Analiza P; Pilcher, Clinton D

    2018-03-01

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) event TC1507 (Herculex ® I insect protection), expressing Cry1F δ-endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, was commercialized in 2003 in the Americas. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) susceptibility to Cry1F was monitored annually across several regions in Argentina using diagnostic concentration bioassays. Reduced performance of TC1507 maize against S. frugiperda was reported in 2013. A resistant population was established in the laboratory and the dominance of Cry1F resistance was characterized. During 2012-2015, high-survivorship of several populations was observed in the resistance monitoring program. Reciprocal crosses of a Cry1F-resistant population with a Cry1F-susceptible population were evaluated to calculate effective dominance (D ML ) based on mortality levels observed at 100 µg/ml Cry1F. Two additional dominance levels (D LC and D EC ) were calculated using lethal (LC 50 ) or effective concentration (EC 50 ) derived from concentration-response bioassays. Estimates indicated that Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda in Argentina was either highly recessive (D ML = 0.005) or incompletely recessive (D LC frugiperda Cry1F field-evolved resistance in Argentina. The resistance to Cry1F in S. frugiperda populations collected in Argentina, is autosomal and incompletely recessive similar to the resistance reported in Brazil. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley © Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley © Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its animal partner and the nutritional environment throughout a fly population's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Gillet, Benjamin; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Leulier, François

    2018-04-01

    In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process. Adult flies constantly ingest and excrete microbes from and onto their feeding substrate, which are then transmitted to the next generation developing within this shared habitat. We wanted to analyze the potential changes in the bacterial community during its reciprocal transfer between the two compartments of the niche (i.e. the fly and the diet). To address this question, we used a diverse, wild-derived microbial community and analyzed its relationship with the fly population and the nutritive substrate in a given habitat. Here we show that the community was overall well maintained upon transmission to a new niche, to a new fly population and to their progeny, illustrating the stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its fly partner and the nutritional environment. These results highlight the preponderant role of the nutritional substrate in the dynamics of Drosophila/microbiota interactions, and the need to fully integrate this variable when performing such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurons derived from patients with bipolar disorder divide into intrinsically different sub-populations of neurons, predicting the patients' responsiveness to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S; Santos, R; Marchetto, M C; Mendes, A P D; Rouleau, G A; Biesmans, S; Wang, Q-W; Yao, J; Charnay, P; Bang, A G; Alda, M; Gage, F H

    2017-02-28

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder with more than 3% prevalence worldwide. Affected individuals experience recurrent episodes of depression and mania, disrupting normal life and increasing the risk of suicide greatly. The complexity and genetic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders have challenged the development of animal and cellular models. We recently reported that hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts of BD patients are electrophysiologically hyperexcitable. Here we used iPSCs derived from Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B-lymphocytes to verify that the hyperexcitability of DG-like neurons is reproduced in this different cohort of patients and cells. Lymphocytes are readily available for research with a large number of banked lines with associated patient clinical description. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of over 460 neurons to characterize neurons derived from control individuals and BD patients. Extensive functional analysis showed that intrinsic cell parameters are very different between the two groups of BD neurons, those derived from lithium (Li)-responsive (LR) patients and those derived from Li-non-responsive (NR) patients, which led us to partition our BD neurons into two sub-populations of cells and suggested two different subdisorders. Training a Naïve Bayes classifier with the electrophysiological features of patients whose responses to Li are known allows for accurate classification with more than 92% success rate for a new patient whose response to Li is unknown. Despite their very different functional profiles, both populations of neurons share a large, fast after-hyperpolarization (AHP). We therefore suggest that the large, fast AHP is a key feature of BD and a main contributor to the fast, sustained spiking abilities of BD neurons. Confirming our previous report with fibroblast-derived DG neurons, chronic Li treatment reduced

  18. A population-based case-control teratologic study of furazidine, a nitrofuran-derivative treatment during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A E; Rockenbauer, M; Sørensen, H T; Olsen, J

    2000-04-01

    To study human teratogenic potential of furazidine treatment during pregnancy. Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. 38,151 pregnant women who had newborn infants without any defects (population control group) and 22,865 pregnant women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. In the case group, 157 (0.7%) and in the control group, 254 (0.7%) pregnant women were treated with furazidine. The case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of furazidine use during the second to third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Treatment with furazidine during pregnancy did not show teratogenic risk to the fetus.

  19. Population norms for the AQoL derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Korn, Sam; Richardson, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    To provide Australian health-related quality of life (HRQoL) population norms, based on utility scores from the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) measure, a participant-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument. The data were from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. AQoL scores were analysed by age cohorts, gender, other demographic characteristics, and mental and physical health variables. The AQoL utility score mean was 0.81 (95%CI 0.81-0.82), and 47% obtained scores indicating a very high HRQoL (>0.90). HRQoL gently declined by age group, with older adults' scores indicating lower HRQoL. Based on effect sizes (ESs), there were small losses in HRQoL associated with other demographic variables (e.g. by lack of labour force participation, ES(median) : 0.27). Those with current mental health syndromes reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.64), while those with physical health conditions generally also reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.41). This study has provided contemporary Australian population norms for HRQoL that may be used by researchers as indicators allowing interpretation and estimation of population health (e.g. estimation of the burden of disease), cross comparison between studies, the identification of health inequalities, and to provide benchmarks for health care interventions. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Restoration of lymphocyte proliferation and CTL generation by murine rIL-2 after treatment of allogeneic stimulator cells by ultraviolet B irradiation, heat, or paraformaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flye, M.W.; Yu, S.

    1991-01-01

    Following a 5-day mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), C3H/HeJ (H-2k) splenocytes stimulated with DBA/2 (H-2d) gamma-irradiated splenocytes (2000 rads) are specifically cytotoxic in a 4-hr 51 Cr-release assay to P815 (H-2d) target cells (62 +/- 2% cytolysis) but not to third-party EL4 (H-2b). However, when the DBA/2 stimulator cells were treated with heat inactivation (45 degree C for 1 hr), fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde (15 min), or irradiated with ultraviolet-B light (10(4) J/M2), no cell proliferation or cytolytic activity developed in the MLCs. The levels of IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 from the supernatants of MLC using stimulators undergoing either of the three treatments were markedly decreased compared with that from gamma-irradiated stimulators. Both cell proliferation and specific cytolysis were restored in a dose-dependent fashion by the addition of murine rIL-2 to the MLCs. If the stimulator cells were first activated with 5 micrograms/ml pokeweed mitogen or lipopolysaccharide for 2 days, the subsequent treatment with heat, paraformaldehyde, or UV-B did not significantly affect the development of cytolysis (54-70% cytolysis). Suppressor cells were not detected when cells from the nonresponsive MLCs (2.5 x 10(6) cells) were added to an MLC freshly prepared with gamma-irradiated stimulator cells, or were injected intraperitoneally (50 x 10(6) cells) into naive mice 2 days before recovery and in vitro sensitization of splenocytes. Therefore, modification of the stimulating alloantigen can prevent the release of cytokines that function as an essential second signal in the development of the proliferative response and subsequent cytolysis. The cytokine found to be essential for restoration of this response is IL-2

  1. Consistent individual differences and population plasticity in network-derived sociality: An experimental manipulation of density in a gregarious ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Paul P.; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In many taxa, individual social traits appear to be consistent across time and context, thus meeting the criteria for animal personality. How these differences are maintained in response to changes in population density is unknown, particularly in large mammals, such as ungulates. Using a behavioral reaction norm (BRN) framework, we examined how among- and within-individual variation in social connectedness, measured using social network analyses, change as a function of population density. We studied a captive herd of elk (Cervus canadensis) separated into a group of male elk and a group of female elk. Males and females were exposed to three different density treatments and we recorded social associations between individuals with proximity-detecting radio-collars fitted to elk. We constructed social networks using dyadic association data and calculated three social network metrics reflective of social connectedness: eigenvector centrality, graph strength, and degree. Elk exhibited consistent individual differences in social connectedness across densities; however, they showed little individual variation in their response to changes in density, i.e., individuals oftentimes responded plastically, but in the same manner to changes in density. Female elk had highest connectedness at an intermediate density. In contrast, male elk increased connectedness with increasing density. Whereas this may suggest that the benefits of social connectedness outweigh the costs of increased competition at higher density for males, females appear to exhibit a threshold in social benefits (e.g. predator detection and forage information). Our study illustrates the importance of viewing social connectedness as a density-dependent trait, particularly in the context of plasticity. Moreover, we highlight the need to revisit our understanding of density dependence as a population-level phenomenon by accounting for consistent individual differences not only in social connectedness, but likely

  2. Genome-wide linkage mapping of yield-related traits in three Chinese bread wheat populations using high-density SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Faji; Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Cao, Shuanghe; Geng, Hongwei; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Pingzhi; Wan, Yingxiu; Xia, Xianchun

    2018-06-01

    We identified 21 new and stable QTL, and 11 QTL clusters for yield-related traits in three bread wheat populations using the wheat 90 K SNP assay. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield-related traits and closely linked molecular markers is important in order to identify gene/QTL for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. The objectives of the present study were to identify QTL for yield-related traits and dissect the relationships among different traits in three wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses Doumai × Shi 4185 (D × S), Gaocheng 8901 × Zhoumai 16 (G × Z) and Linmai 2 × Zhong 892 (L × Z). Using the available high-density linkage maps previously constructed with the wheat 90 K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, 65, 46 and 53 QTL for 12 traits were identified in the three RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 34, 23 and 27 were likely to be new QTL. Eighteen common QTL were detected across two or three populations. Eleven QTL clusters harboring multiple QTL were detected in different populations, and the interval 15.5-32.3 cM around the Rht-B1 locus on chromosome 4BS harboring 20 QTL is an important region determining grain yield (GY). Thousand-kernel weight (TKW) is significantly affected by kernel width and plant height (PH), whereas flag leaf width can be used to select lines with large kernel number per spike. Eleven candidate genes were identified, including eight cloned genes for kernel, heading date (HD) and PH-related traits as well as predicted genes for TKW, spike length and HD. The closest SNP markers of stable QTL or QTL clusters can be used for MAS in wheat breeding using kompetitive allele-specific PCR or semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR assays for improvement of GY.

  3. Derivation of travel demand forecasting models for low population areas: the case of Port Said Governorate, North East Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Semeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, there has been substantial development in modeling techniques of travel demand estimation. For low population areas the external trip estimation is important but usually neglected in travel demand modeling process. In Egypt, the researches in this field are scarce due to lack of data. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify and estimate the main variables that affect the travel demand in low population areas, and to develop models to predict them. The study focused on the Port Said Governorate in North East Egypt. A special questionnaire had been prepared in 2010 depending on interviews of passengers at basic taxi terminals in Port Said. And 2211 filled questionnaires were offering for research. To analyze the data, two modeling procedures were used. One is the multiple linear regression and the other is the generalized linear modeling (GLM applying normal distributions. It is found that GLM procedure offers more suitable and accurate approach than the linear regression for developing number of trips. The final demand models have statistics within the acceptable regions and, also, they are conceptually reasonable. These results are so important for Egyptian highway authorities to improve the efficiency of highway transportation system in Egypt.

  4. Genetic basis for body size variation between an anadromous and two derived lacustrine populations of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in southwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ella; Johnston, Rebecca A; Vanderzwan, Stevi L; Rogers, Sean M

    2016-02-01

    Body size is a highly variable trait among geographically separated populations. Size-assortative reproductive isolation has been linked to recent adaptive radiations of threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) into freshwater, but the genetic basis of the commonly found size difference between anadromous and derived lacustrine sticklebacks has not been tested. We studied the genetic basis of size differences between recently diverging stickleback lineages in southwest Alaska using a common environment experiment. We crossed stickleback within one anadromous (Naknek River) and one lake (Pringle Lake) population and between the anadromous and two lake populations (Pringle and JoJo Lakes), and raised them in a salinity of 4-6 ppt. The F1 anadromous and freshwater forms differed significantly in size, whereas hybrids were intermediate or exhibited dominance toward the anadromous form. Additionally, the size of freshwater F1s differed from their wild counterparts, with within-population F1s from Pringle Lake growing larger than their wild counterparts, while there was no size difference between lab-raised and wild anadromous fish. Sexual dimorphism was always present in anadromous fish, but not in freshwater, and not always in the hybrid crosses. These results, along with parallel changes among anadromous and freshwater forms in other regions, suggest that this heritable trait is both plastic and may be under divergent and/or sexual selection.

  5. Bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a role for CX₃CR1 in maintenance of the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jana; Blomster, Linda V; Chinnery, Holly R; Weninger, Wolfgang; Jung, Steffen; McMenamin, Paul G; Ruitenberg, Marc J

    2010-10-01

    Macrophages in the olfactory neuroepithelium are thought to play major roles in tissue homeostasis and repair. However, little information is available at present about possible heterogeneity of these monocyte-derived cells, their turnover rates, and the role of chemokine receptors in this process. To start addressing these issues, this study used Cx₃cr1(gfp) mice, in which the gene sequence for eGFP was knocked into the CX₃CR1 gene locus in the mutant allele. Using neuroepithelial whole-mounts from Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) mice, we show that eGFP(+) cells of monocytic origin are distributed in a loose network throughout this tissue and can be subdivided further into two immunophenotypically distinct subsets based on MHC-II glycoprotein expression. BM chimeric mice were created using Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) donors to investigate turnover of macrophages (and other monocyte-derived cells) in the olfactory neuroepithelium. Our data indicate that the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium is actively replenished by circulating monocytes and under the experimental conditions, completely turned over within 6 months. Transplantation of Cx₃cr1(gfp/gfp) (i.e., CX₃CR1-deficient) BM partially impaired the replenishment process and resulted in an overall decline of the total monocyte-derived cell number in the olfactory epithelium. Interestingly, replenishment of the CD68(low)MHC-II(+) subset appeared minimally affected by CX₃CR1 deficiency. Taken together, the established baseline data about heterogeneity of monocyte-derived cells, their replenishment rates, and the role of CX₃CR1 provide a solid basis to further examine the importance of different monocyte subsets for neuroregeneration at this unique frontier with the external environment.

  6. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K L; Drake, D J; Taylor, J F; Garrick, D J; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Schnabel, R D; Snelling, W M; Pollak, E J; Van Eenennaam, A L

    2012-12-01

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using Bovine SNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. Molecular breeding values for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboration between researchers from Iowa State University and the University of Missouri-Columbia (ISU/UMC). The U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC; Clay Center, NE) has also developed MBV for 16 cattle breeds using 2 multibreed populations, the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) Program and the 2,000 Bull Project (2K(ALL)), and 2 single breed subpopulations of the 2,000 Bull Project, Angus (2K(AN)) and Hereford (2K(HH)). In this study, these MBV were assessed relative to commercial ranch EBV estimated from the progeny phenotypes of Angus bulls naturally mated in multisire breeding pastures to commercial cows: 121 for USMARC MBV, 99 for ISU/UMC MBV, and 29 for IGENITY and Pfizer MBV (selected based on number of progeny carcass records). Five traits were analyzed: weaning weight (WW), HCW, marbling score (MS), rib-eye muscle area (RE), and, for IGENITY and Pfizer only, feedlot ADG. The average accuracies of MBV across traits were 0.38 ± 0.05 for IGENITY, 0.61 ± 0.12 for Pfizer, 0.46 ± 0.12 for ISU/UMC, 0.16 ± 0.04 for GPE, 0.26 ± 0.05 for 2K(ALL), 0.24 ± 0.04 for 2K(AN), and 0.02 ± 0.12 for 2K(HH). Angus-based MBV (IGENITY, Pfizer, ISU/UMC, and 2K(AN)) explained larger proportions of genetic variance in this population than GPE, 2K(ALL), or 2K(HH) MBV for the same traits. In this data set, IGENITY, Pfizer, and ISU/UMC MBV were predictive of realized performance of progeny, and incorporation of that information into national genetic evaluations would be expected to improve EPD accuracy, particularly for young animals.

  7. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulaj, Bledar; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nelson, Kate; Quave, Cassandra L; Hajdari, Avni

    2016-05-26

    Plant material from different organs of Pistacia terebinthus L., (Anacardiaceae) were collected in Kosovo with aim to analyze the chemical variability of the essential oils among native populations and to test them for potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Essential oils obtained from leaves, pedicels, fruits and galls were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against three clinically relevant strains of S. aureus (NRS385, LAC and UAMS-1) were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils. In total, 33 different compounds were identified. The main constituents were α-pinene (12.58-66.29 %), D-limonene (13.95-46.29 %), β-ocimene (0.03-40.49 %), β-pinene (2.63-20.47 %), sabinene (0.00-5.61 %) and (Z)-β-ocimene (0.00-44.85 %). Antibacterial testing of the essential oils against three clinical isolates of S. aureus revealed that seven of the eight samples had some activity at the concentration range tested (0.04-0.512 % v/v). The gall tissues from both sites produced the highest yield of essential oil (3.24 and 6 %), and both exhibited growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus. The most bioactive essential oils, which exhibited MIC90 values ranging from 0.032-0.128 % v/v, obtained from the fruits of the Ura e Shejtë collection site. Likewise, the leaf and pedicel essential oil from the same site was highly active with MIC90 values of 0.064-0.128 and 0.032-0.256 % v/v, respectively. Principle Component Analyses demonstrated that there is a variation in the chemical composition of essential oil depending on the plant organs from which essential oil are obtained and the geographical origin of the plant populations. The highest variability regarding the chemical composition of essential oil was found between oils obtained from different organs originating from the Prizren site. The MIC90 activity of Pistacia terebinthus was on par or superior compared with Tea Tree Oil control (0

  8. The osteogenic differentiation of SSEA-4 sub-population of human adipose derived stem cells using silicate nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Silvia M; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Reis, Rui L; Khademhosseini, Ali; Marques, Alexandra P; Gomes, Manuela E

    2014-11-01

    How to surpass in vitro stem cell differentiation, reducing cell manipulation, and lead the in situ regeneration process after transplantation, remains to be unraveled in bone tissue engineering (bTE). Recently, we showed that the combination of human bone marrow stromal cells with bioactive silicate nanoplatelets (sNPs) promotes the osteogenic differentiation without the use of standard osteogenic inductors. Even more, using SSEA-4(+) cell-subpopulations (SSEA-4(+)hASCs) residing within the adipose tissue, as a single-cellular source to obtain relevant cell types for bone regeneration, was also proposed. Herein, sNPs were used to promote the osteogenic differentiation of SSEA-4(+)hASCs. The interactions between SSEA-4(+)hASCs and sNPs, namely the internalization pathway and effect on cells osteogenic differentiation, were evaluated. SNPs below 100 μg/mL showed high cytocompatibility and fast internalization via clathrin-mediated pathway. SNPs triggered an overexpression of osteogenic-related markers (RUNX2, osteopontin, osteocalcin) accompanied by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a predominantly collagen-type I matrix. Consequently, a robust matrix mineralization was achieved, covering >90% of the culturing surface area. Overall, we demonstrated the high osteogenic differentiation potential of SSEA-4(+)hASCs, further enhanced by the addition of sNPs in a dose dependent manner. This strategy endorses the combination of an adipose-derived cell-subpopulation with inorganic compounds to achieve bone matrix-analogs with clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  10. Investigation of the international comparability of population-based routine hospital data set derived comorbidity scores for patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Morris, Eva J A; Tataru, Daniela; Coupland, Victoria H; Smith, Andrew; Milne, Roger L; Te Marvelde, Luc; Baker, Deborah; Young, Jane; Turner, Donna; Nishri, Diane; Earle, Craig; Shack, Lorraine; Gavin, Anna; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Lin, Yulan; Møller, Bjørn; Brewster, David H; Deas, Andrew; Huws, Dyfed W; White, Ceri; Warlow, Janet; Rashbass, Jem; Peake, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) identified significant international differences in lung cancer survival. Differing levels of comorbid disease across ICBP countries has been suggested as a potential explanation of this variation but, to date, no studies have quantified its impact. This study investigated whether comparable, robust comorbidity scores can be derived from the different routine population-based cancer data sets available in the ICBP jurisdictions and, if so, use them to quantify international variation in comorbidity and determine its influence on outcome. Linked population-based lung cancer registry and hospital discharge data sets were acquired from nine ICBP jurisdictions in Australia, Canada, Norway and the UK providing a study population of 233 981 individuals. For each person in this cohort Charlson, Elixhauser and inpatient bed day Comorbidity Scores were derived relating to the 4-36 months prior to their lung cancer diagnosis. The scores were then compared to assess their validity and feasibility of use in international survival comparisons. It was feasible to generate the three comorbidity scores for each jurisdiction, which were found to have good content, face and concurrent validity. Predictive validity was limited and there was evidence that the reliability was questionable. The results presented here indicate that interjurisdictional comparability of recorded comorbidity was limited due to probable differences in coding and hospital admission practices in each area. Before the contribution of comorbidity on international differences in cancer survival can be investigated an internationally harmonised comorbidity index is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F; Zhang, Ruli; Koshiya, Naohiro; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property.

  12. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property. PMID:27275007

  13. Incubação artificial dos ovos e processo de eclosão em Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae Artificial egg incubation and hatching proccess in Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudimes, Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio de Barros Molina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial incubation of 558 eggs from 70 clutches of Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 were performed at São Paulo Zoo during 1992 and 1993. Hatching occurred when eggs were incubated between 25 and 31.5oC. Incubation time varied from 54 (at 31.5oC to 120 days (at 25oC, similarly to Trachemys scripla sspp. Hatchling used the caruncle to made small incisions in the egg shell, latter enlarged by movements of the head and forefeet. Hatching usually lasted from one to two days. Newborn's carapace and plastron showed their natural form few hours after the emergence from the egg shell. During the third or fourth week, caruncle usually disappeared, and yolk sac was completely absorbed. Average (x±sd measures of newborn were 3.55±0.18cm of carapace length, 3.35±0.17cm of plastron length, and 10.73±1.36g of weight.

  14. RE-SONANCE--IAp-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... from a meter away and of course, without the aid of microscope or manual. ... His first, and now, landmark paper ... to a 'psychological or sociological' journal". ... I met Bill after his first expedition to the Congo when he told my why he had to ...

  15. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zou

    Full Text Available Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1 markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, 'Attila' and 'CDC Go', and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering, flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight, 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers, we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1, maturity (2, plant height (1, grain yield (1, test weight (2, kernel weight (4, tillering (1 and grain protein content (2. Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61-66 cM, 4B (80-82 cM and 5A (296-297 cM harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75 with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14

  16. Effects of Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and its genetically modified phenazine producing derivative on the Fusarium population in a field experiment, as determined by 18S rDNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.; Smit, E.; Glandorf, D.C.M.; Van Hannen, E.J.; Wernars, K.

    2002-01-01

    We measured effects of Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and its genetically modified phenazine producing derivative on the Fusarium population in the soil of a wheat field in the Netherlands. We used 18S rDNA analysis to study the Fusarium population through a strategy based on screening clone libraries

  17. Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Jon; Oakley, Christopher G; Lundemo, Sverre; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic trade-offs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL). There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden. Eleven distinct flowering time QTL were detected, and for each the Italian genotype caused earlier flowering. Twenty-seven candidate genes were identified, two of which (FLC and VIN3) appear under major flowering time QTL in Italy. Seven of eight QTL in Italy with narrow credible intervals colocalized with previously reported fitness QTL, in comparison to three of four in Sweden. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of selection on flowering time differs strikingly between our study populations, that the genetic basis of flowering time variation is multigenic with some QTL of large effect, and suggest that divergence in flowering time between ecotypes is due mainly to conditional neutrality. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Effects of dietary protein levels and 2-methylbutyrate on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, bacterial populations and urinary purine derivatives in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Yang, W Z

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in Simmental steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers, averaging 18 months of age and 465 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW), were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (98.5 g CP/kg dry matter [LP] or high protein (128.7 g CP/kg dry matter [HP]) diets were fed with MB supplementation (0 g [MB-] or 16.8 g steer -1  day -1 [MB+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration with dietary corn straw to concentrate ratio of 50:50 (dry matter [DM] basis). The CP × MB interaction was observed for ruminal total VFA, molar proportions of acetate and propionate, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N, effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and CP, microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and total PD excretion (p Ruminal pH decreased (p ruminal total VFA concentration increased (p Ruminal ammonia-N content increased (p = .034) with increasing dietary CP level, but decreased (p = .012) with MB supplementation. The effective degradability of NDF and CP increased (p ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, microbial enzyme activity, ruminal bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis improved with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation in steers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Phenotypic Variation in an Introgression Line Population Derived from an Interspecific Cross between Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijin Chen

    Full Text Available The introduction of closely related species genomic fragments is an effective way to enrich genetic diversity and creates new germplasms in crops. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of an introgression line (IL population composed of 106 ILs derived from an interspecific tetra cross between O. glaberrima and O. sativa (RAM3/Jin23B//Jin23B///YuetaiB. The proportion of O. glaberrima genome (PGG in the ILs ranged from 0.3% to 36.7%, with an average value of 12.32% which is close to the theoretically expected proportion. A total of 250 polymorphic alleles were amplified by 21 AFLP primer combinations with an average of 12 alleles per primer. Population structure analysis revealed that the IL population can be divided into four genetically distinct subpopulations. Both principal component analysis and neighbor-joining tree analysis showed that ILs with a higher PGG displayed greater genetic diversity. Canonical discriminant analysis identified six phenotypic traits (plant height, yield per plant, filled grain percentage, panicle length, panicle number and days to flowering as the main discriminatory traits among the ILs and between the subpopulations and showed significant phenotypic distances between subpopulations. The effects of PGG on phenotypic traits in the ILs were estimated using a linear admixed model, which showed a significant positive effect on grain yield per plant (0.286±0.117, plant height (0.418 ± 0.132, panicle length (0.663 ± 0.107, and spikelet number per panicle (0.339 ± 0.128, and a significant negative effect on filled grain percentage (-0.267 ± 0.123 and days to flowering (-0.324 ± 0.075. We found that an intermediate range (10% - 20% of PGG was more effective for producing ILs with favorable integrated agronomic traits. Our results confirm that construction of IL population carrying O. glaberrima genomic fragments could be an effective approach to increase the genetic diversity of O. sativa genome and an appropriate

  20. Association between obesity and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism Val66Met in individuals with bipolar disorder in Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Marín ME

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Edith Morales-Marín,1 Alma Delia Genis-Mendoza,1,2 Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate,3 Nuria Lanzagorta,4 Michael Escamilla,5 Humberto Nicolini1,4 1Genomics of Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN, CDMX, Mexico; 2Psychiatric Care Services, Child Psychiatric Hospital Dr Juan N Navarro, CDMX, Mexico; 3Genomics Research Center, Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Comalcalco, Mexico; 4Carracci Medical Group, CDMX, Mexico; 5Department of Psychiatry, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso TX, USA Background: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been considered as an important candidate gene in bipolar disorder (BD; this association has been derived from several genetic and genome-wide studies. A polymorphic variant of the BDNF (Val66Met confers some differences in the clinical presentation of affective disorders. In this study, we evaluated a sample population from Mexico City to determine whether the BDNF (rs6265 Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the body mass index (BMI of patients with BD.Methods: This association study included a sample population of 357 individuals recruited in Mexico City. A total of 139 participants were diagnosed with BD and 137 were classified as psychiatrically healthy controls (all individuals were interviewed and evaluated by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay was performed in 96-well plates using the TaqMan Universal Thermal Cycling Protocol. After the PCR end point was reached, fluorescence intensity was measured in a 7,500 real-time PCR system and evaluated using the SDS v2.1 software, results were analyzed with Finetti and SPSS software. Concerning BMI stratification, random groups were defined as follows: normal <25 kg/m2, overweight (Ow =25.1–29.9 kg/m2

  1. Sub-populations within the major European and African derived haplogroups R1b3 and E3a are differentiated by previously phylogenetically undefined Y-SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Lynn M; Garvey, Dennis; Ballantyne, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) have been widely used in the study of human migration patterns and evolution. Potential forensic applications of Y-SNPs include their use in predicting the ethnogeographic origin of the donor of a crime scene sample, or exclusion of suspects of sexual assaults (the evidence of which often comprises male/female mixtures and may involve multiple perpetrators), paternity testing, and identification of non- and half-siblings. In this study, we used a population of 118 African- and 125 European-Americans to evaluate 12 previously phylogenetically undefined Y-SNPs for their ability to further differentiate individuals who belong to the major African (E3a)- and European (R1b3, I)-derived haplogroups. Ten of these markers define seven new sub-clades (equivalent to E3a7a, E3a8, E3a8a, E3a8a1, R1b3h, R1b3i, and R1b3i1 using the Y Chromosome Consortium nomenclature) within haplogroups E and R. Interestingly, during the course of this study we evaluated M222, a sub-R1b3 marker rarely used, and found that this sub-haplogroup in effect defines the Y-STR Irish Modal Haplotype (IMH). The new bi-allelic markers described here are expected to find application in human evolutionary studies and forensic genetics. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Deriving the reference value from the circadian motor active patterns in the "non-dementia" population, compared to the "dementia" population: What is the amount of physical activity conducive to the good circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ayuto; Kume, Yu; Tsugaruya, Megumi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The circadian rhythm in older adults is commonly known to change with a decrease in physical activity. However, the association between circadian rhythm metrics and physical activity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine circadian activity patterns in older people with and without dementia and to determine the amount of physical activity conducive to a good circadian measurement. Circadian parameters were collected from 117 older community-dwelling people (66 subjects without dementia and 52 subjects with dementia); the parameters were measured continuously using actigraphy for 7 days. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine reference values for the circadian rhythm parameters, consisting of interdaily stability (IS), intradaily variability (IV), and relative amplitude (RA), in older subjects. The ROC curve revealed reference values of 0.55 for IS, 1.10 for IV, and 0.82 for RA. In addition, as a result of the ROC curve in the moderate-to-vigorous physical Activity (MVPA) conducive to the reference value of the Non-parametric Circadian Rhythm Analysis per day, the optimal reference values were 51 minutes for IV and 55 minutes for RA. However, the IS had no classification accuracy. Our results demonstrated the reference values derived from the circadian parameters of older Japanese population with or without dementia. Also, we determined the MVPA conducive to a good circadian rest-active pattern. This reference value for physical activity conducive to a good circadian rhythm might be useful for developing a new index for health promotion in the older community-dwelling population.

  3. Major Co-localized QTL for Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height, Stem Diameter, and Flowering Time in an Alien Introgression Derived Brassica napus DH Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusen Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, and stem diameter (SD are three stem-related traits that play crucial roles in plant architecture and lodging resistance. Herein, we show one doubled haploid (DH population obtained from a cross between Y689 (one Capsella bursa-pastoris derived Brassica napus intertribal introgression and Westar (B. napus cultivar that these traits were significantly positively correlated with one another and with flowering time (FT. Based on a high-density SNP map, a total of 102 additive quantitative trait loci (QTL were identified across six environments. Seventy-two consensus QTL and 49 unique QTL were identified using a two-round strategy of QTL meta-analysis. Notably, a total of 19 major QTL, including 11 novel ones, were detected for these traits, which comprised two QTL clusters on chromosomes A02 and A07. Conditional QTL mapping was performed to preliminarily evaluate the genetic basis (pleiotropy or tight linkage of the co-localized QTL. In addition, QTL by environment interactions (QEI mapping was performed to verify the additive QTL and estimate the QEI effect. In the genomic regions of all major QTL, orthologs of the genes involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling, flower development, and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis were proposed as candidate genes. Of these, BnaA02g02560, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GASA4, was suggested as a candidate gene for PH, SD, and FT; and BnaA02g08490, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GNL, was associated with PH, BIH and FT. These results provide useful information for further genetic studies on stem-related traits and plant growth adaptation.

  4. Synovial CD4+ T-cell-derived GM-CSF supports the differentiation of an inflammatory dendritic cell population in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G; Gibbon, J R; Pratt, A G; Wood, M J; Coady, D; Raftery, G; Lorenzi, A R; Gray, A; Filer, A; Buckley, C D; Haniffa, M A; Isaacs, J D; Hilkens, C M U

    2016-01-01

    Objective A population of synovial inflammatory dendritic cells (infDCs) has recently been identified in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is thought to be monocyte-derived. Here, we investigated the role and source of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the differentiation of synovial infDC in RA. Methods Production of GM-CSF by peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) CD4+ T cells was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro CD4+ T-cell polarisation experiments were performed with T-cell activating CD2/CD3/CD28-coated beads in the absence or presence of pro-Th1 or pro-Th17 cytokines. CD1c+ DC and CD16+ macrophage subsets were flow-sorted and analysed morphologically and functionally (T-cell stimulatory/polarising capacity). Results RA-SF CD4+ T cells produced abundant GM-CSF upon stimulation and significantly more than RA-SF mononuclear cells depleted of CD4+ T cells. GM-CSF-producing T cells were significantly increased in RA-SF compared with non-RA inflammatory arthritis SF, active RA PB and healthy donor PB. GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells were expanded by Th1-promoting but not Th17-promoting conditions. Following coculture with RA-SF CD4+ T cells, but not healthy donor PB CD4+ T cells, a subpopulation of monocytes differentiated into CD1c+ infDC; a process dependent on GM-CSF. These infDC displayed potent alloproliferative capacity and enhanced GM-CSF, interleukin-17 and interferon-γ production by CD4+ T cells. InfDC with an identical phenotype to in vitro generated cells were significantly enriched in RA-SF compared with non-RA-SF/tissue/PB. Conclusions We demonstrate a therapeutically tractable feedback loop of GM-CSF secreted by RA synovial CD4+ T cells promoting the differentiation of infDC with potent capacity to induce GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells. PMID:25923217

  5. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  6. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel inferred from RAD-seq derived SNP markers: effects of sequence clustering parameters and hierarchical SNP selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Bradbury, Ian R.; Mendibil, Iñ aki; Á lvarez, Paula; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    : the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides

  7. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  8. An expandable embryonic stem cell-derived Purkinje neuron progenitor population that exhibits in vivo maturation in the adult mouse cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higuera, Gustavo A; Iaffaldano, Grazia; Bedar, Meiwand; Shpak, Guy; Broersen, Robin; Munshi, Shashini T; Dupont, Catherine; Gribnau, Joost; de Vrij, Femke M S; Kushner, Steven A; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    The directed differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into cell-type specific neurons has inspired the development of therapeutic discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Many forms of ataxia result from degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but thus far it has not

  9. An expandable embryonic stem cell-derived Purkinje neuron progenitor population that exhibits in vivo maturation in the adult mouse cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Higuera (Gustavo A.); Iaffaldano, G. (Grazia); Bedar, M. (Meiwand); G. Shpak (Guy); R. Broersen (Robin); S.T. Munshi (Shashini T.); Dupont, C. (Catherine); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); F.M.S. Vrij (Femke); S.A. Kushner (Steven); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe directed differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into cell-type specific neurons has inspired the development of therapeutic discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Many forms of ataxia result from degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but thus far it

  10. Developing a synthetic national population to investigate the impact of different cardiovascular disease risk management strategies: A derivation and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Josh; Wells, Susan; Marshall, Roger; Exeter, Daniel; Jackson, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Many national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor management guidelines now recommend that drug treatment decisions should be informed primarily by patients' multi-variable predicted risk of CVD, rather than on the basis of single risk factor thresholds. To investigate the potential impact of treatment guidelines based on CVD risk thresholds at a national level requires individual level data representing the multi-variable CVD risk factor profiles for a country's total adult population. As these data are seldom, if ever, available, we aimed to create a synthetic population, representing the joint CVD risk factor distributions of the adult New Zealand population. A synthetic population of 2,451,278 individuals, representing the actual age, gender, ethnicity and social deprivation composition of people aged 30-84 years who completed the 2013 New Zealand census was generated using Monte Carlo sampling. Each 'synthetic' person was then probabilistically assigned values of the remaining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors required for predicting their CVD risk, based on data from the national census national hospitalisation and drug dispensing databases and a large regional cohort study, using Monte Carlo sampling and multiple imputation. Where possible, the synthetic population CVD risk distributions for each non-demographic risk factor were validated against independent New Zealand data sources. We were able to develop a synthetic national population with realistic multi-variable CVD risk characteristics. The construction of this population is the first step in the development of a micro-simulation model intended to investigate the likely impact of a range of national CVD risk management strategies that will inform CVD risk management guideline updates in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  11. Evolutionary origins and genetic variation of the Seychelles treefrog, Tachycnemis seychellensis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841) (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Simon T; Day, Julia J; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Wilkinson, Mark; Gower, David J

    2014-06-01

    The hyperoliid frog Tachycnemis seychellensis, the only species of its genus, is endemic to the four largest granitic islands of the Seychelles archipelago and is reliant on freshwater bodies for reproduction. Its presence in the Seychelles is thought to be the product of a transoceanic dispersal, diverging from the genus Heterixalus, its closest living relative (currently endemic to Madagascar), between approximately 10-35Ma. A previous study documented substantial intraspecific morphological variation among island populations and also among populations within the largest island (Mahé). To assess intraspecific genetic variation and to infer the closest living relative(s) of T. seychellensis, DNA sequence data were generated for three mitochondrial and four nuclear markers. These data support a sister-group relationship between T. seychellensis and Heterixalus, with the divergence between the two occurring between approximately 11-19Ma based on cytb p-distances. Low levels of genetic variation were found among major mitochondrial haplotype clades of T. seychellensis (maximum 0.7% p-distance concatenated mtDNA), and samples from each of the islands (except La Digue) comprised multiple mitochondrial haplotype clades. Two nuclear genes (rag1 and tyr) showed no variation, and the other two (rho and pomc) lacked any notable geographic structuring, counter to patterns observed within presumably more vagile Seychelles taxa such as lizards. The low levels of genetic variation and phylogeographic structure support an interpretation that there is a single but morphologically highly variable species of Seychelles treefrog. The contrasting genetic and morphological intraspecific variation may be attributable to relatively recent admixture during low sea-level stands, ecophenotypic plasticity, local adaptation to different environmental conditions, and/or current and previously small population sizes. Low genetic phylogeographic structure but substantial morphological

  12. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockamp, Thomas; Maegele, Marc; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J. Carel; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Lefering, Rolf; Joosse, Pieter; Naess, Paal A.; Skaga, Nils O.; Groat, Tahnee; Eaglestone, Simon; Borgman, Matthew A.; Spinella, Philip C.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population,

  13. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel inferred from RAD-seq derived SNP markers: effects of sequence clustering parameters and hierarchical SNP selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-03-03

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and related methods are revolutionizing the field of population genomics in non-model organisms as they allow generating an unprecedented number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) even when no genomic information is available. Yet, RAD-seq data analyses rely on assumptions on nature and number of nucleotide variants present in a single locus, the choice of which may lead to an under- or overestimated number of SNPs and/or to incorrectly called genotypes. Using the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) and a close relative, the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias), as case study, here we explore the sensitivity of population structure inferences to two crucial aspects in RAD-seq data analysis: the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides insights into the effects of alternative RAD-seq data analysis strategies on population structure inferences that are directly applicable to other species.

  14. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockamp, Thomas; Maegele, Marc; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J Carel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Lefering, Rolf; Joosse, Pieter; Naess, Paal A; Skaga, Nils O; Groat, Tahnee; Eaglestone, Simon; Borgman, Matthew A; Spinella, Philip C; Schreiber, Martin A; Brohi, Karim

    2013-07-11

    The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population, and to compare it with the existing Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and probability of survival (PS09) score. A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2005 and 2010 from seven trauma centers and registries in Europe and the United States of America was performed. We compared the BIG score with TRISS and PS09 scores in a population of blunt and penetrating trauma patients. We then assessed the discrimination ability of all scores via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared the expected mortality rate (precision) of all scores with the observed mortality rate. In total, 12,206 datasets were retrieved to validate the BIG score. The mean ISS was 15 ± 11, and the mean 30-day mortality rate was 4.8%. With an AUROC of 0.892 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.879 to 0.906), the BIG score performed well in an adult population. TRISS had an area under ROC (AUROC) of 0.922 (0.913 to 0.932) and the PS09 score of 0.825 (0.915 to 0.934). On a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score had an AUROC result of 0.920 (0.898 to 0.942) compared with the PS09 score (AUROC of 0.921; 0.902 to 0.939) and TRISS (0.929; 0.912 to 0.947). The BIG score is a good predictor of mortality in the adult trauma population. It performed well compared with TRISS and the PS09 score, although it has significantly less discriminative ability. In a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score performed better than in a population with blunt trauma. The BIG score has the advantage of being available shortly after admission and may be used to predict clinical prognosis or as a research tool to risk stratify trauma patients into clinical trials.

  15. Demonstration of the presence of independent pre-osteoblastic and pre-adipocytic cell populations in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, S; Abdallah, B M; Bentzon, J F

    2008-01-01

    differentiation into one particular lineage. However, this inverse relationship between bone and fat is not consistent and under certain in vivo conditions, bone and fat can change independently suggesting separate precursor cell populations. In order to test for this hypothesis, we extensively characterized two...... of mature adipocytes visualized by Oil Red O staining. On the other hand, mMSC2 and not mMSC1 differentiated to osteoblast lineage as demonstrated by up-regulation of osteoblastic makers (CBFA1/RUNX2, Osterix, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin) and formation of alizarin red stained...... that are committed to either osteoblast or adipocyte lineage. These cell populations may undergo independent changes during aging and in bone diseases and thus represent important targets for therapy....

  16. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation FST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies. PMID:26550601

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2015-12-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation F ST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies.

  19. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  20. Spleen-dependent immune protection elicited by CpG adjuvanted reticulocyte-derived exosomes from malaria infection is associated with T cells population changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martin-Jaular

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy, had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced PD1- memory T cell expansion with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are able to induce splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to expansion of T-cells.

  1. Novel characterization of monocyte-derived cell populations in the meninges and choroid plexus and their rates of replenishment in bone marrow chimeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2010-09-01

    The mouse dura mater, pia mater, and choroid plexus contain resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These cells participate in immune surveillance, phagocytosis of cellular debris, uptake of antigens from the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid and immune regulation in many pathologic processes. We used Cx3cr1 knock-in, CD11c-eYFP transgenic and bone marrow chimeric mice to characterize the phenotype, density and replenishment rate of monocyte-derived cells in the meninges and choroid plexus and to assess the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on their number and tissue distribution. Iba-1 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II CD169 CD68 macrophages and CD11c putative DCs were identified in meningeal and choroid plexus whole mounts. Comparison of homozygous and heterozygous Cx3cr1 mice did not reveal CX3CR1-dependancy on density, distribution or phenotype of monocyte-derived cells. In turnover studies, wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with Cx3cr1/-positive bone marrow and were analyzed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. There was a rapid replenishment of CX3CR1-positive cells in the dura mater (at 4 weeks) and the choroid plexus was fully reconstituted by 8 weeks. These data provide the foundation for future studies on the role of resident macrophages and DCs in conditions such as meningitis, autoimmune inflammatory disease and in therapies involving irradiation and hematopoietic or stem cell transplantation.

  2. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings.The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The study provides insights into the accuracy of

  3. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  4. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia, E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); Sakuma, Alice Momoyo [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); De Capitani, Eduardo Mello [Universidade Estadual de Campinas — UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Controle de Intoxicações (Brazil); Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde/SP, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças (Brazil); Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia (Brazil); Gouveia, Nelson [Universidade de São Paulo — USP, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  5. Replication study for the association of 9 East Asian GWAS-derived loci with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Sakai

    Full Text Available AIMS: East Asian genome-wide association studies (GWAS for type 2 diabetes identified 8 loci with genome-wide significance, and 2 loci with a borderline association. However, the associations of these loci except MAEA locus with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated in independent East Asian cohorts. We performed a replication study to investigate the association of these susceptibility loci with type 2 diabetes in an independent Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped 7,379 Japanese participants (5,315 type 2 diabetes and 2,064 controls for each of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7041847 in GLIS3, rs6017317 in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, rs6467136 near GCCI-PAX4, rs831571 near PSMD6, rs9470794 in ZFAND3, rs3786897 in PEPD, rs1535500 in KCNK16, rs16955379 in CMIP, and rs17797882 near WWOX. Because the sample size in this study was not sufficient to replicate single SNP associations, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS by summing a number of risk alleles of the 9 SNPs, and examined the association of the GRS with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1535500 in KCNK16, all SNPs had the same direction of effect (odds ratio [OR]>1.0 as in the original reports. The GRS constructed from the 9 SNPs was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population (p = 4.0 × 10(-4, OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09. In quantitative trait analyses, rs16955379 in CMIP was nominally associated with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and with increased fasting plasma glucose, but neither the individual SNPs nor the GRS showed a significant association with the glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 9 loci that were identified in the East Asian GWAS meta-analysis have a significant effect on the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.

  6. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively.These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers from easily obtainable risk factors and may

  7. A self-assessment predictive model for type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia derived from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Khairollah; Asadollahi, Parisa; Azizi, Monire; Abangah, Ghobad

    2017-09-01

    There is no cure for diabetes and its prevention is interesting for both people and health policy makers. The aim of this study was to construct a simple scoring system to predict diabetes and suggest a self assessment predictive model for type 2 diabetes in Iran. This study was a part of a comprehensive population based survey performed in Ilam province during 2011-2012, including 2158 cases≥25years. All demographic and laboratory results were entered into the prepared sheets and were analysed using SPSS 16. By identification of relative risks of diabetes and IFG, a predictive model was constructed and proposed for these abnormalities. Totally, 2158 people comprising 72% female, 60% from urban regions, mean age of 45.5±14years were investigated and the average height, weight, FBS and waist of participants were as follows respectively: 164±8.9cm, 68.4±12.3kg, 5.7±2.8mmol/l (102.6±49.9mg/dl) and 82.3±14.3cm. The prevalence of IFG, diabetes and hyperglycaemia among all participants were 7.8%, 11.8% and 19.6% respectively. Regression analysis revealed familial history of diabetes, place of life, age, hypertension, daily exercise, marital status, gender, waist size, smoking, and BMI as the most relevant risk factors for diabetes and hyperglycemia. A self-assessment predictive model was constructed for general population living in the west of Iran. This is the first self-assessment predictive model for diabetes in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An outbreak of type π vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan province, China: emergence and circulation in an under-immunized population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During August 2011-February 2012, an outbreak of type Π circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs occurred in Sichuan Province, China. METHODS: A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. RESULTS: One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8-1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type Π Sabin strain by 5-12 nucleotides (nt and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1% cases (including 2 polio cases did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs were conducted in February-May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. CONCLUSION: High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary.

  9. Aging induced loss of stemness with concomitant gain of myogenic properties of a pure population of CD34(+)/CD45(-) muscle derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bipasha; Shenoy, P Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by the functional decline of cells, tissues, and organs, as well as, a striking increase in susceptibility to a wide range of diseases. Within a tissue, both differentiated cells and adult stem cells are susceptible to intrinsic and extrinsic changes while aging. Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) are tissue specific stem cells which have been studied well for their multipotential nature. Although there are reports relating to diminished function and regenerative capacity of aged MDSCs as compared to their young counterparts, not much has been reported relating to the concomitant gain in unipotent nature of aged MDSCs. In this study, we report an inverse correlation between aging and expression of adult/mesenchymal stem cell markers and a direct correlation between aging and myogenecity in MDSCs. Aged MDSCs were able to generate a greater number of dystrophin positive myofibres, as compared to, the young MDSCs when transplanted in muscle of dystrophic mice. Our data, therefore, suggests that aging stress adds to the decline in stem cell characteristics with a concomitant increase in unipotency, in terms of, myogenecity of MDSCs. This study, hence, also opens the possibilities of using unipotent aged MDSCs as potential candidates for transplantation in patients with muscular dystrophies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds per silique (SS, seed weight (SW, and silique length (SL are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses (B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus × B. napus. In present study, a doubled haploid (DH population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0–34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs (cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09, and cqSL.C09 were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy: an objective definition based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived regional fat ratios in a South Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Hesarghatta Shyamasunder; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Rupali, Priscilla; Thomas, Nihal

    2012-01-01

    To develop an objective definition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy by using regional fat mass ratios and to assess the utility of anthropometric and skinfold measurements in the initial screening for lipodystrophy. Male patients between 25 and 50 years old with proven HIV infection (highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]-naïve subjects and those receiving successful HAART) were studied and compared with body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative control subjects. Anthropometric variables, body composition, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry findings, and metabolic variables were compared among the 3 study groups and between those patients with and those without lipodystrophy. Trunk fat/lower limb fat mass ratio >2.28 identified 54.3% of patients with HIV receiving HAART as having lipodystrophy and had the highest odds ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome. The "clinical diagnosis of lipodystrophy" and the "clinical scoring system" had too many false-positive and false-negative results. Triceps skinfold thickness (SFT)/BMI ratio ≤0.49 and abdominal SFT/triceps SFT ratio >1.385 have good sensitivity but poor specificity in identifying lipodystrophy. In comparison with HAART-naïve patients with HIV, those receiving HAART had significantly higher insulin resistance, and a significantly greater proportion had impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Among patients receiving HAART, those with lipodystrophy had a greater degree of insulin resistance, higher triglyceride levels, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The trunk fat/lower limb fat mass ratio in BMI-matched normal subjects can be used to derive cutoff values to define lipodystrophy objectively in HIV-infected patients. Defining lipodystrophy in this way is better than other methods of identifying those patients with increased cardiovascular risk. Triceps SFT/BMI and abdominal SFT/triceps SFT ratios may be useful as screening tools in resource

  12. Preferential magnetic nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages sub-populations: effect of surface coating on polarization, toxicity, and in vivo MRI detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Faraj, Achraf, E-mail: aalfaraj@ksu.edu.sa [College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Molecular and Cellular Imaging Lab, Department of Radiological Sciences (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-15

    Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of different diseases, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents or drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their further surface modification with carboxylic groups on bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages phenotype, labeling efficiency, uptake mechanism, biocompatibility, and their in vivo MR detection was assessed. An enhanced labeling efficiency was observed for carboxylic surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) compared to PEGylated SPIO and to a higher extent to plain SPIO along with a higher uptake by M2 subsets. Magnetic nanoparticles were found located in the periphery of the vesicles dispersed in the cytoplasm in TEM. Investigation of the labeling mechanism by inhibiting different uptake pathways revealed that endocytosis via scavenger receptor A, a process known to be clathrin mediated, plays a central role in the cellular uptake kinetics of both macrophages subpopulations. Biocompatibility evaluation showed no variation in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with a low release of ROS. Flow cytometry and measurement of iNOS and Arginase 1 activity as marker of M1 and M2 macrophages polarization confirmed that magnetic labeling of macrophages subsets did not affect their polarization. In addition, no variation was observed in the biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide-labeled M1 and M2 macrophages subsets when monitored using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a better detection for the enhanced SPIO-PEG-COOH-labeled cells.

  13. Preferential magnetic nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages sub-populations: effect of surface coating on polarization, toxicity, and in vivo MRI detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Faraj, Achraf

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of different diseases, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents or drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their further surface modification with carboxylic groups on bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages phenotype, labeling efficiency, uptake mechanism, biocompatibility, and their in vivo MR detection was assessed. An enhanced labeling efficiency was observed for carboxylic surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) compared to PEGylated SPIO and to a higher extent to plain SPIO along with a higher uptake by M2 subsets. Magnetic nanoparticles were found located in the periphery of the vesicles dispersed in the cytoplasm in TEM. Investigation of the labeling mechanism by inhibiting different uptake pathways revealed that endocytosis via scavenger receptor A, a process known to be clathrin mediated, plays a central role in the cellular uptake kinetics of both macrophages subpopulations. Biocompatibility evaluation showed no variation in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with a low release of ROS. Flow cytometry and measurement of iNOS and Arginase 1 activity as marker of M1 and M2 macrophages polarization confirmed that magnetic labeling of macrophages subsets did not affect their polarization. In addition, no variation was observed in the biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide-labeled M1 and M2 macrophages subsets when monitored using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a better detection for the enhanced SPIO–PEG–COOH-labeled cells

  14. [Index screening and comprehensive evaluation of phenotypic traits of low nitrogen tolerance using BILs population derived from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao-lin; Li, Xia; Wan, Yong; Qiu, Zai-hui; Nie, Yuan-yuan; Xie, Jian-kun

    2015-08-01

    To identify the low nitrogen tolerance of Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) and its progenies, ten phenotypic traits including plant height (PH), heading day (HD), panicle length (PL), number of effective tillers per plant (NETP), number of filled grains per panicle (NFGP), number of grains per panicle (NGP), grain density (GD), spikelet fertility (SF), 1000-grain mass (TGM) and grain yield per plant (GYP) were studied under normal and low nitrogen treatments, using backcross inbred lines (BILs) of Xieqingzao B//DXWR/Xieqingzao B in BC1 F12. Comprehensive evaluation on the low nitrogen tolerance of the BILs population was conducted using principal component analysis and the subordinate function. The evaluation results indicated that the low nitrogen tolerance of the line 116, 143 and 157 was the strongest, which could be served as the intermediate materials for genetic studies on the low nitrogen tolerance of DXWR and breeding for the low nitrogen tolerance in rice. The optimal regression equation of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice was established using stepwise regression analysis. The relative values of five traits including PH, NGP, SF, TGM and GYP were screened out and could be used as comprehensive evaluation indices for the low nitrogen tolerance in the whole growth stage. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the relative values of these five traits, especially for NGP and GYP, in the genetic improvement of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice.

  15. Population pharmacokinetic analysis for 10-monohydroxy derivative of oxcarbazepine in pediatric epileptic patients shows no difference between Japanese and other ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ikuo; Bouillon, Thomas; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hikoe; Hirota, Takashi; Fink, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an anti-epileptic drug, which is almost completely metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to the active 10-monohyroxy metabolite (MHD) following oral administration. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MHD were evaluated in pediatric epileptic patients and a possible ethnic difference in PK of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese pediatric patients was assessed. A non-linear mixed effect modeling approach was used to determine the PK of MHD. A one-compartment population model with first-order absorption appropriately described the PK of MHD. No clinically relevant differences were found for using body surface area or weight to explain between-patient variability, therefore the final model included the effects of body weight on apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of MHD, and in addition, the effect of 3 concomitant anti-epileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) on CL/F of MHD. Inclusion of ethnicity as a covariate in the final model, concluded no ethnic difference with respect to CL/F of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Hence, oxcarbazepine can be generally applied using the same dosage and administration for the treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients, regardless of ethnicity. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The currently used commercial DNA-extraction methods give different results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations derived from human fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukonen, Johanna; Simões, Catarina; Saarela, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Recently several human health-related microbiota studies have had partly contradictory results. As some differences may be explained by methodologies applied, we evaluated how different storage conditions and commonly used DNA-extraction kits affect bacterial composition, diversity, and numbers of human fecal microbiota. According to our results, the DNA-extraction did not affect the diversity, composition, or quantity of Bacteroides spp., whereas after a week's storage at -20 °C, the numbers of Bacteroides spp. were 1.6-2.5 log units lower (P Eubacterium rectale (Erec)-group, Clostridium leptum group, bifidobacteria, and Atopobium group were 0.5-4 log units higher (P < 0.05) after mechanical DNA-extraction as detected with qPCR, regardless of storage. Furthermore, the bacterial composition of Erec-group differed significantly after different DNA-extractions; after enzymatic DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera detected were Roseburia (39% of clones) and Coprococcus (10%), whereas after mechanical DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera were Blautia (30%), Coprococcus (13%), and Dorea (10%). According to our results, rigorous mechanical lysis enables detection of higher bacterial numbers and diversity from human fecal samples. As it was shown that the results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations are highly dependent on the DNA-extraction methods applied, the use of different DNA-extraction protocols may explain the contradictory results previously obtained. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  18. Whole-body adipose tissue and lean muscle volumes and their distribution across gender and age: MR-derived normative values in a normal-weight Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Erika J; Nanz, Daniel; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Marcon, Magda; Fischer, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    To determine age- and gender-dependent whole-body adipose tissue and muscle volumes in healthy Swiss volunteers in Dixon MRI in comparison with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) measurements. Fat-water-separated whole-body 3 Tesla MRI of 80 healthy volunteers (ages 20 to 62 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 to 26.2 kg/m 2 (10 men, 10 women per decade). Age and gender-dependent volumes of total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), and the total lean muscle tissue (TLMT) normalized for body height were determined by semi-automatic segmentation, and correlated with anthropometric and BIA measurements as well as lifestyle parameters. The TAT, ASAT, VAT, and TLMT indexes (TATi, ASATi, VATi, and TLMTi, respectively) (L/m 2  ± standard deviation) for women/men were 6.4 ± 1.8/5.3 ± 1.7, 1.6 ± 0.7/1.2 ± 0.5, 0.4 ± 0.2/0.8 ± 0.5, and 5.6 ± 0.6/7.1 ± 0.7, respectively. The TATi correlated strongly with ASATi (r > 0.93), VATi, BMI and BIA (r > 0.70), and TAATi (r > 0.96), and weak with TLMTi for both genders (r > -0.34). The VAT was the only parameter showing an age dependency (r > 0.32). The BMI and BIA showed strong correlation with all MR-derived adipose tissue volumes. The TAT mass was estimated significantly lower from BIA than from MRI (both genders P muscle volumes might serve as normative values. The estimation of adipose tissue volumes was significantly lower from anthropometric and BIA measurements than from MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:449-458, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. RESO-NA-NCE--IAp-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mechanical Black Box - A Challenge from the 35th. International Physics Olympiad. Viiay A Singh, Raiesh 8 Khaparde and S R Pathare learning Earthquake Design and Construction -17. How do. Earthquakes Affect Reinforced Concrete Buildings? CVRMurly learning Earthquake Design and Construction - 18. How do.

  20. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  1. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  2. Population dynamics of the murine lymphokine activated killer system: precursor frequency and kinetics of maturation and renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Schaub, L B; Hemstreet, G P; Hemingway, L L; Abraham, S R; DeBault, L E

    1987-11-01

    The proliferation kinetics and population renewal of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-induced murine lymphokine activated killers (LAK) arising from splenic precursors was studied. Extensive proliferation has been shown to accompany the de novo generation of LAK cytotoxicity. In this report, a thymidine 'hot pulse' suicide technique was employed to examine the sensitivity of LAK progenitors during various time periods following culture initiation. Hot pulse during the first 24 hr of culture resulted in a 30-35% reduction in lytic activity when assayed on day 5. Pulse periods between days 1 and 4 resulted in almost complete inhibition (90-95%) of lytic function when assayed on day 5. Proliferation of LAK progenitors was documented by limiting dilution analysis comparison of splenic precursors and functionally mature LAK cultures. These studies showed a 75- to 80-fold enrichment of LAK progenitors after 3 days culture in rIL-2. By flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, we demonstrated that the number of cells in the S/G2/M phase increased with the length of rIL-2 culture and represented approximately 40% of the cells by day 4. Finally, we used the rate of decay of lytic activity following irradiation as a factor to define the mean life span of a cytotoxic effector in the absence of cellular input. An exponential decrease to approximately 50% of controls was observed within 8-9 hr after irradiation. Taken together, these results suggest that the LAK system is highly dynamic and requires continuous cellular proliferation for its maintenance.

  3. Joint genome-wide prediction in several populations accounting for randomness of genotypes: A hierarchical Bayes approach. I: Multivariate Gaussian priors for marker effects and derivation of the joint probability mass function of genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Khare, Kshitij; Banerjee, Arunava; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2017-03-21

    It is important to consider heterogeneity of marker effects and allelic frequencies in across population genome-wide prediction studies. Moreover, all regression models used in genome-wide prediction overlook randomness of genotypes. In this study, a family of hierarchical Bayesian models to perform across population genome-wide prediction modeling genotypes as random variables and allowing population-specific effects for each marker was developed. Models shared a common structure and differed in the priors used and the assumption about residual variances (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Randomness of genotypes was accounted for by deriving the joint probability mass function of marker genotypes conditional on allelic frequencies and pedigree information. As a consequence, these models incorporated kinship and genotypic information that not only permitted to account for heterogeneity of allelic frequencies, but also to include individuals with missing genotypes at some or all loci without the need for previous imputation. This was possible because the non-observed fraction of the design matrix was treated as an unknown model parameter. For each model, a simpler version ignoring population structure, but still accounting for randomness of genotypes was proposed. Implementation of these models and computation of some criteria for model comparison were illustrated using two simulated datasets. Theoretical and computational issues along with possible applications, extensions and refinements were discussed. Some features of the models developed in this study make them promising for genome-wide prediction, the use of information contained in the probability distribution of genotypes is perhaps the most appealing. Further studies to assess the performance of the models proposed here and also to compare them with conventional models used in genome-wide prediction are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity derived from questionnaires and wrist-worn accelerometers: comparability and the role of demographic, lifestyle, and health factors among a population-based sample of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koolhaas CM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chantal M Koolhaas,1 Frank JA van Rooij,1 Magda Cepeda,1 Henning Tiemeier,1–3 Oscar H Franco,1 Josje D Schoufour1 1Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Background: Agreement between questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity (PA differs between studies and might be related to demographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics, including disability and depressive symptoms.Methods: We included 1,410 individuals aged 51–94 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Participants completed the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore a wrist-worn accelerometer on the nondominant wrist for 1 week thereafter. We compared the Spearman correlation and disagreement (level and direction for total PA across levels of demographic, lifestyle, and health variables. The level of disagreement was defined as the absolute difference between questionnaire- and accelerometer-derived PA, whereas the direction of disagreement was defined as questionnaire PA minus accelerometer PA. We used linear regression analyses with the level and direction of disagreement as outcome, including all demographic, lifestyle, and health variables in the model.Results: We observed a Spearman correlation of 0.30 between questionnaire- and accelerometer-derived PA in the total population. The level of disagreement (ie, absolute difference was 941.9 (standard deviation [SD] 747.0 minutes/week, and the PA reported by questionnaire was on average 529.4 (SD 1,079.5 minutes/week lower than PA obtained by the accelerometer. The level of disagreement decreased with higher educational levels. Additionally, participants with obesity, higher disability scores, and more depressive symptoms underestimated their self-reported PA more than their

  5. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevenção de aderências pericárdicas pós-operatórias com uso de carboximetilquitosana termoestéril Prevention of postoperative pericardial adhesions using thermal sterile carboxymethyl chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Renato Dias Daroz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar alterações físico-químicas da carboximetilquitosana após termoesterilização e sua eficácia na prevenção de aderências pericárdicas pós-esternotomia. MÉTODOS: Após ser submetida a termoesterilização em autoclave, a carboximetilquitosana termoestéril (CMQte foi submetida a análises físico-químicas. Doze animais foram divididos em dois grupos e submetidos à pericardiotomia e a protocolo de indução de aderências. A seguir, foi aplicada de forma tópica a CMQte ou solução salina. Após 8 semanas, foi realizada esternotomia e avaliação macroscópica do grau de aderências, tempo de dissecção e quantidade do uso de dissecção cruenta e avaliação microscópica. RESULTADOS: As análises físico-químicas não mostraram diferença entre a CMQ e CMQte. A avaliação macroscópica mostrou que a intensidade das aderências foi significantemente menor no grupo CMQte (P=0,007. O tempo de dissecção e o uso de dissecção cruenta também apresentaram reduções significativas (P=0,007, P=0,008; respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O método de esterilização empregado não alterou as propriedades físico-químicas da carboximetilquitosana. O uso de biopolímeros de barreira como a CMQte pode reduzir a intensidade das aderências pós-cirúrgicas no pericárdio, diminuindo as complicações da esternotomia em reoperações cardiovasculares.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate CMC physical-chemical alterations after thermal sterilization and its efficacy in preventing poststernotomy pericardial adhesions. METHODS: After autoclaving thermal sterilization, thermal sterile Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CMCts was submitted to physical-chemical analysis. Twelve animals were divided into two groups and underwent pericardiotomy and adhesion induction protocol. Afterward, topic CMCts or saline solution was administered. After 8 weeks, a sternotomy was performed for adhesion score

  7. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  8. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  9. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in genetically isolated populations: gender-specific association with anxiety disorder subtypes but not with anxiety levels or Val66Met polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carlino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (ADs are disabling chronic disorders with exaggerated behavioral response to threats. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that ADs may be associated with reduced neurotrophic activity, particularly of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and determining possible effects of genetics on serum BDNF concentrations. In 672 adult subjects from six isolated villages in North-Eastern Italy with high inbreeding, we determined serum BDNF levels and identified subjects with different ADs subtypes such as Social and Specific Phobias (PHSOC, PHSP, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, and Panic Disorder (PAD. Analysis of the population as a whole or individual village showed no significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and Val66Met polymorphism and no association with anxiety levels. Stratification of subjects highlighted a significant decrease in serum BDNF in females with GAD and males with PHSP. This study indicates low heritability and absence of any impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating concentrations of BDNF. Our results show that BDNF is not a general biomarker of anxiety but serum BDNF levels correlate in a gender-specific manner with ADs subtypes.

  11. Construction of a high-density DArTseq SNP-based genetic map and identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in a genetic population derived from a cross between feral and cultivated-type watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Runsheng; Ray, Rumiana; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Man; Liu, Guang; Yao, Xiefeng; Kilian, Andrzej; Yang, Xingping

    2015-08-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important vegetable crop grown extensively worldwide. To facilitate the identification of agronomically important traits and provide new information for genetic and genomic research on this species, a high-density genetic linkage map of watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between elite watermelon cultivar K3 and wild watermelon germplasm PI 189225. Based on a sliding window approach, a total of 1,161 bin markers representing 3,465 SNP markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosome pair number of watermelon. The total length of the genetic map is 1,099.2 cM, with an average distance between bins of 1.0 cM. The number of markers in each chromosome varies from 62 in chromosome 07 to 160 in chromosome 05. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 61.8 cM for chromosome 07 and 140.2 cM for chromosome 05. A total of 616 SNP bin markers showed significant (P watermelon cultivar K3 allele and 103 were skewed toward PI 189225. The number of SNPs and InDels per Mb varied considerably across the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) on each chromosome, and a mixture of dense and sparse SNPs and InDel SDRs coexisted on some chromosomes suggesting that SDRs were randomly distributed throughout the genome. Recombination rates varied greatly among each chromosome, from 2.0 to 4.2 centimorgans per megabase (cM/Mb). An inconsistency was found between the genetic and physical positions on the map for a segment on chromosome 11. The high-density genetic map described in the present study will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes, map-based cloning, as well as marker-assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon breeding programs.

  12. Farm Population of the United States: 1972. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    Based on data derived from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and comparisons of the farm and nonfarm populations. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) U.S. Population, Total and Farm: April 1960 to 1972; (2) Persons…

  13. Farm Population of the United States: 1974. Current Population Reports, Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vera J.; And Others

    Based on data derived primarily from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and a comparison of selected characteristics of the farm and nonfarm population. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) Population of the U.S.,…

  14. Farm Population of the United States: 1971. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    Based on data derived from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and comparisons of the farm and nonfarm populations. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) U.S. Population, Total and Farm: April 1960 and 1971; (2)…

  15. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  16. Negative Drift in Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms......, to be derived from simple conditions on the one-step behaviour of their variation operators and selection mechanisms....

  17. Identification of QTLs for powdery mildew and scald resistance in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtaya, M.J.Y.; Marcel, T.C.; Sillero, J.C.; Niks, R.E.; Rubiales, D.

    2006-01-01

    A population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F9-derived lines) developed from the two-row spring barley cross L94 × `Vada¿ was evaluated under field conditions for resistance against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis). Apart from the major

  18. Thermodynamics and Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses a Fermi-problem exercise through which I take students in several of my college courses. Students work in teams, determining the average daily Caloric needs per person. Then they use insolation values to determine the size of a collection area needed to absorb the previously determined daily energy requirements. Adjustments to the size of the collection area are made based on energy absorption per biological trophic level, as well as the consideration that most diets are a mixture of plant- and animal-derived elements. Finally, using the total amount of farmland available on the planet, students calculate a maximum population value. Although the maximum population values derived herewith should not be considered authoritative, the exercise has three beneficial purposes: 1) a chance to talk about the modeling process and extrapolations, 2) an unexpected application of physics to social contexts, and 3) raising student awareness of population and energy issues.

  19. A diet enriched with mackerel (Scomber scombrus)-derived products improves the endothelial function in a senior population (Prevención de las Enfermedades Cardiovasculares: Estudio Santoña--PECES project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berrazueta, J R; Gómez de Berrazueta, J M; Amado Señarís, J A; Peña Sarabia, N; Fernández Viadero, C; García-Unzueta, M T; Sáez de Adana, M; Sanchez Ovejero, C J; Llorca, J

    2009-03-01

    Regular consumption of fish reduces cardiovascular risks. Here, we investigate if the consumption of products with mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with 8.82 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content per 100 g of product improves parameters of endothelial function in a controlled population. Subjects maintained a 12-week diet with products with mackerel. The population consisted of 58 senior subjects (12 withdrawals, 25 women), aged 82.08 +/- 8.13 years (Group A). Twenty-three senior subjects (13 women) on a regular diet were used as the control group (Group B). Subjects of Group A received 57 portions throughout 12 weeks (four to five portions a week of products with a mean EPA + DHA content of 2.5 g a day). A continuous follow-up and a final evaluation were performed to determine the level of consumption. Plasma samples were stored at -70 degrees C for a biochemical study. Endothelial function was analysed by reactive hyperemia with a mercury strain gauge plethysmography with measurement of blood flow in the forearm, both baseline and at the end of the 12-week diet. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation significantly increased in Group A subjects (P cardiovascular disease (P < 0.001). Nitrites/nitrates and von Willebrand factor plasma concentrations were higher in participants after the 12-week diet. The consumption of mackerel meat products improves endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilatation in a senior population. This finding might explain some of the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

  20. Biometrics, sex ratio and sexual dimorphism of Trachemys dorbigni (Duméril & Bibron 1835 (Testudines, Emydidae from an artificial reservoir in the municipality of São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bager

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the population structure of Trachemys dorbigni from an artificial reservoir (30º20’16,03”S, 54º15’46,68”W in the municipality of São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. From March 2009 to February 2010, forty-four individuals were collected: 34 females, seven males, and three juveniles. The sex ratio was 4.85 females: 1 male (1:1. The mean carapace length of the adults was 190.50 ± 22.81mm (N=41 and the mean body mass was 1.210 ± 420g (N=37. Carapace length averaged 179.10 ± 18.60mm (N =7 for males and 192.90 ± 23.10mm (N=34 for females. Females were significantly larger than males for six of the eleven measurements made and smaller for one measurement, which was the distance from the base of tail to the cloacae. The discriminant analysis revealed significant morphological differences between males and females (P<0,05; F3.37=21.02; Wilks’ lambda=0.36, indicating carapace and plastron terminal distance, curvilinear carapace length and distance from the base of tail to the cloacae as important variables for sexing this species.

  1. Taxonomic analysis of Paraguayan samples of Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron (1836 with the revalidation of Homonota horrida Burmeister (1861 (Reptilia: Squamata: Phyllodactylidae and the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Cacciali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Homonota is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal lizards characterized by the following combination of characters: absence of femoral pores, infradigital lamellae not dilated, claws without sheath, inferior lamellae laterally not denticulate, and presence of a ceratobranchial groove. Currently the genus is composed of 10 species assembled in three groups: two groups with four species, and the fasciata group with only two species. Here, we analyzed genetic and morphologic data of samples of Homonota fasciata from Paraguay; according to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, the Paraguay population represents an undescribed species. Additionally, morphological analysis of the holotype of H. fasciata (MNHN 6756 shows that it is morphologically different from the banded, large-scaled Homonota commonly referred to as “H. fasciata”. Given the inconsistency between morphological characters of the name-bearing type of H. fasciata and the species commonly referred to as H. fasciata, we consider them as different taxa. Thus, H. fasciata is a species inquirenda which needs further studies, and we resurrect the name H. horrida for the banded, large-scaled Homonota. The undescribed species from Paraguay is similar to H. horrida, but can be differentiated by the high position of the auditory meatus relative to the mouth commissure (vs. low position in H. horrida; and less developed tubercles on the sides of the head, including a narrow area between the orbit and the auditory meatus covered with small granular scales with or without few tubercles (vs. several big tubercles on the sides of the head even in the area between the orbit and the auditory meatus. The new species is distributed in the Dry Chaco in South America. With the formal description of this species, the actual diversity of the genus Homonota is increased to 12 species. Furthermore, we infer phylogenetic relationships for 11 of the 12 described species of the genus, based on 11

  2. Population Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  3. Understanding Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  4. Populations in clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tammisola

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Population phenomena in higher plants are reviewed critically, particularly in relation to clonality. An array of concepts used in the field are discussed. In contrast to animals, higher plants are modular in structure. Plant populations show hierarchy at two levels: ramets and genets. In addition, their demography is far more complicated, since even the direction of development of a ramet may change by rejuvenation. Therefore, formulae concerning animal populations often require modification for plants. Furthermore, at the zygotic stage, higher plants are generally less mobile than animals. Accordingly, their population processes tend to be more local. Most populations of plants have a genetic structure: alleles and genotypes are spatially aggregated. Due to the short-ranged foraging behaviour of pollinators, genetically non-random pollination prevails. A generalized formula for parent-offspring dispersal variance is derived. It is used to analyze the effect of clonality on genetic patchiness in populations. In self-compatible species, an increase in clonality will tend to increase the degree of patchiness, while in self-incompatible species a decrease may result. Examples of population structure studies in different species are presented. A considerable degree of genetic variation appears to be found also in the populations of species with a strong allocation of resources to clonal growth or apomictic seed production. Some consequences of clonality are considered from the point of view of genetic conservation and plant breeding.

  5. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  6. Optimization of the p-xylene oxidation process by a multi-objective differential evolution algorithm with adaptive parameters co-derived with the population-based incremental learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhan; Yan, Xuefeng

    2018-04-01

    Different operating conditions of p-xylene oxidation have different influences on the product, purified terephthalic acid. It is necessary to obtain the optimal combination of reaction conditions to ensure the quality of the products, cut down on consumption and increase revenues. A multi-objective differential evolution (MODE) algorithm co-evolved with the population-based incremental learning (PBIL) algorithm, called PBMODE, is proposed. The PBMODE algorithm was designed as a co-evolutionary system. Each individual has its own parameter individual, which is co-evolved by PBIL. PBIL uses statistical analysis to build a model based on the corresponding symbiotic individuals of the superior original individuals during the main evolutionary process. The results of simulations and statistical analysis indicate that the overall performance of the PBMODE algorithm is better than that of the compared algorithms and it can be used to optimize the operating conditions of the p-xylene oxidation process effectively and efficiently.

  7. Hematological effects: comparative studies on the radiation survival characteristics in vivo and in vitro of bone marrow-derived clonogenic populations (CFU-C and PFU-C) and some observations on bone marrow cellularity in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; O'Grady, L.; Momeni, M.; Wheeling, J.A.; Klein, K.; Graham, R.; Jow, N.; Di Bartola, S.

    1975-01-01

    Data accumulated for the hematological effects program are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on hematopoietic progenitor populations (CFU-C, colony-forming units in culture) and ''candidate'' mesenchymal progenitors (PFU-C, plaque-forming units in culture) using methylcellulose bone marrow culture systems and both in vivo and in vitro radiation exposure protocols. Preliminary results of studies on the temporal effects of acute x-irradiation on the capacity of PFU-C to generate colony stimulating activity (CSA) are also presented. The results of such experiments are providing the basis upon which future RBE studies on a variety of nuclides will be structured. Data (including age related changes) is also presented on in vivo bone marrow cellularity determinations, as well as for marrow stem cell quantitative studies using nondestructive techniques for normal Beagles. In these studies, two techniques for correction of variable effects of hemodilution are compared. Such studies are also providing baseline data for the 60 Co hematological effects program

  8. Imaginary populations

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002) wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002), that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologis...

  9. Evaluation of consumption of milk and its informal derivatives and the knowledge of the population about the public health problems in a municipal district in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Centola Vidal-Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a food of high nutritional value and is considered one of the main animal products consumed today. At the same time, Brazil stands out as one of the leading milk producers in the world and, since 2006 has been showing growing increase in its production. On the other hand, it is observed from the beginning of the 1990s, the growth of so-called informal milk and milk products (foods marketed without any kind of inspection, representing a challenge to be overcome related to food security. There are many diseases that can be transmitted by such foods, as tuberculosis and brucellosis, and there are few consumers who are aware of such information. The fact worsens the thought that milk and dairy products make up the diet of many children, elderly and weakened persons, which may make it more severe. Thus, this study aims to evaluate, through the use of questionnaires in 23 districts of São José do Rio Preto, the profile of 805 consumers or not, of milk and dairy products, the knowledge that they have about the diseases transmitted by milk and dairy products and the significance of the seals from Inspection Services. As a result, it was found that 97.76% (787/805 respondents consume milk or its derivatives, and about 30% are obtained by informal means of commerce. The form of consumption of this product is quite variable, but the work shows that 3.93% (31/787 of the consumers still ingest raw milk without boiling or pasteurization and 65.96% (531/805 of consumers are unaware of the possible transmission of disease by the ingestion of milk. Furthermore 80.24% (646/805 of consumers do not seek the packaging if the product has gone through some kind of supervision before reaching the trade - identification through stamps organs of sanitary inspection. Obtaining such data aims to collaborate in future for the development of prevent programs in the city, and the information gathered will be available to assist inspections services to reduce the

  10. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2015-11-01

    Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. We used data from a large population-based case-control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case-control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case-control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom) with 784 cases and 523 controls

  11. QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × ¤H. spontaneum¤ 41-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Backes, G.

    2003-01-01

    A genetic linkage map has been developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross 'Arta' x Hordeum spontaneum 41-1. One hundred and ninety four RILs, randomly chosen from a population of 494 RILs, were mapped with 189 markers including one morphological trait (btr = brittle rachis locus...

  12. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  13. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  14. A pancreaticoduodenectomy risk model derived from 8575 cases from a national single-race population (Japanese) using a web-based data entry system: the 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates for pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Wataru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Hirai, Ichiro; Kenjo, Akira; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Baba, Hideo; Tomita, Naohiro; Nakagoe, Tohru; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2014-04-01

    using a nationwide surgical database. PD outcomes in the national population were satisfactory, and the risk model could help improve surgical practice quality.

  15. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  16. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  17. ADN bacteriano en pacientes con cirrosis y ascitis estéril: Papel como marcador de translocación bacteriana y herramienta pronóstica Bacterial DNA in patients with cirrhosis ans sterile ascites: Its role as a marker of bacterial translocation and prognosis tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. González-Navajas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década hemos presenciado un aumento de la cantidad de datos relativos a la presencia de translocación bacteriana en los modelos experimentales de cirrosis. Sin embargo, los estudios clínicos se han visto limitados por la falta de métodos no invasivos para estudiar dicho fenómeno. En los últimos años, las investigaciones realizadas en nuestro laboratorio se han centrado en la detección del ADN bacteriano en el suero y el líquido ascítico de los pacientes con cirrosis y ascitis estéril, y en las implicaciones clínicas que ello conlleva. Al principio, gracias a un método basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y el secuenciamiento automatizado de nucleótidos, pudimos detectar e identificar la presencia de fragmentos de ADN bacteriano en dichos pacientes con ascitis no neutrocítica y con cultivo negativo. Desde entonces hemos acumulado una serie de datos que indican que la presencia de ADN bacteriano podría desempeñar un papel importante no sólo como marcador de translocación bacteriana, sino también como factor pronóstico a corto plazo. Expondremos aquí el pasado, el presente y el futuro de esta línea de investigación.During the last decade, we have witnessed an increase in the amount of data related with the presence of bacterial translocation in experimental models of cirrhosis. However, clinical studies have been limited by the lack of non-invasive methods to study this phenomenon. Over the past years, the research developed in our laboratory has been focused on the detection of bacterial DNA in serum and ascitic fluid of patients with cirrhosis and sterile ascites, the clinical and immunological implications of such finding. Initially, by means of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method and automated nucleotide sequencing, we were able to detect and identify the presence of fragments of bacterial DNA in the mentioned patients with culture-negative, non-neutrocytic ascites. Since

  18. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  19. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  20. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  1. Population catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankomah, B

    1990-07-01

    UNFPA estimates predict that Africa's population will be 1.5 billion by 2025. In the next 10 years the growth rate will be 3%, the highest for any region in human history. Nigeria is expected to have 301 million people in 35 years, making it the 3rd largest country behind India and China. Currently the economies of African countries can not provide enough jobs or food for the current population. What is going to happen in 35 years when the population will almost double? In 1950 Africa only made up 9% of the world population, but by 2025 it will be 18.4% of a global population of 8.4 billion. Currently half of Africa's population is under 15. This means that there is still time to affect change. There is time to convince this generation not to behave like their parents. A 2 child limit per family is an absolute limit if any progress is to be made that will actually have an effect. Many have suggested that the young people should go back to the land instead of living in poverty in the city. However, currently the land distribution is 0.4 hectares/rural person. This figure is going to drop to 0.29/rural person. Migration is simply not the solution. Many rural farmers want to have enough children to ensure that their land is inherited and stays in the family. The same goal can be achieved, with less children. According to the UNFPA 77% of married women who do not want to have more children do not use contraceptives. Only 14% of African women use contraceptives, so that by age 20 50% of African women have had 1 birth. The only way to seriously cut down the birth rate is to get the men of Africa involved in contraceptive use.

  2. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  3. Risk and Derivative Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Osaki

    2007-01-01

    We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.

  4. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  5. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  6. Nigerian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transverse thoracic diameter in frontal chest radiographs of an adult. Nigerian population. *E. N. Obikili and I. J. Okoye. Department of Radiation Medicine. University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital,. Enugu, Nigeria. Email: enobikili @ yahoo. com. Summary. Background: Normal standards for thoracic dimensions that are ...

  7. Populations games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-19 ISSN 2367-5233. [Featuring International Conferences Biomath 2015. Blagoevgrad, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : populations dynamics

  8. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  9. Population success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  10. On subset selection from Logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1990-01-01

    Some distributional results are derived for subset selection from Logistic populations, differing only in their location parameter. The probability of correct selection is determined. Exact and numerical results concerning the expected subset size are presented.

  11. Stickleback Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Candolin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced eutrophication has increased offspring production in a population of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of an increased density of juveniles on behaviours that influence survival and dispersal, and, hence, population growth—habitat choice, risk taking, and foraging rate. Juveniles were allowed to choose between two habitats that differed in structural complexity, in the absence and presence of predators and conspecific juveniles. In the absence of predators or conspecifics, juveniles preferred the more complex habitat. The preference was further enhanced in the presence of a natural predator, a perch Perca fluviatilis (behind a transparent Plexiglas wall. However, an increased density of conspecifics relaxed the predator-enhanced preference for the complex habitat and increased the use of the open, more predator-exposed habitat. Foraging rate was reduced under increased perceived predation risk. These results suggest that density-dependent behaviours can cause individuals to choose suboptimal habitats where predation risk is high and foraging rate low. This could contribute to the regulation of population growth in eutrophicated areas where offspring production is high.

  12. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  13. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  14. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  15. Development of Derivatives Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčochová, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to summarise the theoretical principles, concepts and considerations pertaining to accounting for and reporting of derivatives and to describe and analyse the development of major accounting standards dealing with related issues. Sections 1 and 2 provide a basic overview of derivative instruments'categorisation, mechanics, valuation and uses. Section 3 studies the principles that ensure the provision of useful financial information, with specific focus on financial instrument...

  16. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  17. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  18. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective...... and injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules....

  19. Bacteriophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klieve, A.V.; Gilbert, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are ubiquitous to the rumen ecosystem; they have a role in nitrogen metabolism through bacterial lysis in the rumen, they may help to regulate bacterial population densities, be an agent for genetic exchange and be of use in biocontrol of bacterial populations through phage therapy. In Chapter 2.1, classical methodologies to enable the isolation, enumeration, storage and morphological characterization of phages were presented. In addition to these classic procedures, molecular biological techniques have resulted in a range of methodologies to investigate the type, topology and size of phage nucleic acids, to fingerprint individual phage strains and to create a profile of ruminal phage populations. Different phage families possess all the currently identified combinations of double-stranded or single-stranded RNA or DNA and may also possess unusual bases such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (found in T-even phage) or 5- hydroxymethyluracil and uracil in place of thymidine. In all morphological groups of phage except the filamentous phages, the nucleic acid is contained within a head or polyhedral structure, predominantly composed of protein. Filamentous phages have their nucleic acid contained inside the helical filament, occupying much of its length. Many of the procedures used with phage nucleic acids and double-stranded (ds) DNA, in particular, are not specific to ruminal phages but are the same as in other areas where nucleic acids are investigated and are covered elsewhere in the literature and this chapter. Most applications with rumen phages are similar to those reported for phages of non-ruminal bacteria and are covered in general texts such as Maniatis et al. In this chapter, we will concentrate on aspects of methodology as they relate to ruminal phages

  20. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  1. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  2. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    and found them to be effective against Plasmodium falciparum under in vitro conditions. Further, we selected four most active derivatives 1m, 1o, 2c and 2j and evaluated their antimalarial potential against Plasmodium berghei in vivo. These 4-aminoquinolines cured BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei......Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...... for structure activity relationship to find lead molecules for treating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax....

  3. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  4. The combinatorial derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Protasov

    2013-09-01

    $\\Delta(A=\\{g\\in G:|gA\\cap A|=\\infty\\}$. The mapping $\\Delta:\\mathcal{P}_G\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_G$, $A\\mapsto\\Delta(A$, is called a combinatorial derivation and can be considered as an analogue of the topological derivation $d:\\mathcal{P}_X\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_X$, $A\\mapsto A^d$, where $X$ is a topological space and $A^d$ is the set of all limit points of $A$. Content: elementary properties, thin and almost thin subsets, partitions, inverse construction and $\\Delta$-trajectories,  $\\Delta$ and $d$.

  5. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives...

  6. Metal borohydrides and derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Haarh Jepsen, Lars; Schouwink, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    major classes of metal borohydride derivatives have also been discovered: anion-substituted compounds where the complex borohydride anion, BH4 -, is replaced by another anion, i.e. a halide or amide ion; and metal borohydrides modified with neutral molecules, such as NH3, NH3BH3, N2H4, etc. Here, we...

  7. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... rate risk. This proposed rule applies to federal credit unions and any federally insured, state... risk to the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF). \\1\\ A derivative is an instrument... degrees of risk to a credit union. Accordingly, this risk calls for a more robust asset/ liability...

  8. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Ansari-Piri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation f(xy=xf(y+g(xy, where f and g are the mappings on Banach algebra A. We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation f(γx+βy=γf(x+βf(y, where γ,β∈ℂ.

  9. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  10. Development, applications and distribution of DNA markers for genetic information for sorghum and maize improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made towards the enhancement and distribution of genetic resources (e.g. genetic stocks, seed and DNA clones) used for basic and applied aspects of the genetic improvement of maize and sorghum. The genetic maps of maize and sorghum were improved through comparative mapping of RFLP loci detected by 124 maize cDNA clones and through the development of a new mapping population of maize. Comparative mapping between maize and sorghum and maize and rice, using the set of 124 maize cDNA clones (and other clones) in each study, substantiated previous observations of extensive conservation of locus order but it also provided strong evidence of numerous large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. The new mapping population for maize (intermated B73xMo17, 'IBM') was created by random intermating during the first segregating generation. Intermating for four generations prior to the derivation of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) increased the frequency of recombinants at many regions of the maize genome and provided better genetic resolution of locus order. Expansion of the maize genetic map was not uniform along the length of a linkage group and was less than the theoretical expectation. The 350 IBM RILs were genotyped at 512 loci detected by DNA clones, including 76 of the 124 supported by this contract. The production of the sorghum mapping population of RILs from the cross CK60xPI229828 has been delayed by weather conditions that were not conducive to plant growth and seed development. Seed of the IBM RILs have been distributed (approximately 5000 RILs in total) to 16 research organizations in the public and private sector. The DNA clones have been distributed (1,206 in total) to nine research labs. Further distribution of the seed and clones will be managed by curators at stock centers in the public domain. (author)

  11. Australia: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Bureau of Census and Statistics reported on 27 August 1979 that Australia's total population was 14,376,400 at the end of the first quarter of 1979. Net immigration gain during the same period was 12,700. Natural increase was 32,100--births were 57,100 and deaths were 25,000. In January 1979, Australia introduced a new immigration scheme to improve methods of selecting immigrants. Points are awarded on the basis of personal qualities and employability; an applicant must score 60 out of 100. This scheme supersedes the earlier system under which immigrants were selected on the family reunion criterion and employability. Migrants from Britain and Ireland made up the bulk of the new comers, but their proportion has dropped from 50% in the mid-1960s to 30% in early 1979. In contrast, Asian immigrants have risen from 2% to 22% over the same period. Asian immigration began in the mid-1960s with the relaxation of the "White Australia" policy which barred non-European migrants, and increased when the ban was abolished by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1973.

  12. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  13. Fields of rational constants of cyclic factorizable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Zielinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe all rational constants of a large family of four-variable cyclic factorizable derivations. Thus, we determine all rational first integrals of their corresponding systems of differential equations. Moreover, we give a characteristic of all four-variable Lotka-Volterra derivations with a nontrivial rational constant. All considerations are over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero. Our main tool is the investigation of the cofactors of strict Darboux polynomials. Factorizable derivations are important in derivation theory. Namely, we may associate the factorizable derivation with any given derivation of a polynomial ring and that construction helps to determine rational constants of arbitrary derivations. Besides, Lotka-Volterra systems play a significant role in population biology, laser physics and plasma physics.

  14. Genetic mapping of a major dominant gene for resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in eggplant

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, A.; Gouy, M.; Daunay, Marie Christine; Wicker, E.; Chiroleu, F.; Prior, P.; Frary, Anne; Dintinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of eggplant against Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I strains was assessed in a F6 population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a intra-specific cross between S. melongena MM738 (susceptible) and AG91-25 (resistant). Resistance traits were determined as disease score, percentage of wilted plants, and stem-based bacterial colonization index, as assessed in greenhouse experiments conducted in Réunion Island, France. The AG91-25 resistance was highly efficient toward st...

  15. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  16. Computation of Mie derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bowler, Nicola

    2013-07-10

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the derivatives of Mie scattering coefficients with respect to the electrical radius of the spherical scattering particle, and to the relative permittivity and permeability of both the particle and the surrounding medium. Their corresponding approximate expressions are developed to avoid numerical overflow based on the logarithmic derivative of Riccati-Bessel functions. The analytical expressions have been verified by comparing their results with those calculated by analytical expressions developed by Mathematica. Compared with the numerical derivative, the analytical expressions and approximate expressions show a higher accuracy and are 2.0 and 2.8 times, respectively, faster in the case of a single magnetodielectric sphere. Generally, for spheres with an electrical radius in a large range, the approximate expressions can yield acceptable accuracy and computation time up to a high order. This work can be used in the design of nonmetallic metamaterials, and in the retrieval of aerosol properties from remote sensing data. An example calculation is given for the design of an optical, all-dielectric, mu-negative metamaterial consisting of a simple cubic array of tellurium nanoparticles.

  17. Carnitine derivatives: clinical usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-03-01

    Carnitine and its derivatives are natural substances involved in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field in relation to the molecular mechanisms. The pool of different carnitine derivatives is formed by acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), and isovaleryl-carnitine. ALC may have a preferential effect on the brain tissue. ALC represents a compound of great interest for its wide clinical application in various neurological disorders: it may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, chronic fatigue syndrome, peripheral neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment associated with various conditions. PLC has been demonstrated to replenish the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the propionyl-CoA moiety, a greater affinity for the sarcolemmal carrier, peripheral vasodilator activity, a greater positive inotropism, and more rapid entry into myocytes. Most studies of the therapeutic use of PLC are focused on the prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease. ALC and PLC are considered well tolerated without significant side-effects. A number of therapeutic effects possibly come from the interaction of carnitine and its derivatives with the elements of cellular membranes.

  18. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  19. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  20. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Rancière

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, including legal and mar...

  1. Pulsar populations and their evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, R.; Ostriker, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Luminosity models are developed, and an attempt is made to answer fundamental questions regarding the statistical properties of pulsars, on the basis of a large data base encompassing the periods, period derivatives, radio luminosities, vertical Galactic heights, and transverse velocities, for a homogeneous sample of 301 pulsars. A probability is established for two pulsar subpopulations, designated F and S, which are distinguished primarily on the basis of kinematic properties. The two populations are of comparable size, with the F population having an overall birth-rate close to 1 in 200 years in the Galaxy, with the less certain S pulsar birth-rate not higher than that of the F population. 51 refs

  2. Environmental pollution and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    There is a growing recognition in Malaysia of the interrelationship between population growth, population policies, development policies, and environmental pollution. In Malaysia, with a current population of 13,250,000 and an annual growth rate of 2.4%, economic development is leading to large scale deforestation which in turn is altering climatic conditions, reducing water supplies, and increasing erosion. According to estimates 750,000 acres of jungle were cleared in the last 10 years. Industrial wastes and domestic sewage discharged into rivers and lakes is endangering marine life and padilands. This is a serious problem, since 70% of the Malaysian population derives the bulk of their protein intake from marine life. Noise and carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas is increasing due to the 15% annual increase in the number of vehicles in the country. These dangers need to be taken into account as continuing efforts are made to increase industrialization in order to provide jobs for the 350,000 unemployed and underemployed youth in the country. Fortunately, government officials in Malaysia are giving consideration to energy, water and oil conservation in formulating development plans and are becoming increasingly aware that population growth and population policies have a direct impact on development planning and environmental pollution.

  3. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  4. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol

  5. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  6. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  7. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then...... to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...... be designed to encourage forms of proxy entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics and the economic theory of the firm, we develop a framework for analysing the trade-off between...

  8. QTL Analysis and Nested Association Mapping for Adult Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Two Bread Wheat Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CIMMYT wheat (Triticum aestivum L. lines Francolin#1 and Quaiu#3 displayed effective and stable adult plant resistance (APR to Chinese Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates in the field. To elucidate their genetic basis of resistance, two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations of their crosses with Avocet, the susceptible parent, were phenotyped in Zhengzhou and Shangqiu in the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 cropping seasons. These populations were also genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and DArT (diversity arrays technology markers. Two common significant quantitative trait loci (QTL on wheat chromosomes 1BL and 4BL were detected in both populations by joint and individual inclusive composite interval mapping, explaining 20.3–28.7% and 9.6–15.9% of the phenotypic variance in Avocet × Francolin#1 and 4.8–11.5% and 10.8–18.9% in Avocet × Quaiu#3, respectively. Additional QTL were mapped on chromosomes 1DL and 5BL in Avocet × Francolin#1 and on 2DL and 6BS in Avocet × Quaiu#3. Among these, QPm.heau-1DL is probably a novel APR gene contributing 6.1–8.5% of total phenotypic variance. The QTL on 1BL corresponds to the pleiotropic multi-pathogen resistance gene Yr29/Lr46/Pm39, whereas the QTL on 2DL maps to a similar region where stripe rust resistance gene Yr54 is located. The QTL identified can potentially be used for the improvement of powdery mildew and rust resistance in wheat breeding.

  9. Mapping of QTLs for Leaf Malondialdehyde Content Associated with Stress Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing JIANG

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Malondialdehyde (MDA is the final product of lipid peroxidation, and MDA content can reflect the stress tolerance of plants. To map QTLs conditioning the MDA content in rice leaves, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population with 247 lines derived from an indica-indica cross Zhenshan 97B×Milyang 46, and a linkage map consisting of 207 DNA markers were used. The RIL population showed a transgressive segregation in the MDA content of rice leaves. Two QTLs for the MDA content in rice leaves were detected in the intervals RG532–RG811 and RG381–RG236 on chromosome 1, with the additive effects from maternal and paternal parents, accounting for 4.33% and 4.62% of phenotype variations, respectively.

  10. bayesPop: Probabilistic Population Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Hana; Raftery, Adrian E.

    2016-01-01

    We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids. An expression language is introduced which allows the user to produce the predictive distribution of a wide variety of derived population quantities, such as the median age or the old age dependency ratio. The package produces aggregated projections for sets of countries, such as UN regions or trading blocs. The methodology has been used by the United Nations to produce their most recent official population projections for all countries, published in the World Population Prospects. PMID:28077933

  11. bayesPop: Probabilistic Population Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ševčíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids. An expression language is introduced which allows the user to produce the predictive distribution of a wide variety of derived population quantities, such as the median age or the old age dependency ratio. The package produces aggregated projections for sets of countries, such as UN regions or trading blocs. The methodology has been used by the United Nations to produce their most recent official population projections for all countries, published in the World Population Prospects.

  12. Multi-population Genomic Relationships for Estimating Current Genetic Variances Within and Genetic Correlations Between Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, Yvonne C J; Bijma, Piter; Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L

    2017-10-01

    Different methods are available to calculate multi-population genomic relationship matrices. Since those matrices differ in base population, it is anticipated that the method used to calculate genomic relationships affects the estimate of genetic variances, covariances, and correlations. The aim of this article is to define the multi-population genomic relationship matrix to estimate current genetic variances within and genetic correlations between populations. The genomic relationship matrix containing two populations consists of four blocks, one block for population 1, one block for population 2, and two blocks for relationships between the populations. It is known, based on literature, that by using current allele frequencies to calculate genomic relationships within a population, current genetic variances are estimated. In this article, we theoretically derived the properties of the genomic relationship matrix to estimate genetic correlations between populations and validated it using simulations. When the scaling factor of across-population genomic relationships is equal to the product of the square roots of the scaling factors for within-population genomic relationships, the genetic correlation is estimated unbiasedly even though estimated genetic variances do not necessarily refer to the current population. When this property is not met, the correlation based on estimated variances should be multiplied by a correction factor based on the scaling factors. In this study, we present a genomic relationship matrix which directly estimates current genetic variances as well as genetic correlations between populations. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  14. Population control II: The population establishment today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1997-01-01

    Although population assistance represents a relatively small share of official development assistance, it influences many other aspects of development planning. The organizations that comprise the population establishment have a common purpose--the reduction of population growth in the Third World--but they are not homogeneous and sometimes have conflicting goals and strategies. National governments, multilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, foundations, academic centers, and pressure groups all contribute to creating and sustaining what has become a virtual population control industry. Through scholarships, travel grants, awards, and favorable publicity, Third World elites have been encouraged to join the population establishment. The World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities have pursued explicit strategies for pressuring Third World governments to design and implement population policies, most recently in Africa.

  15. History of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, James E; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2013-10-01

    Tumour-induced granulocytic hyperplasia is associated with tumour vasculogenesis and escape from immunity via T cell suppression. Initially, these myeloid cells were identified as granulocytes or monocytes; however, recent studies have revealed that this hyperplasia is associated with populations of multipotent progenitor cells that have been identified as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The study of MDSCs has provided a wealth of information regarding tumour pathobiology, has extended our understanding of neoplastic progression and has modified our approaches to immune adjuvant therapy. In this Timeline article, we discuss the history of MDSCs, their influence on tumour progression and metastasis, and the crosstalk between tumour cells, MDSCs and the host macroenvironment.

  16. Simulating Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  17. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  18. Ferroquine and its derivatives: new generation of antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Waseem A; Jameel, Ehtesham; Baig, Umair; Mumtazuddin, Syed; Hun, Lee Ting

    2015-08-28

    Malaria has been teasing human populations from a long time. Presently, several classes of antimalarial drugs are available in market, but the issues of toxicity, lower efficacy and the resistance by malarial parasites have decreased their overall therapeutic indices. Thus, the search for new promising antimalarials continues, however, the battle against malaria is far from over. Ferroquine is a derivative of chloroquine with antimalarial properties. It is the most successful of the chloroquine derivatives. Not only ferroquine, but also its derivatives have shown promising potential as antimalarials of clinical interest. Presently, much research is dedicated to the development of ferroquine derivatives as safe alternatives to antimalarial chemotherapy. The present article describes the structural, chemical and biological features of ferroquine. Several classes of ferroquine derivatives including hydroxyferroquines, trioxaferroquines, chloroquine-bridged ferrocenophanes, thiosemicarbazone derivatives, ferrocene dual conjugates, 4-N-substituted derivatives, and others have been discussed. Besides, the mechanism of action of ferroquine has been discussed. A careful observation has been made into pharmacologically significant ferroquine derivatives with better or equal therapeutic effects to that of chloroquine and ferroquine. A brief discussion of the toxicities of ferroquine derivatives has been made. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the current challenges and future perspectives of ferroquine-based antimalarial drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Derivative spectrophotometry of cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of derivative spectrophotometry is briefly described, and derivative absorption spectra are presented for samarium, cobalt, and commercial Sm-Co alloys. It is shown that the use of derivative spectrophotometry not only improves the accuracy and selectivity of element determinations but also simplifies the analysis of alloys. Results of a statistical evaluation of the metrological characteristics of the analytical procedure described here are presented. 8 references

  20. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of myocardial infarction with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal...... myocardial infarction models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of myocardial infarction, using a fully...... grown non-immunecompromised rat model. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were...

  2. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding. PMID:27242810

  3. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  4. Sunflower resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana is controlled by specific QTLs for different parasitism stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann eLouarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation.In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with H. debilis. Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii young tubercle and (iii shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey and for the three stages of broomrape development.The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  5. Population Education Country Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes population programs in Afghanistan (nonformal, population education literacy program), India (problems in planning/managing population education in higher education), Indonesia (training for secondary/out-of-school inspectors), and Pakistan (integration of population education into school curricula). Programs in China, Korea, Vietnam,…

  6. Why Population in 1974?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Marion

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the impact of world population growth leading to the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and to the declaration of 1974 as World Population Year. Previews some of the parameters and interconnecting interests to be considered during this year of intensive population study. (JR)

  7. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  8. Kinetic Model of Growth of Arthropoda Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Kinetic equations were derived for calculating the growth of crustacean populations ( Crustacea) based on the biological growth model suggested earlier using shrimp ( Caridea) populations as an example. The development cycle of successive stages for populations can be represented in the form of quasi-chemical equations. The kinetic equations that describe the development cycle of crustaceans allow quantitative prediction of the development of populations depending on conditions. In contrast to extrapolation-simulation models, in the developed kinetic model of biological growth the kinetic parameters are the experimental characteristics of population growth. Verification and parametric identification of the developed model on the basis of the experimental data showed agreement with experiment within the error of the measurement technique.

  9. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.A., E-mail: abduladem1@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Fortuna, L., E-mail: lfortuna@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Frasca, M., E-mail: mfrasca@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Rashid, M.T., E-mail: mofid76@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Xibilia, M.G., E-mail: mxibilia@ingegneria.unime.i [DiSIA, Faculty of Engineering, University of Messina (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  10. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.A.; Fortuna, L.; Frasca, M.; Rashid, M.T.; Xibilia, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). → Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. → Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. → Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  11. Regulatory network construction in Arabidopsis by using genome-wide gene expression quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Fu, Jingyuan; Terpstra, Inez R.; Garcia, Juan M.; Ackerveken, Guido van den; Snoek, L. Basten; Peeters, Anton J.M.; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Koornneef, Maarten; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2007-01-01

    Accessions of a plant species can show considerable genetic differences that are analyzed effectively by using recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Here we describe the results of genome-wide expression variation analysis in an RIL population of Arabidopsis thaliana. For many genes, variation

  12. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....

  13. The effects of harvest on waterfowl populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Evan G.; Guillemain, Matthieu; Boomer, G Scott; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Change in the size of populations over space and time is, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change in the abundance is the simple difference between the number of individuals entering the population and the number leaving the population, either or both of which may change in response to factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the population. While harvest of individuals from a population constitutes a clear extrinsic source of removal of individuals, the response of populations to harvest is frequently complex, reflecting an interaction of harvest with one or more population processes. Here we consider the role of these interactions, and factors influencing them, on the effective harvest management of waterfowl populations. We review historical ideas concerning harvest and discuss the relationship(s) between waterfowl life histories and the development and application of population models to inform harvest management. The influence of population structure (age, spatial) on derivation of optimal harvest strategies (with and without explicit consideration of various sources of uncertainty) is considered. In addition to population structure, we discuss how the optimal harvest strategy may be influenced by: 1) patterns of density-dependence in one or more vital rates, and 2) heterogeneity in vital rates among individuals within an age-sex-size class. Although derivation of the optimal harvest strategy for simple population models (with or without structure) is generally straightforward, there are several potential difficulties in application. In particular, uncertainty concerning the population structure at the time of harvest, and the ability to regulate the structure of the harvest itself, are significant complications. We therefore review the evidence of effects of harvest on waterfowl populations. Some of this evidence has

  14. Children and young adults with parents with cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syse A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Astri Syse1, Gjøril B Aas1, Jon H Loge2,31Cancer Registry of Norway, 2Oslo University Hospital, 3University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Today many people are choosing to have children later in life. Additionally, the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools and screening modalities has increased over recent years. Because of these factors, cancer is being diagnosed more frequently during the child-rearing years. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information on families and minor (0–18 years and young adult (YA (19–25 years children experiencing parental cancer is scarce, but this information is vital for healthcare initiatives aimed toward those potentially adversely affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe features of families and minor and YA children affected by parental cancer in a nationwide population.Methods: Complete Norwegian birth cohort data were obtained from national registries. Descriptive prevalence and incidence statistics were collected for parents and minor and YA children. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors likely to influence parental death.Results: Every year around 0.3% of all families with children under the age of 18 years encounter parental cancer, and 3.1% of minors and 8.4% of YAs have a parent who has been diagnosed with cancer. This study found skin, breast, testicular, and colorectal cancers were the most common forms of cancer diagnosed. The sociodemographic features of those affected were fairly similar to those of the general population. One in five children experienced parental death from cancer; parental death was more often paternal than maternal and was most common in parents diagnosed with leukemia or brain, colorectal, and lung tumors. Deaths are uncommon among parents without cancer.Conclusion: Adequate assistance for minor and YA children affected by parental cancer requires knowledge of their number and characteristics. Parental cancer is more common than

  15. EQ-5D Portuguese population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based measure. Normative data can be used as references to analyze the effects of healthcare, determine the burden of disease and enable regional or country comparisons. Population norms for the EQ-5D exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to derive EQ-5D Portuguese population norms. The EQ-5D was applied by phone interview to a random sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 1,500) stratified by age, gender and region. The Portuguese value set was used to derive the EQ-5D index. Mean values were computed by gender and age groups, marital status, educational attainment, region and other variables to obtain the EQ-5D Portuguese norms. Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men. These results are similar to other EQ-5D population health studies. This study provides Portuguese population health-related quality of life data measured by the EQ-5D that can be used as population norms. These norms can be used to inform Portuguese policy makers, health care professionals and researchers in issues related to health care policy and planning and quantification of treatment effects on health status.

  16. Setting population targets for mammals using body mass as a predictor of population persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbers, Jelle P; Santini, Luca; Visconti, Piero; Schipper, Aafke M; Pinto, Cecilia; Rondinini, Carlo; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2017-04-01

    Conservation planning and biodiversity assessments need quantitative targets to optimize planning options and assess the adequacy of current species protection. However, targets aiming at persistence require population-specific data, which limit their use in favor of fixed and nonspecific targets, likely leading to unequal distribution of conservation efforts among species. We devised a method to derive equitable population targets; that is, quantitative targets of population size that ensure equal probabilities of persistence across a set of species and that can be easily inferred from species-specific traits. In our method, we used models of population dynamics across a range of life-history traits related to species' body mass to estimate minimum viable population targets. We applied our method to a range of body masses of mammals, from 2 g to 3825 kg. The minimum viable population targets decreased asymptotically with increasing body mass and were on the same order of magnitude as minimum viable population estimates from species- and context-specific studies. Our approach provides a compromise between pragmatic, nonspecific population targets and detailed context-specific estimates of population viability for which only limited data are available. It enables a first estimation of species-specific population targets based on a readily available trait and thus allows setting equitable targets for population persistence in large-scale and multispecies conservation assessments and planning. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  18. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  19. Chemistry of aliphatic sulfurpentafluoride derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissell, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the literature through 1974 on aliphatic sulfurpentafluoride compounds. Methods of preparation and methods of transforming one pentafluorothio compound into another are briefly discussed. The physical properties of all known derivatives are tabulated

  20. Higher derivatives in gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogilidze, S.A.; Sanadze, V.V.; Tkebuchava, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of appearance of highher derivatives of coordinates in the symmetry transformation law of the second Noether's theorem is established. It is shown that the corresponding transformations are canonical in the extended phase space. 15 refs

  1. Push-outs of derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extension as a limit of operators b ↦→ D(ba) − b.D(a), a ∈ A in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations ...

  2. Elementary derivation of Kepler's laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1995-02-01

    A simple derivation of all three so-called Kepler Laws is presented in which the orbits, bound and unbound, follow directly and immediately from conservation of energy and angular momentum. The intent is to make this crowning achievement of Newtonian Mechanics easily accessible to students in introductory physics courses. The method is also extended to simplify the derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Law. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  3. Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Spamann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...

  4. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reac...

  5. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  6. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  7. Iowa Population Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, John L.; Johnson, Arthur H.

    The trends in population distribution and the composition of Iowa's population are reported in this document in order to provide the leaders and citizens of Iowa with information to assist them in making decisions relating to growth and development. Birth and death rates, rural and urban residence, population by race, and age structure are…

  8. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  9. Stochastic dynamics and logistic population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Assaf, Michael; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner

    2015-06-01

    The Verhulst model is probably the best known macroscopic rate equation in population ecology. It depends on two parameters, the intrinsic growth rate and the carrying capacity. These parameters can be estimated for different populations and are related to the reproductive fitness and the competition for limited resources, respectively. We investigate analytically and numerically the simplest possible microscopic scenarios that give rise to the logistic equation in the deterministic mean-field limit. We provide a definition of the two parameters of the Verhulst equation in terms of microscopic parameters. In addition, we derive the conditions for extinction or persistence of the population by employing either the momentum-space spectral theory or the real-space Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to determine the probability distribution function and the mean time to extinction of the population. Our analytical results agree well with numerical simulations.

  10. A Caputo fractional derivative of a function with respect to another function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we consider a Caputo type fractional derivative with respect to another function. Some properties, like the semigroup law, a relationship between the fractional derivative and the fractional integral, Taylor's Theorem, Fermat's Theorem, etc., are studied. Also, a numerical method to deal with such operators, consisting in approximating the fractional derivative by a sum that depends on the first-order derivative, is presented. Relying on examples, we show the efficiency and applicability of the method. Finally, an application of the fractional derivative, by considering a Population Growth Model, and showing that we can model more accurately the process using different kernels for the fractional operator is provided.

  11. The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus Duméril and Duméril 1851): A Model for Studying Reptile Body Plan Development and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Raul E; Anderson, Christopher V; Baumann, Diana P; Kupronis, Richard; Jewell, David; Piraquive, Christina; Kupronis, Jill; Winter, Kristy; Bertocchini, Federica; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Vertebrate model organisms have facilitated the discovery and exploration of morphogenetic events and developmental pathways that underpin normal and pathological embryological events. In contrast to amniotes such as Mus musculus (Mammalia) and Gallus gallus (Aves), our understanding of early patterning and developmental events in reptiles (particularly nonavians) remains weak. Squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) comprise approximately one-third of all living amniotes. But studies of early squamate development have been limited because, in most members of this lineage, embryo development at the time of oviposition is very advanced (limb bud stages and older). In many cases, squamates give birth to fully developed offspring. However, in the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus), embryos have progressed only to a primitive pregastrula stage at the time of oviposition. Furthermore, the body plan of the veiled chameleon is highly specialized for climbing in an arboreal environment. It possesses an entire suite of skeletal and soft anatomical modifications, including cranioskeletal ornamentation, lingual anatomy and biomechanics for projection, autopodial clefting for grasping, adaptations for rapid integumental color changes, a prehensile tail with a lack of caudal autotomy, the loss of the tympanum in the middle ear, and the acquisition of turreted eyes. Thus, C. calyptratus is an important model organism for studying the role of ecological niche specialization, as well as genetic and morphological evolution within an adaptive framework. More importantly, this species is easily bred in captivity, with only a small colony (<10 individuals) needed to obtain hundreds of embryos every year. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  13. Do measures matter? Comparing surface-density-derived and census-tract-derived measures of racial residential segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Lance A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial residential segregation is hypothesized to affect population health by systematically patterning health-relevant exposures and opportunities according to individuals' race or income. Growing interest into the association between residential segregation and health disparities demands more rigorous appraisal of commonly used measures of segregation. Most current studies rely on census tracts as approximations of the local residential environment when calculating segregation indices of either neighborhoods or metropolitan areas. Because census tracts are arbitrary in size and shape, reliance on this geographic scale limits understanding of place-health associations. More flexible, explicitly spatial derivations of traditional segregation indices have been proposed but have not been compared with tract-derived measures in the context of health disparities studies common to social epidemiology, health demography, or medical geography. We compared segregation measured with tract-derived as well as GIS surface-density-derived indices. Measures were compared by region and population size, and segregation measures were linked to birth record to estimate the difference in association between segregation and very preterm birth. Separate analyses focus on metropolitan segregation and on neighborhood segregation. Results Across 231 metropolitan areas, tract-derived and surface-density-derived segregation measures are highly correlated. However overall correlation obscures important differences by region and metropolitan size. In general the discrepancy between measure types is greatest for small metropolitan areas, declining with increasing population size. Discrepancies in measures are greatest in the South, and smallest in Western metropolitan areas. Choice of segregation index changed the magnitude of the measured association between segregation and very preterm birth. For example among black women, the risk ratio for very

  14. Waste derived bioeconomy in India: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Venkata Mohan; P, Chiranjeevi; Dahiya, Shikha; A, Naresh Kumar

    2018-01-25

    Environmental and climatic change issues, population explosion, rapid urbanisation, depletion of fossil reserves, need for energy security, huge waste generation, etc. are some of the inherent issues associated with the fossil based linear economy which need greater attention. In this context, the world is gradually transforming from fossil-based economy to a sustainable circular bio-economy. The biogenic waste which is generated in enormous quanties in India can be considered as potential feedstock for structuring the bio-based economy. This communication depicts the need for developing waste derived bioeconomy in the Indian perspective. Waste is now being perceived as a resource with value and believed to supplement petroleum feedstock to a great extent if properly utilized. The necessity to introduce waste as the core element for the future economic models which also allows sustainable development is discussed. The review also establishes drivers for the bioeconomy and structures the waste derived bioeconomy in a sustainable format to address the futuristic needs, scope and opportunities envisaged in the business and economic realm. The enabling technologies/processes that can be applied for biogenic wastes valorisation are elaborated. Circularizing the economy in a waste biorefinery model for the production of biobased products including bioenergy is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intercoalescence time distribution of incomplete gene genealogies in temporally varying populations, and applications in population genetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua

    2013-03-01

    Tracing back to a specific time T in the past, the genealogy of a sample of haplotypes may not have reached their common ancestor and may leave m lineages extant. For such an incomplete genealogy truncated at a specific time T in the past, the distribution and expectation of the intercoalescence times conditional on T are derived in an exact form in this paper for populations of deterministically time-varying sizes, specifically, for populations growing exponentially. The derived intercoalescence time distribution can be integrated to the coalescent-based joint allele frequency spectrum (JAFS) theory, and is useful for population genetic inference from large-scale genomic data, without relying on computationally intensive approaches, such as importance sampling and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The inference of several important parameters relying on this derived conditional distribution is demonstrated: quantifying population growth rate and onset time, and estimating the number of ancestral lineages at a specific ancient time. Simulation studies confirm validity of the derivation and statistical efficiency of the methods using the derived intercoalescence time distribution. Two examples of real data are given to show the inference of the population growth rate of a European sample from the NIEHS Environmental Genome Project, and the number of ancient lineages of 31 mitochondrial genomes from Tibetan populations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  16. Molecular Population Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data. Copyright © 2017 Casillas and Barbadilla.

  17. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  18. Peru: population and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  19. Analysis of the activation profile of dendritic cells derived from the bone marrow of interleukin-12/interleukin-23-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Karina R B; de Deus Vieira de Moraes, Luciana; Zago, Cláudia A; Marinho, Cláudio R F; Russo, Momtchilo; Alvarez, José M M; D'Império Lima, Maria R

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that macrophages from interleukin (IL)-12p40 gene knockout (IL-12/IL-23−/−) mice have a bias towards the M2 activation profile, spontaneously secreting large quantities of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and producing low levels of nitric oxide (NO) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). To verify whether the activation profile of dendritic cells (DCs) is also influenced by the absence of IL-12/IL-23, bone marrow-derived DCs from IL-12/IL-23−/− and C57BL/6 mice were evaluated. At first we noticed that ≈ 50% of the C57BL/6 DCs were dead after LPS-induced maturation, whereas the mortality of IL-12/IL-23−/− DCs was < 10%, a protective effect that diminished when recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) was added during maturation. Similarly to macrophages, mature IL-12/IL-23−/− DCs (mDCs) produced higher levels of TGF-β1 and lower levels of NO than C57BL/6 mDCs. NO release was IFN-γ-dependent, as evidenced by the poor response of IFN-γ−/− and IL-12/IL-23−/−IFN-γ−/− mDCs. Nevertheless, IFN-γ deficiency was not the sole reason for the weak NO response observed in the absence of IL-12/IL-23. The high level of TGF-β1 secretion by IL-12/IL-23−/− mDCs could explain why exogenous IFN-γ partially restored the NO production of IFN-γ−/− mDCs, while IL-12/IL-23−/− IFN-γ−/− mDCs remained unresponsive. We also showed that CD4+ T-cell proliferation was inhibited by C57BL/6 mDCs, but not by IL-12/IL-23−/− mDCs. IFN-γ and NO appear to mediate this antiproliferative effect because this effect was not observed in the presence of mDCs from IFN-γ−/− or IL-12/IL-23−/− IFN-γ−/− mice and it was attenuated by aminoguanidine. We conclude that the presence of IL-12/IL-23 during LPS-induced maturation influences the activation profile of DCs by a mechanism that is, only in part, IFN-γ dependent. PMID:15804287

  20. Platelet-derived stromal cell-derived factor-1 is required for the transformation of circulating monocytes into multipotential cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Seta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously described a primitive cell population derived from human circulating CD14(+ monocytes, named monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs, which are capable of differentiating into mesenchymal and endothelial lineages. To generate MOMCs in vitro, monocytes are required to bind to fibronectin and be exposed to soluble factor(s derived from circulating CD14(- cells. The present study was conducted to identify factors that induce MOMC differentiation. METHODS: We cultured CD14(+ monocytes on fibronectin in the presence or absence of platelets, CD14(- peripheral blood mononuclear cells, platelet-conditioned medium, or candidate MOMC differentiation factors. The transformation of monocytes into MOMCs was assessed by the presence of spindle-shaped adherent cells, CD34 expression, and the potential to differentiate in vitro into mesenchymal and endothelial lineages. RESULTS: The presence of platelets or platelet-conditioned medium was required to generate MOMCs from monocytes. A screening of candidate platelet-derived soluble factors identified stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1 as a requirement for generating MOMCs. Blocking an interaction between SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 inhibited MOMC generation, further confirming SDF-1's critical role in this process. Finally, circulating MOMC precursors were found to reside in the CD14(+CXCR4(high cell population. CONCLUSION: The interaction of SDF-1 with CXCR4 is essential for the transformation of circulating monocytes into MOMCs.

  1. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size Neq) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R0, λ or Neq) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R0 showed the lowest EDR10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h(-1) in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h(-1) in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h(-1) in fish to 12,000 μGy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h(-1) in mammals to 1800 μGy h(-1) in

  2. Anisotropic inflation with derivative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jonathan; Kanno, Sugumi; Zavala, Ivonne

    2018-05-01

    We study anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when the inflaton and its derivative couple to a vector field. This type of coupling is motivated by D-brane inflationary models, in which the inflaton, and a vector field living on the D-brane, couple disformally (derivatively). We start by studying a phenomenological model where we show the existence of anisotropic solutions and demonstrate their stability via a dynamical system analysis. Compared to the case without a derivative coupling, the anisotropy is reduced and thus can be made consistent with current limits, while the value of the slow-roll parameter remains almost unchanged. We also discuss solutions for more general cases, including D-brane-like couplings.

  3. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  4. Diversity of Poissonian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Sokolov, Igor M

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations-Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson's index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon's entropy and Rényi's entropy, and Gini's index.

  5. Synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanoi, V.N.; Aleksandrov, A.M.; Kukhar', V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the synthesis and properties of 2-phosphadamantane derivatives. For the synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives they decided to use the methodology of the synthesis of 2-thiaadamantane. The IR spectra were determined on CHCl 3 solutions with a Specord 711R spectrometer, the PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-467 (60 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (200 MHz) spectrometers, external standard hexamethyldisiloxane, the 31 P NMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487 C (30 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (81 MHz) spectrometers, external standard 85% phosphoric acid, and the mass spectra were determined on an MS-1302 spectrometer

  6. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...... quantities of interest. To be able to utilise the evidence about the derivative it is suggested to adapt the ‘conventional’ problem statement to variational calculus and the way to do so is demonstrated. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....

  7. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  8. Analytical application of derivative spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA M. STEFANOVIC

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Basic characteristics of derivative spectrophotometry 2.1. Increase of spectra resolution 2.2. Elimination of the influence of baseline shift and matrix interferences 2.3. Enhancement of the detectability of minor spectral features 2.4. Precise determination of the positions of absorption maxima 2.5. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 2.6. Quantitative analysis 3. Analytical applications 3.1. Inorganic analysis 3.2. Organic and pharmaceutical analysis 3.3. Analysis of food and water 3.4. Application of derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of equilibrium constants

  9. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  10. Estimation of population mean under systematic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor-ul-amin, Muhammad; Javaid, Amjad

    2017-11-01

    In this study we propose a generalized ratio estimator under non-response for systematic random sampling. We also generate a class of estimators through special cases of generalized estimator using different combinations of coefficients of correlation, kurtosis and variation. The mean square errors and mathematical conditions are also derived to prove the efficiency of proposed estimators. Numerical illustration is included using three populations to support the results.

  11. AIDS and population "control".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, G

    1994-02-01

    Many people believe that the AIDS pandemic will end the population explosion, especially in Africa, where population growth is very high and poverty reigns. Africans make up 10 million of all 15 million HIV- infected persons worldwide. Yet, the proposition that AIDS will sole population explosion does not stand up to reason. About 200 million people in Africa will be HIV infected by 2010, but the loss of 200 million people would not slow population growth. The 14th century's Black Death killed more than 50% of the European population, but by 1750 Europe had reached the population size it would have reached without the Black Death. The 200 million people who died violent deaths between the start and end of the two World Wars did not stop world population growth from peaking in 1970 at about 2%. When Malthus made his prediction that human population would crash, the industrial revolution had already helped production outrun population growth. Today all industrial countries are either at or near zero population growth and have completed the demographic transition (from near zero growth in 1600 with high births and death rates and a 25-year life expectancy, to near zero growth in 1990s at low death and birth rates with a 75-year life expectancy). Mass education, sanitation, primary medicine, and the green revolution have already reduced death rates and increased life expectancy in developing countries. Thus, they have entered the first phase of the demographic transition. Some developing countries are in the second phase; birth rate decline For example, in India and China, fertility has fallen from 6 to 4 in India and is at 2.3 in China. The AIDS pandemic is a diversion of physical and human resources from helping developing countries pass through the demographic transition more quickly to achieve sustainable development. This delay is likely to effect a larger maximum population. The industrial revolution has shifted the key to stopping population growth the people

  12. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    relationship of population size of origin and destination countries inverse to the distance traveled between the locations to calculate an attraction for a...provinces). 2) IDP camps will attract no more than ~30% of the IDP population. 3) More IDPs reside in paid accommodations than any other type of...CAA-2015098 ii (3) IDP camps will attract no more than ~30% of the IDP population. (4) More IDPs reside in paid accommodations than in any

  13. The population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterc, S; Crkvencic, I

    1996-04-01

    The authors examine historical and current population dynamics in Croatia. "The demographic structure of Croatia indicates a series of specificities which were primarily conditioned by the historical development of Croatia and which is particularly expressed in constant emigration since the end of the nineteenth century, the relatively large direct and indirect losses to the population during and immediately after the First and Second World Wars, emigration as a type of population movement in all inter-census periods after 1945, the appearance of a natural decline and the aging of the population on almost one half of the state territory." excerpt

  14. [Population and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanon Romo, R; Sandoval Navarrete, J

    1996-01-01

    This broad survey of the debate concerning the relationship between population growth and economic development discusses the history and current status of world population growth, summarizes several influential theoretical positions on the topic, and proposes that redefinition of women's social role is indispensable if worldwide control of population growth is to be achieved. The introductory section discusses the acceleration of population growth in the second half of the 20th century and the increasing concentration of growth in the poor and developing countries. The positions of those who see in population control a means of promoting economic development and political stability are contrasted to the positions of those who believe that a large and growing population is the key to achieving economic and political progress. The international community, facing great uncertainty about the size, distribution, and well-being of the future world population, is increasingly concerned about the effect of growing numbers on the environment and natural resources. The second section summarizes the works of Malthus, Julian Simon, and the Club of Rome, and analyzes the propositions of demographic transition theory. The conclusion notes that despite uncertainty about the future of world population, development, and health, most of the poorest countries have become aware of the desirability of slowing population growth. A broad redefinition of the social role of women will inevitably accompany the worldwide demographic transition.

  15. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, S

    1989-03-01

    This speech on the life and work of Rafael Salas, who had been the first executive director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and who contributed immensely to global awareness of population as a vital issue, inaugurated the Rafael M. Salas Lecture Series at the UN. Salas was concerned with individual rights and socioeconomic development while maintaining a balance between population and the environment. He built a large multinational assistance program for population activities and increased funding from $2.5 million in 1969 to $175 million to support 2500 projects in 130 developing countries. He organized both the 1974 World Population Conference and the 1984 International Conference on Population. In developing countries malnutrition and poverty are intertwined, lowering productivity and making people prone to diseases. Infant and child mortality rises with the malnutrition of mothers, therefore campaigns modelled after the postwar Japanese efforts are needed to improve nutrition, to train dietitians, and to introduce school lunch programs. Population stabilization could also be achieved in developing countries by raising income levels, although in Latin American countries birth rates have stayed the same despite increasing income. Direct measures are effective in reducing the birth rate: primary school education, increased income, improved nutrition, decline in infant mortality, higher status of women, and decisive governmental population policy. The Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth predicted that sometime in the 21st century a sudden decline in both population and industrial capacity will be reached at the present growth trends.

  16. derivatives: Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cal activity study revealed that all compounds showed promising activities and bis-(1H-2-benzopyran-1-one) derivatives (5) ...... A and Galvez J 2004 Planta Med. 70 315. 6. ... Ante N, Erik De C, Jan B and Mladen M 2011 Molecules. 16 6023.

  17. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new, simple, rapid, wide applicable range and reliable second derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cyclophosphamide (CP) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Calibration graph is linear in the concentration range of 25 - 200 μg/ml of CP with 10 μg/ml of detection limit and ...

  18. Hypoxanthine Derivatives in Experimental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio De Simone

    1992-01-01

    ability of ST 789 to increase interleukin-6 production, suggest that monocyte/macrophages are likely to be the main cellular target of the immunomodulating activity of ST 789. Finally, in the presentln vivo study, hypoxanthine derivatives did not enhance the mean survival time of tumour-bearing immunosuppressed mice.

  19. Radiological protection optimization using derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Acosta Perez, C. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a different approach related to the integral cost-benefit and extended cost-benefit analysis used in the decision-aiding techniques. In the ICRP publication 55 the annual protection cost is envisaged as a set of points, each of them representing an option, linked by a straight line. The detriment cost function is considered a linear function whose angular coefficient is determined by the alpha value. In this paper the uranium mine example considered in the ICRP publication 55 was used. But the potential curve was introduced both in the integral cost benefit analysis and in the extended cost-benefit analysis, which the individual dose distribution attribute is added. The result was obtained using derivatives. The detriment cost, Y, is not necessary because the alpha value is known. The Y derivative dS/dY is the alpha value itself and so, the attention is directed to the derivative -dX/dS on the points that, along with the alpha value, present the optimum option. The results makes clear that the prevailing factor in the optimum option selection is the alpha value imputed, and those a single alpha value, as suggested now, probably as little efficiency on the optimization process. Obtaining a curve for the alpha value and using the derivative technique introduced in this paper, the analytical solution is more convenient and reliable compared to the one used now. (authors)

  20. Alchemical derivatives of reaction energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Daniel; Henkelman, Graeme; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2010-08-01

    Based on molecular grand canonical ensemble density functional theory, we present a theoretical description of how reaction barriers and enthalpies change as atoms in the system are subjected to alchemical transformations, from one element into another. The change in the energy barrier for the umbrella inversion of ammonia is calculated along an alchemical path in which the molecule is transformed into water, and the change in the enthalpy of protonation for methane is calculated as the molecule is transformed into a neon atom via ammonia, water, and hydrogen fluoride. Alchemical derivatives are calculated analytically from the electrostatic potential in the unperturbed system, and compared to numerical derivatives calculated with finite difference interpolation of the pseudopotentials for the atoms being transformed. Good agreement is found between the analytical and numerical derivatives. Alchemical derivatives are also shown to be predictive for integer changes in atomic numbers for oxygen binding to a 79 atom palladium nanoparticle, illustrating their potential use in gradient-based optimization algorithms for the rational design of catalysts.

  1. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  2. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemn

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... olanzapine in pharmaceutical formulation.Int.J.ChemTech. Res.2(1):756-761. Stanisz B, Paszun S, Lesniak M (2009). Validation of UV derivative spectrophotometric method for determination of benazepril hydrochloride in tablets and evaluation of its stability.ActaPoloniaePharmaceutica-Drug Research.

  3. Novel bisstyryl derivatives of bakuchiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Mallepally V; Thota, Niranjan; Sangwan, Payare L

    2010-01-01

    Novel bisstyryl derivatives of bakuchiol using Heck coupling reaction as the key step were synthesized and screened against a panel of six oral cavity pathogens for their antimicrobial activity. Four compounds (9-12) showed two to fourfold and four to eightfold better activity (MIC 0.25-16 microg...

  4. Push-outs of derivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Let A be a Banach algebra and let X be a Banach A-bimodule. In studying H¹(A,X) it is often useful to extend a given derivation D: A->X to a Banach algebra B containing A as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approx...

  5. Asymptotic aspect of derivations in Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiok Roh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove that every approximate linear left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra is continuous. Also, we consider linear derivations on Banach algebras and we first study the conditions for a linear derivation on a Banach algebra. Then we examine the functional inequalities related to a linear derivation and their stability. We finally take central linear derivations with radical ranges on semiprime Banach algebras and a continuous linear generalized left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra.

  6. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-12-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.

  7. Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovsky, Oleg

    2017-08-01

    Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.

  8. Population. Headline Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Valerie K.

    Useful as background reading or secondary classroom material, this pamphlet reviews several dimensions of world population growth and control. The first of seven chapters, World Population Growth: Past, Present and Future, discusses some of the reasons for the greatly accelerated growth since 1950, and points out that even significantly rapid…

  9. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  10. Why Population Matters, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Action International, Washington, DC.

    Population growth around the world affects Americans through its impact on economy, environment, safety, and health, and the condition of the world children will inherit. The cumulative evidence is strong that current rates of population growth pose significant and interacting risks to human well-being and are a legitimate concern for Americans.…

  11. The World Population Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This book is the third in a series published by the Population Reference Bureau aimed at illuminating the facts and consequences of human population dynamics for secondary and college-age students. Many illustrations, charts and graphs are included in this volume to help the reader grasp a number of the current ideas and concepts that are used in…

  12. Aggregate Social Discount Rate Derived from Individual Discount Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth F. Reinschmidt

    2002-01-01

    In the economic evaluation of large public-sector projects, an aggregate social discount rate may be used in present worth comparison of alternatives. This paper uses the assumptions that individual discount rates are constant over time and approximately Normally distributed across the affected population, with mean \\mu and variance \\sigma 2 , to derive an aggregate discount function that is exponential in form but with time-dependent aggregate discount rate \\rho (t) = \\mu - \\sigma 2 t/2, whe...

  13. Rapid evolution leads to differential population dynamics and top-down control in resurrected Daphnia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitom, Eyerusalem; Kilsdonk, Laurens J; Brans, Kristien; Jansen, Mieke; Lemmens, Pieter; De Meester, Luc

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence of rapid genetic adaptation of natural populations to environmental change, opening the perspective that evolutionary trait change may subsequently impact ecological processes such as population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. To study such eco-evolutionary feedbacks in natural populations, however, requires samples across time. Here, we capitalize on a resurrection ecology study that documented rapid and adaptive evolution in a natural population of the water flea Daphnia magna in response to strong changes in predation pressure by fish, and carry out a follow-up mesocosm experiment to test whether the observed genetic changes influence population dynamics and top-down control of phytoplankton. We inoculated populations of the water flea D. magna derived from three time periods of the same natural population known to have genetically adapted to changes in predation pressure in replicate mesocosms and monitored both Daphnia population densities and phytoplankton biomass in the presence and absence of fish. Our results revealed differences in population dynamics and top-down control of algae between mesocosms harboring populations from the time period before, during, and after a peak in fish predation pressure caused by human fish stocking. The differences, however, deviated from our a priori expectations. An S-map approach on time series revealed that the interactions between adults and juveniles strongly impacted the dynamics of populations and their top-down control on algae in the mesocosms, and that the strength of these interactions was modulated by rapid evolution as it occurred in nature. Our study provides an example of an evolutionary response that fundamentally alters the processes structuring population dynamics and impacts ecosystem features.

  14. Calculating evolutionary dynamics in structured populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G Nathanson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolution is shaping the world around us. At the core of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The outcome of an evolutionary process depends on population structure. Here we provide a general formula for calculating evolutionary dynamics in a wide class of structured populations. This class includes the recently introduced "games in phenotype space" and "evolutionary set theory." There can be local interactions for determining the relative fitness of individuals, but we require global updating, which means all individuals compete uniformly for reproduction. We study the competition of two strategies in the context of an evolutionary game and determine which strategy is favored in the limit of weak selection. We derive an intuitive formula for the structure coefficient, sigma, and provide a method for efficient numerical calculation.

  15. Statistical dynamics of regional populations and economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Hao, Rui; Wang, Peng

    Quantitative analysis of human behavior and social development is becoming a hot spot of some interdisciplinary studies. A statistical analysis on the population and GDP of 150 cities in China from 1990 to 2013 is conducted. The result indicates the cumulative probability distribution of the populations and that of the GDPs obeying the shifted power law, respectively. In order to understand these characteristics, a generalized Langevin equation describing variation of population is proposed, which is based on the correlations between population and GDP as well as the random fluctuations of the related factors. The equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation to express the evolution of population distribution. The general solution demonstrates a transition of the distribution from the normal Gaussian distribution to a shifted power law, which suggests a critical point of time at which the transition takes place. The shifted power law distribution in the supercritical situation is qualitatively in accordance with the practical result. The distribution of the GDPs is derived from the well-known Cobb-Douglas production function. The result presents a change, in supercritical situation, from a shifted power law to the Gaussian distribution. This is a surprising result-the regional GDP distribution of our world will be the Gaussian distribution one day in the future. The discussions based on the changing trend of economic growth suggest it will be true. Therefore, these theoretical attempts may draw a historical picture of our society in the aspects of population and economy.

  16. Population structure of the Classic period Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Andrew K

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the population structure of Classic period (A.D. 250-900) Maya populations through analysis of odontometric variation of 827 skeletons from 12 archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The hypothesis that isolation by distance characterized Classic period Maya population structure is tested using Relethford and Blangero's (Hum Biol 62 (1990) 5-25) approach to R matrix analysis for quantitative traits. These results provide important biological data for understanding ancient Maya population history, particularly the effects of the competing Tikal and Calakmul hegemonies on patterns of lowland Maya site interaction. An overall F(ST) of 0.018 is found for the Maya area, indicating little among-group variation for the Classic Maya sites tested. Principal coordinates plots derived from the R matrix analysis show little regional patterning in the data, though the geographic outliers of Kaminaljuyu and a pooled Pacific Coast sample did not cluster with the lowland Maya sites. Mantel tests comparing the biological distance matrix to a geographic distance matrix found no association between genetic and geographic distance. In the Relethford-Blangero analysis, most sites possess negative or near-zero residuals, indicating minimal extraregional gene flow. The exceptions were Barton Ramie, Kaminaljuyu, and Seibal. A scaled R matrix analysis clarifies that genetic drift is a consideration for understanding Classic Maya population structure. All results indicate that isolation by distance does not describe Classic period Maya population structure. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Fluctuations in a coupled population model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, E; Hopcraft, K I; Matthews, J O

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a discrete Markov process in which the immigration of individuals into one population is controlled by the fluctuations in another. We examine the effect of coupling back the second population to the first through a similar mechanism and derive exact solutions for the generating functions of the population statistics. We show that a stationary state exists over a certain parameter range and obtain expressions for moments and correlation functions in this regime. When more than two populations are coupled, cyclically transient oscillations and periodic behaviour of correlation functions are predicted. We demonstrate that if the initial distribution of either population is stable, or more generally has a power-law tail that falls off like N -(1+α) (0 < α < 1), then for certain parameter values there exists a stationary state that is also power law but not stable. This stationary state cannot be accessed from a single multiple immigrant population model, but arises solely from the nonlinear interaction of the coupled system

  18. Skeletal Muscle-derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Muscular Dystrophy Therapy by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Asakura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    For postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle, satellite cells, a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells, give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells that contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. In addition to this key myogenic cell class, adult skeletal muscle also contains hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell populations which can be purified as a side population (SP) fraction or as a hematopoietic marker CD45-positive cell population. These muscle-derived he...

  19. Optimal management of non-Markovian biological populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wildlife populations typically are described by Markovian models, with population dynamics influenced at each point in time by current but not previous population levels. Considerable work has been done on identifying optimal management strategies under the Markovian assumption. In this paper we generalize this work to non-Markovian systems, for which population responses to management are influenced by lagged as well as current status and/or controls. We use the maximum principle of optimal control theory to derive conditions for the optimal management such a system, and illustrate the effects of lags on the structure of optimal habitat strategies for a predator-prey system.

  20. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  1. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  2. Expression variation in connected recombinant populations of Arabidopsis thaliana highlights distinct transcriptome architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos Francisco A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression traits can vary quantitatively between individuals and have a complex inheritance. Identification of the genetics underlying transcript variation can help in the understanding of phenotypic variation due to genetic factors regulating transcript abundance and shed light into divergence patterns. So far, only a limited number of studies have addressed this subject in Arabidopsis, with contrasting results due to dissimilar statistical power. Here, we present the transcriptome architecture in leaf tissue of two RIL sets obtained from a connected-cross design involving 3 commonly used accessions. We also present the transcriptome architecture observed in developing seeds of a third independent cross. Results The utilisation of the novel R/eqtl package (which goal is to automatize and extend functions from the R/qtl package allowed us to map 4,290 and 6,534 eQTLs in the Cvi-0 × Col-0 and Bur-0 × Col-0 recombinant populations respectively. In agreement with previous studies, we observed a larger phenotypic variance explained by eQTLs in linkage with the controlled gene (potentially cis-acting, compared to distant loci (acting necessarily indirectly or in trans. Distant eQTLs hotspots were essentially not conserved between crosses, but instead, cross-specific. Accounting for confounding factors using a probabilistic approach (VBQTL increased the mapping resolution and the number of significant associations. Moreover, using local eQTLs obtained from this approach, we detected evidence for a directional allelic effect in genes with related function, where significantly more eQTLs than expected by chance were up-regulated from one of the accessions. Primary experimental data, analysis parameters, eQTL results and visualisation of LOD score curves presented here are stored and accessible through the QTLstore service database http://qtlstore.versailles.inra.fr/. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the extensive diversity and

  3. Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symon, K.R.

    1997-09-12

    In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.

  4. Population health state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    General conception on the Chernobyl accident effect on the human health (persons took part in the emergency response, children and adults in the Chernobyl region as a whole) is given. Pattern of population disease incidence in the whole region was compared with that of contaminated regions in Russia. New method for assessment of population disease incidence in the contaminated zones due to the Chernobyl accident is proposed taking into account low dose radiation effects, territory ecological difference, medical-demographic unhomogeneity of the population and personal instability. Methods of complex mathematical analysis were used. Data on the Tula region are presented as an example. 17 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  6. Predation and caribou populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  7. Part II. Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  8. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like amoption based on gold, when national currency has a great float.Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  9. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative classification... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4...

  10. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  11. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  12. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  13. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  14. Market Squid Population Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...

  15. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  16. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  17. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  18. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  19. Measuring Population Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, R. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    An ideal population health outcome metric should reflect a population's dynamic state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Positive health outcomes include being alive; functioning well mentally, physically, and socially; and having a sense of well-being. Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being. In contrast to these health outcomes, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors that influence the likelihood of achieving a state of health. On the basis...

  20. Development trends of the international derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...

  1. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  2. Perspectives on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Assume that everyone has the same information on population growth. There are many different opinions on what that information means and what should be done about it. Some people worry about current rates of growth, especially in the context of growing per capita consumption, and believe that all reasonable steps should be taken to reduce rates and stabilize population size. Others believe that growing populations can be accommodated by reducing consumption in rich countries, that technological progress will supply the new resources needed, that the development needed to support a larger population can be sustained, that large population size fosters prosperity, or that birth rates are falling and current growth is just temporary. These are all valid positions worthy of at least debate. Interest groups commonly acknowledgement population growth as a significant issue, but offer no response to it. Sometimes the issue goes unrecognized because it conflicts with a more highly valued personal agenda item. Finally, some responses come from confusion and anger rather than reasoning or self-interest. The proponents of these latter arguments bring nothing constructive to the debate.

  3. Earliness per se QTLs and their interaction with the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a in the Cutler × AC Barrie spring wheat population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, A; Iqbal, M; Navabi, A; Randhawa, H; Pozniak, C; Spaner, D

    2013-08-01

    Earliness per se regulates flowering time independent of environmental signals and helps to fine tune the time of flowering and maturity. In this study, we aimed to map earliness per se quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting days to flowering and maturity in a population developed by crossing two spring wheat cultivars, Cutler and AC Barrie. The population of 177 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was genotyped for a total of 488 SSR and DArT polymorphic markers on all 21 chromosomes. Three QTLs of earliness per se affecting days to flowering and maturity were mapped on chromosomes 1B (QEps.dms-1B1 and QEps.dms-1B2) and 5B (QEps.dms-5B1), in individual environments and when all the environments were combined. A QTL affecting flowering time (QFlt.dms-4A1) was identified on chromosome 4A. Two grain yield QTLs were mapped on chromosome 5B, while one QTL was mapped on chromosome 1D. The population segregated for the photoperiod insensitive gene, Ppd-D1a, and it induced earlier flowering by 0.69 days and maturity by 1.28 days. The photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a interacted in an additive fashion with QTLs for flowering and maturity times. The earliness per se QTL QFlt.dms-5B.1 inducing earlier flowering could help to elongate grain filling duration for higher grain yield. Hence, chromosome 5B possesses promising genomic regions that may be introgressed for higher grain yield with earlier maturity through marker-assisted selection in bread wheat.

  4. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H.; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R_0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size N_e_q) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R_0, λ or N_e_q) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R_0 showed the lowest EDR_1_0 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h"−"1 in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h"−"1 in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR_1_0 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR_1_0 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h"−"1 in fish to 12,000 μGy h"−"1 in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h"−"1

  5. Stellar population synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The techniques used to derive astrophysically useful information from observations of the integrated light of composite stellar systems are briefly reviewed. A synthesis technique, designed to separate and describe on a standard system the competing effects of age and metallicity variations is introduced, and illustrated by its application to the study of the history of star formation in bright elliptical galaxies in clusters. (author)

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Resorcinol derivatives from Ardisia maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Wu, Feng-E

    2007-01-01

    Besides a series of known sterols and triterpenoids, a new resorcinol (1) and a known resorcinol (2) have been isolated from ethanol extract of Ardisia maculosa for the first time. The structures of these resorcinol derivatives were elucidated as 2-methyl-5-(Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol and 5-Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol by HRESI-MS, NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC) experiments. In our in vitro assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed no antimicrobial activities, however, compound 2 exhibited cytotoxity activity against human cancer cell line with GI(50) value of 2.14 x 10(- 4) mmol/ml.

  8. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) recently organized a workshop to develop an analytical framework for population research and development planning. The workshop goal was to enable study directors to review and discuss research methodology and guidelines for a series of country studies to be undertaken as part of a large project devoted to integrating population and development. The overall project objective is to provide individual national entities with current and scientifically sound descriptions, analyses, and interpretations of significant population and development trends and their interrelationships along with assessments of the implications of such trends and relationships for the formulation and improvement of public policy. 1 reason for the limited progress in the integration of population and development planning is the lack of useful and applicable scientific information for responsible planners as well as a lack of analytical frameworks. If the results of the research are to be made useful for decisionmaking purposes, processing of the information is required. The need exists for current critical analysis and synthesis of available information at the country level on significant population and development trends and their interrelationships and an assessment of their implications for the formulation and improvement of public policy and programs. In regard to an analytical framework, much work has been done in the areas of population development interrelationships and their modelling. Bangladesh, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand are the countries which have been selected for investigation for the ESCAP project. The comparative analysis that is to be conducted will facilitate understanding of current population development research activities and the future needs of these countries.

  9. Population and prehistory I: Food-dependent population growth in constant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2008-06-01

    We present a demographic model that describes the feedbacks between food supply, human mortality and fertility rates, and labor availability in expanding populations, where arable land area is not limiting. This model provides a quantitative framework to describe how environment, technology, and culture interact to influence the fates of preindustrial agricultural populations. We present equilibrium conditions and derive approximations for the equilibrium population growth rate, food availability, and other food-dependent measures of population well-being. We examine how the approximations respond to environmental changes and to human choices, and find that the impact of environmental quality depends upon whether it manifests through agricultural yield or maximum (food-independent) survival rates. Human choices can complement or offset environmental effects: greater labor investments increase both population growth and well-being, and therefore can counteract lower agricultural yield, while fertility control decreases the growth rate but can increase or decrease well-being. Finally we establish equilibrium stability criteria, and argue that the potential for loss of local stability at low population growth rates could have important consequences for populations that suffer significant environmental or demographic shocks.

  10. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially

  11. Using the UK reference population Avalon × Cadenza as a platform to compare breeding strategies in elite Western European bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Wingen, Luzie U; Orford, Simon; Fenwick, Paul; Wang, Jiankang; Griffiths, Simon

    Wheat breeders select for qualitative and quantitative traits, the latter often detected as quantitative trait loci (QTL). It is, however, a long procedure from QTL discovery to the successful introduction of favourable alleles into new elite varieties and finally into farmers' crops. As a proof of principle for this process, QTL for grain yield (GY), yield components, plant height (PH), ear emergence (EM), solid stem (SS) and yellow rust resistance ( Yr ) were identified in segregating UK bread wheat reference population, Avalon × Cadenza. Among the 163 detected QTL were several not reported before: 17 for GY, the major GY QTL on 2D; a major SS QTL on 3B; and Yr6 on 7B. Common QTL were identified on ten chromosomes, most interestingly, grain number (GN) was found to be associated with Rht - D1b ; and GY and GN with a potential new allele of Rht8 . The interaction of other QTL with GY and yield components was discussed in the context of designing a UK breeding target genotype. Desirable characteristics would be: similar PH and EM to Avalon; Rht - D1b and Vrn - A1b alleles; high TGW and GN; long and wide grains; a large root system, resistance to diseases; and maximum GY. The potential of the identified QTL maximising transgressive segregation to produce a high-yielding and resilient genotype was demonstrated by simulation. Moreover, simulating breeding strategies with F 2 enrichment revealed that the F 2 -DH procedure was superior to the RIL and the modified SSD procedure to achieve that genotype. The proposed strategies of parent selection and breeding methodology can be used as guidance for marker-assisted wheat breeding.

  12. Gains in QTL detection using an ultra-high density SNP map based on population sequencing relative to traditional RFLP/SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Yu

    Full Text Available Huge efforts have been invested in the last two decades to dissect the genetic bases of complex traits including yields of many crop plants, through quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses. However, almost all the studies were based on linkage maps constructed using low-throughput molecular markers, e.g. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, thus are mostly of low density and not able to provide precise and complete information about the numbers and locations of the genes or QTLs controlling the traits. In this study, we constructed an ultra-high density genetic map based on high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from low-coverage sequences of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population of rice, generated using new sequencing technology. The quality of the map was assessed by validating the positions of several cloned genes including GS3 and GW5/qSW5, two major QTLs for grain length and grain width respectively, and OsC1, a qualitative trait locus for pigmentation. In all the cases the loci could be precisely resolved to the bins where the genes are located, indicating high quality and accuracy of the map. The SNP map was used to perform QTL analysis for yield and three yield-component traits, number of tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle and grain weight, using data from field trials conducted over years, in comparison to QTL mapping based on RFLPs/SSRs. The SNP map detected more QTLs especially for grain weight, with precise map locations, demonstrating advantages in detecting power and resolution relative to the RFLP/SSR map. Thus this study provided an example for ultra-high density map construction using sequencing technology. Moreover, the results obtained are helpful for understanding the genetic bases of the yield traits and for fine mapping and cloning of QTLs.

  13. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people, whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  14. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  15. Explaining stasis: microevolutionary studies in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilä, J; Sheldon, B C; Kruuk, L E

    2001-01-01

    Microevolution, defined as a change in the genetic constitution of a population over time, is considered to be of commonplace occurrence in nature. Its ubiquity can be inferred from the observation that quantitative genetic divergence among populations usually exceeds that to be expected due to genetic drift alone, and from numerous observations and experiments consistent with local adaptation. Experimental manipulations in natural populations have provided evidence that rapid evolutionary responses may occur in the wild. However, there are remarkably few cases where direct observations of natural populations have revealed microevolutionary changes occurring, despite the frequent demonstration of additive genetic variation and strong directional selection for particular traits. Those few cases where responses congruent with expectation have been demonstrated are restricted to changes over one generation. In this article we focus on possible explanations as to why heritable traits under apparently strong directional selection often fail to show the expected evolutionary response. To date, few of these explanations for apparent stasis have been amenable to empirical testing. We describe new methods, derived from procedures developed by animal breeding scientists, which can be used to address these explanations, and illustrate the approach with examples from long-term studies of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Understanding why most intensively studied natural populations do not appear to be evolving is an important challenge for evolutionary biology.

  16. Alternative population futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Philippines is now passing through a late demographic transitional period in which the death rate declines while the birth rate remains at a relatively high level; the population of young people under 15 rises to about 45% of the population while proportions of people of working age and old people decline. In 1970, 4 of the Philippine's 12 regions had a birth rate exceeding 40/1000; life expectancy at birth in these regions ranged from 57-64 years and population growth rates ranged from 2.6-4.2% annually. Also in 1970 40-49% of all 12 regional populations were young (under 15) and only 2-5% were old. In this transitional period there are a greater number of children in each household and thus heavier social and economic burdens occur; also the burden of youth dependency increases by more than 1/3. In the modern population structure, family burdens diminish as the average number of children surviving to age 20 becomes identical with the number of children born and great improvements in the quality of life are allowed. Population projections are based on the following assumptions: 1) decrease in mortality, either rapid or slow, 2) increase in age at marriage, 3) decline in fertility will remain at 0.7% annually, and 4) migration trends will stay the same as during the 1960-75 period. Total population is expected to reach 83.8 million by 2000, a 98% increase from 1975; a low estimate, assuming lower fertility and nuptiality, is 64.1 million, a 52% increase from 1975. The urban population will more than double its size by the year 2000 and rural population will grow from 22-65% with the fastest urbanizing regions being the Central and Southern Luzon. From 1975-2000 a 3-fold increase is expected in the number of families in Metro Manila. By 2000 a national labor force of 27.5 million is expected, more than double the 1970 level, with late entry into the labor force and declines in participation by elderly males. The various regions will see lower economic activity

  17. Marketing and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, J U; Leavitt, H J

    1971-07-01

    There are many elements in population programs that are more familiar to marketing men than to some population experts. Advertising is essential to reach the target population, and advertising evaluation techniques (e.g., surrogate indexes or audience measures) might be useful for evaluating both population information activities and the import of the entire program. Fundamental research on basid demand for fertility control is needed and a marketer's experience with planning and evaluating test markets can be useful in assessing potential selling targets and evaluating alternative promotional and distributional strategies. Special family planning clinics have certain disadvantages: expensive and scarce personnel are needed; red tape may be present; the network is based on the assumption that the client is willing to travel relatively great distances repeatedly; and clinics lack anonymity which may scare potential acceptors away. Most developing cultures have an intensively functioning distribution structure which delivers basic commodities to the most remote areas, providing relatively anonymous outlets that are physically close to the customs. Materials requiring a prescription might be distributed in exchange for script issued at and ultimately redeemed by clinics, this requiring only an occasional visit to a clinic. Mail-order service can be used to supplement a clinic's distribution of some contraceptives. It should be remembered that population administrators often have an antipathetic view toward business and marketing and "suspect" the profit motive.

  18. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, D V

    1977-10-01

    Between 1950-1976 world population increased by 1.5 billion and was accompanied by unprecedented levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality. Additional problems associated with this marked population increase are related to food supply, human resource development, the infrastructure component of human organization - housing, water supply, and lighting - and environment. Consequently, it becomes apparent that for purposes of development over the next generation or so, it is the absolute population size and its built-in momentum for increase that becomes relevant rather than the declaration of the population growth rate. Necessary is a model of development in which both consumption and investment expenditures are planned in such a way as to yield the highest possible social rate of return. Investment and consumption planning is required as instrumentalities for making income accrue directly to as great a section of the poor as possible. Simultaneously, the following action should be initiated for decreasing the fertility rate to replacement levels: provision of family planning services, education of all social groups regarding the effects of large families and rapid population growth, provision of alternative careers to motherhood, equal rights for women, and reshaping economic and social policies to encourage small families.

  19. Bucharest: poverty or population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The controversy that occurred in Bucharest over the World Population Plan of Action had not been totally anticipated. Prior to the Conference, there appeared to be a general consensus that population growth was the crucial issue although it was recognized that population growth had to be considered in the context of socioeconomic and cultural development. What developed at Bucharest was a clear division between the developed countries who favored population control and implementation of family planning programs by 1986 and the developing countries who rejected the idea of population control unless it was associated with the redistribution of world resources. The reality of people having large families because they are poor cannot be denied, but, simultaneously, the problem of increasing numbers and their impact on the quality of life, nutrition, housing, education, and employment must be faced. Since affluent countries cannot be relied upon concerning the redistribution of their wealth, developing countries can bring about some change by redistributing the wealth within their countries. Adult literacy programs have been identified as a means to promote socioeconomic development, but these programs will only prove successful if they involve the adults in the process of learning by means of problem solving and cause them to reflect on their socioeconomic situation with the result of reinvolving themselves in society in order to change it.

  20. Spinal Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons contribute to rhythm generation in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Vanessa; Dougherty, Kimberly J; Borgius, Lotta; Kiehn, Ole

    2017-01-27

    Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype and progenitor domain, but does not overlap with the Shox2 non-V2a population. We also show that Hb9::Cre-derived INs include the comparatively small medial population of INs which continues to express Hb9 postnatally. When excitatory neurotransmission is selectively blocked by deleting Vglut2 from Hb9::Cre-derived INs, there is no difference in left-right and/or flexor-extensor phasing between these cords and controls, suggesting that excitatory Hb9::Cre-derived INs do not affect pattern generation. In contrast, the frequencies of locomotor activity are significantly lower in cords from Hb9::Cre-Vglut2 Δ/Δ mice than in cords from controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that excitatory Hb9::Cre-derived INs constitute a distinct population of neurons that participates in the rhythm generating kernel for spinal locomotion.

  1. CKD in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-02-01

    The increased burden of CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health-care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expansion of the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased-donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increased community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  2. Population vs. the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    In anticipation of UN Conference on Environment and Development scheduled for June in Brazil, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) recently televised a hard-hitting documentary focusing on the impact of rapid population growth on resources and the environment. Entitled "Population Explosion and the Looming Crisis: Can Humankind Determine a Better Future?" the documentary aired on January 5, featuring interviews with experts from the population field such as Dr. Nafis Sadik of the UNFPA and Dr. Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University. The program, made with the cooperation of UNFPA and JOICFP, compared the current global demograhic and environmental situation with the one expected to exist in 2025, when the world population is expected to reach 10 billion. The documentary depicted a future fraught with food shortages, depleted energe resources, refugees, and a devastated environment. In order to illustrate the effect of population growth in developing countries, the documentary featured reports from countries in Asia and Africa. And to show the heavy burden that industrialized countries place on the global environment, the documentary examined Japan's own pattern of consumption and waste. As the UNFPA's Sadik pointed out, the luxurious lifestyle of developed countries comes at the expense of the developing world. Stressing that everyone in the world should be able to enjoy a reasonable standard of living. Sadik called for "sustainable patterns of development," which can be achieved through the following: improved technology, reduced consumption patterns, and changed lifestyles. A critical element in changing lifestyles includes reducing global fertility to 3.2 children/woman by the year 2000. Otherwise, a world population will not double but triple by the year 2025.

  3. World population in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, T W

    1986-04-01

    The world's population growth rate peaked at slightly over 2%/year in the late 1960s and in 1986 is down to 1.7% and falling. Annual numbers added continue to rise because these rates apply to a very large base, 4.9 billion in 1986. According to UN medium variant projections, world population growth will peak at 89 million/year in the late 1990s and then taper off until world population stabilizes in the late decade of the 21st century at about 10.2 billion. Close to 95% of this growth is occurring in less developed countries (LDCs) of Africa, Asia (minus Japan), and Latin America. LDC fertility rates are declining, except in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Latin America and South Asia, but most have far to go to reach the replacement level of 2.1 births/woman. Fertility is below replacement in virtually all more developed countries. For LDCs, large numbers will be added before stabilization even after attainment of replacement level fertility because of the demographic momentum built into their large and young population bases. This complicates efforts to bridge gaps between living standards in LDCs and industrialized countries. From a new debate about whether rapid population growth deters or stimulates economic growth, a more integrated view has emerged. This view recognizes the complementary relationship between efforts to slow population growth and other development efforts; e.g., to improve health and education, upgrade women's status, increase productivity. Most effective in the increased contraceptive prevalence and fertility declines seen in many LDCs has been the combination of organized programs to increase access to family planning information and supplies with socioeconomic development that enhances the desire for smaller families.

  4. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  5. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Linard

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions.

  6. Africa population dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyoade, A.; Damen, J.C.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Kilama, B.B.; Omme, van, G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa's population has grown extremely rapidly over the last fifty years from 289 million inhabitants in 1961 to more than 1 billion today. This is a growth rate of 350% in just half a century and the number of urban residents has increased even more quickly: from 65 million in 1960 to 460 million today, or from 20% to 46% of the population as a whole. Demographers predict that soon more than 50% of all Africans will be living in cities. The average life expectancy, literacy rates and primar...

  7. Befolkningsudviklingen (Population Development)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The article takes the 1972 report, The Limits to Growth as its starting point, briefly explaining the Systam Dynamics model used for the report's analyses. Focus is on the important role of population. The simple model of I = PxAxT, where I is the environmental Impact, P population......, A is the Affluence and T the ecoimpact-intensity of the Technology used. Various scenarios ar shown, illustrating how a choice of 1.6 birth per woman on average instead of 2.6 birth, will in 2150 result in 3.6 billion people on earth instead of 27 billions. The article warns against the believe that growth in GDP...

  8. Having quality population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  9. Genomic Predictability of Interconnected Biparental Maize Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Stange, Michael; Sorrells, Mark E.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2013-01-01

    Intense structuring of plant breeding populations challenges the design of the training set (TS) in genomic selection (GS). An important open question is how the TS should be constructed from multiple related or unrelated small biparental families to predict progeny from individual crosses. Here, we used a set of five interconnected maize (Zea mays L.) populations of doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from four parents to systematically investigate how the composition of the TS affects the prediction accuracy for lines from individual crosses. A total of 635 DH lines genotyped with 16,741 polymorphic SNPs were evaluated for five traits including Gibberella ear rot severity and three kernel yield component traits. The populations showed a genomic similarity pattern, which reflects the crossing scheme with a clear separation of full sibs, half sibs, and unrelated groups. Prediction accuracies within full-sib families of DH lines followed closely theoretical expectations, accounting for the influence of sample size and heritability of the trait. Prediction accuracies declined by 42% if full-sib DH lines were replaced by half-sib DH lines, but statistically significantly better results could be achieved if half-sib DH lines were available from both instead of only one parent of the validation population. Once both parents of the validation population were represented in the TS, including more crosses with a constant TS size did not increase accuracies. Unrelated crosses showing opposite linkage phases with the validation population resulted in negative or reduced prediction accuracies, if used alone or in combination with related families, respectively. We suggest identifying and excluding such crosses from the TS. Moreover, the observed variability among populations and traits suggests that these uncertainties must be taken into account in models optimizing the allocation of resources in GS. PMID:23535384

  10. Derivation of an oral toxicity reference value for nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Bates, Hudson K; Allen, Bruce C; Vincent, Melissa J; Oller, Adriana R

    2017-06-15

    Nickel (Ni) is in the earth's crust and can be found in environmental compartments such as water, soil, and air, as well as food. This paper presents an assessment of the oral nickel toxicity data in support of non-cancer health-based oral exposure limits or toxicity reference values (TRVs). This paper derives TRVs for three populations of interest: adults, toddlers, and people who have been dermally sensitized to nickel. The adult/lifetime TRV of 20 μg Ni/kg-day is based on post-implantation loss/perinatal mortality in a 2-generation reproductive study in rats. Several recent assessments by regulatory agencies have used the same study and endpoint, but the dose-response modeling conducted here was more appropriate for the study design. Toxicokinetic data from rats and humans indicate that the applied uncertainty factors are very conservative. Because the endpoint relates to fetal exposure and is not relevant to toddlers, a toddler TRV was derived based on decreased body weight in young rats; this TRV was also 20 μg Ni/kg-day. A separate TRV of 4 μg Ni/kg in addition to Ni in food was derived for protection of nickel-sensitized populations from flare-up of dermatitis, based on studies of single exposures in humans under conditions that maximize oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Väikeaktsionäril on õigus teada / Aku Sorainen ; interv. Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sorainen, Aku

    2006-01-01

    Aktsionäri õigustest teabele aktsiaseltsi tegevuse kohta. Intervjuu Investorite Liidu juhatuse liikme ja vandeadvokaadi Aku Soraineniga. Vt ka Äripäev 22.05.2006, lk. 8 ja 23.05.2006 Äripäeva juhtkirja

  12. Nest predation of Trachemys dorbigni (Duméril & Bibron) (Testudines, Emydidae) in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Fernanda A.; Cechin, Sonia Z.; Bager, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Ninhos da tartaruga tigre-d'água, Trachemys dorbigni, foram monitorados durante a estação reprodutiva de 2005/2006 para avaliar as taxas de predação e a variação temporal destas; identificar as espécies predadoras, sua importância na destruição dos ninhos e determinar a influência da dispersão dos ninhos sobre a predação, no extremo sul do Brasil. Dos 58 ninhos monitorados, 98% (n = 57) foram destruídos por predadores. Eventos de predação ocorreram predominantemente nas primeiras 48 horas apó...

  13. Ämbliku jäljed kivimüüril / Sigrid Saarep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarep, Sigrid, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Suurbritannia paviljonis 53. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esinevad kunstnikud Steve McQueen, John Cale (Wales), Martin Boyce (Šotimaa) ja Susan MacWilliam (Põhja-Iirimaa). Videokunstnik Steve McQueeni filmist "Giardini" (2009)

  14. Genetic analysis of NPT II x HBC 19 (basmati variety) RIL's and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAU Vikram

    attention due to greater preference in domestic and international markets. According to its grain shape, rice is ... Grain shape has attracted significant attention in rice breeding programs due to its contributions to rice ... smelling or chewing seeds is subjective and non-reliable as analyst sense become saturated or physical ...

  15. Topological Derivatives in Shape Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Antonio André

    2013-01-01

    The topological derivative is defined as the first term (correction) of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to a small parameter that measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes, inclusions, defects, source-terms and cracks. Over the last decade, topological asymptotic analysis has become a broad, rich and fascinating research area from both theoretical and numerical standpoints. It has applications in many different fields such as shape and topology optimization, inverse problems, imaging processing and mechanical modeling including synthesis and/or optimal design of microstructures, sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics and damage evolution modeling. Since there is no monograph on the subject at present, the authors provide here the first account of the theory which combines classical sensitivity analysis in shape optimization with asymptotic analysis by means of compound asymptotic expansions for elliptic boundary value problems. This book is intende...

  16. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  17. Cytotoxicity study of pyrazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Binta Ahasan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazolone heterocyclic compound, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one 2(a was synthesized by condensation reaction between ethyl acetoacetate and phenyl hydrazine and was converted into their corresponding heterocyclic derivatives 2(b to 2(f2 . Their cytotoxicity effects were measured by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among them the compounds 2(b , 2(f1 , and 2(f2 were highly active according to IC50 values 19.50, 19.50 and 20 ppm respectively. The rest of compounds 2(a , 2(c , 2(d1 , and 2(d2 having IC50 values 38, 33.50, 37.50, 36, 37.50 and 36 ppm in that order, were moderately active.

  18. Cytotoxicity study of pyrazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Binta Ahasan and Md. Rabiul Islam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazolone heterocyclic compound, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one 2(a was synthesized by condensation reaction between ethyl acetoacetate and phenyl hydrazine and was converted into their corresponding heterocyclic derivatives 2(b to 2(f2. Their cytotoxicity effects were measured by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among them the compounds 2(b, 2(f1, and 2(f2 were highly active according to IC50 values 19.50, 19.50 and 20 ppm respectively. The rest of compounds 2(a, 2(c, 2(d1, and 2(d2 having IC50 values 38, 33.50, 37.50, 36, 37.50 and 36 ppm in that order, were moderately active.

  19. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  20. Radiation processing of polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethylstarch (CMS), carboxymethylchitin (CM-chitin) and carboxymethylchitosan (CM-chitosan) form gels when irradiated at paste-like condition. Bedsore prevention mat filled up CMC hydrogel crosslinked by irradiation at paste-like condition was practical applied as a health care products. It was found that CM-chitosan hydrogels have anti-microbial activity and effective as absorbents to remove metal ions. When crosslinked gel sheets of CM-chitin and CM-chitosan were immersed in copper (II) aqueous solution, absorption of Cu (II) were 161 mg/g and 172 mg/g, respectively. Radiation crosslinking of cellulose derivative such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, (HPMCP) kneaded with aqueous alkali solution and methanol was achieved with EB-irradiation at paste-like condition. The HPMCP gel absorbed organic solvents such as chloroform and pyridine. (author)

  1. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  2. Derivation of the dipole map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Boozer, Allen

    2004-01-01

    In our method of maps [Punjabi et al., Phy. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992), and Punjabi et al., J. Plasma Phys. 52, 91 (1994)], symplectic maps are used to calculate the trajectories of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks. Effects of the magnetic perturbations are calculated using the low MN map [Ali et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] and the dipole map [Punjabi et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)]. The dipole map is used to calculate the effects of externally located current carrying coils on the trajectories of the field lines, the stochastic layer, the magnetic footprint, and the heat load distribution on the collector plates in divertor tokamaks [Punjabi et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)]. Symplectic maps are general, efficient, and preserve and respect the Hamiltonian nature of the dynamics. In this brief communication, a rigorous mathematical derivation of the dipole map is given

  3. Landslide in claystone derived soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A M

    1979-07-01

    This article describes a landslide that occured in the Pittsburgh area in a soil deposit derived from the Pittsburgh Redbed Claystone when a cut was made at the toe. (The Pittsburgh Redbed Claystone is the parent of much of the soil material involved in the Pittsburgh area and occurs about mid way between the base of Pittsburgh Coal and the top of the Upper Freepost Coal). The topography before the slide was known and the geometry of the slide mass was established. Slope stability analysis indicated that the landslide could have been predicted using effective stress-shear-strength parameters of s of 12 to 13 and c is 0, where s is angle of shearing resistance and c is cohesion intercept in terms of effective stresses.

  4. THE SPECIFICITY OF KERATEINE DERIVATIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, L; Ecker, E E; Martiensen, E W

    1939-09-30

    Carboxymethyl, alpha-carboxyethyl-, alpha-carboxy-n-propyl-, alpha-carboxyisopropyl-, alpha-carboxy-n-butyl, alpha-carboxyisobutyl, alpha-carboxyamyl-, benzyl-, and beta-phenylethylkeratemes were prepared from the parent protein, reduced keratin or kerateine. Chemical analysis disclosed that the various compounds differed in their isoelectric points and solubilities depending on the nature of the substituent group introduced. In general, it was found that in so far as could be determined, nearly all of the available sulfhydryl groups were substituted, while no detectable substitution of the free amino groups of the proteins occurred. The results of the serologic studies revealed that the kerateine derivatives acquired a new immunologie character dependent on the nature of the introduced determinant group. Inhibition tests confirmed the results obtained. Evidence was also produced to show that the grouping See PDF for structure may play a rôle in some of the reactions observed.

  5. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC

  6. Nature of the basic financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kats, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of basic derivatives. Studied by various authors approaches to defining derivatives and their definitions in the legislation and proposed his own definition of the most appropriate for use in accounting practice.

  7. fq-Derivations of G-Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Al-Kadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of fq-derivation as a new derivation of G-algebra. For an endomorphism map f of any G-algebra X, we show that at least one fq-derivation of X exists. Moreover, for such a map, we show that a self-map dqf of X is fq-derivation of X if X is an associative medial G-algebra. For a medial G-algebra X, dqf is fq-derivation of X if dqf is an outside fq-derivation of X. Finally, we show that if f is the identity endomorphism of X then the composition of two fq-derivations of X is a fq-derivation. Moreover, we give a condition to get a commutative composition.

  8. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  9. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  10. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Fung

    Full Text Available The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%, a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L., occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  11. Africa population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyoade, A.; Damen, J.C.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Kilama, B.B.; Omme, van G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa's population has grown extremely rapidly over the last fifty years from 289 million inhabitants in 1961 to more than 1 billion today. This is a growth rate of 350% in just half a century and the number of urban residents has increased even more quickly: from 65 million in 1960 to 460 million

  12. Adam Smith on population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, J J

    1970-11-01

    Abstract Adam Smith dealt with questions of population mainly in his Wealth of Nations. His discussion falls roughly under five heads and reflects in considerable measure his image of the English economy. (1) A country's population capacity, given the average level of consumption, was conditioned by the stock of land, the skill with which it was cultivated, and the degree to which division of labour could be increased and thereby augment output for domestic use and sale in external markets. (2) Growth of population was essentially in response to growth of the demand for labour and served to increase division of labour. (3) The social mechanisms underlying elevation of the scale of living are touched upon, and in an optimistic spirit. (4) The distribution of a country's population responded to its progress in opulence, with the rate of this progress conditioned by the degree to which inappropriate (e.g. mercantilist) policies were avoided. (5) Smith dealt briefly with such matters as colonies, education, size of economy, environmental influences, and public policy, all of which he recognized as significant for the quantity and quality of a country's numbers.

  13. Probabilistic population aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We merge two methodologies, prospective measures of population aging and probabilistic population forecasts. We compare the speed of change and variability in forecasts of the old age dependency ratio and the prospective old age dependency ratio as well as the same comparison for the median age and the prospective median age. While conventional measures of population aging are computed on the basis of the number of years people have already lived, prospective measures are computed also taking account of the expected number of years they have left to live. Those remaining life expectancies change over time and differ from place to place. We compare the probabilistic distributions of the conventional and prospective measures using examples from China, Germany, Iran, and the United States. The changes over time and the variability of the prospective indicators are smaller than those that are observed in the conventional ones. A wide variety of new results emerge from the combination of methodologies. For example, for Germany, Iran, and the United States the likelihood that the prospective median age of the population in 2098 will be lower than it is today is close to 100 percent. PMID:28636675

  14. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  15. Population and Development Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  16. Ideology and population theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D

    1974-01-01

    The ideological and ethical foundations of population theory are examined in the light of the supposed eithical neutrality of scientific enquiry. The works of Malthus, Ricardo, and Marx are contrasted and it is shown that their theories of population resulted in each case from the adoption of a particular kind of method--empiricism in Malthus, normative analytic "model building" in Ricardo, and dialectical materialism in Marx. It is shown that a Malthusian or neo-Malthusian view of the population problem is inevitable if enquiry is founded in empiricism or in normative analytics. The well-known disagreement between Malthusian and Marxian viewpoints therefore has its foundation in method. Most modern enquiry into the population-resources problem is dominated by empirical and analytic (including systems theory) approaches and consequently arrives at neo-Malthusian conclusions. The final section analyses the consequences of adopting a neo-Malthusian view, and it is shown that in a world dominated by an elite, this can frequently bring about the political, social, and economic repression of a non-elite. It is concluded that the choice of scientific method does not produce unbiased results and that the dominance of a certain conception of scientific method leads to the scientific support of a viewpoint used to justify repression of the underprivileged in society.

  17. Population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Linyong; Fang, Yayin; Campbell, Michael; Southerland, William M

    2017-11-10

    Obesity is emerging as a global health problem, with more than one-third of the world's adult population being overweight or obese. In this study, we investigated worldwide population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). We collected a total of 225 obesity-associated SNPs from a public database. Their population-level allele frequencies were derived based on the genotype data from 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3). We used hypergeometric model to assess whether the effect allele at a given SNP is significantly enriched or depleted in each of the 26 populations surveyed in the 1000 Genomes Project with respect to the overall pooled population. Our results indicate that 195 out of 225 SNPs (86.7%) possess effect alleles significantly enriched or depleted in at least one of the 26 populations. Populations within the same continental group exhibit similar allele enrichment/depletion patterns whereas inter-continental populations show distinct patterns. Among the 225 SNPs, 15 SNPs cluster in the first intron region of the FTO gene, which is a major gene associated with body-mass index (BMI) and fat mass. African populations exhibit much smaller blocks of LD (linkage disequilibrium) among these15 SNPs while European and Asian populations have larger blocks. To estimate the cumulative effect of all variants associated with obesity, we developed the personal composite genetic risk score for obesity. Our results indicate that the East Asian populations have the lowest averages of the composite risk scores, whereas three European populations have the highest averages. In addition, the population-level average of composite genetic risk scores is significantly correlated (R 2 = 0.35, P = 0.0060) with obesity prevalence. We have detected substantial population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs. The results will help elucidate the genetic basis which may contribute to population

  18. Population and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, V

    1994-01-01

    Explanations of cultural patterns can be found in the economic context (carrying capacity) in which they develop. Population pressure explains the abuse of women throughout history and in modern times because overpopulation leads to devaluation of women's reproductive capacity. A cultural response to overpopulation includes practices that limit the numbers of women of reproductive age. Such practices foster son preference, which results in selective abortion, female infanticide, neglect and overwork of girls, dowry deaths, and discrimination against widows. The results of these practices are manifest in sex ratios that are culturally rather than naturally controlled and in demographic facts such as the calculation that 60 million females are missing in Asia alone (and perhaps more than 100 million worldwide). Women are also removed from a reproductive setting by being kidnapped or sold into prostitution or by being forced to adopt prostitution for economic survival. In cases where survival is threatened by environmental degradation and population growth, the most harsh cultural practices will emerge to adapt the population to the resources at hand. This situation creates an ethical dilemma posed by the problem of imposing Western values on a culture that is undertaking adaptive practices to insure its very survival. Ways to help women in these situation include limiting population growth humanely through family planning, provision of paid work to women, and creation of an environment that supports a small family ideal. Prosperity itself, through modernization, sometimes causes family sizes to increase. The most important intervention appears to be the provision of paid employment outside the home for women. On the other hand, large-scale wealth transfers and liberal immigration policies simply send signals that population pressure is a regional problem that can be alleviated by the international community. Increasing immigration to developed countries will place

  19. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S V

    1992-01-01

    A unified approach to development is recommended: one in which the social, economic, and political components are accounted for within a multidimensional process of reorganization and reorientation of structures and attitudes, customs, and beliefs. During the 1970s, development was construed as improvement in employment within a growing economy and elimination of poverty and inequality--a redistribution of growth. Development should increase and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods, increase levels of living, and expand economic and social choices and free people from dependence on other people and servitude to ignorance and poverty. Six basic issues linking population growth and development were identified; the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables were explained. The aims of educational development and educational progress as affected by urbanization were discussed. It is inappropriate to isolate economic, social, and demographic concerns as separate entities and as separate from the development process. The population problem of rapid population growth is intertwined with the problem of unmet human needs; problematic are illiteracy, extreme deprivation, insufficient income to purchase essential health services and basic nutrition, and inadequate diets. Improvements have not kept pace with needs. The theories of Malthus are no longer germane, and demographic transition theory is not as effective in achieving or explaining the reduction of birth rates. An approach which attacks poverty and low quality of life would be directed to core motivations. The hidden momentum of population growth and the impact of literacy and age and sex composition are discussed as features of improvement in quality of life and of fertility reduction. Economic and social development are dependent on human resources, not on capital or material resources. The institutional mechanism for developing human potential is the educational system

  20. Anomalous Cepheids and population II blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.

    Recent studies of anomalous Cepheids (ACs) and population II blue stragglers (BSs), including photometrically variable BSs (VBSs), are reviewed. The VBSs represent about 25 percent of the BSs, the majority of which are SX Phe short-period variables in the Cepheid instability strip. Mass estimates derived using various techniques suggest that both ACs and BSs are relatively massive (about 1.0-1.6 solar mass). The recent discovery that two BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466 are contact binaries, and the earlier discovery that one of the BSs in Omega Cen is an eclipsing binary, provide direct evidence that at least some BSs are binary systems.

  1. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...

  2. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative...

  3. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.7 Derivative classification. A derivative classification... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section...

  4. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined...

  5. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating or...

  6. Quantum derivatives and the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Adda, Faycal; Cresson, Jacky

    2004-01-01

    We define a scale derivative for non-differentiable functions. It is constructed via quantum derivatives which take into account non-differentiability and the existence of a minimal resolution for mean representation. This justify heuristic computations made by Nottale in scale-relativity. In particular, the Schroedinger equation is derived via the scale-relativity principle and Newton's fundamental equation of dynamics

  7. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... underlying assets, indices, or reference rates. The most common types of financial derivatives are futures, forward commitments, options, and swaps. A mortgage derivative security, such as a collateralized mortgage... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...

  8. Optimization of mixed quantum-classical dynamics: Time-derivative coupling terms and selected couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittner, Jiri; Lischka, Hans; Barbatti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The usage of time-derivative non-adiabatic coupling terms and partially coupled time-dependent equations are investigated to accelerate non-adiabatic dynamics simulations at multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) level. The quality of the results and computational costs are compared against non-adiabatic benchmark dynamics calculations using non-adiabatic coupling vectors. In the comparison between the time-derivative couplings and coupling vectors, deviations in the adiabatic population of individual trajectories were observed in regions of rapid variation of the coupling terms. They, however, affected the average adiabatic population to only about 5%. For small multiconfiguration spaces, dynamics with time-derivative couplings are significantly faster than those with coupling vectors. This relation inverts for larger configuration spaces. The use of the partially coupled equations approach speeds up the simulations significantly while keeping the deviations in the population below few percent. Imidazole and the methaniminium cation are used as test examples

  9. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  10. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hughes

    Full Text Available We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians and African-Americans, as well as in newly-obtained sequence data for additional populations. We find that all non-African populations carry a signature of selection on the same haplotype at the TRPV6 locus. The selective footprints, however, are significantly differentiated between non-African populations and estimated to be younger than an ancestral population of non-Africans. The possibility of a single selection event occurring in an ancestral population of non-Africans was tested by simulations and rejected. The putatively-selected TRPV6 haplotype contains three candidate sites for functional differences, namely derived non-synonymous substitutions C157R, M378V and M681T. Potential functional differences between the ancestral and derived TRPV6 proteins were investigated by cloning the ancestral and derived forms, transfecting cell lines, and carrying out electrophysiology experiments via patch clamp analysis. No statistically-significant differences in biophysical channel function were found, although one property of the protein, namely Ca(2+ dependent inactivation, may show functionally relevant differences between the ancestral and derived forms. Although the reason for selection on this locus remains elusive, this is the first demonstration of a widespread parallel selection event acting on standing genetic variation in humans, and highlights the utility of between population EHH statistics.

  11. Parallel selection on TRPV6 in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David A; Tang, Kun; Strotmann, Rainer; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prenen, Jean; Nilius, Bernd; Stoneking, Mark

    2008-02-27

    We identified and examined a candidate gene for local directional selection in Europeans, TRPV6, and conclude that selection has acted on standing genetic variation at this locus, creating parallel soft sweep events in humans. A novel modification of the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test was utilized, which compares EHH for a single allele across populations, to investigate the signature of selection at TRPV6 and neighboring linked loci in published data sets for Europeans, Asians and African-Americans, as well as in newly-obtained sequence data for additional populations. We find that all non-African populations carry a signature of selection on the same haplotype at the TRPV6 locus. The selective footprints, however, are significantly differentiated between non-African populations and estimated to be younger than an ancestral population of non-Africans. The possibility of a single selection event occurring in an ancestral population of non-Africans was tested by simulations and rejected. The putatively-selected TRPV6 haplotype contains three candidate sites for functional differences, namely derived non-synonymous substitutions C157R, M378V and M681T. Potential functional differences between the ancestral and derived TRPV6 proteins were investigated by cloning the ancestral and derived forms, transfecting cell lines, and carrying out electrophysiology experiments via patch clamp analysis. No statistically-significant differences in biophysical channel function were found, although one property of the protein, namely Ca(2+) dependent inactivation, may show functionally relevant differences between the ancestral and derived forms. Although the reason for selection on this locus remains elusive, this is the first demonstration of a widespread parallel selection event acting on standing genetic variation in humans, and highlights the utility of between population EHH statistics.

  12. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor; Kong, Say Li; Sengupta, Debarka; Tan, Iain B; Phyo, Wai Min; Lee, Daniel; Hu, Min; Iliescu, Ciprian; Alexander, Irina; Goh, Wei Lin; Rahmani, Mehran; Suhaimi, Nur-Afidah Mohamed; Vo, Jess H; Tai, Joyce A; Tan, Joanna H; Chua, Clarinda; Ten, Rachel; Lim, Wan Jun; Chew, Min Hoe; Hauser, Charlotte; van Dam, Rob M; Lim, Wei-Yen; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lim, Bing; Koh, Poh Koon; Robson, Paul; Ying, Jackie Y; Hillmer, Axel M; Tan, Min-Han

    2016-01-01

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  13. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  14. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R.; Civit, Sergi

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  15. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  16. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if there is a difference in the lithium abundances of stars belonging to two halo populations of F and G main-sequence stars previously found to differ in [alpha/Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. Li abundances are derived from the LiI 6707.8 A line measured in hig...

  17. Dynamics of Tumor Heterogeneity Derived from Clonal Karyotypic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Laughney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical chromosomal instability is a ubiquitous feature of human neoplasms. Due to experimental limitations, fundamental characteristics of karyotypic changes in cancer are poorly understood. Using an experimentally inspired stochastic model, based on the potency and chromosomal distribution of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, we show that cancer cells have evolved to exist within a narrow range of chromosome missegregation rates that optimizes phenotypic heterogeneity and clonal survival. Departure from this range reduces clonal fitness and limits subclonal diversity. Mapping of the aneuploid fitness landscape reveals a highly favorable, commonly observed, near-triploid state onto which evolving diploid- and tetraploid-derived populations spontaneously converge, albeit at a much lower fitness cost for the latter. Finally, by analyzing 1,368 chromosomal translocation events in five human cancers, we find that karyotypic evolution also shapes chromosomal translocation patterns by selecting for more oncogenic derivative chromosomes. Thus, chromosomal instability can generate the heterogeneity required for Darwinian tumor evolution.

  18. Population and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W

    1995-06-01

    The first world consists of the developed industrial countries, the second consists of rapidly developing countries, and the third of less developed, largely pre-industrial countries. The economies of most developed countries in recent years have been relatively stagnant. Most people in the developed world therefore assume that the bottom of the business cycle has arrived and that an upturn will soon be forthcoming. With the exception of the USA and Chile, which have been moderately prosperous in the last few years, the bottom has persisted for a very long time. Indeed, the developed world is not caught in a conventional business cycle, but in something quite new and different. The first world is struggling to stay at the top of countries worldwide both economically and politically, but the second world is rapidly catching up. Populations in these latter countries are both better educated and willing to work harder per unit of capital compared to people in the first world. Marketplace forces and the communication highway are increasingly bring about a scenario in which the first and second worlds will be economic peers. Faced with increased competition from the second world and a larger number of countries capable of providing foreign aid to the third world, it should be clear that the first world will turn inward and reduce its annual aid contributions to less developed countries. It is, however, in the first world's interest to promote family planning toward the goal of reduced population growth. Developed countries should insist that a substantial fraction of whatever foreign aid is provided goes toward reducing the rate of population growth. The first priority should be to make contraceptives available and promote their use worldwide. Efforts should then be taken to empower women through educational and other programs. This approach will slow population growth and improve the economic productivity of both men and women. The Third World should also seriously

  19. Systemic T Cells Immunosuppression of Glioma Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Is Mediated by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Domenis

    Full Text Available A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes. Phenotypic characterization, cell proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion and intracellular cytokine production were analysed by distinguishing among effector T cells, regulatory T cells and monocytes. In unfractionated PBMCs, GSC-derived exosomes inhibited T cell activation (CD25 and CD69 expression, proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and did not affect cell viability or regulatory T-cell suppression ability. Furthermore, exosomes were able to enhance proliferation of purified CD4+ T cells. In PBMCs culture, glioma-derived exosomes directly promoted IL-10 and arginase-1 production and downregulation of HLA-DR by unstimulated CD14+ monocytic cells, that displayed an immunophenotype resembling that of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs. Importantly, the removal of CD14+ monocytic cell fraction from PBMCs restored T-cell proliferation. The same results were observed with exosomes purified from plasma of glioblastoma patients. Our results indicate that glioma-derived exosomes suppress T-cell immune response by acting on monocyte maturation rather than on direct interaction with T cells. Selective targeting of Mo-MDSC to treat glioma should be considered with regard to how immune cells allow the acquirement of effector functions and therefore counteracting tumor progression.

  20. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shariatinajafabadi

    Full Text Available Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI, has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7. Data were collected over three years (2008-2010. Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%, while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%. Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration, thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  1. Cancer among circumpolar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, T Kue; Kelly, Janet J; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups--Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. METHODS: Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer...... registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average" rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. FINDINGS: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions......, averaged over the decade 2000-2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit" group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008...

  2. On optimal population paths

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John S

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this monograph is to integrate and critically evaluate the existing literature in the area of optimal joint savings population programs. The existing diverse presentations are all seen to be discussions within a unified framework. The central problem is to compare the desirability of alternative inter-temporal sequences of total savings and population sizes. Of critical importance is whether one regards persons as the fundamental moral entities or whether one takes Sidgwick's viewpoint that something good being the result of one's action is the baSic reason for dOing anything. The latter viewpoint is consistent with defining a complete social preference ordering over these alternative sequences. Since part of one's interest is to evaluate the consequences of various ethical beliefs a com­ parative study of several such orderings is presented; in particular the Mill-Wolfe average utilitarian, and Sidgwick-Meade classical utilitarian) formulations. A possible problem with the social pref...

  3. Populism and the media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esser, Frank; Stepinska, Agnieszka; Hopmann, David Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    European media systems have gone through major changes in the last few decades, and these changes have included increased opportunity structures for the dissemination of populist messages. Chapter 12 (‘Switzerland’) rightly states that the disappearance of the traditional party press, increased...... media ownership concentration, dependence on advertising, and a stronger orientation toward news values have worked in favor of a growing populist discourse. The newly established online media are seen as having a high afnity to populism’s rhetorical persuasion because both aim for the “quick kick....../click” with a broad audience. As was stated in Chapter 1 in this volume, the role that the media play in the dissemination of populism is largely under-explored. In the classical research literature dealing with populism (see, e.g., Canovan, 1981; Taggart, 2000), communication and media are not addressed at all. When...

  4. Philippines: Population: USAID loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Philippines and the United States Agency for International Development signed an agreement on Christmas Day for a US $5.7 million loan and a US $6 million grant for the country's population program. The loan, which matures in 40 years, carries a 2% interest per year for the first 10 years, and 3% thereafter. A 10-year grace period is provided. The US $11.7 million loan and grant package is the first part of USAID's pledge of US $26.9 million in loan and US $29.8 million in grants for the population project. The agreement was signed by Finance Minister Cesar Virata and USAID director Anthony Schwarzwalder. The total loan package of US $57.7 million will be given in the next 5 years.

  5. Opinions on population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Great friction currently exists between family planning advocates and institutions opposed to contraception or abortion on religious grounds as the time draws near to convene the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development. A rift is also open between those who understand rapid population growth as a symptom of deep social inequities and those who see it only as a disease unto itself. The Human Development Report 1994 notes that human development like women's education is often the most powerful contraceptive, while the Vatican complains that the conference is about cultural imperialism. Planned Parenthood, however, counters that the Vatican has its head in the sand with regard to modern life and lifestyles. Other short comments are listed by the Executive Coordinator of the conference, the founder of Scientific American, and the Schiller Institute.

  6. Non-invasive genetic censusing and monitoring of primate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelovic, Mimi; Vigilant, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships. Data may also be used to estimate sex ratios, sex differences in dispersal distances, and detect gene flow among locations. Recent advances in capture-recapture models have further improved the precision of population estimates derived from non-invasive samples. Simulations using these methods have shown that the confidence interval of point estimates includes the true population size when assumptions of the models are met, and therefore this range of population size minima and maxima should be emphasized in population monitoring studies. Innovations such as the use of sniffer dogs or anti-poaching patrols for sample collection are important to ensure adequate sampling, and the expected development of efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequencing methods for DNAs derived from non-invasive samples will automate and speed analyses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Population, environment and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994.

  8. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  9. Conditional Probabilistic Population Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, W.C.; Scherbov, S.; O'Neill, B.C.; Lutz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Since policy makers often prefer to think in terms of scenarios, the question has arisen as to whether it is possible to make conditional population forecasts in a probabilistic context. This paper shows that it is both possible and useful to make these forecasts. We do this with two different kinds of examples. The first is the probabilistic analog of deterministic scenario analysis. Conditional probabilistic scenario analysis is essential for policy makers it allows them to answer "what if"...

  10. Conditional probabilistic population forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Warren; Scherbov, Sergei; O'Neill, Brian; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Since policy-makers often prefer to think in terms of alternative scenarios, the question has arisen as to whether it is possible to make conditional population forecasts in a probabilistic context. This paper shows that it is both possible and useful to make these forecasts. We do this with two different kinds of examples. The first is the probabilistic analog of deterministic scenario analysis. Conditional probabilistic scenario analysis is essential for policy-makers because it allows them...

  11. Conditional Probabilistic Population Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Warren C.; Scherbov, Sergei; O'Neill, Brian C.; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Since policy-makers often prefer to think in terms of alternative scenarios, the question has arisen as to whether it is possible to make conditional population forecasts in a probabilistic context. This paper shows that it is both possible and useful to make these forecasts. We do this with two different kinds of examples. The first is the probabilistic analog of deterministic scenario analysis. Conditional probabilistic scenario analysis is essential for policy-makers because...

  12. Globalisation, Inequality and Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Brian

    2017-01-01

    read before the Society, 20 April 2017; Symposium 2016-2017: Globalisation, Inequality and the Rise of Populism Inequality in the distribution of income and wealth among individuals has now come to the fore as a core concern across the industrialised world. In 2013 then President of the United States Barack Obama identified rising income inequality as ?the defining challenge of our times?. The Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund Christine Lagarde has stated that ?reducing ...

  13. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  14. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  15. Classical gravity with higher derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelle, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inclusion of the four-derivative terms ∫Rsub(μν) Rsup(μν)(-g)sup(1/2) and ∫R 2 (-g)sup(1/2) into the gravitational action gives a class of effectively multimass models of gravity. In addition to the usual massless excitations of the field, there are now, for general amounts of the two new terms, massive spin-two and massive scalar excitations, with a total of eight degrees of freedom. The massive spin-two part of the field has negative energy. Specific ration of the two new terms give models with either the massive tensor or the massive scalar missing, with correspondingly fewer degrees of freedom. The static, linearized solutions of the field equations are combinations of Newtonian and Yukawa potentials. Owing to the Yukawa form of the corrections, observational evidence sets only very weak restrictions on the new masses. The acceptable static metric solutions in the full nonlinear theory are regular at the origin. The dynamical content of the linearized field is analyzed by reducing the fourth-order field equations to separated second-order equations, related by coupling to external sources in a fixed ratio. This analysis is carried out into the various helicity components using the transverse-traceless decomposition of the metric. (author)

  16. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  17. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  18. A Associa ation m Gos mappin ssypiu ng of re um hirs esistan sutum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... rstanding the molecular lev ... Molecular markers or QTLs linked with important traits have been ... analysis of F2- , RIL-, or DH (double haploid)-derived ..... clusters of individuals using the software Structure: a simulation study.

  19. Phylogeography of the sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: insights into the evolution of marine lake populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Erpenbeck, D.; Peijnenburg, K.; de Voogd, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Article About the Authors Metrics Comments Related Content Abstract Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Supporting Information Acknowledgments Author Contributions References Reader Comments (0) Figures Abstract The existence of multiple independently derived populations in

  20. Spheroidal Populated Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    2008-10-01

    Globular clusters and low-ellipticity early-type galaxies can be treated as systems populated by a large number of stars and whose structures can be schematized as spherically symmetric. Their studies profit from the synthesis of stellar populations. The computation of synthetic models makes use of various contributions from star evolution and stellar dynamics. In the first sections of the paper we present a short review of our results on the occurrence of galactic winds in star systems ranging from globular clusters to elliptical galaxies, and the dynamical evolution of a typical massive globular cluster. In the subsequent sections we describe our approach to the problem of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. The projected radial behaviours of spectro-photometric indices for a sample of eleven galaxies are compared with preliminary model results. The best agreement between observation and theory shows that our galaxies share a certain degree of heterogeneity. The gas energy dissipation varies from moderate to large, the metal yield ranges from solar to significantly oversolar, the dispersion of velocities is isotropic in most of the cases and anisotropic in the remaining instances.