WorldWideScience

Sample records for rigorously analyzed verified

  1. A Rigorous Methodology for Analyzing and Designing Plug-Ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasie, Marieta V.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kiniry, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    . This paper addresses these problems by describing a rigorous methodology for analyzing and designing plug-ins. The methodology is grounded in the Extended Business Object Notation (EBON) and covers informal analysis and design of features, GUI, actions, and scenarios, formal architecture design, including...... behavioral semantics, and validation. The methodology is illustrated via a case study whose focus is an Eclipse environment for the RAISE formal method's tool suite....

  2. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  3. Analyzing Interaction Patterns to Verify a Simulation/Game Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rodney Dean

    2012-01-01

    In order for simulations and games to be effective for learning, instructional designers must verify that the underlying computational models being used have an appropriate degree of fidelity to the conceptual models of their real-world counterparts. A simulation/game that provides incorrect feedback is likely to promote misunderstanding and…

  4. Chlorophyll fluorescence is a rigorous, high throughput tool to analyze the impacts of genotype, species, and stress on plant and ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pleban, J. R.; Aston, T.; Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.; Hosseini, A.; Bretfeld, M.; Edwards, C.; Yarkhunova, Y.; Weinig, C.; Mackay, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses reduce plant productivity, yet high-throughput characterization of plant responses across genotypes, species and stress conditions are limited by both instrumentation and data analysis techniques. Recent developments in chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement at leaf to landscape scales could improve our predictive understanding of plants response to stressors. We analyzed the interaction of species and stress across two crop types, five gymnosperm and two angiosperm tree species from boreal and montane forests, grasses, forbs and shrubs from sagebrush steppe, and 30 tree species from seasonally wet tropical forest. We also analyzed chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange data from twelve Brassica rapa crop accessions and 120 recombinant inbred lines to investigate phenotypic responses to drought. These data represent more than 10,000 measurements of fluorescence and allow us to answer two questions 1) are the measurements from high-throughput, hand held and drone-mounted instruments quantitatively similar to lower throughput camera and gas exchange mounted instruments and 2) do the measurements find differences in genotypic, species and environmental stress on plants? We found through regression that the high and low throughput instruments agreed across both individual chlorophyll fluorescence components and calculated ratios and were not different from a 1:1 relationship with correlation greater than 0.9. We used hierarchical Bayesian modeling to test the second question. We found a linear relationship between the fluorescence-derived quantum yield of PSII and the quantum yield of CO2 assimilation from gas-exchange, with a slope of ca. 0.1 indicating that the efficiency of the entire photosynthetic process was about 10% of PSII across genotypes, species and drought stress. Posterior estimates of quantum yield revealed that drought-treatment, genotype and species differences were preserved when accounting for measurement uncertainty

  5. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistical mechanics rigorous results

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    1999-01-01

    This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.

  7. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  8. Verifier Theory and Unverifiability

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant developments in Proof Theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifier. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verificati...

  9. Unconditionally verifiable blind quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

  10. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    the computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money...

  11. Verifying versus falsifying banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Renesse, Rudolf L.

    1998-04-01

    A series of counterfeit Dutch, German, English, and U.S. banknotes was examined with respect to the various modi operandi to imitate paper based, printed and post-printed security features. These features provide positive evidence (verifiability) as well as negative evidence (falsifiability). It appears that the positive evidence provided in most cases is insufficiently convincing: banknote inspection mainly rests on negative evidence. The act of falsifying (to prove to be false), however, is an inefficacious procedure. Ergonomic verificatory security features are demanded. This demand is increasingly met by security features based on nano- technology. The potential of nano-security has a twofold base: (1) the unique optical effects displayed allow simple, fast and unambiguous inspection, and (2) the nano-technology they are based on, makes successful counterfeit or simulation extremely improbable.

  12. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VI. Effect of various causes of death on the evolution of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Bergerioux, C; Brandt-Casadevall, C; Gujer, H R

    1983-07-01

    The evolution of rigor mortis was studied in cases of nitrogen asphyxia, drowning and strangulation, as well as in fatal intoxications due to strychnine, carbon monoxide and curariform drugs, using a modified method of measurement. Our experiments demonstrated that: (1) Strychnine intoxication hastens the onset and passing of rigor mortis. (2) CO intoxication delays the resolution of rigor mortis. (3) The intensity of rigor may vary depending upon the cause of death. (4) If the stage of rigidity is to be used to estimate the time of death, it is necessary: (a) to perform a succession of objective measurements of rigor mortis intensity; and (b) to verify the eventual presence of factors that could play a role in the modification of its development.

  13. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  14. Putrefactive rigor: apparent rigor mortis due to gas distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R; Landi, Kristen

    2011-09-01

    Artifacts due to decomposition may cause confusion for the initial death investigator, leading to an incorrect suspicion of foul play. Putrefaction is a microorganism-driven process that results in foul odor, skin discoloration, purge, and bloating. Various decompositional gases including methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen will cause the body to bloat. We describe 3 instances of putrefactive gas distension (bloating) that produced the appearance of inappropriate rigor, so-called putrefactive rigor. These gases may distend the body to an extent that the extremities extend and lose contact with their underlying support surface. The medicolegal investigator must recognize that this is not true rigor mortis and the body was not necessarily moved after death for this gravity-defying position to occur.

  15. Verifying and Validating Simulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    This presentation is a high-level discussion of the Verification and Validation (V&V) of computational models. Definitions of V&V are given to emphasize that “validation” is never performed in a vacuum; it accounts, instead, for the current state-of-knowledge in the discipline considered. In particular comparisons between physical measurements and numerical predictions should account for their respective sources of uncertainty. The differences between error (bias), aleatoric uncertainty (randomness) and epistemic uncertainty (ignorance, lack-of- knowledge) are briefly discussed. Four types of uncertainty in physics and engineering are discussed: 1) experimental variability, 2) variability and randomness, 3) numerical uncertainty and 4) model-form uncertainty. Statistical sampling methods are available to propagate, and analyze, variability and randomness. Numerical uncertainty originates from the truncation error introduced by the discretization of partial differential equations in time and space. Model-form uncertainty is introduced by assumptions often formulated to render a complex problem more tractable and amenable to modeling and simulation. The discussion concludes with high-level guidance to assess the “credibility” of numerical simulations, which stems from the level of rigor with which these various sources of uncertainty are assessed and quantified.

  16. Mathematical Rigor in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyke, Michael; Bassichis, William

    2011-10-01

    Calculus-based introductory physics courses intended for future engineers and physicists are often designed and taught in the same fashion as those intended for students of other disciplines. A more mathematically rigorous curriculum should be more appropriate and, ultimately, more beneficial for the student in his or her future coursework. This work investigates the effects of mathematical rigor on student understanding of introductory mechanics. Using a series of diagnostic tools in conjunction with individual student course performance, a statistical analysis will be performed to examine student learning of introductory mechanics and its relation to student understanding of the underlying calculus.

  17. A case of instantaneous rigor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirch, J; Schulz, Y; Klintschar, M

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether instantaneous rigor mortis (IR), the hypothetic sudden occurrence of stiffening of the muscles upon death, actually exists has been controversially debated over the last 150 years. While modern German forensic literature rejects this concept, the contemporary British literature is more willing to embrace it. We present the case of a young woman who suffered from diabetes and who was found dead in an upright standing position with back and shoulders leaned against a punchbag and a cupboard. Rigor mortis was fully established, livor mortis was strong and according to the position the body was found in. After autopsy and toxicological analysis, it was stated that death most probably occurred due to a ketoacidotic coma with markedly increased values of glucose and lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid as well as acetone in blood and urine. Whereas the position of the body is most unusual, a detailed analysis revealed that it is a stable position even without rigor mortis. Therefore, this case does not further support the controversial concept of IR.

  18. Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    results into the larger proof framework of the seL4 microkernel to be directly usable in practice. Beyond the stated project goals, the solution...CakeML, can now also be used in the Isabelle/HOL system that was used for the verified seL4 microkernel. This combination increases proof productivity...were used for the verified ML compiler CakeML, can now also be used in the Isabelle/HOL system that was used for the verified seL4 microkernel. This

  19. Status of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported

  20. Monitoring muscle optical scattering properties during rigor mortis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Ranasinghesagara, J.; Ku, C. W.; Yao, G.

    2007-09-01

    Sarcomere is the fundamental functional unit in skeletal muscle for force generation. In addition, sarcomere structure is also an important factor that affects the eating quality of muscle food, the meat. The sarcomere structure is altered significantly during rigor mortis, which is the critical stage involved in transforming muscle to meat. In this paper, we investigated optical scattering changes during the rigor process in Sternomandibularis muscles. The measured optical scattering parameters were analyzed along with the simultaneously measured passive tension, pH value, and histology analysis. We found that the temporal changes of optical scattering, passive tension, pH value and fiber microstructures were closely correlated during the rigor process. These results suggested that sarcomere structure changes during rigor mortis can be monitored and characterized by optical scattering, which may find practical applications in predicting meat quality.

  1. ATP, IMP, and glycogen in cod muscle at onset and during development of rigor mortis depend on the sampling location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Variation in glycogen, ATP, and IMP contents within individual cod muscles were studied in ice stored fish during the progress of rigor mortis. Rigor index was determined before muscle samples for chemical analyzes were taken at 16 different positions on the fish. During development of rigor......, the contents of glycogen and ATP decreased differently in relation to rigor index depending on sampling location. Although fish were considered to be in strong rigor according to the rigor index method, parts of the muscle were not in rigor as high ATP concentrations were found in dorsal and tall muscle....

  2. Realizing rigor in the mathematics classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Ted H (Henry); Balka, Don S

    2014-01-01

    Rigor put within reach! Rigor: The Common Core has made it policy-and this first-of-its-kind guide takes math teachers and leaders through the process of making it reality. Using the Proficiency Matrix as a framework, the authors offer proven strategies and practical tools for successful implementation of the CCSS mathematical practices-with rigor as a central objective. You'll learn how to Define rigor in the context of each mathematical practice Identify and overcome potential issues, including differentiating instruction and using data

  3. Classroom Talk for Rigorous Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Crosson, Amy C.; Resnick, Lauren B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the quality of classroom talk and its relation to academic rigor in reading-comprehension lessons. Additionally, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data for this study included 21 reading-comprehension lessons in several elementary and middle schools from…

  4. Rigorous Science: a How-To Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word “rigor” is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty. These elements lead to five actionable recommendations for research education.

  5. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. V. Effect of various temperatures on the evolution of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T

    1981-01-01

    Objective measurements were carried out to study the evolution of rigor mortis on rats at various temperatures. Our experiments showed that: (1) at 6 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development between 48 and 60 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 168 hours post mortem; (2) at 24 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development at 5 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 16 hours post mortem; (3) at 37 degrees C rigor mortis reaches full development at 3 hours post mortem, and is resolved at 6 hours post mortem; (4) the intensity of rigor mortis grows with increase in temperature (difference between values obtained at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C); and (5) and 6 degrees C a "cold rigidity" was found, in addition to and independent of rigor mortis.

  6. "Rigor mortis" in a live patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Murali

    2010-03-01

    Rigor mortis is conventionally a postmortem change. Its occurrence suggests that death has occurred at least a few hours ago. The authors report a case of "Rigor Mortis" in a live patient after cardiac surgery. The likely factors that may have predisposed such premortem muscle stiffening in the reported patient are, intense low cardiac output status, use of unusually high dose of inotropic and vasopressor agents and likely sepsis. Such an event may be of importance while determining the time of death in individuals such as described in the report. It may also suggest requirement of careful examination of patients with muscle stiffening prior to declaration of death. This report is being published to point out the likely controversies that might arise out of muscle stiffening, which should not always be termed rigor mortis and/ or postmortem.

  7. [Rigor mortis -- a definite sign of death?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A R; Müller, M P; Frank, M D; Dressler, J

    2005-04-01

    In the past years an ongoing controversial debate exists in Germany, regarding quality of the coroner's inquest and declaration of death by physicians. We report the case of a 90-year old female, who was found after an unknown time following a suicide attempt with benzodiazepine. The examination of the patient showed livores (mortis?) on the left forearm and left lower leg. Moreover, rigor (mortis?) of the left arm was apparent which prevented arm flexion and extension. The hypothermic patient with insufficient respiration was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Chest compressions were not performed, because central pulses were (hardly) palpable and a sinus bradycardia 45/min (AV-block 2 degrees and sole premature ventricular complexes) was present. After placement of an intravenous line (17 G, external jugular vein) the hemodynamic situation was stabilized with intermittent boli of epinephrine and with sodium bicarbonate. With improved circulation livores and rigor disappeared. In the present case a minimal central circulation was noted, which could be stabilized, despite the presence of certain signs of death ( livores and rigor mortis). Considering the finding of an abrogated peripheral perfusion (livores), we postulate a centripetal collapse of glycogen and ATP supply in the patients left arm (rigor), which was restored after resuscitation and reperfusion. Thus, it appears that livores and rigor are not sensitive enough to exclude a vita minima, in particular in hypothermic patients with intoxications. Consequently a careful ABC-check should be performed even in the presence of apparently certain signs of death, to avoid underdiagnosing a vita minima. Additional ECG- monitoring is required to reduce the rate of false positive declarations of death. To what extent basic life support by paramedics should commence when rigor and livores are present until physician DNR order, deserves further discussion.

  8. Enabling food security by verifying agricultural carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahiluoto, H; Smith, P; Moran, D

    2014-01-01

    Rewarding smallholders for sequestering carbon in agricultural land can improve food security while mitigating climate change. Verification of carbon offsets in food-insecure regions is possible and achievable through rigorously controlled monitoring......Rewarding smallholders for sequestering carbon in agricultural land can improve food security while mitigating climate change. Verification of carbon offsets in food-insecure regions is possible and achievable through rigorously controlled monitoring...

  9. An ultramicroscopic study on rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T

    1976-01-01

    Gastrocnemius muscles taken from decapitated mice at various intervals after death and from mice killed by 2,4-dinitrophenol or mono-iodoacetic acid injection to induce rigor mortis soon after death, were observed by electron microscopy. The prominent appearance of many fine cross striations in the myofibrils (occurring about every 400 A) was considered to be characteristic of rigor mortis. These striations were caused by minute granules studded along the surfaces of both thick and thin filaments and appeared to be the bridges connecting the 2 kinds of filaments and accounted for the hardness and rigidity of the muscle.

  10. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  11. USCIS E-Verify Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The report builds on the last comprehensive evaluation of the E-Verify Program and demonstrates that E-Verify produces accurate results and that accuracy rates have...

  12. The Rigor Mortis of Education: Rigor Is Required in a Dying Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Jason; Stuart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to answer the "Educational Call to Arms", our national public schools have turned to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as the predominate vehicle used to address the lack of academic rigor in our public high schools. Advanced Placement is believed by many to provide students with the rigor and work ethic necessary to…

  13. Trends: Rigor Mortis in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodget, Alden S.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines how past art education provided a refuge for students from the rigors of other academic subjects. Observes that in recent years art education has become "discipline based." Argues that art educators need to reaffirm their commitment to a humanistic way of knowing. (KM)

  14. Photoconductivity of amorphous silicon-rigorous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brada, P.; Schauer, F.

    1991-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to express our gratitude to Prof. Grigorovici, the pioneer of the exciting field of amorphous state by our modest contribution to this area. In this paper are presented the outline of the rigorous modelling program of the steady-state photoconductivity in amorphous silicon and related materials. (Author)

  15. Accelerating Biomedical Discoveries through Rigor and Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judith A; Brown, Liliana L; Murphy, Stephanie J; Grieder, Franziska; Silberberg, Shai D

    2017-07-01

    Difficulties in reproducing published research findings have garnered a lot of press in recent years. As a funder of biomedical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken measures to address underlying causes of low reproducibility. Extensive deliberations resulted in a policy, released in 2015, to enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. We briefly explain what led to the policy, describe its elements, provide examples and resources for the biomedical research community, and discuss the potential impact of the policy on translatability with a focus on research using animal models. Importantly, while increased attention to rigor and transparency may lead to an increase in the number of laboratory animals used in the near term, it will lead to more efficient and productive use of such resources in the long run. The translational value of animal studies will be improved through more rigorous assessment of experimental variables and data, leading to better assessments of the translational potential of animal models, for the benefit of the research community and society. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Analyser Framework to Verify Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important for software companies to build software systems in a short time-interval, to reduce costs and to have a good market position. Therefore well organized and systematic development approaches are required. Reusing software components, which are well tested, can be a good solution to develop software applications in effective manner. The reuse of software components is less expensive and less time consuming than a development from scratch. But it is dangerous to think that software components can be match together without any problems. Software components itself are well tested, of course, but even if they composed together problems occur. Most problems are based on interaction respectively communication. Avoiding such errors a framework has to be developed for analysing software components. That framework determines the compatibility of corresponding software components. The promising approach discussed here, presents a novel technique for analysing software components by applying an Abstract Syntax Language Tree (ASLT. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components. This article is concerned to the question how can be coupled software components verified by using an analyzer framework and determines the usage of the ASLT. Black-box Software Components and Abstract Syntax Language Tree are the basis for developing the proposed framework and are discussed here to provide the background knowledge. The practical implementation of this framework is discussed and shows the result by using a test environment.

  17. Towards Verifying National CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, I. Y.; Wuerth, S. M.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    With the Paris Agreement, nations around the world have pledged their voluntary reductions in future CO2 emissions. Satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 have the potential to verify self-reported emission statistics around the globe. We present a carbon-weather data assimilation system, wherein raw weather observations together with satellite observations of the mixing ratio of column CO2 from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are assimilated every 6 hours into the NCAR carbon-climate model CAM5 coupled to the Ensemble Kalman Filter of DART. In an OSSE, we reduced the fossil fuel emissions from a country, and estimated the emissions innovations demanded by the atmospheric CO2 observations. The uncertainties in the innovation are analyzed with respect to the uncertainties in the meteorology to determine the significance of the result. The work follows from "On the use of incomplete historical data to infer the present state of the atmosphere" (Charney et al. 1969), which maps the path for continuous data assimilation for weather forecasting and the five decades of progress since.

  18. Verifying FreeRTOS; a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study on modeling and verifying the kernel of Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS). The study will show advances in formally verifying such an RTOS both by refinement and by model checking approaches. This work fits in the context of Hoare’s verification challenge. Several

  19. Software metrics a rigorous and practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Norman

    2014-01-01

    A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and ProcessesReflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems.New to the Third EditionThis edition contains new material relevant

  20. Development of rigor mortis is not affected by muscle volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Ikegaya, H; Takase, I; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Iwase, H

    2001-04-01

    There is a hypothesis suggesting that rigor mortis progresses more rapidly in small muscles than in large muscles. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in rat musculus erector spinae that had been cut into muscle bundles of various volumes. The muscle volume did not influence either the progress or the resolution of rigor mortis, which contradicts the hypothesis. Differences in pre-rigor load on the muscles influenced the onset and resolution of rigor mortis in a few pairs of samples, but did not influence the time taken for rigor mortis to reach its full extent after death. Moreover, the progress of rigor mortis in this muscle was biphasic; this may reflect the early rigor of red muscle fibres and the late rigor of white muscle fibres.

  1. The status of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported

  2. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sergi; Neipp, Cristian; Estepa, Luis A.; Ortuño, Manuel; Márquez, Andrés; Francés, Jorge; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW) or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW). The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  3. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Beléndez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW. The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  4. USCIS E-Verify Self-Check

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — E-Verify is an internet based system that contains datasets to compare information from an employee's Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, to data from the...

  5. Auto-identification fiberoptical seal verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Mukaiyama, Takehiro

    1998-08-01

    An auto COBRA seal verifier was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to provide more efficient and simpler inspection measures for IAEA safeguards. The verifier is designed to provide means of a simple, quantitative and objective judgment on in-situ verification for the COBRA seal. The equipment is a portable unit with hand-held weight and size. It can be operated by battery or AC power. The verifier reads a COBRA seal signature by using a built-in CCD camera and carries out the signature comparison procedure automatically on digital basis. The result of signature comparison is given as a YES/NO answer. The production model of the verifier was completed in July 1996. The development was carried out in collaboration with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. This report describes the design and functions of the COBRA seal verifier and the results of environmental and functional tests. The development of the COBRA seal verifier was carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JD-4 since 1981. (author)

  6. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Rigor in Qualitative Supply Chain Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn

    2012-01-01

    , reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper...

  8. Statistics for mathematicians a rigorous first course

    CERN Document Server

    Panaretos, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides a coherent introduction to the main concepts and methods of one-parameter statistical inference. Intended for students of Mathematics taking their first course in Statistics, the focus is on Statistics for Mathematicians rather than on Mathematical Statistics. The goal is not to focus on the mathematical/theoretical aspects of the subject, but rather to provide an introduction to the subject tailored to the mindset and tastes of Mathematics students, who are sometimes turned off by the informal nature of Statistics courses. This book can be used as the basis for an elementary semester-long first course on Statistics with a firm sense of direction that does not sacrifice rigor. The deeper goal of the text is to attract the attention of promising Mathematics students.

  9. Studies on the estimation of the postmortem interval. 3. Rigor mortis (author's transl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzutani, T; Ishibashi, H; Takatori, T

    1978-11-01

    The authors have devised a method for classifying rigor mortis into 10 types based on its appearance and strength in various parts of a cadaver. By applying the method to the findings of 436 cadavers which were subjected to medico-legal autopsies in our laboratory during the last 10 years, it has been demonstrated that the classifying method is effective for analyzing the phenomenon of onset, persistence and disappearance of rigor mortis statistically. The investigation of the relationship between each type of rigor mortis and the postmortem interval has demonstrated that rigor mortis may be utilized as a basis for estimating the postmortem interval but the values have greater deviation than those described in current textbooks.

  10. Feedback for relatedness and competence : Can feedback in blended learning contribute to optimal rigor, basic needs, and motivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bombaerts, G.; Nickel, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    We inquire how peer and tutor feedback influences students' optimal rigor, basic needs and motivation. We analyze questionnaires from two courses in two subsequent years. We conclude that feedback in blended learning can contribute to rigor and basic needs, but it is not clear from our data what

  11. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  12. Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force. Somnath Basu Anindita Bose Sumit Kumar Sinha Pankaj Vishe S Chatterjee. Classroom Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 81-86 ...

  13. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  14. Verified compilation of Concurrent Managed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Communications Division Information Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and its...271, 2007. [85] Viktor Vafeiadis. Modular fine-grained concurrency verification. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR- 726, University of Cambridge, Computer...VERIFIED COMPILATION OF CONCURRENT MANAGED LANGUAGES PURDUE UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

  15. A Verifiable Secret Shuffle of Homomorphic Encryptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Jens

    2003-01-01

    We show how to prove in honest verifier zero-knowledge the correctness of a shuffle of homomorphic encryptions (or homomorphic commitments.) A shuffle consists in a rearrangement of the input ciphertexts and a reencryption of them so that the permutation is not revealed....

  16. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Chong Hoon; Kim, Gun Yeup

    2015-01-01

    Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955)] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO) through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1) the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecular hyperpolarizabilities, (2) the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect), optical Kerr effect (OKE), dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and third harmonic generation (THG). We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR), Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG) are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR), dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG) and pump-probe transmission are presented

  17. A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continues to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests

  18. Optimised resource construction for verifiable quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashefi, Elham; Wallden, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments have brought the possibility of achieving scalable quantum networks and quantum devices closer. From the computational point of view these emerging technologies become relevant when they are no longer classically simulatable. Hence a pressing challenge is the construction of practical methods to verify the correctness of the outcome produced by universal or non-universal quantum devices. A promising approach that has been extensively explored is the scheme of verification via encryption through blind quantum computation. We present here a new construction that simplifies the required resources for any such verifiable protocol. We obtain an overhead that is linear in the size of the input (computation), while the security parameter remains independent of the size of the computation and can be made exponentially small (with a small extra cost). Furthermore our construction is generic and could be applied to any universal or non-universal scheme with a given underlying graph. (paper)

  19. A Practical Voter-Verifiable Election Scheme.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaum, D; Ryan, PYA; Schneider, SA

    2005-01-01

    We present an election scheme designed to allow voters to verify that their vote is accurately included in the count. The scheme provides a high degree of transparency whilst ensuring the secrecy of votes. Assurance is derived from close auditing of all the steps of the vote recording and counting process with minimal dependence on the system components. Thus, assurance arises from verification of the election rather than having to place trust in the correct behaviour of components of the vot...

  20. Rigorous high-precision enclosures of fixed points and their invariant manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Alexander N.

    The well established concept of Taylor Models is introduced, which offer highly accurate C0 enclosures of functional dependencies, combining high-order polynomial approximation of functions and rigorous estimates of the truncation error, performed using verified arithmetic. The focus of this work is on the application of Taylor Models in algorithms for strongly non-linear dynamical systems. A method is proposed to extend the existing implementation of Taylor Models in COSY INFINITY from double precision coefficients to arbitrary precision coefficients. Great care is taken to maintain the highest efficiency possible by adaptively adjusting the precision of higher order coefficients in the polynomial expansion. High precision operations are based on clever combinations of elementary floating point operations yielding exact values for round-off errors. An experimental high precision interval data type is developed and implemented. Algorithms for the verified computation of intrinsic functions based on the High Precision Interval datatype are developed and described in detail. The application of these operations in the implementation of High Precision Taylor Models is discussed. An application of Taylor Model methods to the verification of fixed points is presented by verifying the existence of a period 15 fixed point in a near standard Henon map. Verification is performed using different verified methods such as double precision Taylor Models, High Precision intervals and High Precision Taylor Models. Results and performance of each method are compared. An automated rigorous fixed point finder is implemented, allowing the fully automated search for all fixed points of a function within a given domain. It returns a list of verified enclosures of each fixed point, optionally verifying uniqueness within these enclosures. An application of the fixed point finder to the rigorous analysis of beam transfer maps in accelerator physics is presented. Previous work done by

  1. Rigor or mortis: best practices for preclinical research in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Oswald; Balice-Gordon, Rita

    2014-11-05

    Numerous recent reports document a lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies, raising concerns about potential lack of rigor. Examples of lack of rigor have been extensively documented and proposals for practices to improve rigor are appearing. Here, we discuss some of the details and implications of previously proposed best practices and consider some new ones, focusing on preclinical studies relevant to human neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Experimental study of restiffening of the rigor mortis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, M; Liao, Z G; Yi, X F; Peng, X M

    2001-11-01

    To observe changes of the length of sarcomere of rat when restiffening. We measured the length of sarcomere of quadriceps in 40 rats in different condition by scanning electron microscope. The length of sarcomere of rigor mortis without destroy is obviously shorter than that of restiffening. The length of sarcomere is negatively correlative to the intensity of rigor mortis. Measuring the length of sarcomere can determine the intensity of rigor mortis and provide evidence for estimation of time since death.

  3. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankhaya Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.

  4. Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 796 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 18th... International Workshop on Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems, 5 - 8 July 2016, Bucharest, Romania Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata Laurette Marais1,2 and Lynette van Zijl1(B) 1 Department of Computer Science, Stellenbosch...

  5. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  6. Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION): A Tool for Analyzing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Shropshire, David E.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Yacout, A.M.; Schweitzer, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that are intended to work together. To support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system such as how the system would respond to each technological change, a series of which moves the fuel cycle from where it is to a postulated future state. The system analysis working group of the United States research program on advanced fuel cycles (formerly called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION. For example, VISION users can now change yearly the selection of separation or reactor technologies, the performance characteristics of those technologies, and/or the routing of material among separation and reactor types - with the model still operating on a PC in <5 min.

  7. Long persistence of rigor mortis at constant low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varetto, Lorenzo; Curto, Ombretta

    2005-01-06

    We studied the persistence of rigor mortis by using physical manipulation. We tested the mobility of the knee on 146 corpses kept under refrigeration at Torino's city mortuary at a constant temperature of +4 degrees C. We found a persistence of complete rigor lasting for 10 days in all the cadavers we kept under observation; and in one case, rigor lasted for 16 days. Between the 11th and the 17th days, a progressively increasing number of corpses showed a change from complete into partial rigor (characterized by partial bending of the articulation). After the 17th day, all the remaining corpses showed partial rigor and in the two cadavers that were kept under observation "à outrance" we found the absolute resolution of rigor mortis occurred on the 28th day. Our results prove that it is possible to find a persistence of rigor mortis that is much longer than the expected when environmental conditions resemble average outdoor winter temperatures in temperate zones. Therefore, this datum must be considered when a corpse is found in those environmental conditions so that when estimating the time of death, we are not misled by the long persistence of rigor mortis.

  8. Rigorous solution to Bargmann-Wigner equation for integer spin

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Shi Zhong; Wu Ning; Zheng Zhi Peng

    2002-01-01

    A rigorous method is developed to solve the Bargamann-Wigner equation for arbitrary integer spin in coordinate representation in a step by step way. The Bargmann-Wigner equation is first transformed to a form easier to solve, the new equations are then solved rigorously in coordinate representation, and the wave functions in a closed form are thus derived

  9. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously

  10. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  11. Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Joao G.M.; Schwalbach, Peter; Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

  12. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  13. Psychological and social aspects verified after the Goiania's radioactive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana

    1995-01-01

    Psychological and social aspects verified after the radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city - are discussed. With this goal was going presented a public opinion research in order to retract the Goiania's radioactive accident residual psychological effects. They were going consolidated data obtained in 1.126 interviews. Four involvement different levels groups with the accident are compared with regard to the event. The research allowed to conclude that the accident affected psychologically somehow all Goiania's population. Besides, the research allowed to analyze the professionals performance quality standard in terms of the accident

  14. Verifying pronunciation dictionaries using conflict analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a new language-independent technique for automatically identifying errors in an electronic pronunciation dictionary by analyzing the source of conflicting patterns directly.They evaluate the effectiveness of the technique in two...

  15. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VII. Effect of ante- and post-mortem electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Bergerioux, C

    1988-01-01

    The influence of electrocution on the evolution of rigor mortis was studied on rats. Our experiments showed that: (1) Electrocution hastens the onset of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, a complete rigor develops already 1 h post-mortem (p.m.) compared to 5 h p.m. for the controls. (2) Electrocution hastens the passing of rigor mortis. After an electrocution of 90 s, the first significant decrease occurs at 3 h p.m. (8 h p.m. in the controls). (3) These modifications in rigor mortis evolution are less pronounced in the limbs not directly touched by the electric current. (4) In case of post-mortem electrocution, the changes are slightly less pronounced, the resistance is higher and the absorbed energy is lower as compared with the ante-mortem electrocution cases. The results are completed by two practical observations on human electrocution cases.

  16. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  17. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  18. Recent Development in Rigorous Computational Methods in Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Zin; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Pilarczyk, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    We highlight selected results of recent development in the area of rigorous computations which use interval arithmetic to analyse dynamical systems. We describe general ideas and selected details of different ways of approach and we provide specific sample applications to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods. The emphasis is put on a topological approach, which combined with rigorous calculations provides a broad range of new methods that yield mathematically rel...

  19. Rigorous simulations of a helical core fiber by the use of transformation optics formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2014-09-22

    We report for the first time on rigorous numerical simulations of a helical-core fiber by using a full vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. We modeled the dependence of circular birefringence of the fundamental mode on the helix pitch and analyzed the effect of a birefringence increase caused by the mode displacement induced by a core twist. Furthermore, we analyzed the complex field evolution versus the helix pitch in the first order modes, including polarization and intensity distribution. Finally, we show that the use of the rigorous vectorial method allows to better predict the confinement loss of the guided modes compared to approximate methods based on equivalent in-plane bending models.

  20. Tenderness of pre- and post rigor lamb longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesink, Geert; Sujang, Sadi; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2011-08-01

    Lamb longissimus muscle (n=6) sections were cooked at different times post mortem (prerigor, at rigor, 1dayp.m., and 7 days p.m.) using two cooking methods. Using a boiling waterbath, samples were either cooked to a core temperature of 70 °C or boiled for 3h. The latter method was meant to reflect the traditional cooking method employed in countries where preparation of prerigor meat is practiced. The time postmortem at which the meat was prepared had a large effect on the tenderness (shear force) of the meat (PCooking prerigor and at rigor meat to 70 °C resulted in higher shear force values than their post rigor counterparts at 1 and 7 days p.m. (9.4 and 9.6 vs. 7.2 and 3.7 kg, respectively). The differences in tenderness between the treatment groups could be largely explained by a difference in contraction status of the meat after cooking and the effect of ageing on tenderness. Cooking pre and at rigor meat resulted in severe muscle contraction as evidenced by the differences in sarcomere length of the cooked samples. Mean sarcomere lengths in the pre and at rigor samples ranged from 1.05 to 1.20 μm. The mean sarcomere length in the post rigor samples was 1.44 μm. Cooking for 3 h at 100 °C did improve the tenderness of pre and at rigor prepared meat as compared to cooking to 70 °C, but not to the extent that ageing did. It is concluded that additional intervention methods are needed to improve the tenderness of prerigor cooked meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Verifying competence of operations personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    To ensure that only competent people are authorized to fill positions in a nuclear power plant, both the initial competence of personnel and the continuous maintenance of competence have to be verified. Two main methods are normally used for verifying competence, namely evaluation of a person's performance over a period of time, and evaluation of his knowledge and skills at a particular time by means of an examination. Both methods have limitations, and in practice they are often used together to give different and to some extent complementary evaluations of a person's competence. Verification of competence itself is a problem area, because objective judging of human competence is extremely difficult. Formal verification methods, such as tests and examinations, are particularly or exclusively applied for the direct operating personnel in the control room (very rarely for management personnel). Out of the many elements contributing to a person's competence, the knowledge which is needed and the intellectual skills are the main subjects of the formal verification methods. Therefore the presentation will concentrate on the proof of the technical qualification of operators by means of examinations. The examination process in the Federal Republic of Germany for the proof of knowledge and skills will serve as an example to describe and analyze the important aspects. From that recommendations are derived regarding standardization of the procedure as well as validation. (orig./GL)

  2. A rigorous derivation of gravitational self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralla, Samuel E; Wald, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    There is general agreement that the MiSaTaQuWa equations should describe the motion of a 'small body' in general relativity, taking into account the leading order self-force effects. However, previous derivations of these equations have made a number of ad hoc assumptions and/or contain a number of unsatisfactory features. For example, all previous derivations have invoked, without proper justification, the step of 'Lorenz gauge relaxation', wherein the linearized Einstein equation is written in the form appropriate to the Lorenz gauge, but the Lorenz gauge condition is then not imposed-thereby making the resulting equations for the metric perturbation inequivalent to the linearized Einstein equations. (Such a 'relaxation' of the linearized Einstein equations is essential in order to avoid the conclusion that 'point particles' move on geodesics.) In this paper, we analyze the issue of 'particle motion' in general relativity in a systematic and rigorous way by considering a one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ), corresponding to having a body (or black hole) that is 'scaled down' to zero size and mass in an appropriate manner. We prove that the limiting worldline of such a one-parameter family must be a geodesic of the background metric, g ab (λ = 0). Gravitational self-force-as well as the force due to coupling of the spin of the body to curvature-then arises as a first-order perturbative correction in λ to this worldline. No assumptions are made in our analysis apart from the smoothness and limit properties of the one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ). Our approach should provide a framework for systematically calculating higher order corrections to gravitational self-force, including higher multipole effects, although we do not attempt to go beyond first-order calculations here. The status of the MiSaTaQuWa equations is explained

  3. A control system verifier using automated reasoning software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-08-01

    An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logical axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions of the combined system

  4. Estimation of the breaking of rigor mortis by myotonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vain, A; Kauppila, R; Vuori, E

    1996-05-31

    Myotonometry was used to detect breaking of rigor mortis. The myotonometer is a new instrument which measures the decaying oscillations of a muscle after a brief mechanical impact. The method gives two numerical parameters for rigor mortis, namely the period and decrement of the oscillations, both of which depend on the time period elapsed after death. In the case of breaking the rigor mortis by muscle lengthening, both the oscillation period and decrement decreased, whereas, shortening the muscle caused the opposite changes. Fourteen h after breaking the stiffness characteristics of the right and left m. biceps brachii, or oscillation periods, were assimilated. However, the values for decrement of the muscle, reflecting the dissipation of mechanical energy, maintained their differences.

  5. USCIS E-Verify Customer Satisfaction Survey, January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report focuses on the customer satisfaction of companies currently enrolled in the E-Verify program. Satisfaction with E-Verify remains high and follows up a...

  6. New concepts in nuclear arms control: verified cutoff and verified disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the numbers of nuclear warheads by reducing military production and stockpiles of fissionable materials has been a constant item on the nuclear arms control agenda for the last 45 years. It has become more salient recently, however, because of two events: the enforced closure for safety reasons of the current United States military plutonium production facilities; and the possibility that the US and USSR may soon conclude an agreement providing for the verified destruction of significant numbers of nuclear warheads and the recovery of the fissionable material they contain with the option of transferring these materials to peaceful uses. A study has been made of the practical problems of verifying the cut off of fissionable material production for military purposes in the nuclear weapon states, as well as providing assurance that material recovered from warheads is not re-used for proscribed military purposes and facilitating its transfer to civil uses. Implementation of such measures would have important implications for non-proliferation. The resultant paper was presented to a meeting of the PPNN Core Group held in Baden, close to Vienna, over the weekend of 18/19th November 1989 and is reprinted in this booklet. (author)

  7. Physiological studies of muscle rigor mortis in the fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, S.; Kaneko, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1990-01-01

    A simple system was developed for continuous measurement of muscle contraction during nor mortis. Longitudinal muscle strips dissected from the Peroneus Longus were suspended in a plastic tube containing liquid paraffin. Mechanical activity was transmitted to a strain-gauge transducer which is connected to a potentiometric pen-recorder. At the onset of measurement 1.2g was loaded on the muscle strip. This model was used to study the muscle response to various treatments during nor mortis. All measurements were carried out under the anaerobic condition at 17°C, except otherwise stated. 1. The present system was found to be quite useful for continuous measurement of muscle rigor course. 2. Muscle contraction under the anaerobic condition at 17°C reached a peak about 2 hours after the onset of measurement and thereafter it relaxed at a slow rate. In contrast, the aerobic condition under a high humidity resulted in a strong rigor, about three times stronger than that in the anaerobic condition. 3. Ultrasonic treatment (37, 000-47, 000Hz) at 25°C for 10 minutes resulted in a moderate muscle rigor. 4. Treatment of muscle strip with 2mM EGTA at 30°C for 30 minutes led to a relaxation of the muscle. 5. The muscle from the birds killed during anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium resulted in a slow rate of rigor, whereas the birds killed one day after hypophysectomy led to a quick muscle rigor as seen in intact controls. 6. A slight muscle rigor was observed when muscle strip was placed in a refrigerator at 0°C for 18.5 hours and thereafter temperature was kept at 17°C. (author)

  8. Verified Interval Orbit Propagation in Satellite Collision Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römgens, B.A.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verified interval integration methods enclose a solution set corresponding to interval initial values and parameters, and bound integration and rounding errors. Verified methods suffer from overestimation of the solution, i.e., non-solutions are also included in the solution enclosure. Two verified

  9. 20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verifying your identity. 401.45 Section 401... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying your identity. (a) When required. Unless you are making a... representative, you must verify your identity in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section if: (1) You make a...

  10. 28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verifying your identity. 802.13 Section... COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.13 Verifying your identity. (a) Requests for your own records. When you make a request for access to records about yourself, you must verify your identity. You...

  11. A Framework for Rigorously Identifying Research Gaps in Qualitative Literature Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Kranz, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Identifying research gaps is a fundamental goal of literature reviewing. While it is widely acknowledged that literature reviews should identify research gaps, there are no methodological guidelines for how to identify research gaps in qualitative literature reviews ensuring rigor and replicability....... Our study addresses this gap and proposes a framework that should help scholars in this endeavor without stifling creativity. To develop the framework we thoroughly analyze the state-of-the-art procedure of identifying research gaps in 40 recent literature reviews using a grounded theory approach....... Based on the data, we subsequently derive a framework for identifying research gaps in qualitative literature reviews and demonstrate its application with an example. Our results provide a modus operandi for identifying research gaps, thus enabling scholars to conduct literature reviews more rigorously...

  12. Reconciling the Rigor-Relevance Dilemma in Intellectual Capital Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of research methodology for intellectual capital and other types of management research by focusing on the dilemma of rigour versus relevance. The more traditional explanatory approach to research often leads to rigorous results that are not of much help to solve practical problems. This paper describes an alternative…

  13. Paper 3: Content and Rigor of Algebra Credit Recovery Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kirk; Stachel, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the content, organization and rigor of the f2f and online summer algebra courses that were delivered in summers 2011 and 2012. Examining the content of both types of courses is important because research suggests that algebra courses with certain features may be better than others in promoting success for struggling students.…

  14. A rigorous treatment of uncertainty quantification for Silicon damage metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.

    2016-01-01

    These report summaries the contributions made by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Data Section (NDS) Technical Meeting (TM) on Nuclear Reaction Data and Uncertainties for Radiation Damage. This work focused on a rigorous treatment of the uncertainties affecting the characterization of the displacement damage seen in silicon semiconductors. (author)

  15. Effects of post mortem temperature on rigor tension, shortening and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fully developed rigor mortis in muscle is characterised by maximum loss of extensibility. The course of post mortem changes in ostrich muscle was studied by following isometric tension, shortening and change in pH during the first 24 h post mortem within muscle strips from the muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna at ...

  16. Characterization of rigor mortis of longissimus dorsi and triceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24 h) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles as well as the shear force (meat tenderness) and colour were evaluated, aiming at characterizing the rigor mortis in the meat during industrial processing. Data statistic treatment demonstrated that carcass temperature and pH decreased gradually during ...

  17. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  18. A rigorous proof for the Landauer-Büttiker formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Jensen, Arne; Moldoveanu, V.

    Recently, Avron et al. shed new light on the question of quantum transport in mesoscopic samples coupled to particle reservoirs by semi-infinite leads. They rigorously treat the case when the sample undergoes an adiabatic evolution thus generating a current through th leads, and prove the so call...

  19. Rigorous simulation: a tool to enhance decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiva, Raquel; Larson, Mel; Baks, Arjan [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The world refining industries continue to be challenged by population growth (increased demand), regional market changes and the pressure of regulatory requirements to operate a 'green' refinery. Environmental regulations are reducing the value and use of heavy fuel oils, and leading to convert more of the heavier products or even heavier crude into lighter products while meeting increasingly stringent transportation fuel specifications. As a result actions are required for establishing a sustainable advantage for future success. Rigorous simulation provides a key advantage improving the time and efficient use of capital investment and maximizing profitability. Sustainably maximizing profit through rigorous modeling is achieved through enhanced performance monitoring and improved Linear Programme (LP) model accuracy. This paper contains examples on these two items. The combination of both increases overall rates of return. As refiners consider optimizing existing assets and expanding projects, the process agreed to achieve these goals is key for a successful profit improvement. The benefit of rigorous kinetic simulation with detailed fractionation allows for optimizing existing asset utilization while focusing the capital investment in the new unit(s), and therefore optimizing the overall strategic plan and return on investment. Individual process unit's monitoring works as a mechanism for validating and optimizing the plant performance. Unit monitoring is important to rectify poor performance and increase profitability. The key to a good LP relies upon the accuracy of the data used to generate the LP sub-model data. The value of rigorous unit monitoring are that the results are heat and mass balanced consistently, and are unique for a refiners unit / refinery. With the improved match of the refinery operation, the rigorous simulation models will allow capturing more accurately the non linearity of those process units and therefore provide correct

  20. Application of automated reasoning software: procedure generation system verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

    1984-09-01

    An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logic axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions gathered by the combined system

  1. A Finite Equivalence of Verifiable Multi-secret Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give an abstraction of verifiable multi-secret sharing schemes that is accessible to a fully mechanized analysis. This abstraction is formalized within the applied pi-calculus by using an equational theory which characterizes the cryptographic semantics of secret share. We also present an encoding from the equational theory into a convergent rewriting system, which is suitable for the automated protocol verifier ProVerif. Based on that, we verify the threshold certificate protocol in ProVerif.

  2. Einstein's Theory A Rigorous Introduction for the Mathematically Untrained

    CERN Document Server

    Grøn, Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the theory of relativity and the mathematics used in its processes. Three elements of the book make it stand apart from previously published books on the theory of relativity. First, the book starts at a lower mathematical level than standard books with tensor calculus of sufficient maturity to make it possible to give detailed calculations of relativistic predictions of practical experiments. Self-contained introductions are given, for example vector calculus, differential calculus and integrations. Second, in-between calculations have been included, making it possible for the non-technical reader to follow step-by-step calculations. Thirdly, the conceptual development is gradual and rigorous in order to provide the inexperienced reader with a philosophically satisfying understanding of the theory.  Einstein's Theory: A Rigorous Introduction for the Mathematically Untrained aims to provide the reader with a sound conceptual understanding of both the special and genera...

  3. Rigor mortis in an unusual position: Forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak H; Harish, S; Rajesh, M; Kiran, J

    2011-07-01

    We report a case in which the dead body was found with rigor mortis in an unusual position. The dead body was lying on its back with limbs raised, defying gravity. Direction of the salivary stains on the face was also defying the gravity. We opined that the scene of occurrence of crime is unlikely to be the final place where the dead body was found. The clues were revealing a homicidal offence and an attempt to destroy the evidence. The forensic use of 'rigor mortis in an unusual position' is in furthering the investigations, and the scientific confirmation of two facts - the scene of death (occurrence) is different from the scene of disposal of dead body, and time gap between the two places.

  4. Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, P.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first- and second-order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first-order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille--Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first- and second-order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0

  5. Some rigorous results concerning spectral theory for ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, P.

    1985-05-01

    Spectral theory for linear ideal MHD is laid on a firm foundation by defining appropriate function spaces for the operators associated with both the first and second order (in time and space) partial differential operators. Thus, it is rigorously established that a self-adjoint extension of F(xi) exists. It is shown that the operator L associated with the first order formulation satisfies the conditions of the Hille-Yosida theorem. A foundation is laid thereby within which the domains associated with the first and second order formulations can be compared. This allows future work in a rigorous setting that will clarify the differences (in the two formulations) between the structure of the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the marginal point of the spectrum ω = 0

  6. Effects of Pre and Post-Rigor Marinade Injection on Some Quality Parameters of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadıloğlu, Eylem Ezgi; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre and post-rigor marinade injections on some quality parameters of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. Three marinade formulations were prepared with 2% NaCl, 2% NaCl+0.5 M lactic acid and 2% NaCl+0.5 M sodium lactate. In this study marinade uptake, pH, free water, cooking loss, drip loss and color properties were analyzed. Injection time had significant effect on marinade uptake levels of samples. Regardless of marinate formulation, marinade uptake of pre-rigor samples injected with marinade solutions were higher than post rigor samples. Injection of sodium lactate increased pH values of samples whereas lactic acid injection decreased pH. Marinade treatment and storage period had significant effect on cooking loss. At each evaluation period interaction between marinade treatment and injection time showed different effect on free water content. Storage period and marinade application had significant effect on drip loss values. Drip loss in all samples increased during the storage. During all storage days, lowest CIE L* value was found in pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate. Lactic acid injection caused color fade in pre-rigor and post-rigor samples. Interaction between marinade treatment and storage period was found statistically significant (p<0.05). At day 0 and 3, the lowest CIE b* values obtained pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate and there were no differences were found in other samples. At day 6, no significant differences were found in CIE b* values of all samples. PMID:29805282

  7. Rigorous results on measuring the quark charge below color threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Rigorous theorems are presented showing that contributions from a color nonsinglet component of the current to matrix elements of a second order electromagnetic transition are suppressed by factors inversely proportional to the energy of the color threshold. Parton models which obtain matrix elements proportional to the color average of the square of the quark charge are shown to neglect terms of the same order of magnitude as terms kept. (author)

  8. Striation Patterns of Ox Muscle in Rigor Mortis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Ronald H.

    1959-01-01

    Ox muscle in rigor mortis offers a selection of myofibrils fixed at varying degrees of contraction from sarcomere lengths of 3.7 to 0.7 µ. A study of this material by phase contrast and electron microscopy has revealed four distinct successive patterns of contraction, including besides the familiar relaxed and contracture patterns, two intermediate types (2.4 to 1.9 µ, 1.8 to 1.5 µ) not previously well described. PMID:14417790

  9. Rigorous Analysis of a Randomised Number Field Sieve

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonathan; Venkatesan, Ramarathnam

    2018-01-01

    Factorisation of integers $n$ is of number theoretic and cryptographic significance. The Number Field Sieve (NFS) introduced circa 1990, is still the state of the art algorithm, but no rigorous proof that it halts or generates relationships is known. We propose and analyse an explicitly randomised variant. For each $n$, we show that these randomised variants of the NFS and Coppersmith's multiple polynomial sieve find congruences of squares in expected times matching the best-known heuristic e...

  10. Reciprocity relations in transmission electron microscopy: A rigorous derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Florian F; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A concise derivation of the principle of reciprocity applied to realistic transmission electron microscopy setups is presented making use of the multislice formalism. The equivalence of images acquired in conventional and scanning mode is thereby rigorously shown. The conditions for the applicability of the found reciprocity relations is discussed. Furthermore the positions of apertures in relation to the corresponding lenses are considered, a subject which scarcely has been addressed in previous publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M

    2015-09-01

    Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. Strategies for achieving trustworthiness were also introduced. This landmark contribution to qualitative research remains in use today, with only minor modifications in format. Despite the significance of this contribution over the past four decades, the strategies recommended to achieve trustworthiness have not been critically examined. Recommendations for where, why, and how to use these strategies have not been developed, and how well they achieve their intended goal has not been examined. We do not know, for example, what impact these strategies have on the completed research. In this article, I critique these strategies. I recommend that qualitative researchers return to the terminology of social sciences, using rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability. I then make recommendations for the appropriate use of the strategies recommended to achieve rigor: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and thick, rich description; inter-rater reliability, negative case analysis; peer review or debriefing; clarifying researcher bias; member checking; external audits; and triangulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Dynamic Symmetric Key Mobile Commerce Scheme Based on Self-Verified Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the security and efficiency of mobile e-commerce, the authors summarized the advantages and disadvantages of several related schemes, especially the self-verified mobile payment scheme based on the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC and then proposed a new type of dynamic symmetric key mobile commerce scheme based on self-verified mechanism. The authors analyzed the basic algorithm based on self-verified mechanisms and detailed the complete transaction process of the proposed scheme. The authors analyzed the payment scheme based on the security and high efficiency index. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme not only meets the high efficiency of mobile electronic payment premise, but also takes the security into account. The user confirmation mechanism at the end of the proposed scheme further strengthens the security of the proposed scheme. In brief, the proposed scheme is more efficient and practical than most of the existing schemes.

  13. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert, E-mail: janalbert.wessels@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Environmental Assessment, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Australia. (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  14. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert; Retief, Francois; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  15. Regressive transgressive cycle of Devonian sea in Uruguay verified by Palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the results and conclusions of the populations palinomorphs study, carried out in Devonian formations in the center of Uruguay. The existence of a regressive transgressive cycle is verified by analyzing the vertical distribution of palinomorphs as well as is mentioned the presence of chintziest for the section studied - hoesphaeridium Cyathochitina kinds

  16. New rigorous asymptotic theorems for inverse scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomsadze, Sh.Yu.; Lomsadze, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The rigorous asymptotic theorems both of integral and local types obtained earlier and establishing logarithmic and in some cases even power correlations aetdeen the real and imaginary parts of scattering amplitudes Fsub(+-) are extended to the inverse amplitudes 1/Fsub(+-). One also succeeds in establishing power correlations of a new type between the real and imaginary parts, both for the amplitudes themselves and for the inverse ones. All the obtained assertions are convenient to be tested in high energy experiments when the amplitudes show asymptotic behaviour

  17. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  18. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  19. Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate: Technical Companion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckman, Nels E; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In this technical report, we present a static and dynamic semantics as well as a proof of soundness for a programming language presented in the paper entitled, 'Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate...

  20. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  1. Sonoelasticity to monitor mechanical changes during rigor and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A; Culioli, J; Abouelkaram, S

    2007-06-01

    We propose the use of sonoelasticity as a non-destructive method to monitor changes in the resistance of muscle fibres, unaffected by connective tissue. Vibrations were applied at low frequency to induce oscillations in soft tissues and an ultrasound transducer was used to detect the motions. The experiments were carried out on the M. biceps femoris muscles of three beef cattle. In addition to the sonoelasticity measurements, the changes in meat during rigor and ageing were followed by measurements of both the mechanical resistance of myofibres and pH. The variations of mechanical resistance and pH were compared to those of the sonoelastic variables (velocity and attenuation) at two frequencies. The relationships between pH and velocity or attenuation and between the velocity or attenuation and the stress at 20% deformation were highly correlated. We concluded that sonoelasticity is a non-destructive method that can be used to monitor mechanical changes in muscle fibers during rigor-mortis and ageing.

  2. Rigorous quantum limits on monitoring free masses and harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    There are heuristic arguments proposing that the accuracy of monitoring position of a free mass m is limited by the standard quantum limit (SQL): σ2( X (t ) ) ≥σ2( X (0 ) ) +(t2/m2) σ2( P (0 ) ) ≥ℏ t /m , where σ2( X (t ) ) and σ2( P (t ) ) denote variances of the Heisenberg representation position and momentum operators. Yuen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 719 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.51.719] discovered that there are contractive states for which this result is incorrect. Here I prove universally valid rigorous quantum limits (RQL), viz. rigorous upper and lower bounds on σ2( X (t ) ) in terms of σ2( X (0 ) ) and σ2( P (0 ) ) , given by Eq. (12) for a free mass and by Eq. (36) for an oscillator. I also obtain the maximally contractive and maximally expanding states which saturate the RQL, and use the contractive states to set up an Ozawa-type measurement theory with accuracies respecting the RQL but beating the standard quantum limit. The contractive states for oscillators improve on the Schrödinger coherent states of constant variance and may be useful for gravitational wave detection and optical communication.

  3. A rigorous test for a new conceptual model for collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, E.M.A.; Mu-Tao, L.

    1979-01-01

    A rigorous theoretical foundation for the previously proposed model is formulated and applied to electron scattering by H 2 in the gas phase. An rigorous treatment of the interaction potential between the incident electron and the Hydrogen molecule is carried out to calculate Differential Cross Sections for 1 KeV electrons, using Glauber's approximation Wang's molecular wave function for the ground electronic state of H 2 . Moreover, it is shown for the first time that, when adequately done, the omission of two center terms does not adversely influence the results of molecular calculations. It is shown that the new model is far superior to the Independent Atom Model (or Independent Particle Model). The accuracy and simplicity of the new model suggest that it may be fruitfully applied to the description of other collision phenomena (e.g., in molecular beam experiments and nuclear physics). A new techniques is presented for calculations involving two center integrals within the frame work of the Glauber's approximation for scattering. (Author) [pt

  4. A methodology for the rigorous verification of plasma simulation codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    The methodology used to assess the reliability of numerical simulation codes constitutes the Verification and Validation (V&V) procedure. V&V is composed by two separate tasks: the verification, which is a mathematical issue targeted to assess that the physical model is correctly solved, and the validation, which determines the consistency of the code results, and therefore of the physical model, with experimental data. In the present talk we focus our attention on the verification, which in turn is composed by the code verification, targeted to assess that a physical model is correctly implemented in a simulation code, and the solution verification, that quantifies the numerical error affecting a simulation. Bridging the gap between plasma physics and other scientific domains, we introduced for the first time in our domain a rigorous methodology for the code verification, based on the method of manufactured solutions, as well as a solution verification based on the Richardson extrapolation. This methodology was applied to GBS, a three-dimensional fluid code based on a finite difference scheme, used to investigate the plasma turbulence in basic plasma physics experiments and in the tokamak scrape-off layer. Overcoming the difficulty of dealing with a numerical method intrinsically affected by statistical noise, we have now generalized the rigorous verification methodology to simulation codes based on the particle-in-cell algorithm, which are employed to solve Vlasov equation in the investigation of a number of plasma physics phenomena.

  5. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis IX. The influence of the breaking (mechanical solution) on the development of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, Thomas; Gilles, André; Brandt-Casadevall, Conception; Mangin, Patrice

    2008-04-07

    Objective measurements were carried out to study the possible re-establishment of rigor mortis on rats after "breaking" (mechanical solution). Our experiments showed that: *Cadaveric rigidity can re-establish after breaking. *A significant rigidity can reappear if the breaking occurs before the process is complete. *Rigidity will be considerably weaker after the breaking. *The time course of the intensity does not change in comparison to the controls: --the re-establishment begins immediately after the breaking; --maximal values are reached at the same time as in the controls; --the course of the resolution is the same as in the controls.

  6. Reasoning about knowledge: Children's evaluations of generality and verifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa A; Cole, Caitlin A; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children's (N=223) and adults' (N=32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker's knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a "Generic speaker" who made a series of 4 general claims about "pangolins" (a novel animal kind), and a "Specific speaker" who made a series of 4 specific claims about "this pangolin" as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., "has a pointy nose") or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., "sleeps in a hollow tree"). Three main findings emerged: (1) young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) children's attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) children often generalized speakers' knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person's knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incentivizing Verifiable Privacy-Protection Mechanisms for Offline Crowdsensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajun; Liu, Ningzhong

    2017-09-04

    Incentive mechanisms of crowdsensing have recently been intensively explored. Most of these mechanisms mainly focus on the standard economical goals like truthfulness and utility maximization. However, enormous privacy and security challenges need to be faced directly in real-life environments, such as cost privacies. In this paper, we investigate offline verifiable privacy-protection crowdsensing issues. We firstly present a general verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline homogeneous and heterogeneous sensing job model. In addition, we also propose a more complex verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline submodular sensing job model. The two mechanisms not only explore the private protection issues of users and platform, but also ensure the verifiable correctness of payments between platform and users. Finally, we demonstrate that the two mechanisms satisfy privacy-protection, verifiable correctness of payments and the same revenue as the generic one without privacy protection. Our experiments also validate that the two mechanisms are both scalable and efficient, and applicable for mobile devices in crowdsensing applications based on auctions, where the main incentive for the user is the remuneration.

  8. Reframing Rigor: A Modern Look at Challenge and Support in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corbin M.; Dortch, Deniece; Burt, Brian A.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes the limitations of the traditional notions of academic rigor in higher education, and brings forth a new form of rigor that has the potential to support student success and equity.

  9. Rigorous force field optimization principles based on statistical distance minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcek, Lukas, E-mail: vlcekl1@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Chialvo, Ariel A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    We use the concept of statistical distance to define a measure of distinguishability between a pair of statistical mechanical systems, i.e., a model and its target, and show that its minimization leads to general convergence of the model’s static measurable properties to those of the target. We exploit this feature to define a rigorous basis for the development of accurate and robust effective molecular force fields that are inherently compatible with coarse-grained experimental data. The new model optimization principles and their efficient implementation are illustrated through selected examples, whose outcome demonstrates the higher robustness and predictive accuracy of the approach compared to other currently used methods, such as force matching and relative entropy minimization. We also discuss relations between the newly developed principles and established thermodynamic concepts, which include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and the thermodynamic length.

  10. From everyday communicative figurations to rigorous audience news repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Christian; Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an unprecedented explosion of news media platforms and formats, as a succession of digital and social media have joined the ranks of legacy media. We live in a ‘hybrid media system’ (Chadwick, 2013), in which people build their cross-media news...... repertoires from the ensemble of old and new media available. This article presents an innovative mixed-method approach with considerable explanatory power to the exploration of patterns of news media consumption. This approach tailors Q-methodology in the direction of a qualitative study of news consumption......, in which a card sorting exercise serves to translate the participants’ news media preferences into a form that enables the researcher to undertake a rigorous factor-analytical construction of their news consumption repertoires. This interpretive, factor-analytical procedure, which results in the building...

  11. Fast and Rigorous Assignment Algorithm Multiple Preference and Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Çiftçi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of paper is to develop an algorithm that evaluates students then places them depending on their desired choices according to dependant preferences. The developed algorithm is also used to implement software. The success and accuracy of the software as well as the algorithm are tested by applying it to ability test at Beykent University. This ability test is repeated several times in order to fill all available places at Fine Art Faculty departments in every academic year. It has been shown that this algorithm is very fast and rigorous after application of 2008-2009 and 2009-20010 academic years.Key Words: Assignment algorithm, student placement, ability test

  12. Student’s rigorous mathematical thinking based on cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriyani, H.; Khasanah, U.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) of mathematics education students in solving math problems in terms of reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. The research used descriptive qualitative approach. Subjects in this research were 4 students of the reflective and impulsive cognitive style which was each consisting male and female subjects. Data collection techniques used problem-solving test and interview. Analysis of research data used Miles and Huberman model that was reduction of data, presentation of data, and conclusion. The results showed that impulsive male subjects used three levels of the cognitive function required for RMT that were qualitative thinking, quantitative thinking with precision, and relational thinking completely while the other three subjects were only able to use cognitive function at qualitative thinking level of RMT. Therefore the subject of impulsive male has a better RMT ability than the other three research subjects.

  13. Rigorous Quantum Field Theory A Festschrift for Jacques Bros

    CERN Document Server

    Monvel, Anne Boutet; Iagolnitzer, Daniel; Moschella, Ugo

    2007-01-01

    Jacques Bros has greatly advanced our present understanding of rigorous quantum field theory through numerous fundamental contributions. This book arose from an international symposium held in honour of Jacques Bros on the occasion of his 70th birthday, at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the CEA in Saclay, France. The impact of the work of Jacques Bros is evident in several articles in this book. Quantum fields are regarded as genuine mathematical objects, whose various properties and relevant physical interpretations must be studied in a well-defined mathematical framework. The key topics in this volume include analytic structures of Quantum Field Theory (QFT), renormalization group methods, gauge QFT, stability properties and extension of the axiomatic framework, QFT on models of curved spacetimes, QFT on noncommutative Minkowski spacetime. Contributors: D. Bahns, M. Bertola, R. Brunetti, D. Buchholz, A. Connes, F. Corbetta, S. Doplicher, M. Dubois-Violette, M. Dütsch, H. Epstein, C.J. Fewster, K....

  14. Desarrollo constitucional, legal y jurisprudencia del principio de rigor subsidiario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Cifuentes Sandoval

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In colombia the environment state administration is in charge of environmental national system, SINA, SINA is made up of states entities that coexist beneath a mixed organization of centralization and decentralization. SINA decentralization express itself in a administrative and territorial level, and is waited that entities that function under this structure act in a coordinated way in order to reach suggested objectives in the environmental national politicy. To achieve the coordinated environmental administration through entities that define the SINA, the environmental legislation of Colombia has include three basic principles: 1. The principle of “armorial regional” 2. The principle of “gradationnormative” 3. The principle of “rigorsubsidiaries”. These principles belong to the article 63, law 99 of 1933, and even in the case of the two first, it is possible to find equivalents in other norms that integrate the Colombian legal system, it does not happen in that way with the “ rigor subsidiaries” because its elements are uniques of the environmental normativity and do not seem to be similar to those that make part of the principle of “ subsidiaridad” present in the article 288 of the politic constitution. The “ rigor subsidiaries” give to decentralizates entities certain type of special ability to modify the current environmental legislation to defend the local ecological patrimony. It is an administrative ability with a foundation in the decentralization autonomy that allows to take place of the reglamentary denied of the legislative power with the condition that the new normativity be more demanding that the one that belongs to the central level

  15. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching of Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiromasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Takagaki, Masami; Kadowaki, Tasuku; Nakao, Tatsuya; Amano, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    Severe patient-prosthesis mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.65 cm(2) m(-2), has demonstrated poor long-term survival after aortic valve replacement. Reported rates of severe mismatch involving the Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthesis range from 4% to 20% in patients with a small annulus. Between June 2008 and August 2011, 251 patients (mean age 70.5 ± 10.2 years; mean body surface area 1.55 ± 0.19 m(2)) underwent aortic valve replacement with a Perimount Magna bioprosthesis, with or without concomitant procedures. We performed our procedure with rigorous patient-prosthesis matching to implant a valve appropriately sized to each patient, and carried out annular enlargement when a 19-mm valve did not fit. The bioprosthetic performance was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography predischarge and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Overall hospital mortality was 1.6%. Only 5 (2.0%) patients required annular enlargement. The mean follow-up period was 19.1 ± 10.7 months with a 98.4% completion rate. Predischarge data showed a mean effective orifice area index of 1.21 ± 0.20 cm(2) m(-2). Moderate mismatch, defined as effective orifice area index ≤0.85 cm(2) m(-2), developed in 4 (1.6%) patients. None developed severe mismatch. Data at 1 and 2 years showed only two cases of moderate mismatch; neither was severe. Rigorous patient-prosthesis matching maximized the performance of the Perimount Magna, and no severe mismatch resulted in this Japanese population of aortic valve replacement patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  17. Verifiable Distribution of Material Goods Based on Cryptology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomír Palovský

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeiting of material goods is a general problem. In this paper an architecture for verifiable distribution of material goods is presented. This distribution is based on printing such a QR code on goods, which would contain digitally signed serial number of the product, and validity of this digital signature could be verifiable by a customer. Extension consisting of adding digital signatures to revenue stamps used for state-controlled goods is also presented. Discussion on possibilities in making copies leads to conclusion that cryptographic security needs to be completed by technical difficulties of copying.

  18. Upgrading geometry conceptual understanding and strategic competence through implementing rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, Z.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.

    2018-03-01

    To reach higher order thinking skill, needed to be mastered the conceptual understanding and strategic competence as they are two basic parts of high order thinking skill (HOTS). RMT is a unique realization of the cognitive conceptual construction approach based on Feurstein with his theory of Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. This was quasi-experimental research which compared the experimental class that was given Rigorous Mathematical Thinking (RMT) as learning method and the control class that was given Direct Learning (DL) as the conventional learning activity. This study examined whether there was different effect of two learning model toward conceptual understanding and strategic competence of Junior High School Students. The data was analyzed by using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and obtained a significant difference between experimental and control class when considered jointly on the mathematics conceptual understanding and strategic competence (shown by Wilk’s Λ = 0.84). Further, by independent t-test is known that there was significant difference between two classes both on mathematical conceptual understanding and strategic competence. By this result is known that Rigorous Mathematical Thinking (RMT) had positive impact toward Mathematics conceptual understanding and strategic competence.

  19. How to Map Theory: Reliable Methods Are Fruitless Without Rigorous Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    Good science requires both reliable methods and rigorous theory. Theory allows us to build a unified structure of knowledge, to connect the dots of individual studies and reveal the bigger picture. Some have criticized the proliferation of pet "Theories," but generic "theory" is essential to healthy science, because questions of theory are ultimately those of validity. Although reliable methods and rigorous theory are synergistic, Action Identification suggests psychological tension between them: The more we focus on methodological details, the less we notice the broader connections. Therefore, psychology needs to supplement training in methods (how to design studies and analyze data) with training in theory (how to connect studies and synthesize ideas). This article provides a technique for visually outlining theory: theory mapping. Theory mapping contains five elements, which are illustrated with moral judgment and with cars. Also included are 15 additional theory maps provided by experts in emotion, culture, priming, power, stress, ideology, morality, marketing, decision-making, and more (see all at theorymaps.org ). Theory mapping provides both precision and synthesis, which helps to resolve arguments, prevent redundancies, assess the theoretical contribution of papers, and evaluate the likelihood of surprising effects.

  20. Rigorous Statistical Bounds in Uncertainty Quantification for One-Layer Turbulent Geophysical Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Di; Majda, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Statistical bounds controlling the total fluctuations in mean and variance about a basic steady-state solution are developed for the truncated barotropic flow over topography. Statistical ensemble prediction is an important topic in weather and climate research. Here, the evolution of an ensemble of trajectories is considered using statistical instability analysis and is compared and contrasted with the classical deterministic instability for the growth of perturbations in one pointwise trajectory. The maximum growth of the total statistics in fluctuations is derived relying on the statistical conservation principle of the pseudo-energy. The saturation bound of the statistical mean fluctuation and variance in the unstable regimes with non-positive-definite pseudo-energy is achieved by linking with a class of stable reference states and minimizing the stable statistical energy. Two cases with dependence on initial statistical uncertainty and on external forcing and dissipation are compared and unified under a consistent statistical stability framework. The flow structures and statistical stability bounds are illustrated and verified by numerical simulations among a wide range of dynamical regimes, where subtle transient statistical instability exists in general with positive short-time exponential growth in the covariance even when the pseudo-energy is positive-definite. Among the various scenarios in this paper, there exist strong forward and backward energy exchanges between different scales which are estimated by the rigorous statistical bounds.

  1. Verifying different-modality properties for concepts produces switching costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-03-01

    According to perceptual symbol systems, sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. It follows that sensorimotor phenomena should arise in conceptual processing. Previous studies have shown that switching from one modality to another during perceptual processing incurs a processing cost. If perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing, then verifying the properties of concepts should exhibit a switching cost as well. For example, verifying a property in the auditory modality (e.g., BLENDER-loud) should be slower after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., CRANBERRIES-tart) than after verifying a property in the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling). Only words were presented to subjects, and there were no instructions to use imagery. Nevertheless, switching modalities incurred a cost, analogous to the cost of switching modalities in perception. A second experiment showed that this effect was not due to associative priming between properties in the same modality. These results support the hypothesis that perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing.

  2. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  3. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, Maurice

    1960-01-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [fr

  4. Building Program Verifiers from Compilers and Theorem Provers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Checking with SMT UFO • LLVM-based front-end (partially reused in SeaHorn) • Combines Abstract Interpretation with Interpolation-Based Model Checking • (no...assertions Counter-examples are long Hard to determine (from main) what is relevant Assertion Main 35 Building Verifiers from Comp and SMT Gurfinkel, 2015

  5. Verifying a smart design of TCAP : a synergetic experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Arts; I.A. van Langevelde

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAn optimisation of the SS No. 7 Transport Capabilities Procedures is verified by specifying both the original and the optimised {scriptsize sf TCAP in {scriptsize sf $mu$CRL, generating transition systems for both using the {scriptsize sf $mu$CRL tool set, and checking weak bisimulation

  6. A Trustworthy Internet Auction Model with Verifiable Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gen-Yih; Hwang, Jing-Jang

    2001-01-01

    Describes an Internet auction model achieving verifiable fairness, a requirement aimed at enhancing the trust of bidders in auctioneers. Analysis results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies various requirements regarding fairness and privacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, the losing bids remain sealed. (Author/AEF)

  7. The Guided System Development Framework: Modeling and Verifying Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    the verified specification. The refinement process carries thus security properties from the model to the implementation. Our approach also supports verification of systems previously developed and deployed. Internally, the reasoning in our framework is based on the Beliefs and Knowledge tool, a verification...... tool based on belief logics and explicit attacker knowledge....

  8. Making Digital Artifacts on the Web Verifiable and Reliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.; Dumontier, M.

    2015-01-01

    The current Web has no general mechanisms to make digital artifacts - such as datasets, code, texts, and images - verifiable and permanent. For digital artifacts that are supposed to be immutable, there is moreover no commonly accepted method to enforce this immutability. These shortcomings have a

  9. Emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor in cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hee; Jung, Koo Young

    2012-07-01

    Instantaneous rigor as muscle stiffening occurring in the moment of death (or cardiac arrest) can be confused with rigor mortis. If trismus is caused by instantaneous rigor, orotracheal intubation is impossible and a surgical airway should be secured. Here, we report 2 patients who had emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor. This case report aims to help physicians understand instantaneous rigor and to emphasize the importance of securing a surgical airway quickly on the occurrence of trismus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Concept Space to Verify Hyponymy in Building a Hyponymy Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Diao, Lu Hong; Yan, Shu Ying; Cao, Cun Gen

    Verification of hyponymy relations is a basic problem in knowledge acquisition. We present a method of hyponymy verification based on concept space. Firstly, we give the definition of concept space about a group of candidate hyponymy relations. Secondly we analyze the concept space and define a set of hyponymy features based on the space structure. Then we use them to verify candidate hyponymy relations. Experimental results show that the method can provide adequate verification of hyponymy.

  11. Memory sparing, fast scattering formalism for rigorous diffraction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iff, W.; Kämpfe, T.; Jourlin, Y.; Tishchenko, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The basics and algorithmic steps of a novel scattering formalism suited for memory sparing and fast electromagnetic calculations are presented. The formalism, called ‘S-vector algorithm’ (by analogy with the known scattering-matrix algorithm), allows the calculation of the collective scattering spectra of individual layered micro-structured scattering objects. A rigorous method of linear complexity is applied to model the scattering at individual layers; here the generalized source method (GSM) resorting to Fourier harmonics as basis functions is used as one possible method of linear complexity. The concatenation of the individual scattering events can be achieved sequentially or in parallel, both having pros and cons. The present development will largely concentrate on a consecutive approach based on the multiple reflection series. The latter will be reformulated into an implicit formalism which will be associated with an iterative solver, resulting in improved convergence. The examples will first refer to 1D grating diffraction for the sake of simplicity and intelligibility, with a final 2D application example.

  12. Rigorous Results for the Distribution of Money on Connected Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchier, Nicolas; Reed, Stephanie

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with general spatially explicit versions of three stochastic models for the dynamics of money that have been introduced and studied numerically by statistical physicists: the uniform reshuffling model, the immediate exchange model and the model with saving propensity. All three models consist of systems of economical agents that consecutively engage in pairwise monetary transactions. Computer simulations performed in the physics literature suggest that, when the number of agents and the average amount of money per agent are large, the limiting distribution of money as time goes to infinity approaches the exponential distribution for the first model, the gamma distribution with shape parameter two for the second model and a distribution similar but not exactly equal to a gamma distribution whose shape parameter depends on the saving propensity for the third model. The main objective of this paper is to give rigorous proofs of these conjectures and also extend these conjectures to generalizations of the first two models and a variant of the third model that include local rather than global interactions, i.e., instead of choosing the two interacting agents uniformly at random from the system, the agents are located on the vertex set of a general connected graph and can only interact with their neighbors.

  13. Rigorous vector wave propagation for arbitrary flat media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Steven P.; Haffert, Sebastiaan Y.; Keller, Christoph U.

    2017-08-01

    Precise modelling of the (off-axis) point spread function (PSF) to identify geometrical and polarization aberrations is important for many optical systems. In order to characterise the PSF of the system in all Stokes parameters, an end-to-end simulation of the system has to be performed in which Maxwell's equations are rigorously solved. We present the first results of a python code that we are developing to perform multiscale end-to-end wave propagation simulations that include all relevant physics. Currently we can handle plane-parallel near- and far-field vector diffraction effects of propagating waves in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic materials, refraction and reflection of flat parallel surfaces, interference effects in thin films and unpolarized light. We show that the code has a numerical precision on the order of 10-16 for non-absorbing isotropic and anisotropic materials. For absorbing materials the precision is on the order of 10-8. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated by simulating a converging beam reflecting from a flat aluminium mirror at normal incidence.

  14. Dynamics of harmonically-confined systems: Some rigorous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang, E-mail: zwu@physics.queensu.ca; Zaremba, Eugene, E-mail: zaremba@sparky.phy.queensu.ca

    2014-03-15

    In this paper we consider the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. We present various general results which are independent of particle statistics, interatomic interactions and dimensionality. Of particular interest is the response of the system to external perturbations which can be either static or dynamic in nature. We prove an extended Harmonic Potential Theorem which is useful in determining the damping of the centre of mass motion when the system is prepared initially in a highly nonequilibrium state. We also study the response of the gas to a dynamic external potential whose position is made to oscillate sinusoidally in a given direction. We show in this case that either the energy absorption rate or the centre of mass dynamics can serve as a probe of the optical conductivity of the system. -- Highlights: •We derive various rigorous results on the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. •We derive an extension of the Harmonic Potential Theorem. •We demonstrate the link between the energy absorption rate in a harmonically-confined system and the optical conductivity.

  15. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  16. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  17. Rigorous derivation of porous-media phase-field equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2017-11-01

    The evolution of interfaces in Complex heterogeneous Multiphase Systems (CheMSs) plays a fundamental role in a wide range of scientific fields such as thermodynamic modelling of phase transitions, materials science, or as a computational tool for interfacial flow studies or material design. Here, we focus on phase-field equations in CheMSs such as porous media. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first rigorous derivation of error estimates for fourth order, upscaled, and nonlinear evolution equations. For CheMs with heterogeneity ɛ, we obtain the convergence rate ɛ 1 / 4 , which governs the error between the solution of the new upscaled formulation and the solution of the microscopic phase-field problem. This error behaviour has recently been validated computationally in. Due to the wide range of application of phase-field equations, we expect this upscaled formulation to allow for new modelling, analytic, and computational perspectives for interfacial transport and phase transformations in CheMSs. This work was supported by EPSRC, UK, through Grant Nos. EP/H034587/1, EP/L027186/1, EP/L025159/1, EP/L020564/1, EP/K008595/1, and EP/P011713/1 and from ERC via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  18. Rigorous time slicing approach to Feynman path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    This book proves that Feynman's original definition of the path integral actually converges to the fundamental solution of the Schrödinger equation at least in the short term if the potential is differentiable sufficiently many times and its derivatives of order equal to or higher than two are bounded. The semi-classical asymptotic formula up to the second term of the fundamental solution is also proved by a method different from that of Birkhoff. A bound of the remainder term is also proved. The Feynman path integral is a method of quantization using the Lagrangian function, whereas Schrödinger's quantization uses the Hamiltonian function. These two methods are believed to be equivalent. But equivalence is not fully proved mathematically, because, compared with Schrödinger's method, there is still much to be done concerning rigorous mathematical treatment of Feynman's method. Feynman himself defined a path integral as the limit of a sequence of integrals over finite-dimensional spaces which is obtained by...

  19. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, S R; Sams, A R

    1998-01-01

    Development of rigor mortis at elevated post-mortem temperatures may contribute to turkey meat characteristics that are similar to those found in pale, soft, exudative pork. To evaluate this effect, 36 Nicholas tom turkeys were processed at 19 wk of age and placed in water at 40, 20, and 0 C immediately after evisceration. Pectoralis muscle samples were taken at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h post-mortem and analyzed for R-value (an indirect measure of adenosine triphosphate), glycogen, pH, color, and sarcomere length. At 4 h, the remaining intact Pectoralis muscle was harvested, and aged on ice 23 h, and analyzed for drip loss, cook loss, shear values, and sarcomere length. By 15 min post-mortem, the 40 C treatment had higher R-values, which persisted through 4 h. By 1 h, the 40 C treatment pH and glycogen levels were lower than the 0 C treatment; however, they did not differ from those of the 20 C treatment. Increased L* values indicated that color became more pale by 2 h post-mortem in the 40 C treatment when compared to the 20 and 0 C treatments. Drip loss, cook loss, and shear value were increased whereas sarcomere lengths were decreased as a result of the 40 C treatment. These findings suggested that elevated post-mortem temperatures during processing resulted in acceleration of rigor mortis and biochemical changes in the muscle that produced pale, exudative meat characteristics in turkey.

  20. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a ''living document'' that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work

  1. Verifiable Measurement-Only Blind Quantum Computing with Stabilizer Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2015-11-27

    We introduce a simple protocol for verifiable measurement-only blind quantum computing. Alice, a client, can perform only single-qubit measurements, whereas Bob, a server, can generate and store entangled many-qubit states. Bob generates copies of a graph state, which is a universal resource state for measurement-based quantum computing, and sends Alice each qubit of them one by one. Alice adaptively measures each qubit according to her program. If Bob is honest, he generates the correct graph state, and, therefore, Alice can obtain the correct computation result. Regarding the security, whatever Bob does, Bob cannot get any information about Alice's computation because of the no-signaling principle. Furthermore, malicious Bob does not necessarily send the copies of the correct graph state, but Alice can check the correctness of Bob's state by directly verifying the stabilizers of some copies.

  2. Verifying the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briatore, L.; Leschiutta, S.

    1976-01-01

    Data on various independent time scales kept in different laboratories are elaborated in order to verify the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation. It is shown that the state of the art in the measurement of time is just now resulting in the possibility to make measurement of Δ t/t approximately 10 -13 . Moreover it is shown an experimental evidence of the earth's rotation relativistic effects

  3. Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the gardener to remember those plants (and whether they need to be removed), and so will not commit resources to remember that information . The overall...camera), the storyteller needed help much less often. This result suggests that when there is no one to help them remember the last thing they said...INV ITED P A P E R Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption Help from a robot, to allow a human storyteller to continue

  4. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  5. TrustGuard: A Containment Architecture with Verified Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    that the TrustGuard system has minimal performance decline, despite restrictions such as high communication latency and limited available bandwidth...design are the availability of high bandwidth and low delays between the host and the monitoring chip. 3-D integration provides an alternate way of...TRUSTGUARD: A CONTAINMENT ARCHITECTURE WITH VERIFIED OUTPUT SOUMYADEEP GHOSH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY IN

  6. Large test rigs verify Clinch River control rod reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.D.; Smith, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the Clinch River control test programme was to use multiple full-scale prototypic control rod systems for verifying the system's ability to perform reliably during simulated reactor power control and emergency shutdown operations. Two major facilities, the Shutdown Control Rod and Maintenance (Scram) facility and the Dynamic and Seismic Test (Dast) facility, were constructed. The test programme of each facility is described. (UK)

  7. Verifying Temporal Properties of Reactive Systems by Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    We show how program transformation techniques can be used for the verification of both safety and liveness properties of reactive systems. In particular, we show how the program transformation technique distillation can be used to transform reactive systems specified in a functional language into a simplified form that can subsequently be analysed to verify temporal properties of the systems. Example systems which are intended to model mutual exclusion are analysed using these techniques with...

  8. Robustness and device independence of verifiable blind quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Kashefi, Elham; Wallden, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in theoretical and experimental quantum computing bring us closer to scalable quantum computing devices. This makes the need for protocols that verify the correct functionality of quantum operations timely and has led to the field of quantum verification. In this paper we address key challenges to make quantum verification protocols applicable to experimental implementations. We prove the robustness of the single server verifiable universal blind quantum computing protocol of Fitzsimons and Kashefi (2012 arXiv:1203.5217) in the most general scenario. This includes the case where the purification of the deviated input state is in the hands of an adversarial server. The proved robustness property allows the composition of this protocol with a device-independent state tomography protocol that we give, which is based on the rigidity of CHSH games as proposed by Reichardt et al (2013 Nature 496 456–60). The resulting composite protocol has lower round complexity for the verification of entangled quantum servers with a classical verifier and, as we show, can be made fault tolerant. (paper)

  9. Layout optimization of DRAM cells using rigorous simulation model for NTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jinhyuck; Kim, Shinyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Kuechler, Bernd; Zimmermann, Rainer; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Schmoeller, Thomas; Do, Mun-hoe; Choi, Jung-Hoe

    2014-03-01

    scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements. High resist impact and difficult model data acquisition demand for a simulation model that hat is capable of extrapolating reliably beyond its calibration dataset. We use rigorous simulation models to provide that predictive performance. We have discussed the need of a rigorous mask optimization process for DRAM contact cell layout yielding mask layouts that are optimal in process performance, mask manufacturability and accuracy. In this paper, we have shown the step by step process from analytical illumination source derivation, a NTD and application tailored model calibration to layout optimization such as OPC and SRAF placement. Finally the work has been verified with simulation and experimental results on wafer.

  10. Stochastic Geometry and Quantum Gravity: Some Rigorous Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zessin, H.

    The aim of these lectures is a short introduction into some recent developments in stochastic geometry which have one of its origins in simplicial gravity theory (see Regge Nuovo Cimento 19: 558-571, 1961). The aim is to define and construct rigorously point processes on spaces of Euclidean simplices in such a way that the configurations of these simplices are simplicial complexes. The main interest then is concentrated on their curvature properties. We illustrate certain basic ideas from a mathematical point of view. An excellent representation of this area can be found in Schneider and Weil (Stochastic and Integral Geometry, Springer, Berlin, 2008. German edition: Stochastische Geometrie, Teubner, 2000). In Ambjørn et al. (Quantum Geometry Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997) you find a beautiful account from the physical point of view. More recent developments in this direction can be found in Ambjørn et al. ("Quantum gravity as sum over spacetimes", Lect. Notes Phys. 807. Springer, Heidelberg, 2010). After an informal axiomatic introduction into the conceptual foundations of Regge's approach the first lecture recalls the concepts and notations used. It presents the fundamental zero-infinity law of stochastic geometry and the construction of cluster processes based on it. The second lecture presents the main mathematical object, i.e. Poisson-Delaunay surfaces possessing an intrinsic random metric structure. The third and fourth lectures discuss their ergodic behaviour and present the two-dimensional Regge model of pure simplicial quantum gravity. We terminate with the formulation of basic open problems. Proofs are given in detail only in a few cases. In general the main ideas are developed. Sufficiently complete references are given.

  11. RIGOROUS GEOREFERENCING OF ALSAT-2A PANCHROMATIC AND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boukerch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of the full geometric capabilities of the High-Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI, require the development of an appropriate sensor orientation model. Several authors studied this problem; generally we have two categories of geometric models: physical and empirical models. Based on the analysis of the metadata provided with ALSAT-2A, a rigorous pushbroom camera model can be developed. This model has been successfully applied to many very high resolution imagery systems. The relation between the image and ground coordinates by the time dependant collinearity involving many coordinates systems has been tested. The interior orientation parameters must be integrated in the model, the interior parameters can be estimated from the viewing angles corresponding to the pointing directions of any detector, these values are derived from cubic polynomials provided in the metadata. The developed model integrates all the necessary elements with 33 unknown. All the approximate values of the 33 unknowns parameters may be derived from the informations contained in the metadata files provided with the imagery technical specifications or they are simply fixed to zero, so the condition equation is linearized and solved using SVD in a least square sense in order to correct the initial values using a suitable number of well-distributed GCPs. Using Alsat-2A images over the town of Toulouse in the south west of France, three experiments are done. The first is about 2D accuracy analysis using several sets of parameters. The second is about GCPs number and distribution. The third experiment is about georeferencing multispectral image by applying the model calculated from panchromatic image.

  12. Rigorous covariance propagation of geoid errors to geodetic MDT estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, R.; Albertella, A.; Fecher, T.; Savcenko, R.

    2012-04-01

    The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is defined as the difference between the mean sea surface (MSS) derived from satellite altimetry, averaged over several years, and the static geoid. Assuming geostrophic conditions, from the MDT the ocean surface velocities as important component of global ocean circulation can be derived from it. Due to the availability of GOCE gravity field models, for the very first time MDT can now be derived solely from satellite observations (altimetry and gravity) down to spatial length-scales of 100 km and even below. Global gravity field models, parameterized in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients, are complemented by the full variance-covariance matrix (VCM). Therefore, for the geoid component a realistic statistical error estimate is available, while the error description of the altimetric component is still an open issue and is, if at all, attacked empirically. In this study we make the attempt to perform, based on the full gravity VCM, rigorous error propagation to derived geostrophic surface velocities, thus also considering all correlations. For the definition of the static geoid we use the third release of the time-wise GOCE model, as well as the satellite-only combination model GOCO03S. In detail, we will investigate the velocity errors resulting from the geoid component in dependence of the harmonic degree, and the impact of using/no using covariances on the MDT errors and its correlations. When deriving an MDT, it is spectrally filtered to a certain maximum degree, which is usually driven by the signal content of the geoid model, by applying isotropic or non-isotropic filters. Since this filtering is acting also on the geoid component, the consistent integration of this filter process into the covariance propagation shall be performed, and its impact shall be quantified. The study will be performed for MDT estimates in specific test areas of particular oceanographic interest.

  13. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  14. pd Scattering Using a Rigorous Coulomb Treatment: Reliability of the Renormalization Method for Screened-Coulomb Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Oryu, S.; Gojuki, S.

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of the screened Coulomb renormalization method, which was proposed in an elegant way by Alt-Sandhas-Zankel-Ziegelmann (ASZZ), is discussed on the basis of 'two-potential theory' for the three-body AGS equations with the Coulomb potential. In order to obtain ASZZ's formula, we define the on-shell Moller function, and calculate it by using the Haeringen criterion, i. e. 'the half-shell Coulomb amplitude is zero'. By these two steps, we can finally obtain the ASZZ formula for a small Coulomb phase shift. Furthermore, the reliability of the Haeringen criterion is thoroughly checked by a numerically rigorous calculation for the Coulomb LS-type equation. We find that the Haeringen criterion can be satisfied only in the higher energy region. We conclude that the ASZZ method can be verified in the case that the on-shell approximation to the Moller function is reasonable, and the Haeringen criterion is reliable. (author)

  15. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. III. Comparative study of the evolution of rigor mortis in different sized muscle groups in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Fryc, O

    1978-01-01

    The use of new methods and an appropriate apparatus has allowed us to make successive measurements of rigor mortis and a study of its evolution in the rat. By a comparative examination on the front and hind limbs, we have determined the following: (1) The muscular mass of the hind limbs is 2.89 times greater than that of the front limbs. (2) In the initial phase rigor mortis is more pronounced in the front limbs. (3) The front and hind limbs reach maximum rigor mortis at the same time and this state is maintained for 2 hours. (4) Resolution of rigor mortis is accelerated in the front limbs during the initial phase, but both front and hind limbs reach complete resolution at the same time.

  16. An alternative test for verifying electronic balance linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.R.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative method for verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy. This method is being developed for safeguards weighings (weighings for the control and accountability of nuclear material) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). With regard to balance linearity and accuracy, DOE Order 5633.3B, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, Paragraph 2, 4, e, (1), (a) Scales and Balances Program, states: ''All scales and balances used for accountability purposes shall be maintained in good working condition, recalibrated according to an established schedule, and checked for accuracy and linearity on each day that the scale or balance is used for accountability purposes.'' Various tests have been proposed for testing accuracy and linearity. In the 1991 Measurement Science Conference, Dr. Walter E. Kupper presented a paper entitled: ''Validation of High Accuracy Weighing Equipment.'' Dr. Kupper emphasized that tolerance checks for calibrated, state-of-the-art electronic equipment need not be complicated, and he presented four easy steps for verifying that a calibrated balance is operating correctly. These tests evaluate the standard deviation of successive weighings (of the same load), the off-center error, the calibration error, and the error due to nonlinearity. This method of balance validation is undoubtedly an authoritative means of ensuring balance operability, yet it could have two drawbacks: one, the test for linearity is not intuitively obvious, especially from a statistical viewpoint; and two, there is an absence of definitively defined testing limits. Hence, this paper describes an alternative means of verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy that is being developed for safeguards measurements at the INEEL

  17. How Individual Scholars Can Reduce the Rigor-Relevance Gap in Management Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Joachim; Rosenberg, Timo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of avenues management scholars could follow to reduce the existing gap between scientific rigor and practical relevance without relativizing the importance of the first goal dimension. Such changes are necessary because many management studies do not fully exploit the possibilities to increase their practical relevance while maintaining scientific rigor. We argue that this rigor-relevance gap is not only the consequence of the currently prevailing institutional c...

  18. RIGOR MORTIS AND THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM SALTS UPON ITS DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, S J; Auer, J

    1908-01-01

    Calcium salts hasten and magnesium salts retard the development of rigor mortis, that is, when these salts are administered subcutaneously or intravenously. When injected intra-arterially, concentrated solutions of both kinds of salts cause nearly an immediate onset of a strong stiffness of the muscles which is apparently a contraction, brought on by a stimulation caused by these salts and due to osmosis. This contraction, if strong, passes over without a relaxation into a real rigor. This form of rigor may be classed as work-rigor (Arbeitsstarre). In animals, at least in frogs, with intact cords, the early contraction and the following rigor are stronger than in animals with destroyed cord. If M/8 solutions-nearly equimolecular to "physiological" solutions of sodium chloride-are used, even when injected intra-arterially, calcium salts hasten and magnesium salts retard the onset of rigor. The hastening and retardation in this case as well as in the cases of subcutaneous and intravenous injections, are ion effects and essentially due to the cations, calcium and magnesium. In the rigor hastened by calcium the effects of the extensor muscles mostly prevail; in the rigor following magnesium injection, on the other hand, either the flexor muscles prevail or the muscles become stiff in the original position of the animal at death. There seems to be no difference in the degree of stiffness in the final rigor, only the onset and development of the rigor is hastened in the case of the one salt and retarded in the other. Calcium hastens also the development of heat rigor. No positive facts were obtained with regard to the effect of magnesium upon heat vigor. Calcium also hastens and magnesium retards the onset of rigor in the left ventricle of the heart. No definite data were gathered with regard to the effects of these salts upon the right ventricle.

  19. Verifying the integrity of hardcopy document using OCR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthethwa, Sthembile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mthethwa_20042_2018.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7349 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mthethwa_20042_2018.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Verifying the Integrity...) of the document to be defined. Each text in the meta-template is labelled with a unique identifier, which makes it easier for the process of validation. The meta-template consist of two types of text; normal text and validation text (important text that must...

  20. From Operating-System Correctness to Pervasively Verified Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Matthias; Schirmer, Norbert W.; Schmidt, Mareike

    Though program verification is known and has been used for decades, the verification of a complete computer system still remains a grand challenge. Part of this challenge is the interaction of application programs with the operating system, which is usually entrusted with retrieving input data from and transferring output data to peripheral devices. In this scenario, the correct operation of the applications inherently relies on operating-system correctness. Based on the formal correctness of our real-time operating system Olos, this paper describes an approach to pervasively verify applications running on top of the operating system.

  1. Flux wire measurements in Cavalier for verifying computer code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, M.; Stubbs, J.; Hosticka, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Cavalier and UVAR research reactors are to be converted from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. As a first step, an extensive set of gold wire activation measurements has been taken on the Cavalier reactor. Axial traverses show internal consistency to the order of ±5%, while horizontal traverses show somewhat larger deviations. The activation measurements will be converted to flux measurements via the Thermos code and will then be used to verify the Leopard-2DB codes. The codes will ultimately be used to design an upgraded LEU core for the UVAR

  2. Verifying Galileo's discoveries: telescope-making at the Collegio Romano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Eileen; van Helden, Albert

    The Jesuits of the Collegio Romano in Rome, especially the mathematicians Clavius and Grienberger, were very interested in Galilei's discoveries. After they had failed to recognize with telescopes of own construction the celestial phenomena, they expressed serious doubts. But from November 1610 onward, after they had built a better telescope and had obtained from Venice another one in addition, and could verify Galilei's observations, they completely accepted them. Clavius, who stuck to the Ptolemaic system till his death in 1612, even pointed out these facts in his last edition of Sacrobosco's Sphaera. He as well as his conpatres, however, avoided any conclusions with respect to the planetary system.

  3. ASTUS system for verifying the transport seal TITUS 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaux; Monteil, D.; Destain, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    ASTUS, a system for acquisition and processing ultrasonic signatures of TITUS 1 seals has been developed. TITUS seals are used to verify the integrity of the fissile material's container sealing after transport. An autonomous portable reading case permit to take seals signatures at the starting point and to transmit these reference signatures to a central safeguards computer by phonic modem. Then, at the terminal point with a similar reading case, an authority takes again the signature of seals and immediately transmit these signatures to the central safeguards computer. The central computer processes the data in real time by autocorrelation and return its verdict to the terminal point

  4. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...... subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking...

  5. Spin temperature concept verified by optical magnetometry of nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, M.; Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kozlov, G. G.; Lemaître, A.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a method of nonperturbative optical control over adiabatic remagnetization of the nuclear spin system and apply it to verify the spin temperature concept in GaAs microcavities. The nuclear spin system is shown to exactly follow the predictions of the spin temperature theory, despite the quadrupole interaction that was earlier reported to disrupt nuclear spin thermalization. These findings open a way for the deep cooling of nuclear spins in semiconductor structures, with the prospect of realizing nuclear spin-ordered states for high-fidelity spin-photon interfaces.

  6. Efficient Verifiable Range and Closest Point Queries in Zero-Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Esha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient method for answering one-dimensional range and closest-point queries in a verifiable and privacy-preserving manner. We consider a model where a data owner outsources a dataset of key-value pairs to a server, who answers range and closest-point queries issued by a client and provides proofs of the answers. The client verifies the correctness of the answers while learning nothing about the dataset besides the answers to the current and previous queries. Our work yields for the first time a zero-knowledge privacy assurance to authenticated range and closest-point queries. Previous work leaked the size of the dataset and used an inefficient proof protocol. Our construction is based on hierarchical identity-based encryption. We prove its security and analyze its efficiency both theoretically and with experiments on synthetic and real data (Enron email and Boston taxi datasets.

  7. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel

    2000-01-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  8. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  9. People consider reliability and cost when verifying their autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kimberley A; Nash, Robert A; Garry, Maryanne

    2014-02-01

    Because memories are not always accurate, people rely on a variety of strategies to verify whether the events that they remember really did occur. Several studies have examined which strategies people tend to use, but none to date has asked why people opt for certain strategies over others. Here we examined the extent to which people's beliefs about the reliability and the cost of different strategies would determine their strategy selection. Subjects described a childhood memory and then suggested strategies they might use to verify the accuracy of that memory. Next, they rated the reliability and cost of each strategy, and the likelihood that they might use it. Reliability and cost each predicted strategy selection, but a combination of the two ratings provided even greater predictive value. Cost was significantly more influential than reliability, which suggests that a tendency to seek and to value "cheap" information more than reliable information could underlie many real-world memory errors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A record and verify system for radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koens, M.L.; Vroome, H. de

    1984-01-01

    The Record and Verify system developed for the radiotherapy department of the Leiden University Hospital is described. The system has been in use since 1980 and will now be installed in at least four of the Dutch University Hospitals. The system provides the radiographer with a powerful tool for checking the set-up of the linear accelerator preceeding the irradiation of a field. After the irradiation of a field the machine settings are registered in the computer system together with the newly calculated cumulative dose. These registrations are used by the system to produce a daily report which provides the management of the department with insight into the established differences between treatment and treatment planning. Buying a record and verify system from the manufacturer of the linear accelerator is not an optimal solution especially for a department with more than one accelerator from different manufacturers. Integration in a Hospital Information System (HIS) has important advantages over the development of a dedicated departmental system. (author)

  11. Rigorous theoretical derivation of lumped models to transmission line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of the negative electric parameter concept, i.e. negative lumped resistance, inductance, conductance and capacitance (N-RLGC), the lumped equivalent models of transmission line systems, including the circuit model, two-port π-network and T-network, are given. We start from the N-segment-ladder-like equivalent networks composed distributed parameters, and achieve the input impedance in the form of a continued fraction. Utilizing the continued fraction theory, the expressions of input impedance are obtained under three kinds of extreme cases, i.e. the load impedances are equal to zero, infinity and characteristic impedance, respectively. When the number of segment N is limited to infinity, they are transformed to lumped elements. Comparison between the distributed model and lumped model of transmission lines, the expression of tanh γd, which is the key term in the transmission line equations, are obtained by RLGC, furthermore, according to input admittance, admittance matrix and ABCD matrix of transmission lines, the lumped equivalent circuit models, π-networks and T-networks have been given. The models are verified in the frequency and time domain, respectively, showing that the models are accurate and efficient. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Rigorous Performance Evaluation of Smartphone GNSS/IMU Sensors for ITS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in smartphone technologies and improvement in their navigation sensors, an increasing amount of location information is now available, opening the road to the provision of new Intelligent Transportation System (ITS services. Current smartphone devices embody miniaturized Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and other sensors capable of providing user position, velocity and attitude. However, it is hard to characterize their actual positioning and navigation performance capabilities due to the disparate sensor and software technologies adopted among manufacturers and the high influence of environmental conditions, and therefore, a unified certification process is missing. This paper presents the analysis results obtained from the assessment of two modern smartphones regarding their positioning accuracy (i.e., precision and trueness capabilities (i.e., potential and limitations based on a practical but rigorous methodological approach. Our investigation relies on the results of several vehicle tracking (i.e., cruising and maneuvering tests realized through comparing smartphone obtained trajectories and kinematic parameters to those derived using a high-end GNSS/IMU system and advanced filtering techniques. Performance testing is undertaken for the HTC One S (Android and iPhone 5s (iOS. Our findings indicate that the deviation of the smartphone locations from ground truth (trueness deteriorates by a factor of two in obscured environments compared to those derived in open sky conditions. Moreover, it appears that iPhone 5s produces relatively smaller and less dispersed error values compared to those computed for HTC One S. Also, the navigation solution of the HTC One S appears to adapt faster to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting a somewhat different data filtering approach for the iPhone 5s. Testing the accuracy of the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors for a number of

  13. Characterizing Verified Head Impacts in High School Girls' Lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Stone, Hannah; Kelshaw, Patricia; Putukian, Margot; Hepburn, Lisa; Higgins, Michael; Cortes, Nelson

    2017-12-01

    Girls' high school lacrosse players have higher rates of head and facial injuries than boys. Research indicates that these injuries are caused by stick, player, and ball contacts. Yet, no studies have characterized head impacts in girls' high school lacrosse. To characterize girls' high school lacrosse game-related impacts by frequency, magnitude, mechanism, player position, and game situation. Descriptive epidemiology study. Thirty-five female participants (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.66 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 61.2 ± 6.4 kg) volunteered during 28 games in the 2014 and 2015 lacrosse seasons. Participants wore impact sensors affixed to the right mastoid process before each game. All game-related impacts recorded by the sensors were verified using game video. Data were summarized for all verified impacts in terms of frequency, peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational acceleration (PRA). Descriptive statistics and impact rates were calculated. Fifty-eight verified game-related impacts ≥20 g were recorded (median PLA, 33.8 g; median PRA, 6151.1 rad/s 2 ) during 467 player-games. The impact rate for all game-related verified impacts was 0.12 per athlete-exposure (AE) (95% CI, 0.09-0.16), equivalent to 2.1 impacts per team game, indicating that each athlete suffered fewer than 2 head impacts per season ≥20 g. Of these impacts, 28 (48.3%) were confirmed to directly strike the head, corresponding with an impact rate of 0.05 per AE (95% CI, 0.00-0.10). Overall, midfielders (n = 28, 48.3%) sustained the most impacts, followed by defenders (n = 12, 20.7%), attackers (n = 11, 19.0%), and goalies (n = 7, 12.1%). Goalies demonstrated the highest median PLA and PRA (38.8 g and 8535.0 rad/s 2 , respectively). The most common impact mechanisms were contact with a stick (n = 25, 43.1%) and a player (n = 17, 29.3%), followed by the ball (n = 7, 12.1%) and the ground (n = 7, 12.1%). One hundred percent of ball impacts occurred to goalies. Most impacts

  14. Assessment of the Methodological Rigor of Case Studies in the Field of Management Accounting Published in Journals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Mucio Marques

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the methodological rigor of case studies in management accounting published in Brazilian journals. The study is descriptive. The data were collected using documentary research and content analysis, and 180 papers published from 2008 to 2012 in accounting journals rated as A2, B1, and B2 that were classified as case studies were selected. Based on the literature, we established a set of 15 criteria that we expected to be identified (either explicitly or implicitly in the case studies to classify those case studies as appropriate from the standpoint of methodological rigor. These criteria were partially met by the papers analyzed. The aspects less aligned with those proposed in the literature were the following: little emphasis on justifying the need to understand phenomena in context; lack of explanation of the reason for choosing the case study strategy; the predominant use of questions that do not enable deeper analysis; many studies based on only one source of evidence; little use of data and information triangulation; little emphasis on the data collection method; a high number of cases in which confusion between case study as a research strategy and as data collection method were detected; a low number of papers reporting the method of data analysis; few reports on a study's contributions; and a minority highlighting the issues requiring further research. In conclusion, the method used to apply case studies to management accounting must be improved because few studies showed rigorous application of the procedures that this strategy requires.

  15. Some rigorous results on the Hopfield neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.; Piasko, J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors analyze the thermal equilibrium distribution of 2 p mean field variables for the Hopfield model with p stored patterns, in the case where 2 p is small compared to the number of spins. In particular, they give a full description of the free energy density in the thermodynamic limit, and of the so-called symmetric solutions for the mean field equations

  16. [The development and evaluation of software to verify diagnostic accuracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rodrigo; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of software that verifies the accuracy of diagnoses made by nursing students. The software was based on a model that uses fuzzy logic concepts, including PERL, the MySQL database for Internet accessibility, and the NANDA-I 2007-2008 classification system. The software was evaluated in terms of its technical quality and usability through specific instruments. The activity proposed in the software involves four stages in which students establish the relationship values between nursing diagnoses, defining characteristics/risk factors and clinical cases. The relationship values determined by students are compared to those of specialists, generating performance scores for the students. In the evaluation, the software demonstrated satisfactory outcomes regarding the technical quality and, according to the students, helped in their learning and may become an educational tool to teach the process of nursing diagnosis.

  17. Calling Out Cheaters : Covert Security with Public VerifiabilitySecurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asharov, Gilad; Orlandi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of covert security with public verifiability, building on the covert security model introduced by Aumann and Lindell (TCC 2007). Protocols that satisfy covert security guarantee that the honest parties involved in the protocol will notice any cheating attempt with some...... constant probability ε. The idea behind the model is that the fear of being caught cheating will be enough of a deterrent to prevent any cheating attempt. However, in the basic covert security model, the honest parties are not able to persuade any third party (say, a judge) that a cheating occurred. We...... propose (and formally define) an extension of the model where, when an honest party detects cheating, it also receives a certificate that can be published and used to persuade other parties, without revealing any information about the honest party’s input. In addition, malicious parties cannot create fake...

  18. Developing a flexible and verifiable integrated dose assessment capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Rhea, T.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Bogard, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A flexible yet verifiable system of computing and recording personnel doses is needed. Recent directions in statutes establish the trend of combining internal and external doses. We are developing a Health Physics Information Management System (HPIMS) that will centralize dosimetry calculations and data storage; integrate health physics records with other health-related disciplines, such as industrial hygiene, medicine, and safety; provide a more auditable system with published algorithms and clearly defined flowcharts of system operation; readily facilitate future changes dictated by new regulations, new dosimetric models, and new systems of units; and address ad-hoc inquiries regarding worker/workplace interactions, including potential synergisms with non-radiation exposures. The system is modular and provides a high degree of isolation from low-level detail, allowing flexibility for changes without adversely affecting other parts of the system. 10 refs., 3 figs

  19. Design of a verifiable subset for HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J. C.; Good, D. I.; Tripathi, A. R.; Young, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt to evaluate the applicability of program verification techniques to the existing programming language, HAL/S is discussed. HAL/S is a general purpose high level language designed to accommodate the software needs of the NASA Space Shuttle project. A diversity of features for scientific computing, concurrent and real-time programming, and error handling are discussed. The criteria by which features were evaluated for inclusion into the verifiable subset are described. Individual features of HAL/S with respect to these criteria are examined and justification for the omission of various features from the subset is provided. Conclusions drawn from the research are presented along with recommendations made for the use of HAL/S with respect to the area of program verification.

  20. A Formally Verified Conflict Detection Algorithm for Polynomial Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict detection algorithms are used to determine whether or not aircraft are predicted to lose horizontal and vertical separation minima within a time interval assuming a trajectory model. In the case of linear trajectories, conflict detection algorithms have been proposed that are both sound, i.e., they detect all conflicts, and complete, i.e., they do not present false alarms. In general, for arbitrary nonlinear trajectory models, it is possible to define detection algorithms that are either sound or complete, but not both. This paper considers the case of nonlinear aircraft trajectory models based on polynomial functions. In particular, it proposes a conflict detection algorithm that precisely determines whether, given a lookahead time, two aircraft flying polynomial trajectories are in conflict. That is, it has been formally verified that, assuming that the aircraft trajectories are modeled as polynomial functions, the proposed algorithm is both sound and complete.

  1. Leveraging Parallel Data Processing Frameworks with Verified Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaz Bin Safeer Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many parallel data frameworks have been proposed in recent years that let sequential programs access parallel processing. To capitalize on the benefits of such frameworks, existing code must often be rewritten to the domain-specific languages that each framework supports. This rewriting–tedious and error-prone–also requires developers to choose the framework that best optimizes performance given a specific workload. This paper describes Casper, a novel compiler that automatically retargets sequential Java code for execution on Hadoop, a parallel data processing framework that implements the MapReduce paradigm. Given a sequential code fragment, Casper uses verified lifting to infer a high-level summary expressed in our program specification language that is then compiled for execution on Hadoop. We demonstrate that Casper automatically translates Java benchmarks into Hadoop. The translated results execute on average 3.3x faster than the sequential implementations and scale better, as well, to larger datasets.

  2. Verifying atom entanglement schemes by testing Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelakis, D.G.; Knight, P.L.; Tregenna, B.; Munro, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experiments to test Bell's inequality using entangled photons and ions aimed at tests of basic quantum mechanical principles. Interesting results have been obtained and many loopholes could be closed. In this paper we want to point out that tests of Bell's inequality also play an important role in verifying atom entanglement schemes. We describe as an example a scheme to prepare arbitrary entangled states of N two-level atoms using a leaky optical cavity and a scheme to entangle atoms inside a photonic crystal. During the state preparation no photons are emitted, and observing a violation of Bell's inequality is the only way to test whether a scheme works with a high precision or not. (orig.)

  3. Noninteractive Verifiable Outsourcing Algorithm for Bilinear Pairing with Improved Checkability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the computation of bilinear pairing is the most expensive operation in pairing-based cryptography. In this paper, we propose a noninteractive verifiable outsourcing algorithm of bilinear pairing based on two servers in the one-malicious model. The outsourcer need not execute any expensive operation, such as scalar multiplication and modular exponentiation. Moreover, the outsourcer could detect any failure with a probability close to 1 if one of the servers misbehaves. Therefore, the proposed algorithm improves checkability and decreases communication cost compared with the previous ones. Finally, we utilize the proposed algorithm as a subroutine to achieve an anonymous identity-based encryption (AIBE scheme with outsourced decryption and an identity-based signature (IBS scheme with outsourced verification.

  4. Modelling and Verifying Communication Failure of Hybrid Systems in HCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid systems are dynamic systems with interacting discrete computation and continuous physical processes. They have become ubiquitous in our daily life, e.g. automotive, aerospace and medical systems, and in particular, many of them are safety-critical. For a safety-critical hybrid system......, in the presence of communication failure, the expected control from the controller will get lost and as a consequence the physical process cannot behave as expected. In this paper, we mainly consider the communication failure caused by the non-engagement of one party in communication action, i.......e. the communication itself fails to occur. To address this issue, this paper proposes a formal framework by extending HCSP, a formal modeling language for hybrid systems, for modeling and verifying hybrid systems in the absence of receiving messages due to communication failure. We present two inference systems...

  5. A detailed and verified wind resource atlas for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N G; Landberg, L; Rathmann, O; Nielsen, M N [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Nielsen, P [Energy and Environmental Data, Aalberg (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    A detailed and reliable wind resource atlas covering the entire land area of Denmark has been established. Key words of the methodology are wind atlas analysis, interpolation of wind atlas data sets, automated generation of digital terrain descriptions and modelling of local wind climates. The atlas contains wind speed and direction distributions, as well as mean energy densities of the wind, for 12 sectors and four heights above ground level: 25, 45, 70 and 100 m. The spatial resolution is 200 meters in the horizontal. The atlas has been verified by comparison with actual wind turbine power productions from over 1200 turbines. More than 80% of these turbines were predicted to within 10%. The atlas will become available on CD-ROM and on the Internet. (au)

  6. Verifying reciprocal relations for experimental diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to verify the agreement of the available data on diffusion in ternary mixtures with the theoretical requirement of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics consisting in symmetry of the matrix of the phenomenological coefficients. A common set of measured diffusion...... coefficients for a three-component mixture consists of four Fickian diffusion coefficients, each being reported separately. However, the Onsager theory predicts the existence of only three independent coefficients, as one of them disappears due to the symmetry requirement. Re-calculation of the Fickian...... extended sets of experimental data and reliable thermodynamic models were available. The sensitivity of the symmetry property to different thermodynamic parameters of the models was also checked. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. How to Verify and Manage the Translational Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The use of Google translator as a tool for determining translational plagiarism is a big challenge. As noted, plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated into other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Attempts to screen the translational plagiarism should be supported. The use of Google Translate tool might be helpful. Special focus should be on any non-English reference that might be the source of plagiarised material and non-English article that might translate from an original English article, which cannot be detected by simple plagiarism screening tool. It is a hard job for any journal to detect the complex translational plagiarism but the harder job might be how to effectively manage the case. PMID:27703588

  8. Literally better : Analyzing and improving the quality of literals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Wouter; Ilievski, Filip; Debattista, Jeremy; Schlobach, Stefan; Wielemaker, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Quality is a complicated and multifarious topic in contemporary Linked Data research. The aspect of literal quality in particular has not yet been rigorously studied. Nevertheless, analyzing and improving the quality of literals is important since literals form a substantial (one in seven

  9. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  10. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (prigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle.

  11. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (psalting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  12. Rigorous bounds on the free energy of electron-phonon models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel

    1997-01-01

    We present a collection of rigorous upper and lower bounds to the free energy of electron-phonon models with linear electron-phonon interaction. These bounds are used to compare different variational approaches. It is shown rigorously that the ground states corresponding to the sharpest bounds do

  13. The Relationship between Project-Based Learning and Rigor in STEM-Focused High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie; Arshavsky, Nina; Glennie, Elizabeth; Charles, Karen; Rice, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an approach often favored in STEM classrooms, yet some studies have shown that teachers struggle to implement it with academic rigor. This paper explores the relationship between PjBL and rigor in the classrooms of ten STEM-oriented high schools. Utilizing three different data sources reflecting three different…

  14. Moving beyond Data Transcription: Rigor as Issue in Representation of Digital Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Margaret Carmody; Skinner, Emily Neil

    2015-01-01

    Rigor in qualitative research has been based upon criteria of credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability. Drawing upon articles published during our editorship of the "Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy," we illustrate how the use of digital data in research study reporting may enhance these areas of rigor,…

  15. Onset of rigor mortis is earlier in red muscle than in white muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nakajima, M; Sakurada, K; Hatanaka, K; Ikegaya, H; Matsuda, Y; Iwase, H

    2000-01-01

    Rigor mortis is thought to be related to falling ATP levels in muscles postmortem. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in three rat leg muscles in liquid paraffin kept at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C--two red muscles, red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus (SO) and one white muscle, white gastrocnemius (WG). Onset, half and full rigor mortis occurred earlier in RG and SO than in WG both at 37 degrees C and at 25 degrees C even though RG and WG were portions of the same muscle. This suggests that rigor mortis directly reflects the postmortem intramuscular ATP level, which decreases more rapidly in red muscle than in white muscle after death. Rigor mortis was more retarded at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C in each type of muscle.

  16. Automated measurement and control of concrete properties in a ready mix truck with VERIFI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this research, twenty batches of concrete with six different mixture proportions were tested with VERIFI to evaluate 1) accuracy : and repeatability of VERIFI measurements, 2) ability of VERIFI to adjust slump automatically with water and admixtur...

  17. High and low rigor temperature effects on sheep meat tenderness and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Peachey, Bridget M; Lowe, Timothy E; Ingram, John R; Cook, Christian J

    2002-02-01

    Immediately after electrical stimulation, the paired m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) of 40 sheep were boned out and wrapped tightly with a polyethylene cling film. One of the paired LT's was chilled in 15°C air to reach a rigor mortis (rigor) temperature of 18°C and the other side was placed in a water bath at 35°C and achieved rigor at this temperature. Wrapping reduced rigor shortening and mimicked meat left on the carcass. After rigor, the meat was aged at 15°C for 0, 8, 26 and 72 h and then frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1×1 cm cross-section. The shear force values of meat for 18 and 35°C rigor were similar at zero ageing, but as ageing progressed, the 18 rigor meat aged faster and became more tender than meat that went into rigor at 35°C (Prigor at each ageing time were significantly different (Prigor were still significantly greater. Thus the toughness of 35°C meat was not a consequence of muscle shortening and appears to be due to both a faster rate of tenderisation and the meat tenderising to a greater extent at the lower temperature. The cook loss at 35°C rigor (30.5%) was greater than that at 18°C rigor (28.4%) (P<0.01) and the colour Hunter L values were higher at 35°C (P<0.01) compared with 18°C, but there were no significant differences in a or b values.

  18. A Hybrid Verifiable and Delegated Cryptographic Model in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Ibrahim Naser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Access control is very important in cloud data sharing. Especially in the domains like healthcare, it is essential to have access control mechanisms in place for confidentiality and secure data access. Attribute based encryption has been around for many years to secure data and provide controlled access. In this paper, we proposed a framework that supports circuit and attributes based encryption mechanism that involves multiple parties. They are data owner, data user, cloud server and attribute authority. An important feature of the proposed system is the verifiable delegation of the decryption process to cloud server. Data owner encrypts data and delegates decryption process to cloud. Cloud server performs partial decryption and then the final decrypted data are shared for users as per the privileges. Data owner  thus reduces computational complexity by delegating decryption process cloud server. We built a prototype application using the Microsoft.NET platform for proof of the concept. The empirical results revealed that there is controlled access with multiple user roles and access control rights for secure and confidential data access in cloud computing.

  19. Verifying the Simulation Hypothesis via Infinite Nested Universe Simulacrum Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikrant

    2017-01-01

    The simulation hypothesis proposes that local reality exists as a simulacrum within a hypothetical computer's dimension. More specifically, Bostrom's trilemma proposes that the number of simulations an advanced 'posthuman' civilization could produce makes the proposition very likely. In this paper a hypothetical method to verify the simulation hypothesis is discussed using infinite regression applied to a new type of infinite loop. Assign dimension n to any computer in our present reality, where dimension signifies the hierarchical level in nested simulations our reality exists in. A computer simulating known reality would be dimension (n-1), and likewise a computer simulating an artificial reality, such as a video game, would be dimension (n +1). In this method, among others, four key assumptions are made about the nature of the original computer dimension n. Summations show that regressing such a reality infinitely will create convergence, implying that the verification of whether local reality is a grand simulation is feasible to detect with adequate compute capability. The action of reaching said convergence point halts the simulation of local reality. Sensitivities to the four assumptions and implications are discussed.

  20. Verifying operator fitness - an imperative not an option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.B. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the early morning hours of April 26, 1986, whatever credence those who operate nuclear power plants around the world could then muster, suffered a jarring reversal. Through an incredible series of personal errors, the operators at what was later to be termed one of the best operated plants in the USSR systematically stripped away the physical and procedural safeguards inherent to their installation and precipitated the worst reactor accident the world has yet seen. This challenge to the adequacy of nuclear operators comes at a time when many companies throughout the world - not only those that involve nuclear power - are grappling with the problem of how to assure the fitness for duty of those in their employ, specifically those users of substances that have an impact on the ability to function safely and productively in the workplace. In actuality, operator fitness for duty is far more than the lack of impairment from substance abuse, which many today consider it. Full fitness for duty implies mental and moral fitness, as well, and physical fitness in a more general sense. If we are to earn the confidence of the public, credible ways to verify total fitness on an operator-by-operator basis must be considered

  1. A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2008-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an angle-multiplexing based optical structure for verifying a credit card. Our key idea comes from the fact that the fine detail of the embossed hologram stamped on the credit card is hard to duplicate and therefore its key color features can be used for distinguishing between the real and counterfeit ones. As the embossed hologram is a diffractive optical element, we choose to shine one at a time a number of broadband lightsources, each at different incident angle, on the embossed hologram of the credit card in such a way that different color spectra per incident angle beam is diffracted and separated in space. In this way, the number of pixels of each color plane is investigated. Then we apply a feed forward back propagation neural network configuration to separate the counterfeit credit card from the real one. Our experimental demonstration using two off-the-shelf broadband white light emitting diodes, one digital camera, a 3-layer neural network, and a notebook computer can identify all 69 counterfeit credit cards from eight real credit cards.

  2. AUTOMATIC ESTIMATION OF SIZE PARAMETERS USING VERIFIED COMPUTERIZED STEREOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Mouton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art computerized stereology systems combine high-resolution video microscopy and hardwaresoftware integration with stereological methods to assist users in quantifying multidimensional parameters of importance to biomedical research, including volume, surface area, length, number, their variation and spatial distribution. The requirement for constant interactions between a trained, non-expert user and the targeted features of interest currently limits the throughput efficiency of these systems. To address this issue we developed a novel approach for automatic stereological analysis of 2-D images, Verified Computerized Stereoanalysis (VCS. The VCS approach minimizes the need for user interactions with high contrast [high signal-to-noise ratio (S:N] biological objects of interest. Performance testing of the VCS approach confirmed dramatic increases in the efficiency of total object volume (size estimation, without a loss of accuracy or precision compared to conventional computerized stereology. The broad application of high efficiency VCS to high-contrast biological objects on tissue sections could reduce labor costs, enhance hypothesis testing, and accelerate the progress of biomedical research focused on improvements in health and the management of disease.

  3. Verifying large modular systems using iterative abstraction refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, Jussi; Kuismin, Tuomas; Heljanko, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are increasingly used in the nuclear engineering domain. The exhaustive verification of these systems is challenging, and the usual verification methods such as testing and simulation are typically insufficient. Model checking is a formal method that is able to exhaustively analyse the behaviour of a model against a formally written specification. If the model checking tool detects a violation of the specification, it will give out a counter-example that demonstrates how the specification is violated in the system. Unfortunately, sometimes real life system designs are too big to be directly analysed by traditional model checking techniques. We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. The technique uses abstraction based over-approximations of the model behaviour, combined with iterative refinement. The main contribution of the work is the concrete abstraction refinement technique based on the modular structure of the model, the dependency graph of the model, and a refinement sampling heuristic similar to delta debugging. The technique is geared towards proving properties, and outperforms BDD-based model checking, the k-induction technique, and the property directed reachability algorithm (PDR) in our experiments. - Highlights: • We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. • The technique uses BDD-based model checking, k-induction, and PDR in parallel. • We have tested our algorithm by verifying two models with it. • The technique outperforms classical model checking methods in our experiments

  4. Verifying SeVeCom Using Set-based Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Modesti, Paolo

    We formally analyze the Secure Vehicle Communication system developed by the EU-project SeVeCom, using the AIF framework which is based on a novel set-abstraction technique. The model involves the hardware security modules (HSMs) of a number of cars, a certification authority, and the protocols...... executed between them. Each participant stores a database of keys that can be added or deleted depending on the different operations. The AIF-framework allows us to model and automatically analyze such databases with- out bounding the number of steps that the system can make and, in contrast to previous...

  5. Verifying SeVeCom Using Set-based Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Modesti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We formally analyze the Secure Vehicle Communication system developed by the EU-project SeVeCom, using the AIF framework which is based on a novel set-abstraction technique. The model involves the hardware security modules (HSMs) of a number of cars, a certication authority, and the protocols...... executed between them. Each participant stores a database of keys that can be added or deleted depending on the dierent operations. The AIF-framework allows us to model and automatically analyze such databases with- out bounding the number of steps that the system can make and, in contrast to previous...

  6. Rigorous classification and carbon accounting principles for low and Zero Carbon Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Scott; Sgouridis, Sgouris

    2011-01-01

    A large number of communities, new developments, and regions aim to lower their carbon footprint and aspire to become 'zero carbon' or 'Carbon Neutral.' Yet there are neither clear definitions for the scope of emissions that such a label would address on an urban scale, nor is there a process for qualifying the carbon reduction claims. This paper addresses the question of how to define a zero carbon, Low Carbon, or Carbon Neutral urban development by proposing hierarchical emissions categories with three levels: Internal Emissions based on the geographical boundary, external emissions directly caused by core municipal activities, and internal or external emissions due to non-core activities. Each level implies a different carbon management strategy (eliminating, balancing, and minimizing, respectively) needed to meet a Net Zero Carbon designation. The trade-offs, implications, and difficulties of implementing carbon debt accounting based upon these definitions are further analyzed. - Highlights: → A gap exists in comprehensive and standardized accounting methods for urban carbon emissions. → We propose a comprehensive and rigorous City Framework for Carbon Accounting (CiFCA). → CiFCA classifies emissions hierarchically with corresponding carbon management strategies. → Adoption of CiFCA allows for meaningful comparisons of claimed performance of eco-cities.

  7. Improving students’ mathematical critical thinking through rigorous teaching and learning model with informal argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, H.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze an improvement of students’ mathematical critical thinking (CT) ability in Real Analysis course by using Rigorous Teaching and Learning (RTL) model with informal argument. In addition, this research also attempted to understand students’ CT on their initial mathematical ability (IMA). This study was conducted at a private university in academic year 2015/2016. The study employed the quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. The participants of the study were 83 students in which 43 students were in the experimental group and 40 students were in the control group. The finding of the study showed that students in experimental group outperformed students in control group on mathematical CT ability based on their IMA (high, medium, low) in learning Real Analysis. In addition, based on medium IMA the improvement of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument was greater than that of students who were exposed to CI (conventional instruction). There was also no effect of interaction between RTL model and CI model with both (high, medium, and low) IMA increased mathematical CT ability. Finally, based on (high, medium, and low) IMA there was a significant improvement in the achievement of all indicators of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument than that of students who were exposed to CI.

  8. Applying rigorous decision analysis methodology to optimization of a tertiary recovery project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackowski, R.K.; Stevens, C.E.; Masoner, L.O.; Attanucci, V.; Larson, J.L.; Aslesen, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the intent of this study was to rigorously look at all of the possible expansion, investment, operational, and CO 2 purchase/recompression scenarios (over 2500) to yield a strategy that would maximize net present value of the CO 2 project at the Rangely Weber Sand Unit. Traditional methods of project management, which involve analyzing large numbers of single case economic evaluations, was found to be too cumbersome and inaccurate for an analysis of this scope. The decision analysis methodology utilized a statistical approach which resulted in a range of economic outcomes. Advantages of the decision analysis methodology included: a more organized approach to classification of decisions and uncertainties; a clear sensitivity method to identify the key uncertainties; an application of probabilistic analysis through the decision tree; and a comprehensive display of the range of possible outcomes for communication to decision makers. This range made it possible to consider the upside and downside potential of the options and to weight these against the Unit's strategies. Savings in time and manpower required to complete the study were also realized

  9. Conformational distributions and proximity relationships in the rigor complex of actin and myosin subfragment-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitrai, M; Hild, G; Lukács, A; Bódis, E; Somogyi, B

    2000-01-28

    Cyclic conformational changes in the myosin head are considered essential for muscle contraction. We hereby show that the extension of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method described originally by Taylor et al. (Taylor, D. L., Reidler, J., Spudich, J. A., and Stryer, L. (1981) J. Cell Biol. 89, 362-367) allows determination of the position of a labeled point outside the actin filament in supramolecular complexes and also characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of an actin-binding protein while considering donor-acceptor distance distributions. Using this method we analyzed proximity relationships between two labeled points of S1 and the actin filament in the acto-S1 rigor complex. The donor (N-[[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonate) was attached to either the catalytic domain (Cys-707) or the essential light chain (Cys-177) of S1, whereas the acceptor (5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein) was attached to the actin filament (Cys-374). In contrast to the narrow positional distribution (assumed as being Gaussian) of Cys-707 (5 +/- 3 A), the positional distribution of Cys-177 was found to be broad (102 +/- 4 A). Such a broad positional distribution of the label on the essential light chain of S1 may be important in accommodating the helically arranged acto-myosin binding relative to the filament axis.

  10. A Framework for Modeling and Analyzing Complex Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Nancy A; Shvartsman, Alex Allister

    2005-01-01

    Report developed under STTR contract for topic AF04-T023. This Phase I project developed a modeling language and laid a foundation for computational support tools for specifying, analyzing, and verifying complex distributed system designs...

  11. Scenarios for exercising technical approaches to verified nuclear reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James

    2010-01-01

    Presidents Obama and Medvedev in April 2009 committed to a continuing process of step-by-step nuclear arms reductions beyond the new START treaty that was signed April 8, 2010 and to the eventual goal of a world free of nuclear weapons. In addition, the US Nuclear Posture review released April 6, 2010 commits the US to initiate a comprehensive national research and development program to support continued progress toward a world free of nuclear weapons, including expanded work on verification technologies and the development of transparency measures. It is impossible to predict the specific directions that US-RU nuclear arms reductions will take over the 5-10 years. Additional bilateral treaties could be reached requiring effective verification as indicated by statements made by the Obama administration. There could also be transparency agreements or other initiatives (unilateral, bilateral or multilateral) that require monitoring with a standard of verification lower than formal arms control, but still needing to establish confidence to domestic, bilateral and multilateral audiences that declared actions are implemented. The US Nuclear Posture Review and other statements give some indication of the kinds of actions and declarations that may need to be confirmed in a bilateral or multilateral setting. Several new elements of the nuclear arsenals could be directly limited. For example, it is likely that both strategic and nonstrategic nuclear warheads (deployed and in storage), warhead components, and aggregate stocks of such items could be accountable under a future treaty or transparency agreement. In addition, new initiatives or agreements may require the verified dismantlement of a certain number of nuclear warheads over a specified time period. Eventually procedures for confirming the elimination of nuclear warheads, components and fissile materials from military stocks will need to be established. This paper is intended to provide useful background information

  12. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  13. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  14. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  15. Some Proxy Signature and Designated verifier Signature Schemes over Braid Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Sunder; Verma, Vandani

    2009-01-01

    Braids groups provide an alternative to number theoretic public cryptography and can be implemented quite efficiently. The paper proposes five signature schemes: Proxy Signature, Designated Verifier, Bi-Designated Verifier, Designated Verifier Proxy Signature And Bi-Designated Verifier Proxy Signature scheme based on braid groups. We also discuss the security aspects of each of the proposed schemes.

  16. Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry W. Fendick

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell loss probabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirements are being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods for determining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look at the stream of losses as successive clusters of losses. Often clusters of losses, rather than individual losses, should be regarded as the important “loss events”. Thus we propose modeling the cell loss process by a batch Poisson stochastic process. Successive clusters of losses are assumed to arrive according to a Poisson process. Within each cluster, cell losses do not occur at a single time, but the distance between losses within a cluster should be negligible compared to the distance between clusters. Thus, for the purpose of estimating the cell loss probability, we ignore the spaces between successive cell losses in a cluster of losses. Asymptotic theory suggests that the counting process of losses initiating clusters often should be approximately a Poisson process even though the cell arrival process is not nearly Poisson. The batch Poisson model is relatively easy to test statistically and fit; e.g., the batch-size distribution and the batch arrival rate can readily be estimated from cell loss data. Since batch (cluster sizes may be highly variable, it may be useful to focus on the number of batches instead of the number of cells in a measurement interval. We also propose a method for approximately determining the parameters of a special batch Poisson cell loss with geometric batch-size distribution from a queueing model of the buffer content. For this step, we use a reflected Brownian motion (RBM approximation of a G/D/1/C queueing model. We also use the RBM model to estimate the input burstiness given the cell loss rate. In addition, we use the RBM model to

  17. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Piet, Steven J.; Baker, Benjamin A.; Grimm, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R and D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft

  18. The jABC Approach to Rigorous Collaborative Development of SCM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Martina; Margaria, Tiziana; Mender, Thomas; Nagel, Ralf; Steffen, Bernhard; Trinh, Hong

    Our approach to the model-driven collaborative design of IKEA's P3 Delivery Management Process uses the jABC [9] for model driven mediation and choreography to complement a RUP-based (Rational Unified Process) development process. jABC is a framework for service development based on Lightweight Process Coordination. Users (product developers and system/software designers) easily develop services and applications by composing reusable building-blocks into (flow-) graph structures that can be animated, analyzed, simulated, verified, executed, and compiled. This way of handling the collaborative design of complex embedded systems has proven to be effective and adequate for the cooperation of non-programmers and non-technical people, which is the focus of this contribution, and it is now being rolled out in the operative practice.

  19. Differential rigor development in red and white muscle revealed by simultaneous measurement of tension and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Takemori, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Maki

    2004-02-10

    Based on the molecular mechanism of rigor mortis, we have proposed that stiffness (elastic modulus evaluated with tension response against minute length perturbations) can be a suitable index of post-mortem rigidity in skeletal muscle. To trace the developmental process of rigor mortis, we measured stiffness and tension in both red and white rat skeletal muscle kept in liquid paraffin at 37 and 25 degrees C. White muscle (in which type IIB fibres predominate) developed stiffness and tension significantly more slowly than red muscle, except for soleus red muscle at 25 degrees C, which showed disproportionately slow rigor development. In each of the examined muscles, stiffness and tension developed more slowly at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. In each specimen, tension always reached its maximum level earlier than stiffness, and then decreased more rapidly and markedly than stiffness. These phenomena may account for the sequential progress of rigor mortis in human cadavers.

  20. 75 FR 29732 - Career and Technical Education Program-Promoting Rigorous Career and Technical Education Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... rigorous knowledge and skills in English- language arts and mathematics that employers and colleges expect... specialists and to access the student outcome data needed to meet annual evaluation and reporting requirements...

  1. Rigorous derivation from Landau-de Gennes theory to Ericksen-Leslie theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Pingwen; Zhang, Zhifei

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Beris-Edwards system for the liquid crystal, we present a rigorous derivation of Ericksen-Leslie system with general Ericksen stress and Leslie stress by using the Hilbert expansion method.

  2. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  3. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  4. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts of vari...

  5. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  6. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  7. MASTERS OF ANALYTICAL TRADECRAFT: CERTIFYING THE STANDARDS AND ANALYTIC RIGOR OF INTELLIGENCE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MASTERS OF ANALYTICAL TRADECRAFT: CERTIFYING THE STANDARDS AND ANALYTIC RIGOR OF...establishing unit level certified Masters of Analytic Tradecraft (MAT) analysts to be trained and entrusted to evaluate and rate the standards and...cues) ideally should meet or exceed effective rigor (based on analytical process).4 To accomplish this, decision makers should not be left to their

  8. Pilot study to verify the calibration of electrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.; Meghzifene, A.

    2002-01-01

    National Laboratory for Electrical Measurements has not yet developed its capability for the standardization of small electrical charge produced by DC, the IRD is trying to verify its standardization procedures of the electrical charge through a comparison programme. This subject was discussed with a major electrometer manufacturer that has offered to provide free of charge, three of their electrometer calibration standards for a pilot run. The model to be provided consists of four calibrated resistors and two calibrated capacitors, covering the charge/current range of interest. For producing charge or current a standard DC voltage must be applied to these components. Since practically all-modern electrometers measure using virtual ground, this methodology is viable. The IRD, in collaboration with the IAEA, wishes to invite interested laboratories to participate in this pilot comparison programme. This exercise is expected to be useful for all participants and will hopefully open the way for the establishment of routine comparisons in this area. The results will be discussed and published in an appropriate journal. Interested institutions should contact directly Mr. Paulo H. B. Becker through e-mail (pbecker at ird.gov.br) or fax +55 21 24421950 informing him of the model and manufacturer of the electrometer to be used for the pilot study and discuss all practical details. (author)

  9. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  10. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Bayrak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

  11. A Development of Advanced Rigorous 2 Step System for the High Resolution Residual Dose Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Jea Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Hyun [Kyoto University, Sennan (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    In these days, an activation problem such as residual radiation is one of the important issues. The activated devices and structures can emit the residual radiation. Therefore, the activation should be properly analyzed to make a plan for design, operation, and decontamination of nuclear facilities. For activation calculation, Rigorous 2 Step (R2S) method is introduced as following strategy: (1) the particle transport calculation is performed for an object geometry to get particle spectra and total fluxes; (2) inventories of each cell are calculated by using flux information according to irradiation and decay history; (3) the residual gamma distribution was evaluated by transport code, if needed. This scheme is based on cell calculation of used geometry. In this method, the particle spectra and total fluxes are obtained by mesh tally for activation calculation. It is useful to reduce the effects of gradient flux information. Nevertheless, several limitations are known as follows: Firstly, high relative error of spectra, when lots of meshes were used; secondly, different flux information from spectrum of void in mesh-tally. To calculate high resolution residual dose, several method are developed such as R2Smesh and MCR2S unstructured mesh. The R2Smesh method products better efficiency for obtaining neutron spectra by using fine/coarse mesh. Also, the MCR2S unstructured mesh can effectively separate void spectrum. In this study, the AR2S system was developed to combine the features of those mesh based R2S method. To confirm the AR2S system, the simple activation problem was evaluated and compared with R2S method using same division. Those results have good agreement within 0.83 %. Therefore, it is expected that the AR2S system can properly estimate an activation problem.

  12. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  13. Reference Material Properties and Standard Problems to Verify the Fuel Performance Models Ver 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Jae Yong; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2010-12-01

    All fuel performance models must be validated by in-pile and out-pile tests. However, the model validation requires much efforts and times to confirm its exactness. In many fields, new performance models and codes are confirmed by code-to-code benchmarking process under simplified standard problem analysis. At present, the DUOS, which is the steady state fuel performance analysis code for dual cooled annular fuel, development project is progressing and new FEM module is developed to analyze the fuel performance during transient period. In addition, the verification process is planning to examine the new models and module's rightness by comparing with commercial finite element analysis such as a ADINA, ABAQUS and ANSYS. This reports contains the result of unification of material properties and establishment of standard problem to verify the newly developed models with commercial FEM code

  14. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  15. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  16. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  17. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  18. Rigor or Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research: Perspectives, Strategies, Reconceptualization, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described. A synthesis of the historical development of validity criteria evident in the literature during the years is explored. Recommendations are made for use of the term rigor instead of trustworthiness and the reconceptualization and renewed use of the concept of reliability and validity in qualitative research, that strategies for ensuring rigor must be built into the qualitative research process rather than evaluated only after the inquiry, and that qualitative researchers and students alike must be proactive and take responsibility in ensuring the rigor of a research study. The insights garnered here will move novice researchers and doctoral students to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of reliability and validity and its ramifications for qualitative inquiry.

  19. Single-case synthesis tools I: Comparing tools to evaluate SCD quality and rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kathleen N; Ledford, Jennifer R; Severini, Katherine E; Pustejovsky, James E; Barton, Erin E; Lloyd, Blair P

    2018-03-03

    Tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of single case research designs (SCD) are often used when conducting SCD syntheses. Preferred components include evaluations of design features related to the internal validity of SCD to obtain quality and/or rigor ratings. Three tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of SCD (Council for Exceptional Children, What Works Clearinghouse, and Single-Case Analysis and Design Framework) were compared to determine if conclusions regarding the effectiveness of antecedent sensory-based interventions for young children changed based on choice of quality evaluation tool. Evaluation of SCD quality differed across tools, suggesting selection of quality evaluation tools impacts evaluation findings. Suggestions for selecting an appropriate quality and rigor assessment tool are provided and across-tool conclusions are drawn regarding the quality and rigor of studies. Finally, authors provide guidance for using quality evaluations in conjunction with outcome analyses when conducting syntheses of interventions evaluated in the context of SCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Privacy-Preserving Verifiability: A Case for an Electronic Exam Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustolisi, Rosario; Iovino, Vincenzo; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the notion of privacy-preserving verifiability for security protocols. It holds when a protocol admits a verifiability test that does not reveal, to the verifier that runs it, more pieces of information about the protocol’s execution than those required to run the test. Our definition...... of privacy-preserving verifiability is general and applies to cryptographic protocols as well as to human security protocols. In this paper we exemplify it in the domain of e-exams. We prove that the notion is meaningful by studying an existing exam protocol that is verifiable but whose verifiability tests...... are not privacy-preserving. We prove that the notion is applicable: we review the protocol using functional encryption so that it admits a verifiability test that preserves privacy according to our definition. We analyse, in ProVerif, that the verifiability holds despite malicious parties and that the new...

  1. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...

  2. 31 CFR 363.14 - How will you verify my identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will you verify my identity? 363... you verify my identity? (a) Individual. When you establish an account, we may use a verification service to verify your identity using information you provide about yourself on the online application. At...

  3. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  4. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  5. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  6. The effect of temperature on the mechanical aspects of rigor mortis in a liquid paraffin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Masayoshi; Iwadate, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Sari; Asakura, Kumiko; Ochiai, Eriko; Maebashi, Kyoko

    2013-11-01

    Rigor mortis is an important phenomenon to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic medicine. Rigor mortis is affected by temperature. We measured stiffness of rat muscles using a liquid paraffin model to monitor the mechanical aspects of rigor mortis at five temperatures (37, 25, 10, 5 and 0°C). At 37, 25 and 10°C, the progression of stiffness was slower in cooler conditions. At 5 and 0°C, the muscle stiffness increased immediately after the muscles were soaked in cooled liquid paraffin and then muscles gradually became rigid without going through a relaxed state. This phenomenon suggests that it is important to be careful when estimating the postmortem interval in cold seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  8. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2014-11-01

    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Disciplining Bioethics: Towards a Standard of Methodological Rigor in Bioethics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Daniel; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary bioethics research is often described as multi- or interdisciplinary. Disciplines are characterized, in part, by their methods. Thus, when bioethics research draws on a variety of methods, it crosses disciplinary boundaries. Yet each discipline has its own standard of rigor—so when multiple disciplinary perspectives are considered, what constitutes rigor? This question has received inadequate attention, as there is considerable disagreement regarding the disciplinary status of bioethics. This disagreement has presented five challenges to bioethics research. Addressing them requires consideration of the main types of cross-disciplinary research, and consideration of proposals aiming to ensure rigor in bioethics research. PMID:22686634

  10. Mathematical framework for fast and rigorous track fit for the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, Alexander

    2008-12-15

    In this note we present a mathematical framework for a rigorous approach to a common track fit for trackers located in the inner region of the ZEUS detector. The approach makes use of the Kalman filter and offers a rigorous treatment of magnetic field inhomogeneity, multiple scattering and energy loss. We describe mathematical details of the implementation of the Kalman filter technique with a reduced amount of computations for a cylindrical drift chamber, barrel and forward silicon strip detectors and a forward straw drift chamber. Options with homogeneous and inhomogeneous field are discussed. The fitting of tracks in one ZEUS event takes about of 20ms on standard PC. (orig.)

  11. Electrocardiogram artifact caused by rigors mimicking narrow complex tachycardia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Indrakumar, Jegarajah

    2014-02-04

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. Rigors due to shivering can cause electrocardiogram artifacts mimicking various cardiac rhythm abnormalities. We describe an 80-year-old Sri Lankan man with an abnormal electrocardiogram mimicking narrow complex tachycardia during the immediate post-operative period. Electrocardiogram changes caused by muscle tremor during rigors could mimic a narrow complex tachycardia. Identification of muscle tremor as a cause of electrocardiogram artifact can avoid unnecessary pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention to prevent arrhythmias.

  12. Increased scientific rigor will improve reliability of research and effectiveness of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Sarah N.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Barker, Kristin J.; Forshee, Shannon C.; Keever, Allison; Goerz, James W.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Rigorous science that produces reliable knowledge is critical to wildlife management because it increases accurate understanding of the natural world and informs management decisions effectively. Application of a rigorous scientific method based on hypothesis testing minimizes unreliable knowledge produced by research. To evaluate the prevalence of scientific rigor in wildlife research, we examined 24 issues of the Journal of Wildlife Management from August 2013 through July 2016. We found 43.9% of studies did not state or imply a priori hypotheses, which are necessary to produce reliable knowledge. We posit that this is due, at least in part, to a lack of common understanding of what rigorous science entails, how it produces more reliable knowledge than other forms of interpreting observations, and how research should be designed to maximize inferential strength and usefulness of application. Current primary literature does not provide succinct explanations of the logic behind a rigorous scientific method or readily applicable guidance for employing it, particularly in wildlife biology; we therefore synthesized an overview of the history, philosophy, and logic that define scientific rigor for biological studies. A rigorous scientific method includes 1) generating a research question from theory and prior observations, 2) developing hypotheses (i.e., plausible biological answers to the question), 3) formulating predictions (i.e., facts that must be true if the hypothesis is true), 4) designing and implementing research to collect data potentially consistent with predictions, 5) evaluating whether predictions are consistent with collected data, and 6) drawing inferences based on the evaluation. Explicitly testing a priori hypotheses reduces overall uncertainty by reducing the number of plausible biological explanations to only those that are logically well supported. Such research also draws inferences that are robust to idiosyncratic observations and

  13. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility......Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at http://phosphosite.sourceforge.net ....

  14. Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjut, R.E.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO 2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined

  15. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABRINA; ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  16. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  17. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VIII. Estimation of time since death by repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T

    1994-10-21

    The development of the intensity of rigor mortis was monitored in nine groups of rats. The measurements were initiated after 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 24, and 48 h post mortem (p.m.) and lasted 5-9 h, which ideally should correspond to the usual procedure after the discovery of a corpse. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. Measurements initiated early after death resulted in curves with a rising portion, a plateau, and a descending slope. Delaying the initial measurement translated into shorter rising portions, and curves initiated 8 h p.m. or later are comprised of a plateau and/or a downward slope only. Three different phases were observed suggesting simple rules that can help estimate the time since death: (1) if an increase in intensity was found, the initial measurements were conducted not later than 5 h p.m.; (2) if only a decrease in intensity was observed, the initial measurements were conducted not earlier than 7 h p.m.; and (3) at 24 h p.m., the resolution is complete, and no further changes in intensity should occur. Our results clearly demonstrate that repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis allow a more accurate estimation of the time since death of the experimental animals than the single measurement method used earlier. A critical review of the literature on the estimation of time since death on the basis of objective measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis is also presented.

  18. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  19. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  20. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  1. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  2. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  3. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  4. Rigorous lower bound on the dynamic critical exponent of some multilevel Swendsen-Wang algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sokal, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    We prove the rigorous lower bound z exp ≥α/ν for the dynamic critical exponent of a broad class of multilevel (or ''multigrid'') variants of the Swendsen-Wang algorithm. This proves that such algorithms do suffer from critical slowing down. We conjecture that such algorithms in fact lie in the same dynamic universality class as the stanard Swendsen-Wang algorithm

  5. Rigorous modelling of light's intensity angular-profile in Abbe refractometers with absorbing homogeneous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valenzuela, A; Contreras-Tello, H; Márquez-Islas, R; Sánchez-Pérez, C

    2013-01-01

    We derive an optical model for the light intensity distribution around the critical angle in a standard Abbe refractometer when used on absorbing homogenous fluids. The model is developed using rigorous electromagnetic optics. The obtained formula is very simple and can be used suitably in the analysis and design of optical sensors relying on Abbe type refractometry.

  6. Rigorous approximation of stationary measures and convergence to equilibrium for iterated function systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota–Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L "1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein–Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. (paper)

  7. Double phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain during rigor mortis of bovine Longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Shibata, Masahiro; Chikuni, Koichi

    2007-05-16

    To investigate changes in myosin light chains (MyLCs) during postmortem aging of the bovine longissimus muscle, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results of fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis showed that two spots of the myosin regulatory light chain (MyLC2) at pI values of 4.6 and 4.7 shifted toward those at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively, by 24 h postmortem when rigor mortis was completed. Meanwhile, the MyLC1 and MyLC3 spots did not change during the 14 days postmortem. Phosphoprotein-specific staining of the gels demonstrated that the MyLC2 proteins at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6 were phosphorylated. Furthermore, possible N-terminal region peptides containing one and two phosphoserine residues were detected in each mass spectrum of the MyLC2 spots at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively. These results demonstrated that MyLC2 became doubly phosphorylated during rigor formation of the bovine longissimus, suggesting involvement of the MyLC2 phosphorylation in the progress of beef rigor mortis. Bovine; myosin regulatory light chain (RLC, MyLC2); phosphorylation; rigor mortis; skeletal muscle.

  8. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: botelho.luiz@superig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R{sup {infinity}}, we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  9. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R ∞ , we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  10. Community historians and the dilemma of rigor vs relevance : A comment on Danziger and van Rappard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Trudy

    1998-01-01

    Since the transition from finalism to contextualism, the history of science seems to be caught up in a basic dilemma. Many historians fear that with the new contextualist standards of rigorous historiography, historical research can no longer be relevant to working scientists themselves. The present

  11. Beyond the RCT: Integrating Rigor and Relevance to Evaluate the Outcomes of Domestic Violence Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Epstein, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2018-01-01

    Programs for domestic violence (DV) victims and their families have grown exponentially over the last four decades. The evidence demonstrating the extent of their effectiveness, however, often has been criticized as stemming from studies lacking scientific rigor. A core reason for this critique is the widespread belief that credible evidence can…

  12. A plea for rigorous conceptual analysis as central method in transnational law design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, R.; van der Kaaij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although shared problems are generally easily identified in transnational law design, it is considerably more difficult to design frameworks that transcend the peculiarities of local law in a univocal fashion. The following exposition is a plea for giving more prominence to rigorous conceptual

  13. College Readiness in California: A Look at Rigorous High School Course-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Niu

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the educational and economic benefits of a college degree, education policymakers at the federal, state, and local levels have made college preparation a priority. There are many ways to measure college readiness, but one key component is rigorous high school coursework. California has not yet adopted a statewide college readiness…

  14. Verified Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games......In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...

  15. Evaluation of physical dimension changes as nondestructive measurements for monitoring rigor mortis development in broiler muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavitt, L C; Sams, A R

    2003-07-01

    Studies were conducted to develop a non-destructive method for monitoring the rate of rigor mortis development in poultry and to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical stimulation (ES). In the first study, 36 male broilers in each of two trials were processed at 7 wk of age. After being bled, half of the birds received electrical stimulation (400 to 450 V, 400 to 450 mA, for seven pulses of 2 s on and 1 s off), and the other half were designated as controls. At 0.25 and 1.5 h postmortem (PM), carcasses were evaluated for the angles of the shoulder, elbow, and wing tip and the distance between the elbows. Breast fillets were harvested at 1.5 h PM (after chilling) from all carcasses. Fillet samples were excised and frozen for later measurement of pH and R-value, and the remainder of each fillet was held on ice until 24 h postmortem. Shear value and pH means were significantly lower, but R-value means were higher (P rigor mortis by ES. The physical dimensions of the shoulder and elbow changed (P rigor mortis development and with ES. These results indicate that physical measurements of the wings maybe useful as a nondestructive indicator of rigor development and for monitoring the effectiveness of ES. In the second study, 60 male broilers in each of two trials were processed at 7 wk of age. At 0.25, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 h PM, carcasses were evaluated for the distance between the elbows. At each time point, breast fillets were harvested from each carcass. Fillet samples were excised and frozen for later measurement of pH and sacromere length, whereas the remainder of each fillet was held on ice until 24 h PM. Shear value and pH means (P rigor mortis development. Elbow distance decreased (P rigor development and was correlated (P rigor mortis development in broiler carcasses.

  16. A neutron activation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Grass, F.; De Regge, P.P.; Burns, K.; Markowicz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dubbed 'Analyzer' because of its simplicity, a neutron activation analysis facility for short-lived isomeric transitions is based on a low-cost rabbit system and an adaptive digital filter which are controlled by a software performing irradiation control, loss-free gamma-spectrometry, spectra evaluation, nuclide identification and calculation of concentrations in a fully automatic flow of operations. Designed for TRIGA reactors and constructed from inexpensive plastic tubing and an aluminum in-core part, the rabbit system features samples of 5 ml and 10 ml with sample separation at 150 ms and 200 ms transport time or 25 ml samples without separation at a transport time of 300 ms. By automatically adapting shaping times to pulse intervals the preloaded digital filter gives best throughput at best resolution up to input counting rates of 10 6 cps. Loss-free counting enables quantitative correction of counting losses of up to 99%. As a test of system reproducibility in sample separation geometry, K, Cl, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sc, and V have been determined in various reference materials at excellent agreement with consensus values. (author)

  17. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  18. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  19. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  20. [A new formula for the measurement of rigor mortis: the determination of the FRR-index (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, B; Ropohl, D; Raule, P

    1977-07-05

    The manual examination of rigor mortis as currently used and its often subjective evaluation frequently produced highly incorrect deductions. It is therefore desirable that such inaccuracies should be replaced by the objective measuring of rigor mortis at the extremities. To that purpose a method is described which can also be applied in on-the-spot investigations and a new formula for the determination of rigor mortis--indices (FRR) is introduced.

  1. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  2. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hunt

    Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be

  3. Measurements of the degree of development of rigor mortis as an indicator of stress in slaughtered pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Knowles, T G

    2003-12-13

    The degree of development of rigor mortis in the carcases of slaughter pigs was assessed subjectively on a three-point scale 35 minutes after they were exsanguinated, and related to the levels of cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase in blood collected at exsanguination. Earlier rigor development was associated with higher concentrations of these stress indicators in the blood. This relationship suggests that the mean rigor score, and the frequency distribution of carcases that had or had not entered rigor, could be used as an index of the degree of stress to which the pigs had been subjected.

  4. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  5. POSSIBILITIES TO EVALUATE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION BY VERIFYING THE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BOROIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the higher education, for the evaluation of education process it is of high interest to use some numeric indicators obtained from the database with the final results realized by the students on exams session. For this purpose could be used the following numeric indicators: proportion of students absent on final evaluation, proportion of non-promoted students, normality degree of passing marks distribution. In order to do this we realized an Excel calculation program that could be applied to each discipline. The inputs are concrete (students total, students present to final evaluation, marks absolute frequency and the outputs for the three indicators are binary (competent or noncompetent, in the last situation the verdict being: “Give explanations. Propose an action plan, with actions, responsible and terms”. To verify the imposed normality degree we elaborate a calculation program based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov concordance test. So, it was realized the increase of analyze objectivity and it was created the opportunity to apply corrective measures in order to improve the education process.

  6. Verifying the model of predicting entrepreneurial intention among students of business and non-business orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Sušanj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify whether certain entrepreneurial characteristics, like entrepreneurial potential and entrepreneurial propensity, affect the level of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship, and further have direct and indirect effect on entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, this study seeks to compare the strength of the relationship between these variables among groups of students who receive some entrepreneurship education and students outside the business sphere. Data was collected from a sample of undergraduate students of business and non-business orientation and analyzed with multi-group analysis within SEM. Results of the multi-group analysis indicate that indeed, the strength of the relationship among tested variables is more pronounced when it comes to business students. That is, mediating effect of perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship in the relationship between entrepreneurial characteristics and intent, is significantly stronger for the business-oriented groups, in comparison to non-business orientation group. The amount of explained variance of all constructs (except entrepreneurial propensity is also larger in business students in comparison to non-business students. Educational implications of obtained results are discussed.

  7. Use of the Rigor Mortis Process as a Tool for Better Understanding of Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Effect of the Ante-Mortem Stress on the Progression of Rigor Mortis in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Boucar; Rioux, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents the rigor mortis process in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) as a tool for better understanding skeletal muscle metabolism. Describes an activity that demonstrates how rigor mortis is related to the post-mortem decrease of muscular glycogen and ATP, how glycogen degradation produces lactic acid that lowers muscle pH, and how…

  8. A new approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility,

  9. A rigorous pole representation of multilevel cross sections and its practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    In this article a rigorous method for representing the multilevel cross sections and its practical applications are described. It is a generalization of the rationale suggested by de Saussure and Perez for the s-wave resonances. A computer code WHOPPER has been developed to convert the Reich-Moore parameters into the pole and residue parameters in momentum space. Sample calculations have been carried out to illustrate that the proposed method preserves the rigor of the Reich-Moore cross sections exactly. An analytical method has been developed to evaluate the pertinent Doppler-broadened line shape functions. A discussion is presented on how to minimize the number of pole parameters so that the existing reactor codes can be best utilized

  10. Estimation of the time since death--reconsidering the re-establishment of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Kunz, Michaela; Gehl, Axel; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Beck-Bornholdt, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    In forensic medicine, there is an undefined data background for the phenomenon of re-establishment of rigor mortis after mechanical loosening, a method used in establishing time since death in forensic casework that is thought to occur up to 8 h post-mortem. Nevertheless, the method is widely described in textbooks on forensic medicine. We examined 314 joints (elbow and knee) of 79 deceased at defined time points up to 21 h post-mortem (hpm). Data were analysed using a random intercept model. Here, we show that re-establishment occurred in 38.5% of joints at 7.5 to 19 hpm. Therefore, the maximum time span for the re-establishment of rigor mortis appears to be 2.5-fold longer than thought so far. These findings have major impact on the estimation of time since death in forensic casework.

  11. Quality of nuchal translucency measurements correlates with broader aspects of program rigor and culture of excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark I; Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence; Sherwin, John; Britt, David W

    2013-01-01

    To determine if nuchal translucency (NT) quality correlates with the extent to which clinics vary in rigor and quality control. We correlated NT performance quality (bias and precision) of 246,000 patients with two alternative measures of clinic culture - % of cases for whom nasal bone (NB) measurements were performed and % of requisitions correctly filled for race-ethnicity and weight. When requisition errors occurred in 5% (33%), the curve lowered to 0.93 MoM (p 90%, MoM was 0.99 compared to those quality exists independent of individual variation in NT quality, and two divergent indices of program rigor are associated with NT quality. Quality control must be program wide, and to effect continued improvement in the quality of NT results across time, the cultures of clinics must become a target for intervention. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Rigorous assessment of patterning solution of metal layer in 7 nm technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Ciofi, Ivan; Saad, Yves; Matagne, Philippe; Bachmann, Michael; Gillijns, Werner; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Schmoeller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a 7 nm node (N7), the logic design requires a critical poly pitch of 42 to 45 nm and a metal 1 (M1) pitch of 28 to 32 nm. Such high-pattern density pushes the 193 immersion lithography solution toward its limit and also brings extremely complex patterning scenarios. The N7 M1 layer may require a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with a triple litho-etch (LE3) block process. Therefore, the whole patterning process flow requires multiple exposure+etch+deposition processes and each step introduces a particular impact on the pattern profiles and the topography. In this study, we have successfully integrated a simulation tool that enables emulation of the whole patterning flow with realistic process-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) profile and topology. We use this tool to study the patterning process variations of the N7 M1 layer including the overlay control, the critical dimension uniformity budget, and the lithographic process window (PW). The resulting 3-D pattern structure can be used to optimize the process flow, verify design rules, extract parasitics, and most importantly, simulate the electric field, and identify hot spots for dielectric reliability. As an example application, the maximum electric field at M1 tip-to-tip, which is one of the most critical patterning locations, has been simulated and extracted. The approach helps to investigate the impact of process variations on dielectric reliability. We have also assessed the alternative M1 patterning flow with a single exposure block using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and analyzed its advantages compared to the LE3 block approach.

  13. Derivation of basic equations for rigorous dynamic simulation of cryogenic distillation column for hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-08-01

    The basic equations are derived for rigorous dynamic simulation of cryogenic distillation columns for hydrogen isotope separation. The model accounts for such factors as differences in latent heat of vaporization among the six isotopic species of molecular hydrogen, decay heat of tritium, heat transfer through the column wall and nonideality of the solutions. Provision is also made for simulation of columns with multiple feeds and multiple sidestreams. (author)

  14. Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C Z; Sams, A R

    2000-11-01

    Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning on this process are not well characterized. Some electrical stunning procedures have been known to inhibit postmortem (PM) biochemical reactions, thereby delaying the onset of rigor mortis in broilers. Therefore, this study was designed to characterize rigor mortis development in stunned and unstunned turkeys. A total of 154 turkey toms in two trials were conventionally processed at 20 to 22 wk of age. Turkeys were either stunned with a pulsed direct current (500 Hz, 50% duty cycle) at 35 mA (40 V) in a saline bath for 12 seconds or left unstunned as controls. At 15 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h PM, pectoralis samples were collected to determine pH, R-value, L* value, sarcomere length, and shear value. In Trial 1, the samples obtained for pH, R-value, and sarcomere length were divided into surface and interior samples. There were no significant differences between the surface and interior samples among any parameters measured. Muscle pH significantly decreased over time in stunned and unstunned birds through 2 h PM. The R-values increased to 8 h PM in unstunned birds and 24 h PM in stunned birds. The L* values increased over time, with no significant differences after 1 h PM for the controls and 2 h PM for the stunned birds. Sarcomere length increased through 2 h PM in the controls and 12 h PM in the stunned fillets. Cooked meat shear values decreased through the 1 h PM deboning time in the control fillets and 2 h PM in the stunned fillets. These results suggest that stunning delayed the development of rigor mortis through 2 h PM, but had no significant effect on the measured parameters at later time points, and that deboning turkey breasts at 2 h PM or later will not significantly impair meat tenderness.

  15. Learning from Science and Sport - How we, Safety, "Engage with Rigor"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, A.

    2012-01-01

    As the world of spaceflight safety is relatively small and potentially inward-looking, we need to be aware of the "outside world". We should then try to remind ourselves to be open to the possibility that data, knowledge or experience from outside of the spaceflight community may provide some constructive alternate perspectives. This paper will assess aspects from two seemingly tangential fields, science and sport, and align these with the world of safety. In doing so some useful insights will be given to the challenges we face and may provide solutions relevant in our everyday (of safety engineering). Sport, particularly a contact sport such as rugby union, requires direct interaction between members of two (opposing) teams. Professional, accurately timed and positioned interaction for a desired outcome. These interactions, whilst an essential part of the game, are however not without their constraints. The rugby scrum has constraints as to the formation and engagement of the two teams. The controlled engagement provides for an interaction between the two teams in a safe manner. The constraints arising from the reality that an incorrect engagement could cause serious injury to members of either team. In academia, scientific rigor is applied to assure that the arguments provided and the conclusions drawn in academic papers presented for publication are valid, legitimate and credible. The scientific goal of the need for rigor may be expressed in the example of achieving a statistically relevant sample size, n, in order to assure analysis validity of the data pool. A failure to apply rigor could then place the entire study at risk of failing to have the respective paper published. This paper will consider the merits of these two different aspects, scientific rigor and sports engagement, and offer a reflective look at how this may provide a "modus operandi" for safety engineers at any level whether at their desks (creating or reviewing safety assessments) or in a

  16. Rigor force responses of permeabilized fibres from fast and slow skeletal muscles of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, D R; Lynch, G S

    2001-09-01

    1. Ageing is generally associated with a decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength and a slowing of muscle contraction, factors that impact upon the quality of life for the elderly. The mechanisms underlying this age-related muscle weakness have not been fully resolved. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the decrease in muscle force as a consequence of age could be attributed partly to a decrease in the number of cross-bridges participating during contraction. 2. Given that the rigor force is proportional to the approximate total number of interacting sites between the actin and myosin filaments, we tested the null hypothesis that the rigor force of permeabilized muscle fibres from young and old rats would not be different. 3. Permeabilized fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch; EDL) and soleus (predominantly slow-twitch) muscles of young (6 months of age) and old (27 months of age) male F344 rats were activated in Ca2+-buffered solutions to determine force-pCa characteristics (where pCa = -log(10)[Ca2+]) and then in solutions lacking ATP and Ca2+ to determine rigor force levels. 4. The rigor forces for EDL and soleus muscle fibres were not different between young and old rats, indicating that the approximate total number of cross-bridges that can be formed between filaments did not decline with age. We conclude that the age-related decrease in force output is more likely attributed to a decrease in the force per cross-bridge and/or decreases in the efficiency of excitation-contraction coupling.

  17. Rigorous Integration of Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equations in Chebyshev Basis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzetkulič, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2015), s. 183-205 ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Initial value problem * Rigorous integration * Taylor model * Chebyshev basis Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2015

  18. A rigorous proof of the Landau-Peierls formula and much more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    We present a rigorous mathematical treatment of the zero-field orbital magnetic susceptibility of a non-interacting Bloch electron gas, at fixed temperature and density, for both metals and semiconductors/insulators. In particular, we obtain the Landau-Peierls formula in the low temperature and d...... and density limit as conjectured by Kjeldaas and Kohn (Phys Rev 105:806–813, 1957)....

  19. Association Between Maximal Skin Dose and Breast Brachytherapy Outcome: A Proposal for More Rigorous Dosimetric Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttino, Laurie W.; Heffernan, Jill; Vera, Robyn; Rosu, Mihaela; Ramakrishnan, V. Ramesh; Arthur, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple investigations have used the skin distance as a surrogate for the skin dose and have shown that distances 4.05 Gy/fraction. Conclusion: The initial skin dose recommendations have been based on safe use and the avoidance of significant toxicity. The results from the present study have suggested that patients might further benefit if more rigorous constraints were applied and if the skin dose were limited to 120% of the prescription dose.

  20. Re-establishment of rigor mortis: evidence for a considerably longer post-mortem time span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crostack, Chiara; Sehner, Susanne; Raupach, Tobias; Anders, Sven

    2017-07-01

    Re-establishment of rigor mortis following mechanical loosening is used as part of the complex method for the forensic estimation of the time since death in human bodies and has formerly been reported to occur up to 8-12 h post-mortem (hpm). We recently described our observation of the phenomenon in up to 19 hpm in cases with in-hospital death. Due to the case selection (preceding illness, immobilisation), transfer of these results to forensic cases might be limited. We therefore examined 67 out-of-hospital cases of sudden death with known time points of death. Re-establishment of rigor mortis was positive in 52.2% of cases and was observed up to 20 hpm. In contrast to the current doctrine that a recurrence of rigor mortis is always of a lesser degree than its first manifestation in a given patient, muscular rigidity at re-establishment equalled or even exceeded the degree observed before dissolving in 21 joints. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe that the phenomenon appears to be independent of body or ambient temperature.

  1. The MIXED framework: A novel approach to evaluating mixed-methods rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Ann L; DeVon, Holli A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of rigor in mixed-methods (MM) research is a persistent challenge due to the combination of inconsistent philosophical paradigms, the use of multiple research methods which require different skill sets, and the need to combine research at different points in the research process. Researchers have proposed a variety of ways to thoroughly evaluate MM research, but each method fails to provide a framework that is useful for the consumer of research. In contrast, the MIXED framework is meant to bridge the gap between an academic exercise and practical assessment of a published work. The MIXED framework (methods, inference, expertise, evaluation, and design) borrows from previously published frameworks to create a useful tool for the evaluation of a published study. The MIXED framework uses an experimental eight-item scale that allows for comprehensive integrated assessment of MM rigor in published manuscripts. Mixed methods are becoming increasingly prevalent in nursing and healthcare research requiring researchers and consumers to address issues unique to MM such as evaluation of rigor. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Application of the rigorous method to x-ray and neutron beam scattering on rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goray, Leonid I.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive numerical analysis of x-ray and neutron scattering from finite-conducting rough surfaces which is performed in the frame of the boundary integral equation method in a rigorous formulation for high ratios of characteristic dimension to wavelength. The single integral equation obtained involves boundary integrals of the single and double layer potentials. A more general treatment of the energy conservation law applicable to absorption gratings and rough mirrors is considered. In order to compute the scattering intensity of rough surfaces using the forward electromagnetic solver, Monte Carlo simulation is employed to average the deterministic diffraction grating efficiency due to individual surfaces over an ensemble of realizations. Some rules appropriate for numerical implementation of the theory at small wavelength-to-period ratios are presented. The difference between the rigorous approach and approximations can be clearly seen in specular reflectances of Au mirrors with different roughness parameters at wavelengths where grazing incidence occurs at close to or larger than the critical angle. This difference may give rise to wrong estimates of rms roughness and correlation length if they are obtained by comparing experimental data with calculations. Besides, the rigorous approach permits taking into account any known roughness statistics and allows exact computation of diffuse scattering.

  3. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  4. Verifying Safety Messages Using Relative-Time and Zone Priority in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Sam; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Kittipiyakul, Somsak

    2018-01-01

    In high-density road networks, with each vehicle broadcasting multiple messages per second, the arrival rate of safety messages can easily exceed the rate at which digital signatures can be verified. Since not all messages can be verified, algorithms for selecting which messages to verify are required to ensure that each vehicle receives appropriate awareness about neighbouring vehicles. This paper presents a novel scheme to select important safety messages for verification in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The proposed scheme uses location and direction of the sender, as well as proximity and relative-time between vehicles, to reduce the number of irrelevant messages verified (i.e., messages from vehicles that are unlikely to cause an accident). Compared with other existing schemes, the analysis results show that the proposed scheme can verify messages from nearby vehicles with lower inter-message delay and reduced packet loss and thus provides high level of awareness of the nearby vehicles. PMID:29652840

  5. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Meredith A.

    2014-01-01

    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  6. Optimal correction and design parameter search by modern methods of rigorous global optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, K.; Berz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Frequently the design of schemes for correction of aberrations or the determination of possible operating ranges for beamlines and cells in synchrotrons exhibit multitudes of possibilities for their correction, usually appearing in disconnected regions of parameter space which cannot be directly qualified by analytical means. In such cases, frequently an abundance of optimization runs are carried out, each of which determines a local minimum depending on the specific chosen initial conditions. Practical solutions are then obtained through an often extended interplay of experienced manual adjustment of certain suitable parameters and local searches by varying other parameters. However, in a formal sense this problem can be viewed as a global optimization problem, i.e. the determination of all solutions within a certain range of parameters that lead to a specific optimum. For example, it may be of interest to find all possible settings of multiple quadrupoles that can achieve imaging; or to find ahead of time all possible settings that achieve a particular tune; or to find all possible manners to adjust nonlinear parameters to achieve correction of high order aberrations. These tasks can easily be phrased in terms of such an optimization problem; but while mathematically this formulation is often straightforward, it has been common belief that it is of limited practical value since the resulting optimization problem cannot usually be solved. However, recent significant advances in modern methods of rigorous global optimization make these methods feasible for optics design for the first time. The key ideas of the method lie in an interplay of rigorous local underestimators of the objective functions, and by using the underestimators to rigorously iteratively eliminate regions that lie above already known upper bounds of the minima, in what is commonly known as a branch-and-bound approach. Recent enhancements of the Differential Algebraic methods used in particle

  7. The influence of postmortem electrical stimulation on rigor mortis development, calpastatin activity, and tenderness in broiler and duck pectoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C Z; Sams, A R

    2000-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on rigor mortis development, calpastatin activity, and tenderness in anatomically similar avian muscles composed primarily of either red or white muscle fibers. A total of 72 broilers and 72 White Pekin ducks were either treated with postmortem (PM) ES (450 mA) at the neck in a 1% NaCl solution for 2 s on and 1 s off for a total of 15 s or were used as nonstimulated controls. Both pectoralis muscles were harvested from the carcasses after 0.25, 1.25, and 24 h PM and analyzed for pH, inosine:adenosine ratio (R-value), sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index, calpastatin activity, shear value, and cook loss. All data were analyzed within species for the effects of ES. Electrically stimulated ducks had a lower muscle pH at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM and higher R-values at 0.25 h PM compared with controls. Electrically stimulated broilers had a lower muscle pH at 1.25 h and higher R-values at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM compared with controls. Muscles of electrically stimulated broilers exhibited increased myofibrillar fragmentation at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM, whereas there was no such difference over PM time in the duck muscle. Electrical stimulation did not affect calpastatin activity in either broilers or ducks; however, the calpastatin activity of the broilers did decrease over the aging time period, whereas that of the ducks did not. Electrical stimulation decreased shear values in broilers at 1.25 h PM compared with controls; however, there was no difference in shear values of duck muscle due to ES at any sampling time. Cook loss was lower for electrically stimulated broilers at 0.25 and 1.25 h PM compared with the controls, but had no effect in the ducks. These results suggest that the red fibers of the duck pectoralis have less potential for rigor mortis acceleration and tenderization due to ES than do the white fibers of the broiler pectoralis.

  8. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity; Une experience destinee a verifier la theorie de la relativite generalisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdin, Maurice [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France)

    1960-07-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [French] Projet d'une experience, utilisant l'effet de gravitation sur des horloges du type Maser placees sur la terre a deux altitudes differentes, et destinee a verifier la theorie de la relativite generalisee. Reproduction d'un article publie dans les Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, seance du 11 janvier 1960.

  9. Applying the Water Vapor Radiometer to Verify the Precipitable Water Vapor Measured by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at the land-sea interface in a subtropical region. Because the climate is warm and moist year round, there is a large and highly variable amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we calculated the Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD of the troposphere using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS. The ZWD measured by two Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs was then used to verify the ZWD that had been calculated using GPS. We also analyzed the correlation between the ZWD and the precipitation data of these two types of station. Moreover, we used the observational data from 14 GPS and rainfall stations to evaluate three cases. The offset between the GPS-ZWD and the WVR-ZWD ranged from 1.31 to 2.57 cm. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. The results calculated from GPS and those measured using the WVR were very similar. Moreover, when there was no rain, light rain, moderate rain, or heavy rain, the flatland station ZWD was 0.31, 0.36, 0.38, or 0.40 m, respectively. The mountain station ZWD exhibited the same trend. Therefore, these results have demonstrated that the potential and strength of precipitation in a region can be estimated according to its ZWD values. Now that the precision of GPS-ZWD has been confirmed, this method can eventually be expanded to the more than 400 GPS stations in Taiwan and its surrounding islands. The near real-time ZWD data with improved spatial and temporal resolution can be provided to the city and countryside weather-forecasting system that is currently under development. Such an exchange would fundamentally improve the resources used to generate weather forecasts.

  10. System for verifiable CT radiation dose optimization based on image quality. part II. process control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013.

  11. Ghosts for Lists: A Critical Module of Contiki Verified in Frama-C

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Allan; Kosmatov , Nikolai; Loulergue , Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Internet of Things (IoT) applications are becoming increasingly critical and require rigorous formal verification. In this paper we target Contiki, a widely used open-source OS for IoT, and present a verification case study of one of its most critical modules: that of linked lists. Its API and list representation differ from the classical linked list implementations, and are particularly challenging for deductive verification. The proposed verification technique relies...

  12. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  13. Unmet Need: Improving mHealth Evaluation Rigor to Build the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Mehl, Garrett; Kaonga, Nadi; Mechael, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    mHealth-the use of mobile technologies for health-is a growing element of health system activity globally, but evaluation of those activities remains quite scant, and remains an important knowledge gap for advancing mHealth activities. In 2010, the World Health Organization and Columbia University implemented a small-scale survey to generate preliminary data on evaluation activities used by mHealth initiatives. The authors describe self-reported data from 69 projects in 29 countries. The majority (74%) reported some sort of evaluation activity, primarily nonexperimental in design (62%). The authors developed a 6-point scale of evaluation rigor comprising information on use of comparison groups, sample size calculation, data collection timing, and randomization. The mean score was low (2.4); half (47%) were conducting evaluations with a minimum threshold (4+) of rigor, indicating use of a comparison group, while less than 20% had randomized the mHealth intervention. The authors were unable to assess whether the rigor score was appropriate for the type of mHealth activity being evaluated. What was clear was that although most data came from mHealth projects pilots aimed for scale-up, few had designed evaluations that would support crucial decisions on whether to scale up and how. Whether the mHealth activity is a strategy to improve health or a tool for achieving intermediate outcomes that should lead to better health, mHealth evaluations must be improved to generate robust evidence for cost-effectiveness assessment and to allow for accurate identification of the contribution of mHealth initiatives to health systems strengthening and the impact on actual health outcomes.

  14. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W

    2002-02-01

    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  15. Biomedical text mining for research rigor and integrity: tasks, challenges, directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil

    2017-06-13

    An estimated quarter of a trillion US dollars is invested in the biomedical research enterprise annually. There is growing alarm that a significant portion of this investment is wasted because of problems in reproducibility of research findings and in the rigor and integrity of research conduct and reporting. Recent years have seen a flurry of activities focusing on standardization and guideline development to enhance the reproducibility and rigor of biomedical research. Research activity is primarily communicated via textual artifacts, ranging from grant applications to journal publications. These artifacts can be both the source and the manifestation of practices leading to research waste. For example, an article may describe a poorly designed experiment, or the authors may reach conclusions not supported by the evidence presented. In this article, we pose the question of whether biomedical text mining techniques can assist the stakeholders in the biomedical research enterprise in doing their part toward enhancing research integrity and rigor. In particular, we identify four key areas in which text mining techniques can make a significant contribution: plagiarism/fraud detection, ensuring adherence to reporting guidelines, managing information overload and accurate citation/enhanced bibliometrics. We review the existing methods and tools for specific tasks, if they exist, or discuss relevant research that can provide guidance for future work. With the exponential increase in biomedical research output and the ability of text mining approaches to perform automatic tasks at large scale, we propose that such approaches can support tools that promote responsible research practices, providing significant benefits for the biomedical research enterprise. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.R.

    1993-10-01

    We have exactly calculated the rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets (SC's) by means of graph expansion and a combinatorial approach and investigated the asymptotic behaviour in the limit of long distance. The result show there is no long range correlation between spins at any finite temperature which indicates no existence of phase transition and thus finally confirms the conclusion produced by the renormalization group method and other physical arguments. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  17. An efficient and rigorous thermodynamic library and optimal-control of a cryogenic air separation unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2017-01-01

    -linear model based control to achieve optimal techno-economic performance. Accordingly, this work presents a computationally efficient and novel approach for solving a tray-by-tray equilibrium model and its implementation for open-loop optimal-control of a cryogenic distillation column. Here, the optimisation...... objective is to reduce the cost of compression in a volatile electricity market while meeting the production requirements, i.e. product flow rate and purity. This model is implemented in Matlab and uses the ThermoLib rigorous thermodynamic library. The present work represents a first step towards plant...

  18. A study into first-year engineering education success using a rigorous mixed methods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Bogaard, M.E.D.; de Graaff, Erik; Verbraek, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to combine qualitative and quantitative research methods into rigorous research into student success. Research methods have weaknesses that can be overcome by clever combinations. In this paper we use a situated study into student success as an example of how methods...... using statistical techniques. The main elements of the model were student behaviour and student disposition, which were influenced by the students’ perceptions of the education environment. The outcomes of the qualitative studies were useful in interpreting the outcomes of the structural equation...

  19. Supersymmetry and the Parisi-Sourlas dimensional reduction: A rigorous proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Landau, L.J.; Perez, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Functional integrals that are formally related to the average correlation functions of a classical field theory in the presence of random external sources are given a rigorous meaning. Their dimensional reduction to the Schwinger functions of the corresponding quantum field theory in two fewer dimensions is proven. This is done by reexpressing those functional integrals as expectations of a supersymmetric field theory. The Parisi-Sourlas dimensional reduction of a supersymmetric field theory to a usual quantum field theory in two fewer dimensions is proven. (orig.)

  20. A Rigorous Treatment of Energy Extraction from a Rotating Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, F.; Kamran, N.; Smoller, J.; Yau, S.-T.

    2009-05-01

    The Cauchy problem is considered for the scalar wave equation in the Kerr geometry. We prove that by choosing a suitable wave packet as initial data, one can extract energy from the black hole, thereby putting supperradiance, the wave analogue of the Penrose process, into a rigorous mathematical framework. We quantify the maximal energy gain. We also compute the infinitesimal change of mass and angular momentum of the black hole, in agreement with Christodoulou’s result for the Penrose process. The main mathematical tool is our previously derived integral representation of the wave propagator.

  1. Rigorous bounds on survival times in circular accelerators and efficient computation of fringe-field transfer maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstaetter, G.H.

    1994-12-01

    Analyzing stability of particle motion in storage rings contributes to the general field of stability analysis in weakly nonlinear motion. A method which we call pseudo invariant estimation (PIE) is used to compute lower bounds on the survival time in circular accelerators. The pseudeo invariants needed for this approach are computed via nonlinear perturbative normal form theory and the required global maxima of the highly complicated multivariate functions could only be rigorously bound with an extension of interval arithmetic. The bounds on the survival times are large enough to the relevant; the same is true for the lower bounds on dynamical aperatures, which can be computed. The PIE method can lead to novel design criteria with the objective of maximizing the survival time. A major effort in the direction of rigourous predictions only makes sense if accurate models of accelerators are available. Fringe fields often have a significant influence on optical properties, but the computation of fringe-field maps by DA based integration is slower by several orders of magnitude than DA evaluation of the propagator for main-field maps. A novel computation of fringe-field effects called symplectic scaling (SYSCA) is introduced. It exploits the advantages of Lie transformations, generating functions, and scaling properties and is extremely accurate. The computation of fringe-field maps is typically made nearly two orders of magnitude faster. (orig.)

  2. Application of Asymptotic and Rigorous Techniques for the Characterization of Interferences Caused by a Wind Turbine in Its Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Algar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete assessment to the interferences caused in the nearby radio systems by wind turbines. Three different parameters have been considered: the scattered field of a wind turbine, its radar cross-section (RCS, and the Doppler shift generated by the rotating movements of the blades. These predictions are very useful for the study of the influence of wind farms in radio systems. To achieve this, both high-frequency techniques, such as Geometrical Theory of Diffraction/Uniform Theory of Diffraction (GTD/UTD and Physical Optics (PO, and rigorous techniques, like Method of Moments (MoM, have been used. In the analysis of the scattered field, conductor and dielectric models of the wind turbine have been analyzed. In this way, realistic results can be obtained. For all cases under analysis, the wind turbine has been modeled with NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline surfaces since they allow the real shape of the object to be accurately replicated with very little information.

  3. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  4. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model: Adapting Intervention with Rigorous Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Kjøbli, John

    2016-09-01

    Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO(®) ) is a set of theory-based parenting programs with status as evidence-based treatments. PMTO has been rigorously tested in efficacy and effectiveness trials in different contexts, cultures, and formats. Parents, the presumed agents of change, learn core parenting practices, specifically skill encouragement, limit setting, monitoring/supervision, interpersonal problem solving, and positive involvement. The intervention effectively prevents and ameliorates children's behavior problems by replacing coercive interactions with positive parenting practices. Delivery format includes sessions with individual families in agencies or families' homes, parent groups, and web-based and telehealth communication. Mediational models have tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for children's behavior and found support for the theory underlying PMTO programs. Moderating effects include children's age, maternal depression, and social disadvantage. The Norwegian PMTO implementation is presented as an example of how PMTO has been tailored to reach diverse populations as delivered by multiple systems of care throughout the nation. An implementation and research center in Oslo provides infrastructure and promotes collaboration between practitioners and researchers to conduct rigorous intervention research. Although evidence-based and tested within a wide array of contexts and populations, PMTO must continue to adapt to an ever-changing world. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  5. Efficiency versus speed in quantum heat engines: Rigorous constraint from Lieb-Robinson bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    A long-standing open problem whether a heat engine with finite power achieves the Carnot efficiency is investgated. We rigorously prove a general trade-off inequality on thermodynamic efficiency and time interval of a cyclic process with quantum heat engines. In a first step, employing the Lieb-Robinson bound we establish an inequality on the change in a local observable caused by an operation far from support of the local observable. This inequality provides a rigorous characterization of the following intuitive picture that most of the energy emitted from the engine to the cold bath remains near the engine when the cyclic process is finished. Using this description, we prove an upper bound on efficiency with the aid of quantum information geometry. Our result generally excludes the possibility of a process with finite speed at the Carnot efficiency in quantum heat engines. In particular, the obtained constraint covers engines evolving with non-Markovian dynamics, which almost all previous studies on this topic fail to address.

  6. Rigorous RG Algorithms and Area Laws for Low Energy Eigenstates in 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Itai; Landau, Zeph; Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    One of the central challenges in the study of quantum many-body systems is the complexity of simulating them on a classical computer. A recent advance (Landau et al. in Nat Phys, 2015) gave a polynomial time algorithm to compute a succinct classical description for unique ground states of gapped 1D quantum systems. Despite this progress many questions remained unsolved, including whether there exist efficient algorithms when the ground space is degenerate (and of polynomial dimension in the system size), or for the polynomially many lowest energy states, or even whether such states admit succinct classical descriptions or area laws. In this paper we give a new algorithm, based on a rigorously justified RG type transformation, for finding low energy states for 1D Hamiltonians acting on a chain of n particles. In the process we resolve some of the aforementioned open questions, including giving a polynomial time algorithm for poly( n) degenerate ground spaces and an n O(log n) algorithm for the poly( n) lowest energy states (under a mild density condition). For these classes of systems the existence of a succinct classical description and area laws were not rigorously proved before this work. The algorithms are natural and efficient, and for the case of finding unique ground states for frustration-free Hamiltonians the running time is {\\tilde{O}(nM(n))} , where M( n) is the time required to multiply two n × n matrices.

  7. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  8. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  9. A Generalized Method for the Comparable and Rigorous Calculation of the Polytropic Efficiencies of Turbocompressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2018-03-01

    The calculation of polytropic efficiencies is a very important task, especially during the development of new compression units, like compressor impellers, stages and stage groups. Such calculations are also crucial for the determination of the performance of a whole compressor. As processors and computational capacities have substantially been improved in the last years, the need for a new, rigorous, robust, accurate and at the same time standardized method merged, regarding the computation of the polytropic efficiencies, especially based on thermodynamics of real gases. The proposed method is based on the rigorous definition of the polytropic efficiency. The input consists of pressure and temperature values at the end points of the compression path (suction and discharge), for a given working fluid. The average relative error for the studied cases was 0.536 %. Thus, this high-accuracy method is proposed for efficiency calculations related with turbocompressors and their compression units, especially when they are operating at high power levels, for example in jet engines and high-power plants.

  10. Differential algebras with remainder and rigorous proofs of long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, Martin

    1997-01-01

    It is shown how in addition to determining Taylor maps of general optical systems, it is possible to obtain rigorous interval bounds for the remainder term of the n-th order Taylor expansion. To this end, the three elementary operations of addition, multiplication, and differentiation in the Differential Algebraic approach are augmented by suitable interval operations in such a way that a remainder bound of the sum, product, and derivative is obtained from the Taylor polynomial and remainder bound of the operands. The method can be used to obtain bounds for the accuracy with which a Taylor map represents the true map of the particle optical system. In a more general sense, it is also useful for a variety of other numerical problems, including rigorous global optimization of highly complex functions. Combined with methods to obtain pseudo-invariants of repetitive motion and extensions of the Lyapunov- and Nekhoroshev stability theory, the latter can be used to guarantee stability for storage rings and other weakly nonlinear systems

  11. Rigorous Combination of GNSS and VLBI: How it Improves Earth Orientation and Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S. B.; Richard, J. Y.; Bizouard, C.; Becker, O.

    2017-12-01

    Current reference series (C04) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) are produced by a weighted combination of Earth orientation parameters (EOP) time series built up by combination centers of each technique (VLBI, GNSS, Laser ranging, DORIS). In the future, we plan to derive EOP from a rigorous combination of the normal equation systems of the four techniques.We present here the results of a rigorous combination of VLBI and GNSS pre-reduced, constraint-free, normal equations with the DYNAMO geodetic analysis software package developed and maintained by the French GRGS (Groupe de Recherche en GeÌodeÌsie Spatiale). The used normal equations are those produced separately by the IVS and IGS combination centers to which we apply our own minimal constraints.We address the usefulness of such a method with respect to the classical, a posteriori, combination method, and we show whether EOP determinations are improved.Especially, we implement external validations of the EOP series based on comparison with geophysical excitation and examination of the covariance matrices. Finally, we address the potential of the technique for the next generation celestial reference frames, which are currently determined by VLBI only.

  12. Verifying the hypothesis of disconnection syndrome in patients with conduction aphasia using diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqin Guo; Jing Xu; Yindong Yang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is thought in disconnection theory that connection of anterior and posterior language function areas, i.e. the lesion of arcuate fasciculus causes conduction aphasia.OBJECTIVE: To verify the theory of disconnection elicited by repetition disorder in patients with conduction aphasia by comparing the characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging between healthy persons and patients with conduction aphasia.DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Five male patients with cerebral infarction-involved arcuate fasciculus conduction aphasia, averaged (43±2) years, who hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical College from February 2004 to February 2005 were involved in this experiment. The involved patients were all confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT and MRI, and met the diagnosis criteria revised in 1995 4th Cerebrovascular Conference. They were examined by the method of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (ABC) edited by Surong Gao. The results were poorer than auditory comprehension disproportionately, and consistented with the mode of conduction aphasia. Another 5 male healthy persons, averaged (43 ± 1 ) years, who were physicians receiving further training in the Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital were also involved in this experiment. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: All the subjects were performed handedness assessment with assessment criteria of handedness formulated by Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Medical University. Arcuate fasciculus of involved patients and health controls were analyzed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and divided into 3 parts (anterior, middle and posterior segments) for determining FA value (mean value was obtained after three times of measurements), and a comparison of FA value was

  13. Reasoning about knowledge: Children’s evaluations of generality and verifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa A.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E.; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children’s (N = 223) and adults’ (N = 32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker’s knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a “Generic speaker” who made a series of 4 general claims about “pangolins” (a novel animal kind), and a “Specific speaker” who made a series of 4 specific claims about “this pangolin” as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., “has a pointy nose”) or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., “sleeps in a hollow tree”). Three main findings emerged: (1) Young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) Children’s attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) Children often generalized speakers’ knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person’s knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims. PMID:26451884

  14. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  15. The Method of a Standalone Functional Verifying Operability of Sonar Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method of standalone verifying sonar control system, which is based on functional checking of control system operability.The main features of realized method are a development of the valid mathematic model for simulation of sonar signals at the point of hydroacoustic antenna, a valid representation of the sonar control system modes as a discrete Markov model, providing functional object verification in real time mode.Some ways are proposed to control computational complexity in case of insufficient computing resources of the simulation equipment, namely the way of model functionality reduction and the way of adequacy reduction.Experiments were made using testing equipment, which was developed by department of Research Institute of Information Control System at Bauman Moscow State Technical University to verify technical validity of industrial sonar complexes.On-board software was artificially changed to create malfunctions in functionality of sonar control systems during the verifying process in order to estimate verifying system performances.The method efficiency was proved by the theory and experiment results in comparison with the basic methodology of verifying technical systems.This method could be also used in debugging of on-board software of sonar complexes and in development of new promising algorithms of sonar signal processing.

  16. Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: a rigorous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Yue Ning; Wang Xiaohong; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard; Nath, Ravinder

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To derive a rigorous analytic solution to the dosimetric effects of prostate edema so that its impact on the conventional pre-implant and post-implant dosimetry can be studied for any given radioactive isotope and edema characteristics. Methods and Materials: The edema characteristics observed by Waterman et al (Int. J. Rad. Onc. Biol. Phys, 41:1069-1077; 1998) was used to model the time evolution of the prostate and the seed locations. The total dose to any part of prostate tissue from a seed implant was calculated analytically by parameterizing the dose fall-off from a radioactive seed as a single inverse power function of distance, with proper account of the edema-induced time evolution. The dosimetric impact of prostate edema was determined by comparing the dose calculated with full consideration of prostate edema to that calculated with the conventional dosimetry approach where the seed locations and the target volume are assumed to be stationary. Results: A rigorous analytic solution on the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema was obtained. This solution proved explicitly that the relative dosimetric effects of edema, as found in the previous numerical studies by Yue et. al. (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 43, 447-454, 1999), are independent of the size and the shape of the implant target volume and are independent of the number and the locations of the seeds implanted. It also showed that the magnitude of relative dosimetric effects is independent of the location of dose evaluation point within the edematous target volume. It implies that the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema are universal with respect to a given isotope and edema characteristic. A set of master tables for the relative dosimetric effects of edema were obtained for a wide range of edema characteristics for both 125 I and 103 Pd prostate seed implants. Conclusions: A rigorous analytic solution of the relative dosimetric effects of prostate edema has been

  17. Evolution of optically nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2010-04-01

    Since the deployment of the credit card, the number of credit card fraud cases has grown rapidly with a huge amount of loss in millions of US dollars. Instead of asking more information from the credit card's holder or taking risk through payment approval, a nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifier is highly desirable before transaction begins. In this paper, we review optical techniques that have been proposed and invented in order to make the genuine credit card more distinguishable than the counterfeit credit card. Several optical approaches for the implementation of credit card verifiers are also included. In particular, we highlight our invention on a hyperspectral-imaging based portable credit card verifier structure that offers a very low false error rate of 0.79%. Other key features include low cost, simplicity in design and implementation, no moving part, no need of an additional decoding key, and adaptive learning.

  18. What are the ultimate limits to computational techniques: verifier theory and unverifiability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant developments in proof theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifiers. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verification and self-reference issues. We propose an initial classification system for verifiers and provide some rudimentary analysis of solved and open problems in this important domain. Our main contribution is a formal introduction of the notion of unverifiability, for which the paper could serve as a general citation in domains of theorem proving, as well as software and AI verification. (invited comment)

  19. What are the ultimate limits to computational techniques: verifier theory and unverifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.

    2017-09-01

    Despite significant developments in proof theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifiers. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verification and self-reference issues. We propose an initial classification system for verifiers and provide some rudimentary analysis of solved and open problems in this important domain. Our main contribution is a formal introduction of the notion of unverifiability, for which the paper could serve as a general citation in domains of theorem proving, as well as software and AI verification.

  20. Study of the quality characteristics in cold-smoked salmon (Salmo salar) originating from pre- or post-rigor raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, S; Akse, L

    2010-01-01

    Improved slaughtering procedures in the salmon industry have caused a delayed onset of rigor mortis and, thus, a potential for pre-rigor secondary processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rigor status at time of processing on quality traits color, texture, sensory, microbiological, in injection salted, and cold-smoked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Injection of pre-rigor fillets caused a significant (Prigor processed fillets; however, post-rigor (1477 ± 38 g) fillets had a significant (P>0.05) higher fracturability than pre-rigor fillets (1369 ± 71 g). Pre-rigor fillets were significantly (Prigor fillets (37.8 ± 0.8) and had significantly lower (Prigor processed fillets. This study showed that similar quality characteristics can be obtained in cold-smoked products processed either pre- or post-rigor when using suitable injection salting protocols and smoking techniques. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Paulo Leminski : um estudo sobre o rigor e o relaxo em suas poesias

    OpenAIRE

    Dhynarte de Borba e Albuquerque

    2005-01-01

    O trabalho examina a trajetória da poesia de Paulo Leminski, buscando estabelecer os termos do humor, da pesquisa metalingüística e do eu-lírico, e que não deixa de exibir traços da poesia marginal dos 70. Um autor que trabalhou com a busca do rigor concretista mediante os procedimentos da fala cotidiana mais ou menos relaxada. O esforço poético do curitibano Leminski é uma “linha que nunca termina” – ele escreveu poesias, romances, peças de publicidade, letras de música e fez traduções. Em t...

  2. Rigorous decoupling between edge states in frustrated spin chains and ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepiga, Natalia; Mila, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the occurrence of exact zero modes in one-dimensional quantum magnets of finite length that possess edge states. Building on conclusions first reached in the context of the spin-1/2 X Y chain in a field and then for the spin-1 J1-J2 Heisenberg model, we show that the development of incommensurate correlations in the bulk invariably leads to oscillations in the sign of the coupling between edge states, and hence to exact zero energy modes at the crossing points where the coupling between the edge states rigorously vanishes. This is true regardless of the origin of the frustration (e.g., next-nearest-neighbor coupling or biquadratic coupling for the spin-1 chain), of the value of the bulk spin (we report on spin-1/2, spin-1, and spin-2 examples), and of the value of the edge-state emergent spin (spin-1/2 or spin-1).

  3. Using Project Complexity Determinations to Establish Required Levels of Project Rigor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    This presentation discusses the project complexity determination process that was developed by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for implementation at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The complexity determination process was developed to address the diversity of NNSS project types, size, and complexity; to fill the need for one procedure but with provision for tailoring the level of rigor to the project type, size, and complexity; and to provide consistent, repeatable, effective application of project management processes across the enterprise; and to achieve higher levels of efficiency in project delivery. These needs are illustrated by the wide diversity of NNSS projects: Defense Experimentation, Global Security, weapons tests, military training areas, sensor development and testing, training in realistic environments, intelligence community support, sensor development, environmental restoration/waste management, and disposal of radioactive waste, among others.

  4. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  5. Release of major ions during rigor mortis development in kid Longissimus dorsi muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidt, C; Brun-Bellut, J

    1999-01-01

    Ionic strength plays an important role in post mortem muscle changes. Its increase is due to ion release during the development of rigor mortis. Twelve alpine kids were used to study the effects of chilling and meat pH on ion release. Free ions were measured in Longissimus dorsi muscle by capillary electrophoresis after water extraction. All free ion concentrations increased after death, but there were differences between ions. Temperature was not a factor affecting ion release in contrast to ultimate pH value. Three release mechanisms are believed to coexist: a passive binding to proteins, which stops as pH decreases, an active segregation which stops as ATP disappears and the production of metabolites due to anaerobic glycolysis.

  6. Revisiting the scientific method to improve rigor and reproducibility of immunohistochemistry in reproductive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Sharrón L; Johnson, Brian W; Frevert, Charles W; Duncan, Francesca E

    2018-04-21

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a robust scientific tool whereby cellular components are visualized within a tissue, and this method has been and continues to be a mainstay for many reproductive biologists. IHC is highly informative if performed and interpreted correctly, but studies have shown that the general use and reporting of appropriate controls in IHC experiments is low. This omission of the scientific method can result in data that lacks rigor and reproducibility. In this editorial, we highlight key concepts in IHC controls and describe an opportunity for our field to partner with the Histochemical Society to adopt their IHC guidelines broadly as researchers, authors, ad hoc reviewers, editorial board members, and editors-in-chief. Such cross-professional society interactions will ensure that we produce the highest quality data as new technologies emerge that still rely upon the foundations of classic histological and immunohistochemical principles.

  7. Rigorous approach to the comparison between experiment and theory in Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Chen, F; Decca, R S; Fischbach, E; Krause, D E; Lopez, D; Mohideen, U; Mostepanenko, V M

    2006-01-01

    In most experiments on the Casimir force the comparison between measurement data and theory was done using the concept of the root-mean-square deviation, a procedure that has been criticized in the literature. Here we propose a special statistical analysis which should be performed separately for the experimental data and for the results of the theoretical computations. In so doing, the random, systematic and total experimental errors are found as functions of separation, taking into account the distribution laws for each error at 95% confidence. Independently, all theoretical errors are combined to obtain the total theoretical error at the same confidence. Finally, the confidence interval for the differences between theoretical and experimental values is obtained as a function of separation. This rigorous approach is applied to two recent experiments on the Casimir effect

  8. Direct integration of the S-matrix applied to rigorous diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iff, W; Lindlein, N; Tishchenko, A V

    2014-01-01

    A novel Fourier method for rigorous diffraction computation at periodic structures is presented. The procedure is based on a differential equation for the S-matrix, which allows direct integration of the S-matrix blocks. This results in a new method in Fourier space, which can be considered as a numerically stable and well-parallelizable alternative to the conventional differential method based on T-matrix integration and subsequent conversions from the T-matrices to S-matrix blocks. Integration of the novel differential equation in implicit manner is expounded. The applicability of the new method is shown on the basis of 1D periodic structures. It is clear however, that the new technique can also be applied to arbitrary 2D periodic or periodized structures. The complexity of the new method is O(N 3 ) similar to the conventional differential method with N being the number of diffraction orders. (fast track communication)

  9. Rigorous description of holograms of particles illuminated by an astigmatic elliptical Gaussian beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y J; Ren, K F; Coetmellec, S; Lebrun, D, E-mail: fang.ren@coria.f [UMR 6614/CORIA, CNRS and Universite et INSA de Rouen Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2009-02-01

    The digital holography is a non-intrusive optical metrology and well adapted for the measurement of the size and velocity field of particles in the spray of a fluid. The simplified model of an opaque disk is often used in the treatment of the diagrams and therefore the refraction and the third dimension diffraction of the particle are not taken into account. We present in this paper a rigorous description of the holographic diagrams and evaluate the effects of the refraction and the third dimension diffraction by comparison to the opaque disk model. It is found that the effects are important when the real part of the refractive index is near unity or the imaginary part is non zero but small.

  10. A new method for deriving rigorous results on ππ scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.

    1979-06-01

    We develop a new approach to the problem of constraining the ππ scattering amplitudes by means of the axiomatically proved properties of unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The method is based on the solution of an extremal problem on a convex set of analytic functions and provides a global description of the domain of values taken by any finite number of partial waves at an arbitrary set of unphysical energies, compatible with unitarity, the bounds at complex energies derived from generalized dispersion relations and the crossing integral relations. From this doma domain we obtain new absolute bounds for the amplitudes as well as rigorous correlations between the values of various partial waves. (author)

  11. Rigorous Numerics for ill-posed PDEs: Periodic Orbits in the Boussinesq Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Roberto; Gameiro, Marcio; Lessard, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop computer-assisted techniques for the analysis of periodic orbits of ill-posed partial differential equations. As a case study, our proposed method is applied to the Boussinesq equation, which has been investigated extensively because of its role in the theory of shallow water waves. The idea is to use the symmetry of the solutions and a Newton-Kantorovich type argument (the radii polynomial approach) to obtain rigorous proofs of existence of the periodic orbits in a weighted ℓ1 Banach space of space-time Fourier coefficients with exponential decay. We present several computer-assisted proofs of the existence of periodic orbits at different parameter values.

  12. Study design elements for rigorous quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Dowd, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Quasi-experiments are likely to be the workhorse study design used to generate evidence about the comparative effectiveness of alternative treatments, because of their feasibility, timeliness, affordability and external validity compared with randomized trials. In this review, we outline potential sources of discordance in results between quasi-experiments and experiments, review study design choices that can improve the internal validity of quasi-experiments, and outline innovative data linkage strategies that may be particularly useful in quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. There is an urgent need to resolve the debate about the evidentiary value of quasi-experiments since equal consideration of rigorous quasi-experiments will broaden the base of evidence that can be brought to bear in clinical decision-making and governmental policy-making.

  13. Increasing rigor in NMR-based metabolomics through validated and open source tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Romero, Pedro R; Westler, William M; Baskaran, Kumaran; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L

    2017-02-01

    The metabolome, the collection of small molecules associated with an organism, is a growing subject of inquiry, with the data utilized for data-intensive systems biology, disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and the broader characterization of small molecules in mixtures. Owing to their close proximity to the functional endpoints that govern an organism's phenotype, metabolites are highly informative about functional states. The field of metabolomics identifies and quantifies endogenous and exogenous metabolites in biological samples. Information acquired from nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and the published literature, as processed by statistical approaches, are driving increasingly wider applications of metabolomics. This review focuses on the role of databases and software tools in advancing the rigor, robustness, reproducibility, and validation of metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A rigorous phenomenological analysis of the ππ scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.; Sararu, M.

    1979-11-01

    The constraining power of the present experimental data, combined with the general theoretical knowledge about ππ scattering, upon the scattering lengths of this process, is investigated by means of a rigorous functional method. We take as input the experimental phase shifts and make no hypotheses about the high energy behaviour of the amplitudes, using only absolute bounds derived from axiomatic field theory and exact consequences of crossing symmetry. In the simplest application of the method, involving only the π 0 π 0 S-wave, we explored numerically a number of values proposed by various authors for the scattering lengths a 0 and a 2 and found that no one appears to be especially favoured. (author)

  15. New tools for Content Innovation and data sharing: Enhancing reproducibility and rigor in biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid

    2017-03-21

    We are currently in one of the most exciting times for science and engineering as we witness unprecedented growth in our computational and experimental capabilities to generate new data and models. To facilitate data and model sharing, and to enhance reproducibility and rigor in biomechanics research, the Journal of Biomechanics has introduced a number of tools for Content Innovation to allow presentation, sharing, and archiving of methods, models, and data in our articles. The tools include an Interactive Plot Viewer, 3D Geometric Shape and Model Viewer, Virtual Microscope, Interactive MATLAB Figure Viewer, and Audioslides. Authors are highly encouraged to make use of these in upcoming journal submissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  17. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  18. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  19. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Xie, Runsheng; Zhong, Haojie; Wu, Xiaocheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-08-02

    Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6%) in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI) data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed) model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250). The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  20. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cecilia S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Methods The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Results Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. Conclusions The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  1. Rigorous Multicomponent Reactive Separations Modelling: Complete Consideration of Reaction-Diffusion Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, A.; Meyer, M.; Rouzineau, D.; Prevost, M.; Alix, P.; Laloue, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the first step of the development of a rigorous multicomponent reactive separation model. Such a model is highly essential to further the optimization of acid gases removal plants (CO 2 capture, gas treating, etc.) in terms of size and energy consumption, since chemical solvents are conventionally used. Firstly, two main modelling approaches are presented: the equilibrium-based and the rate-based approaches. Secondly, an extended rate-based model with rigorous modelling methodology for diffusion-reaction phenomena is proposed. The film theory and the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations are used in order to characterize multicomponent interactions. The complete chain of chemical reactions is taken into account. The reactions can be kinetically controlled or at chemical equilibrium, and they are considered for both liquid film and liquid bulk. Thirdly, the method of numerical resolution is described. Coupling the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations with chemical equilibrium equations leads to a highly non-linear Differential-Algebraic Equations system known as DAE index 3. The set of equations is discretized with finite-differences as its integration by Gear method is complex. The resulting algebraic system is resolved by the Newton- Raphson method. Finally, the present model and the associated methods of numerical resolution are validated for the example of esterification of methanol. This archetype non-electrolytic system permits an interesting analysis of reaction impact on mass transfer, especially near the phase interface. The numerical resolution of the model by Newton-Raphson method gives good results in terms of calculation time and convergence. The simulations show that the impact of reactions at chemical equilibrium and that of kinetically controlled reactions with high kinetics on mass transfer is relatively similar. Moreover, the Fick's law is less adapted for multicomponent mixtures where some abnormalities such as counter

  2. Rigorous upper bounds for transport due to passive advection by inhomogeneous turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    A variational procedure, due originally to Howard and explored by Busse and others for self-consistent turbulence problems, is employed to determine rigorous upper bounds for the advection of a passive scalar through an inhomogeneous turbulent slab with arbitrary generalized Reynolds number R and Kubo number K. In the basic version of the method, the steady-state energy balance is used as a constraint; the resulting bound, though rigorous, is independent of K. A pedagogical reference model (one dimension, K = ∞) is described in detail; the bound compares favorably with the exact solution. The direct-interaction approximation is also worked out for this model; it is somewhat more accurate than the bound, but requires considerably more labor to solve. For the basic bound, a general formalism is presented for several dimensions, finite correlation length, and reasonably general boundary conditions. Part of the general method, in which a Green's function technique is employed, applies to self-consistent as well as to passive problems, and thereby generalizes previous results in the fluid literature. The formalism is extended for the first time to include time-dependent constraints, and a bound is deduced which explicitly depends on K and has the correct physical scalings in all regimes of R and K. Two applications from the theory of turbulent plasmas ae described: flux in velocity space, and test particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields. For the velocity space problem the simplest bound reproduces Dupree's original scaling for the strong turbulence diffusion coefficient. For the case of stochastic magnetic fields, the scaling of the bounds is described for the magnetic diffusion coefficient as well as for the particle diffusion coefficient in the so-called collisionless, fluid, and double-streaming regimes

  3. Bringing scientific rigor to community-developed programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; Hirschmann, Malia R; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheung, Teresa; Pang, Irene; Chan, Sophia; Stewart, Sunita M

    2012-12-31

    This paper describes efforts to generate evidence for community-developed programs to enhance family relationships in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong, within the framework of community-based participatory research (CBPR). The CBPR framework was applied to help maximize the development of the intervention and the public health impact of the studies, while enhancing the capabilities of the social service sector partners. Four academic-community research teams explored the process of designing and implementing randomized controlled trials in the community. In addition to the expected cultural barriers between teams of academics and community practitioners, with their different outlooks, concerns and languages, the team navigated issues in utilizing the principles of CBPR unique to this Chinese culture. Eventually the team developed tools for adaptation, such as an emphasis on building the relationship while respecting role delineation and an iterative process of defining the non-negotiable parameters of research design while maintaining scientific rigor. Lessons learned include the risk of underemphasizing the size of the operational and skills shift between usual agency practices and research studies, the importance of minimizing non-negotiable parameters in implementing rigorous research designs in the community, and the need to view community capacity enhancement as a long term process. The four pilot studies under the FAMILY Project demonstrated that nuanced design adaptations, such as wait list controls and shorter assessments, better served the needs of the community and led to the successful development and vigorous evaluation of a series of preventive, family-oriented interventions in the Chinese culture of Hong Kong.

  4. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? Methods We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6% in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. Results A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250. The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. Conclusions This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  5. Standards and Methodological Rigor in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Preclinical and Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Steeve; Archer, Stephen L; Ramirez, F Daniel; Hibbert, Benjamin; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Lacasse, Yves; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2018-03-30

    Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), significant therapeutic gaps remain for this devastating disease. Yet, few innovative therapies beyond the traditional pathways of endothelial dysfunction have reached clinical trial phases in PAH. Although there are inherent limitations of the currently available models of PAH, the leaky pipeline of innovative therapies relates, in part, to flawed preclinical research methodology, including lack of rigour in trial design, incomplete invasive hemodynamic assessment, and lack of careful translational studies that replicate randomized controlled trials in humans with attention to adverse effects and benefits. Rigorous methodology should include the use of prespecified eligibility criteria, sample sizes that permit valid statistical analysis, randomization, blinded assessment of standardized outcomes, and transparent reporting of results. Better design and implementation of preclinical studies can minimize inherent flaws in the models of PAH, reduce the risk of bias, and enhance external validity and our ability to distinguish truly promising therapies form many false-positive or overstated leads. Ideally, preclinical studies should use advanced imaging, study several preclinical pulmonary hypertension models, or correlate rodent and human findings and consider the fate of the right ventricle, which is the major determinant of prognosis in human PAH. Although these principles are widely endorsed, empirical evidence suggests that such rigor is often lacking in pulmonary hypertension preclinical research. The present article discusses the pitfalls in the design of preclinical pulmonary hypertension trials and discusses opportunities to create preclinical trials with improved predictive value in guiding early-phase drug development in patients with PAH, which will need support not only from researchers, peer reviewers, and editors but also from

  6. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  7. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  8. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  9. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  10. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teaching practice and experiences of verifying the three laws of genetics based on the SSLP marker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-Ying; Fan, Kai; Ye, Yan-Fang; Wang, Bin; Wu, Wei-Ren; Lan, Tao

    2017-09-20

    We explored the practical effect of the genetic analysis of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) molecular markers in rice in the genetics lab course. Two parents and their F 2 population were analyzed and detected with three SSLP molecular markers that located on two chromosomes of the rice genome. The markers' genotype data were used to verify the three laws of genetics, including segregation, independent assortment and linkage and crossing-over. Our practice has proved not only beneficial to deepen students' understandings about the three laws of genetics, but also conducive to cultivate students' interests in research and innovation and improve their skills and comprehensive analysis abilities. At the same time, the application scope of the experiment was discussed. This comprehensive experiment is also useful for the transformation of scientific research achievements into undergraduate experimental teaching.

  12. Measurement and characterization of slippage and slip-law using a rigorous analysis in dynamics of oscillating rheometer: Newtonian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azese, Martin Ndi

    2018-02-01

    This article presents a rigorous calculation involving velocity slip of Newtonian fluid where we analyze and solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation with emphasis on its rheological implication. The goal of which is to model a simple yet effective non-invasive way of quantifying and characterizing slippage. Indeed this contrasts with previous techniques that exhibit inherent limitations whereby injecting foreign objects usually alter the flow. This problem is built on the Couette rheological flow system such that μ-Newton force and μ-stress are captured and processed to obtain wall slip. Our model leads to a linear partial differential equation and upon enforcing linear-Navier slip boundary conditions (BC) yields inhomogeneous and unsteady "Robin-type" BC. A dimensional analysis reveals salient dimensionless parameters: Roshko, Strouhal, and Reynolds while highlighting slip-numbers from BC. We also solve the slip-free case to corroborate and validate our results. Several graphs are generated showing slip effects, particularly, studying how slip-numbers, a key input, differentiate themselves to the outputs. We also confirm this in a graphical fashion by presenting the flow profile across channel width, velocity, and stress at both walls. A perturbation scheme is introduced to calculate long-time behavior when the system seats for long. More importantly, in the end, we justify the existence of a reverse mechanism, where an inverse transformation like Fourier transform uses the output data to retrieve slip-numbers and slip law, thus quantifying and characterizing slip. Therefore, we not only substantiate our analysis, but we also justify our claim, measurement and characterization, and theorize realizability of our proposition.

  13. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  14. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  15. Die verifiëring, verfyning en toepassing van leksikografiese liniale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leksikografiese liniale vir Afrikaans en die Afrikatale is 'n dekade oud en word algemeen gebruik in die samestelling van woordeboeke. Die samestellers het dit tot dusver nie nodig geag om hierdie liniale te verifieer of te verfyn nie. Kritiek is egter uitgespreek op die samestelling van die Afrikaanse Liniaal en dit word in ...

  16. Verifiable Outsourced Decryption of Attribute-Based Encryption with Constant Ciphertext Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourced decryption ABE system largely reduces the computation cost for users who intend to access the encrypted files stored in cloud. However, the correctness of the transformation ciphertext cannot be guaranteed because the user does not have the original ciphertext. Lai et al. provided an ABE scheme with verifiable outsourced decryption which helps the user to check whether the transformation done by the cloud is correct. In order to improve the computation performance and reduce communication overhead, we propose a new verifiable outsourcing scheme with constant ciphertext length. To be specific, our scheme achieves the following goals. (1 Our scheme is verifiable which ensures that the user efficiently checks whether the transformation is done correctly by the CSP. (2 The size of ciphertext and the number of expensive pairing operations are constant, which do not grow with the complexity of the access structure. (3 The access structure in our scheme is AND gates on multivalued attributes and we prove our scheme is verifiable and it is secure against selectively chosen-plaintext attack in the standard model. (4 We give some performance analysis which indicates that our scheme is adaptable for various limited bandwidth and computation-constrained devices, such as mobile phone.

  17. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  18. Descriptional complexity of non-unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, self-verifying symmetric difference automata were defined and a tight bound of 2^n-1-1 was shown for state complexity in the unary case. We now consider the non-unary case and show that, for every n at least 2, there is a regular...

  19. 13 CFR 127.403 - What happens if SBA verifies the concern's eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA verifies the concern's eligibility? 127.403 Section 127.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127...

  20. 13 CFR 127.404 - What happens if SBA is unable to verify a concern's eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA is unable to verify a concern's eligibility? 127.404 Section 127.404 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127...

  1. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators as...

  2. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-01-01

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements

  3. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility's WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator's waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits

  4. Business rescue decision making through verifier determinants – ask the specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Business rescue has become a critical part of business strategy decision making, especially during economic downturns and recessions. Past legislation has generally supported creditor-friendly regimes, and its mind-set still applies which increases the difficulty of such turnarounds. There are many questions and critical issues faced by those involved in rescue. Despite extensive theory in the literature on failure, there is a void regarding practical verifiers of the signs and causes of venture decline, as specialists are not forthcoming about what they regard as their “competitive advantage”. Research purpose: This article introduces the concept and role of “verifier determinants” of early warning signs, as a tool to confirm the causes of decline in order to direct rescue strategies and, most importantly, reduce time between the first observation and the implementation of the rescue. Motivation for the study: Knowing how specialist practitioners confirm causes of business decline could assist in deciding on strategies for the rescue earlier than can be done using traditional due diligence which is time consuming. Reducing time is a crucial element of a successful rescue. Research design and approach: The researchers interviewed specialist practitioners with extensive experience in rescue and turnaround. An experimental design was used to ensure the specialists evaluated the same real cases to extract their experiences and base their decisions on. Main findings: The specialists confirmed the use of verifier determinants and identified such determinants as they personally used them to confirm causes of decline. These verifier determinants were classified into five categories; namely, management, finance, strategic, banking and operations and marketing of the ventures under investigation. The verifier determinants and their use often depend heavily on subconscious (non-factual information based on previous experiences

  5. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L; Richardson, Scott; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; Breidt, F Jay; West, Tristram O; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E; McCarty, Jessica L; Gurney, Kevin R; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO 2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO 2 emissions. The biogenic CO 2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO 2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO 2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  6. The effect of rigor mortis on the passage of erythrocytes and fluid through the myocardium of isolated dog hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, T J; Gavin, J B; Seelye, R N; Whitehouse, S; Donnell, M

    1978-07-01

    The effect of normal and artificially induced rigor mortis on the vascular passage of erythrocytes and fluid through isolated dog hearts was studied. Increased rigidity of 6-mm thick transmural sections through the centre of the posterior papillary muscle was used as an indication of rigor. The perfusibility of the myocardium was tested by injecting 10 ml of 1% sodium fluorescein in Hanks solution into the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. In prerigor hearts (20 minute incubation) fluorescein perfused the myocardium evenly whether or not it was preceded by an injection of 10 ml of heparinized dog blood. Rigor mortis developed in all hearts after 90 minutes incubation or within 20 minutes of perfusing the heart with 50 ml of 5 mM iodoacetate in Hanks solution. Fluorescein injected into hearts in rigor did not enter the posterior papillary muscle and adjacent subendocardium whether or not it was preceded by heparinized blood. Thus the vascular occlusion caused by rigor in the dog heart appears to be so effective that it prevents flow into the subendocardium of small soluble ions such as fluorescein.

  7. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  8. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  9. A Categorization of Dynamic Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1997-01-01

    Program analysis techniques and tools are essential to the development process because of the support they provide in detecting errors and deficiencies at different phases of development. The types of information rendered through analysis includes the following: statistical measurements of code, type checks, dataflow analysis, consistency checks, test data,verification of code, and debugging information. Analyzers can be broken into two major categories: dynamic and static. Static analyzers examine programs with respect to syntax errors and structural properties., This includes gathering statistical information on program content, such as the number of lines of executable code, source lines. and cyclomatic complexity. In addition, static analyzers provide the ability to check for the consistency of programs with respect to variables. Dynamic analyzers in contrast are dependent on input and the execution of a program providing the ability to find errors that cannot be detected through the use of static analysis alone. Dynamic analysis provides information on the behavior of a program rather than on the syntax. Both types of analysis detect errors in a program, but dynamic analyzers accomplish this through run-time behavior. This paper focuses on the following broad classification of dynamic analyzers: 1) Metrics; 2) Models; and 3) Monitors. Metrics are those analyzers that provide measurement. The next category, models, captures those analyzers that present the state of the program to the user at specified points in time. The last category, monitors, checks specified code based on some criteria. The paper discusses each classification and the techniques that are included under them. In addition, the role of each technique in the software life cycle is discussed. Familiarization with the tools that measure, model and monitor programs provides a framework for understanding the program's dynamic behavior from different, perspectives through analysis of the input

  10. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  11. A CUMULATIVE MIGRATION METHOD FOR COMPUTING RIGOROUS TRANSPORT CROSS SECTIONS AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS FOR LWR LATTICES WITH MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoyuan Liu; Kord Smith; Benoit Forget; Javier Ortensi

    2016-05-01

    A new method for computing homogenized assembly neutron transport cross sections and dif- fusion coefficients that is both rigorous and computationally efficient is proposed in this paper. In the limit of a homogeneous hydrogen slab, the new method is equivalent to the long-used, and only-recently-published CASMO transport method. The rigorous method is used to demonstrate the sources of inaccuracy in the commonly applied “out-scatter” transport correction. It is also demonstrated that the newly developed method is directly applicable to lattice calculations per- formed by Monte Carlo and is capable of computing rigorous homogenized transport cross sections for arbitrarily heterogeneous lattices. Comparisons of several common transport cross section ap- proximations are presented for a simple problem of infinite medium hydrogen. The new method has also been applied in computing 2-group diffusion data for an actual PWR lattice from BEAVRS benchmark.

  12. Building an Evidence Base to Inform Interventions for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Call for Rigorous Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Barri B.; Scott, Alicia Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent parents and their children are at increased risk for adverse short- and long-term health and social outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to support these young families. We studied the evidence base and found a dearth of rigorously evaluated programs. Strategies from successful interventions are needed to inform both intervention design and policies affecting these adolescents. The lack of rigorous evaluations may be attributable to inadequate emphasis on and sufficient funding for evaluation, as well as to challenges encountered by program evaluators working with this population. More rigorous program evaluations are urgently needed to provide scientifically sound guidance for programming and policy decisions. Evaluation lessons learned have implications for other vulnerable populations. PMID:22897541

  13. Revisiting the constant growth angle: Estimation and verification via rigorous thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virozub, Alexander; Rasin, Igal G.; Brandon, Simon

    2008-12-01

    Methods for estimating growth angle ( θgr) values, based on the a posteriori analysis of directionally solidified material (e.g. drops) often involve assumptions of negligible gravitational effects as well as a planar solid/liquid interface during solidification. We relax both of these assumptions when using experimental drop shapes from the literature to estimate the relevant growth angles at the initial stages of solidification. Assumed to be constant, we use these values as input into a rigorous heat transfer and solidification model of the growth process. This model, which is shown to reproduce the experimental shape of a solidified sessile water drop using the literature value of θgr=0∘, yields excellent agreement with experimental profiles using our estimated values for silicon ( θgr=10∘) and germanium ( θgr=14.3∘) solidifying on an isotropic crystalline surface. The effect of gravity on the solidified drop shape is found to be significant in the case of germanium, suggesting that gravity should either be included in the analysis or that care should be taken that the relevant Bond number is truly small enough in each measurement. The planar solidification interface assumption is found to be unjustified. Although this issue is important when simulating the inflection point in the profile of the solidified water drop, there are indications that solidified drop shapes (at least in the case of silicon) may be fairly insensitive to the shape of this interface.

  14. EarthLabs Modules: Engaging Students In Extended, Rigorous Investigations Of The Ocean, Climate and Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, J.; Chegwidden, D.; Mote, A. S.; Ledley, T. S.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K.

    2016-02-01

    EarthLabs, envisioned as a national model for high school Earth or Environmental Science lab courses, is adaptable for both undergraduate middle school students. The collection includes ten online modules that combine to feature a global view of our planet as a dynamic, interconnected system, by engaging learners in extended investigations. EarthLabs support state and national guidelines, including the NGSS, for science content. Four modules directly guide students to discover vital aspects of the oceans while five other modules incorporate ocean sciences in order to complete an understanding of Earth's climate system. Students gain a broad perspective on the key role oceans play in fishing industry, droughts, coral reefs, hurricanes, the carbon cycle, as well as life on land and in the seas to drive our changing climate by interacting with scientific research data, manipulating satellite imagery, numerical data, computer visualizations, experiments, and video tutorials. Students explore Earth system processes and build quantitative skills that enable them to objectively evaluate scientific findings for themselves as they move through ordered sequences that guide the learning. As a robust collection, EarthLabs modules engage students in extended, rigorous investigations allowing a deeper understanding of the ocean, climate and weather. This presentation provides an overview of the ten curriculum modules that comprise the EarthLabs collection developed by TERC and found at http://serc.carleton.edu/earthlabs/index.html. Evaluation data on the effectiveness and use in secondary education classrooms will be summarized.

  15. A Rigorous Investigation on the Ground State of the Penson-Kolb Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Hua; Tian, Guang-Shan; Han, Ru-Qi

    2003-05-01

    By using either numerical calculations or analytical methods, such as the bosonization technique, the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model has been previously studied by several groups. Some physicists argued that, as far as the existence of superconductivity in this model is concerned, it is canonically equivalent to the negative-U Hubbard model. However, others did not agree. In the present paper, we shall investigate this model by an independent and rigorous approach. We show that the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model is nondegenerate and has a nonvanishing overlap with the ground state of the negative-U Hubbard model. Furthermore, we also show that the ground states of both the models have the same good quantum numbers and may have superconducting long-range order at the same momentum q = 0. Our results support the equivalence between these models. The project partially supported by the Special Funds for Major State Basic Research Projects (G20000365) and National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10174002

  16. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  17. Rigorous Mathematical Thinking Approach to Enhance Students’ Mathematical Creative and Critical Thinking Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, D.; Nurlaelah, E.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    The ability of mathematical creative and critical thinking are two abilities that need to be developed in the learning of mathematics. Therefore, efforts need to be made in the design of learning that is capable of developing both capabilities. The purpose of this research is to examine the mathematical creative and critical thinking ability of students who get rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) approach and students who get expository approach. This research was quasi experiment with control group pretest-posttest design. The population were all of students grade 11th in one of the senior high school in Bandung. The result showed that: the achievement of mathematical creative and critical thinking abilities of student who obtain RMT is better than students who obtain expository approach. The use of Psychological tools and mediation with criteria of intentionality, reciprocity, and mediated of meaning on RMT helps students in developing condition in critical and creative processes. This achievement contributes to the development of integrated learning design on students’ critical and creative thinking processes.

  18. A Rigorous Theory of Many-Body Prethermalization for Periodically Driven and Closed Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanin, Dmitry; De Roeck, Wojciech; Ho, Wen Wei; Huveneers, François

    2017-09-01

    Prethermalization refers to the transient phenomenon where a system thermalizes according to a Hamiltonian that is not the generator of its evolution. We provide here a rigorous framework for quantum spin systems where prethermalization is exhibited for very long times. First, we consider quantum spin systems under periodic driving at high frequency {ν}. We prove that up to a quasi-exponential time {τ_* ˜ e^{c ν/log^3 ν}}, the system barely absorbs energy. Instead, there is an effective local Hamiltonian {\\widehat D} that governs the time evolution up to {τ_*}, and hence this effective Hamiltonian is a conserved quantity up to {τ_*}. Next, we consider systems without driving, but with a separation of energy scales in the Hamiltonian. A prime example is the Fermi-Hubbard model where the interaction U is much larger than the hopping J. Also here we prove the emergence of an effective conserved quantity, different from the Hamiltonian, up to a time {τ_*} that is (almost) exponential in {U/J}.

  19. Coupling of Rigor Mortis and Intestinal Necrosis during C. elegans Organismal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy R. Galimov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organismal death is a process of systemic collapse whose mechanisms are less well understood than those of cell death. We previously reported that death in C. elegans is accompanied by a calcium-propagated wave of intestinal necrosis, marked by a wave of blue autofluorescence (death fluorescence. Here, we describe another feature of organismal death, a wave of body wall muscle contraction, or death contraction (DC. This phenomenon is accompanied by a wave of intramuscular Ca2+ release and, subsequently, of intestinal necrosis. Correlation of directions of the DC and intestinal necrosis waves implies coupling of these death processes. Long-lived insulin/IGF-1-signaling mutants show reduced DC and delayed intestinal necrosis, suggesting possible resistance to organismal death. DC resembles mammalian rigor mortis, a postmortem necrosis-related process in which Ca2+ influx promotes muscle hyper-contraction. In contrast to mammals, DC is an early rather than a late event in C. elegans organismal death.

  20. Inosine-5'-monophosphate is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuishi, Masanori; Tsuji, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Megumi; Kitamura, Natsumi; Tanaka, Sachi; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Okitani, Akihiro

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to reveal the action of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) toward myofibrils in postmortem muscles. IMP solubilized isolated actomyosin within a narrow range of KCl concentration, 0.19-0.20 mol/L, because of the dissociation of actomyosin into actin and myosin, but it did not solubilize the proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl. However, IMP could solubilize both proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl in the presence of 1 m mol/L pyrophosphate or 1.0-3.3 m mol/L adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP). Thus, we presumed that pyrophosphate and ADP released thin filaments composed of actin, and thick filaments composed of myosin from restraints of myofibrils, and then both filaments were solubilized through the IMP-induced dissociation of actomyosin. Thus, we concluded that IMP is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis because of its ability to break the association between thick and thin filaments. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Alternative pre-rigor foreshank positioning can improve beef shoulder muscle tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, A L; Lawrence, T E

    2013-09-01

    Thirty beef carcasses were harvested and the foreshank of each side was independently positioned (cranial, natural, parallel, or caudal) 1h post-mortem to determine the effect of foreshank angle at rigor mortis on the sarcomere length and tenderness of six beef shoulder muscles. The infraspinatus (IS), pectoralis profundus (PP), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), teres major (TM) and triceps brachii (TB) were excised 48 h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sarcomere length evaluations. All muscles except the SS had altered (P<0.05) sarcomere lengths between positions; the cranial position resulted in the longest sarcomeres for the SV and TB muscles whilst the natural position had longer sarcomeres for the PP and TM muscles. The SV from the cranial position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the caudal position and TB from the natural position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the parallel or caudal positions. Sarcomere length was moderately correlated (r=-0.63; P<0.01) to shear force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coupling of Rigor Mortis and Intestinal Necrosis during C. elegans Organismal Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimov, Evgeniy R; Pryor, Rosina E; Poole, Sarah E; Benedetto, Alexandre; Pincus, Zachary; Gems, David

    2018-03-06

    Organismal death is a process of systemic collapse whose mechanisms are less well understood than those of cell death. We previously reported that death in C. elegans is accompanied by a calcium-propagated wave of intestinal necrosis, marked by a wave of blue autofluorescence (death fluorescence). Here, we describe another feature of organismal death, a wave of body wall muscle contraction, or death contraction (DC). This phenomenon is accompanied by a wave of intramuscular Ca 2+ release and, subsequently, of intestinal necrosis. Correlation of directions of the DC and intestinal necrosis waves implies coupling of these death processes. Long-lived insulin/IGF-1-signaling mutants show reduced DC and delayed intestinal necrosis, suggesting possible resistance to organismal death. DC resembles mammalian rigor mortis, a postmortem necrosis-related process in which Ca 2+ influx promotes muscle hyper-contraction. In contrast to mammals, DC is an early rather than a late event in C. elegans organismal death. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rigor mortis and the epileptology of Charles Bland Radcliffe (1822-1889).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, M J

    2007-03-01

    Charles Bland Radcliffe (1822-1889) was one of the physicians who made major contributions to the literature on epilepsy in the mid-19th century, when the modern understanding of the disorder was beginning to emerge, particularly in England. His experimental work was concerned with the electrical properties of frog muscle and nerve. Early in his career he related his experimental findings to the phenomenon of rigor mortis and concluded that, contrary to the general belief of the time, muscle contraction depended on the cessation of nerve input, and muscle relaxation on its presence. He adhered to this counter-intuitive interpretation throughout his life and, based on it, produced an epileptology that was very different from those of his contemporaries and successors. His interpretations were ultimately without any direct influence on the advance of knowledge. However, his idea that withdrawal of an inhibitory process released previously suppressed muscular contractile powers, when applied to the brain rather than the periphery of the nervous system, permitted Hughlings Jackson to explain certain psychological phenomena that accompany or follow some epileptic events. As well, Radcliffe was one of the chief early advocates for potassium bromide, the first effective anticonvulsant.

  4. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  5. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

  6. A TRADITIONAL FALSE PROBLEM: THE RIGORISM OF KANTIAN MORAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. THE CASE OF VERACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI NOVAC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to many of its traditional critics, the main weakness in Kantian moral-political philosophy resides in its impossibility of admitting exceptions. In nuce, all these critical positions have converged, despite their reciprocal heterogeneity, in the so called accuse of moral rigorism (unjustly, I would say directed against Kant’s moral and political perspective. As such, basically, I will seek to defend Kant against this type of criticism, by showing that any perspective attempting to evaluate Kant’s ethics on the grounds of its capacity or incapacity to admit exceptions is apriorily doomed to lack of sense, in its two logical alternatives, i.e. either as nonsense (predicating about empty notions, or as tautology (formulating ad hoc definitions and criteria with respect to Kant’s system and then claiming that it does not hold with respect to them. Essentially, I will try to show that Kantian ethics can organically immunize itself epistemologically against any such so called antirigorist criticism.

  7. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Marchal

    Full Text Available Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately.

  8. Rigorous numerical study of strong microwave photon-magnon coupling in all-dielectric magnetic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymov, Ivan S., E-mail: ivan.maksymov@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Hutomo, Jessica; Nam, Donghee; Kostylev, Mikhail [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-21

    We demonstrate theoretically a ∼350-fold local enhancement of the intensity of the in-plane microwave magnetic field in multilayered structures made from a magneto-insulating yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer sandwiched between two non-magnetic layers with a high dielectric constant matching that of YIG. The enhancement is predicted for the excitation regime when the microwave magnetic field is induced inside the multilayer by the transducer of a stripline Broadband Ferromagnetic Resonance (BFMR) setup. By means of a rigorous numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation consistently with the Maxwell's equations, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics in the multilayer. We reveal a strong photon-magnon coupling, which manifests itself as anti-crossing of the ferromagnetic resonance magnon mode supported by the YIG layer and the electromagnetic resonance mode supported by the whole multilayered structure. The frequency of the magnon mode depends on the external static magnetic field, which in our case is applied tangentially to the multilayer in the direction perpendicular to the microwave magnetic field induced by the stripline of the BFMR setup. The frequency of the electromagnetic mode is independent of the static magnetic field. Consequently, the predicted photon-magnon coupling is sensitive to the applied magnetic field and thus can be used in magnetically tuneable metamaterials based on simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability achievable thanks to the YIG layer. We also suggest that the predicted photon-magnon coupling may find applications in microwave quantum information systems.

  9. Rigorous numerical modeling of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinzhong; Lo, Chiu Fan Bowen; Zheng, William; Hu, Hai; Dai, Qing; Liu, Mengkun

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decade, scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy have been widely used in nano-photonics and material research due to their fine spatial resolution and broad spectral range. A number of simplified analytical models have been proposed to quantitatively understand the tip-scattered near-field signal. However, a rigorous interpretation of the experimental results is still lacking at this stage. Numerical modelings, on the other hand, are mostly done by simulating the local electric field slightly above the sample surface, which only qualitatively represents the near-field signal rendered by the tip-sample interaction. In this work, we performed a more comprehensive numerical simulation which is based on realistic experimental parameters and signal extraction procedures. By directly comparing to the experiments as well as other simulation efforts, our methods offer a more accurate quantitative description of the near-field signal, paving the way for future studies of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  10. Rigorous constraints on the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lowdon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the matrix elements of the energy–momentum tensor play an important role in determining the properties of the form factors A(q2, B(q2 and C(q2 which appear in the Lorentz covariant decomposition of the matrix elements. In this paper we apply a rigorous frame-independent distributional-matching approach to the matrix elements of the Poincaré generators in order to derive constraints on these form factors as q→0. In contrast to the literature, we explicitly demonstrate that the vanishing of the anomalous gravitomagnetic moment B(0 and the condition A(0=1 are independent of one another, and that these constraints are not related to the specific properties or conservation of the individual Poincaré generators themselves, but are in fact a consequence of the physical on-shell requirement of the states in the matrix elements and the manner in which these states transform under Poincaré transformations.

  11. Rigorous, robust and systematic: Qualitative research and its contribution to burn care. An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; de Jong, A E E; McLean, L

    2015-12-01

    Qualitative methods are progressively being implemented by researchers for exploration within healthcare. However, there has been a longstanding and wide-ranging debate concerning the relative merits of qualitative research within the health care literature. This integrative review aimed to exam the contribution of qualitative research in burns care and subsequent rehabilitation. Studies were identified using an electronic search strategy using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Scopus of peer reviewed primary research in English between 2009 to April 2014 using Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method as a guide for analysis. From the 298 papers identified, 26 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies there was an average of 22 participants involved in each study with a range of 6-53 participants conducted across 12 nations that focussed on burns prevention, paediatric burns, appropriate acquisition and delivery of burns care, pain and psychosocial implications of burns trauma. Careful and rigorous application of qualitative methodologies promotes and enriches the development of burns knowledge. In particular, the key elements in qualitative methodological process and its publication are critical in disseminating credible and methodologically sound qualitative research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Rigorous analysis of image force barrier lowering in bounded geometries: application to semiconducting nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Mendels, Dan; Epstein, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Bounded geometries introduce a fundamental problem in calculating the image force barrier lowering of metal-wrapped semiconductor systems. In bounded geometries, the derivation of the barrier lowering requires calculating the reference energy of the system, when the charge is at the geometry center. In the following, we formulate and rigorously solve this problem; this allows combining the image force electrostatic potential with the band diagram of the bounded geometry. The suggested approach is applied to spheres as well as cylinders. Furthermore, although the expressions governing cylindrical systems are complex and can only be evaluated numerically, we present analytical approximations for the solution, which allow easy implementation in calculated band diagrams. The results are further used to calculate the image force barrier lowering of metal-wrapped cylindrical nanowires; calculations show that although the image force potential is stronger than that of planar systems, taking the complete band-structure into account results in a weaker effect of barrier lowering. Moreover, when considering small diameter nanowires, we find that the electrostatic effects of the image force exceed the barrier region, and influence the electronic properties of the nanowire core. This study is of interest to the nanowire community, and in particular for the analysis of nanowire I−V measurements where wrapped or omega-shaped metallic contacts are used. (paper)

  13. A Rigorous Temperature-Dependent Stochastic Modelling and Testing for MEMS-Based Inertial Sensor Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Pagiatakis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based GM models are developed to describe the random error behaviour. The proposed AR-based GM model is initially applied to short stationary inertial data to develop the stochastic model parameters (correlation times. It is shown that the stochastic model parameters of a MEMS-based inertial unit, namely the ADIS16364, are temperature dependent. In addition, field kinematic test data collected at about 17 °C are used to test the performance of the stochastic models at different temperature points in the filtering stage using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF. It is shown that the stochastic model developed at 20 °C provides a more accurate inertial navigation solution than the ones obtained from the stochastic models developed at −40 °C, −20 °C, 0 °C, +40 °C, and +60 °C. The temperature dependence of the stochastic model is significant and should be considered at all times to obtain optimal navigation solution for MEMS-based INS/GPS integration.

  14. A Rigorous Temperature-Dependent Stochastic Modelling and Testing for MEMS-Based Inertial Sensor Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Mohammed; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of changing the temperature points on MEMS-based inertial sensor random error. We collect static data under different temperature points using a MEMS-based inertial sensor mounted inside a thermal chamber. Rigorous stochastic models, namely Autoregressive-based Gauss-Markov (AR-based GM) models are developed to describe the random error behaviour. The proposed AR-based GM model is initially applied to short stationary inertial data to develop the stochastic model parameters (correlation times). It is shown that the stochastic model parameters of a MEMS-based inertial unit, namely the ADIS16364, are temperature dependent. In addition, field kinematic test data collected at about 17 °C are used to test the performance of the stochastic models at different temperature points in the filtering stage using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). It is shown that the stochastic model developed at 20 °C provides a more accurate inertial navigation solution than the ones obtained from the stochastic models developed at -40 °C, -20 °C, 0 °C, +40 °C, and +60 °C. The temperature dependence of the stochastic model is significant and should be considered at all times to obtain optimal navigation solution for MEMS-based INS/GPS integration.

  15. Diffraction-based overlay measurement on dedicated mark using rigorous modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Qingyun; Chen, Yonghui; Zhou, Chang

    2012-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is widely evaluated by numerous authors, results show DBO can provide better performance than Imaging Based Overlay (IBO). However, DBO has its own problems. As well known, Modeling based DBO (mDBO) faces challenges of low measurement sensitivity and crosstalk between various structure parameters, which may result in poor accuracy and precision. Meanwhile, main obstacle encountered by empirical DBO (eDBO) is that a few pads must be employed to gain sufficient information on overlay-induced diffraction signature variations, which consumes more wafer space and costs more measuring time. Also, eDBO may suffer from mark profile asymmetry caused by processes. In this paper, we propose an alternative DBO technology that employs a dedicated overlay mark and takes a rigorous modeling approach. This technology needs only two or three pads for each direction, which is economic and time saving. While overlay measurement error induced by mark profile asymmetry being reduced, this technology is expected to be as accurate and precise as scatterometry technologies.

  16. Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2011-12-01

    In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.

  17. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-07-24

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient.

  18. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient. PMID:28737733

  19. Election Verifiability: Cryptographic Definitions and an Analysis of Helios and JCJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Computer Society, 2014. To appear. [26] David Chaum . Untraceable electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms. Communications of the ACM...24(2):84–88, 1981. [27] David Chaum . Secret-ballot receipts: True voter-verifiable elections. IEEE Security and Privacy, 2(1):38–47, 2004. [28... David Chaum , Richard Carback, Jeremy Clark, Aleksander Essex, Stefan Popoveniuc, Ronald L. Rivest, Peter Y. A. Ryan, Emily Shen, and Alan T. Sherman

  20. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  1. An method of verify period signal based on data acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shaoli

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an method to verify index voltage of Period Signal Generator by using data acquisition card. which it's error is less 0.5%. A corresponding Win32's program, which use voluntarily developed VxD to control data acquisition card direct I/O and multi thread technique for gain the best time scale precision, has developed in Windows platform. The program will real time collect inda voltage data and auto measure period. (authors)

  2. A Benchmark for Comparing Different Approaches for Specifying and Verifying Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    To be considered correct or useful, real - time systems must deliver results within specified time intervals, either without exception or with high...probability. Recently, a large number of formal methods have been invented for specifying and verifying real - time systems . It has been suggested that...these formal methods need to be tested out on actual real - time systems . Such testing will allow the scalability of the methods to be assessed and also

  3. RIGOROUS PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROCESSING OF CHANG'E-1 AND CHANG'E-2 STEREO IMAGERY FOR LUNAR TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING

    OpenAIRE

    K. Di; Y. Liu; B. Liu; M. Peng

    2012-01-01

    Chang'E-1(CE-1) and Chang'E-2(CE-2) are the two lunar orbiters of China's lunar exploration program. Topographic mapping using CE-1 and CE-2 images is of great importance for scientific research as well as for preparation of landing and surface operation of Chang'E-3 lunar rover. In this research, we developed rigorous sensor models of CE-1 and CE-2 CCD cameras based on push-broom imaging principle with interior and exterior orientation parameters. Based on the rigorous sensor model, the 3D c...

  4. Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Alayna P; Lechner, William V; Meier, Ellen; Grant, DeMond M; Driskill, Leslie M; Tahirkheli, Noor N; Wagener, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate biochemically verified smoking status and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use behaviors and beliefs among a sample of customers from vapor stores (stores specializing in ENDS). A cross-sectional survey of 215 adult vapor store customers at four retail locations in the Midwestern United States; a subset of participants (n = 181) also completed exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) testing to verify smoking status. Outcomes evaluated included ENDS preferences, harm beliefs, use behaviors, smoking history and current biochemically verified smoking status. Most customers reported starting ENDS as a means of smoking cessation (86%), using newer-generation devices (89%), vaping non-tobacco/non-menthol flavors (72%) and using e-liquid with nicotine strengths of ≤20 mg/ml (72%). There was a high rate of switching (91.4%) to newer-generation ENDS among those who started with a first-generation product. Exhaled CO readings confirmed that 66% of the tested sample had quit smoking. Among those who continued to smoke, mean cigarettes per day decreased from 22.1 to 7.5 (P customers in the United States who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer-generation devices and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavored e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. A Novel Simple Phantom for Verifying the Dose of Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard protocol of dosimetric measurements is used by the organizations responsible for verifying that the doses delivered in radiation-therapy institutions are within authorized limits. This study evaluated a self-designed simple auditing phantom for use in verifying the dose of radiation therapy; the phantom design, dose audit system, and clinical tests are described. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs were used as postal dosimeters, and mailable phantoms were produced for use in postal audits. Correction factors are important for converting TLD readout values from phantoms into the absorbed dose in water. The phantom scatter correction factor was used to quantify the difference in the scattered dose between a solid water phantom and homemade phantoms; its value ranged from 1.084 to 1.031. The energy-dependence correction factor was used to compare the TLD readout of the unit dose irradiated by audit beam energies with 60Co in the solid water phantom; its value was 0.99 to 1.01. The setup-condition factor was used to correct for differences in dose-output calibration conditions. Clinical tests of the device calibrating the dose output revealed that the dose deviation was within 3%. Therefore, our homemade phantoms and dosimetric system can be applied for accurately verifying the doses applied in radiation-therapy institutions.

  6. The AutoProof Verifier: Usability by Non-Experts and on Standard Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A. Furia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal verification tools are often developed by experts for experts; as a result, their usability by programmers with little formal methods experience may be severely limited. In this paper, we discuss this general phenomenon with reference to AutoProof: a tool that can verify the full functional correctness of object-oriented software. In particular, we present our experiences of using AutoProof in two contrasting contexts representative of non-expert usage. First, we discuss its usability by students in a graduate course on software verification, who were tasked with verifying implementations of various sorting algorithms. Second, we evaluate its usability in verifying code developed for programming assignments of an undergraduate course. The first scenario represents usability by serious non-experts; the second represents usability on "standard code", developed without full functional verification in mind. We report our experiences and lessons learnt, from which we derive some general suggestions for furthering the development of verification tools with respect to improving their usability.

  7. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  8. Device for analyzing a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Joseph.

    1978-01-01

    The device enables a solution containing an antigen to be analyzed by the radio-immunology technique without coming up against the problems of antigen-antibody complex and free antigen separation. This device, for analyzing a solution containing a biological compound capable of reacting with an antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound, features a tube closed at its bottom end and a component set and immobilized in the bottom of the tube so as to leave a capacity between the bottom of the tube and its lower end. The component has a large developed surface and is so shaped that it allows the solution to be analyzed to have access to the bottom of the tube; it is made of a material having some elastic deformation and able to take up a given quantity of the biological compound or of the antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound [fr

  9. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  10. Plasma diagnostics with a retarding potential analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma rocket is located at NASA Johnson Space Center. To produce a thrust in space, an inert gas is ionized into a plasma and heated in the linear section of a tokamak fusion device. The magnetic field used to contain the plasma has a magnitude of 2--10 kGauss. The plasma plume has a variable thrust and specific impulse. A high temperature retarding potential analyzer (RPA) is being developed to characterize the plasma in the plume and at the edge of the magnetically contained plasma. The RPA measures the energy and density of ions or electrons entering into its solid angle of collection. An oscilloscope displays the ion flux versus the collected current. All measurements are made relative to the facility ground. Testing of this device involves the determination of its output parameters, sensitivity, and responses to a wide range of energies and densities. Each grid will be tested individually by changing only its voltage and observing the output from the RPA. To verify that the RPA is providing proper output, it is compared to the output from a Langmuir or Faraday probe

  11. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  12. Verifying mapping, monitoring and modeling of fine sediment pollution sources in West Maui, Hawai'i, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski-Darriau, C.; Stock, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, and the fishing and tourism industries they support, depend on clean waters. Fine sediment pollution from nearshore watersheds threatens these enterprises in West Maui, Hawai'i. To effectively mitigate sediment pollution, we first have to know where the sediment is coming from, and how fast it erodes. In West Maui, we know that nearshore sediment plumes originate from erosion of fine sand- to silt-sized air fall deposits where they are exposed by grazing, agriculture, or other disturbances. We identified and located these sediment sources by mapping watershed geomorphological processes using field traverses, historic air photos, and modern orthophotos. We estimated bank lowering rates using erosion pins, and other surface erosion rates were extrapolated from data collected elsewhere on the Hawaiian Islands. These measurements and mapping led to a reconnaissance sediment budget which showed that annual loads are dominated by bank erosion of legacy terraces. Field observations during small storms confirm that nearshore sediment plumes are sourced from bank erosion of in-stream, legacy agricultural deposits. To further verify this sediment budget, we used geochemical fingerprinting to uniquely identify each potential source (e.g. stream banks, agricultural fields, roads, other human modified soils, and hillslopes) from the Wahikuli watershed (10 km2) and analyzed the fine fraction using ICP-MS for elemental geochemistry. We propose to apply this the fingerprinting results to nearshore suspended sediment samples taken during storms to identify the proportion of sediment coming from each source. By combining traditional geomorphic mapping, monitoring and geochemistry, we hope to provide a powerful tool to verify the primary source of sediment reaching the nearshore.

  13. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  14. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  15. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  16. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  17. Analyzing the complexity of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Schummer, J.; Baird, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a highly complex technological development due to many uncertainties in our knowledge about it. The Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd has developed a conceptual framework that can be used (1) to analyze the complexity of technological developments and (2) to see how priorities

  18. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  19. Robust Trypsin Coating on Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers in Rigorous Conditions and Its Uses for Protein Digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Byoung Chan; Jun, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Mun Seock; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Smith, Richard D.; Gu, Man Bock; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Beom S.; Kim, Jungbae

    2010-12-15

    An efficient protein digestion in proteomic analysis requires the stabilization of proteases such as trypsin. In the present work, trypsin was stabilized in the form of enzyme coating on electrospun polymer nanofibers (EC-TR), which crosslinks additional trypsin molecules onto covalently-attached trypsin (CA-TR). EC-TR showed better stability than CA-TR in rigorous conditions, such as at high temperatures of 40 °C and 50 °C, in the presence of organic co-solvents, and at various pH's. For example, the half-lives of CA-TR and EC-TR were 0.24 and 163.20 hours at 40 ºC, respectively. The improved stability of EC-TR can be explained by covalent-linkages on the surface of trypsin molecules, which effectively inhibits the denaturation, autolysis, and leaching of trypsin. The protein digestion was performed at 40 °C by using both CA-TR and EC-TR in digesting a model protein, enolase. EC-TR showed better performance and stability than CA-TR by maintaining good performance of enolase digestion under recycled uses for a period of one week. In the same condition, CA-TR showed poor performance from the beginning, and could not be used for digestion at all after a few usages. The enzyme coating approach is anticipated to be successfully employed not only for protein digestion in proteomic analysis, but also for various other fields where the poor enzyme stability presently hampers the practical applications of enzymes.

  20. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  1. Rigor mortis at the myocardium investigated by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzon, Jérôme; Schön, Corinna A; Schwendener, Nicole; Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Kara, Levent; Persson, Anders; Jackowski, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Post-mortem cardiac MR exams present with different contraction appearances of the left ventricle in cardiac short axis images. It was hypothesized that the grade of post-mortem contraction may be related to the post-mortem interval (PMI) or cause of death and a phenomenon caused by internal rigor mortis that may give further insights in the circumstances of death. The cardiac contraction grade was investigated in 71 post-mortem cardiac MR exams (mean age at death 52 y, range 12-89 y; 48 males, 23 females). In cardiac short axis images the left ventricular lumen volume as well as the left ventricular myocardial volume were assessed by manual segmentation. The quotient of both (LVQ) represents the grade of myocardial contraction. LVQ was correlated to the PMI, sex, age, cardiac weight, body mass and height, cause of death and pericardial tamponade when present. In cardiac causes of death a separate correlation was investigated for acute myocardial infarction cases and arrhythmic deaths. LVQ values ranged from 1.99 (maximum dilatation) to 42.91 (maximum contraction) with a mean of 15.13. LVQ decreased slightly with increasing PMI, however without significant correlation. Pericardial tamponade positively correlated with higher LVQ values. Variables such as sex, age, body mass and height, cardiac weight and cause of death did not correlate with LVQ values. There was no difference in LVQ values for myocardial infarction without tamponade and arrhythmic deaths. Based on the observation in our investigated cases, the phenomenon of post-mortem myocardial contraction cannot be explained by the influence of the investigated variables, except for pericardial tamponade cases. Further research addressing post-mortem myocardial contraction has to focus on other, less obvious factors, which may influence the early post-mortem phase too. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Generic Model for Relative Adjustment Between Optical Sensors Using Rigorous Orbit Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Islam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical calibration or space resection is the fundamental task in photogrammetry. The lack of sufficient knowledge of interior and exterior orientation parameters lead to unreliable results in the photogrammetric process. One of the earliest in approaches using in photogrammetry was the plumb line calibration method. This method is suitable to recover the radial and decentering lens distortion coefficients, while the remaining interior(focal length and principal point coordinates and exterior orientation parameters have to be determined by a complimentary method. As the lens distortion remains very less it not considered as the interior orientation parameters, in the present rigorous sensor model. There are several other available methods based on the photogrammetric collinearity equations, which consider the determination of exterior orientation parameters, with no mention to the simultaneous determination of inner orientation parameters. Normal space resection methods solve the problem using control points, whose coordinates are known both in image and object reference systems. The non-linearity of the model and the problems, in point location in digital images and identifying the maximum GPS measured control points are the main drawbacks of the classical approaches. This paper addresses mathematical model based on the fundamental assumption of collineariy of three points of two Along-Track Stereo imagery sensors and independent object point. Assuming this condition it is possible to extract the exterior orientation (EO parameters for a long strip and single image together, without and with using the control points. Moreover, after extracting the EO parameters the accuracy for satellite data products are compared in with using single and with no control points.

  3. Bounding Averages Rigorously Using Semidefinite Programming: Mean Moments of the Lorenz System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluskin, David

    2018-04-01

    We describe methods for proving bounds on infinite-time averages in differential dynamical systems. The methods rely on the construction of nonnegative polynomials with certain properties, similarly to the way nonlinear stability can be proved using Lyapunov functions. Nonnegativity is enforced by requiring the polynomials to be sums of squares, a condition which is then formulated as a semidefinite program (SDP) that can be solved computationally. Although such computations are subject to numerical error, we demonstrate two ways to obtain rigorous results: using interval arithmetic to control the error of an approximate SDP solution, and finding exact analytical solutions to relatively small SDPs. Previous formulations are extended to allow for bounds depending analytically on parametric variables. These methods are illustrated using the Lorenz equations, a system with three state variables ( x, y, z) and three parameters (β ,σ ,r). Bounds are reported for infinite-time averages of all eighteen moments x^ly^mz^n up to quartic degree that are symmetric under (x,y)\\mapsto (-x,-y). These bounds apply to all solutions regardless of stability, including chaotic trajectories, periodic orbits, and equilibrium points. The analytical approach yields two novel bounds that are sharp: the mean of z^3 can be no larger than its value of (r-1)^3 at the nonzero equilibria, and the mean of xy^3 must be nonnegative. The interval arithmetic approach is applied at the standard chaotic parameters to bound eleven average moments that all appear to be maximized on the shortest periodic orbit. Our best upper bound on each such average exceeds its value on the maximizing orbit by less than 1%. Many bounds reported here are much tighter than would be possible without computer assistance.

  4. Analysis of specular resonance in dielectric bispheres using rigorous and geometrical-optics theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideki T; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Miyano, Kenjiro

    2003-09-01

    We have recently identified the resonant scattering from dielectric bispheres in the specular direction, which has long been known as the specular resonance, to be a type of rainbow (a caustic) and a general phenomenon for bispheres. We discuss the details of the specular resonance on the basis of systematic calculations. In addition to the rigorous theory, which precisely describes the scattering even in the resonance regime, the ray-tracing method, which gives the scattering in the geometrical-optics limit, is used. Specular resonance is explicitly defined as strong scattering in the direction of the specular reflection from the symmetrical axis of the bisphere whose intensity exceeds that of the scattering from noninteracting bispheres. Then the range of parameters for computing a particular specular resonance is specified. This resonance becomes prominent in a wide range of refractive indices (from 1.2 to 2.2) in a wide range of size parameters (from five to infinity) and for an arbitrarily polarized light incident within an angle of 40 degrees to the symmetrical axis. This particular scattering can stay evident even when the spheres are not in contact or the sizes of the spheres are different. Thus specular resonance is a common and robust phenomenon in dielectric bispheres. Furthermore, we demonstrate that various characteristic features in the scattering from bispheres can be explained successfully by using intuitive and simple representations. Most of the significant scatterings other than the specular resonance are also understandable as caustics in geometrical-optics theory. The specular resonance becomes striking at the smallest size parameter among these caustics because its optical trajectory is composed of only the refractions at the surfaces and has an exceptionally large intensity. However, some characteristics are not accounted for by geometrical optics. In particular, the oscillatory behaviors of their scattering intensity are well described by

  5. Unforgivable Sinners? Epistemological and Psychological Naturalism in Husserl’s Philosophy as a Rigorous Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sebastiano Staiti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present and assess Husserl's arguments against epistomological and psychological naturalism in his essay Philosophy as a Rigorous Science. I show that his critique is directed against positions that are generally more extreme than most currently debated variants of naturalism. However, Husserl has interesting thoughts to contribute to philosophy today. First, he shows that there is an important connection between naturalism in epistemology (which in his view amounts to the position that the validity of logic can be reduced to the validity natural laws of thinking and naturalism in psychology (which in his view amounts to the position that all psychic occurrences are merely parallel accompaniments of physiological occurrences. Second, he shows that a strong version of epistemological naturalism is self-undermining and fails to translate the cogency of logic in psychological terms. Third, and most importantly for current debates, he attacks Cartesianism as a form of psychological naturalism because of its construal of the psyche as a substance. Against this position, Husserl defends the necessity to formulate new epistemic aims for the investigation of consciousness. He contends that what is most interesting about consciousness is not its empirical fact but its transcendental function of granting cognitive access to all kinds of objects (both empirical and ideal. The study of this function requires a specific method (eidetics that cannot be conflated with empirical methods. I conclude that Husserl's analyses offer much-needed insight into the fabric of consciousness and compelling arguments against unwarranted metaphysical speculations about the relationship between mind and body.

  6. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ., Povo (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica ' ' F. Severi' ' , GNFM, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  7. Atlantic salmon skin and fillet color changes effected by perimortem handling stress, rigor mortis, and ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, U; Misimi, E

    2008-03-01

    The changes in skin and fillet color of anesthetized and exhausted Atlantic salmon were determined immediately after killing, during rigor mortis, and after ice storage for 7 d. Skin color (CIE L*, a*, b*, and related values) was determined by a Minolta Chroma Meter. Roche SalmoFan Lineal and Roche Color Card values were determined by a computer vision method and a sensory panel. Before color assessment, the stress levels of the 2 fish groups were characterized in terms of white muscle parameters (pH, rigor mortis, and core temperature). The results showed that perimortem handling stress initially significantly affected several color parameters of skin and fillets. Significant transient fillet color changes also occurred in the prerigor phase and during the development of rigor mortis. Our results suggested that fillet color was affected by postmortem glycolysis (pH drop, particularly in anesthetized fillets), then by onset and development of rigor mortis. The color change patterns during storage were different for the 2 groups of fish. The computer vision method was considered suitable for automated (online) quality control and grading of salmonid fillets according to color.

  8. Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): factors which may affect the tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Muller, Nina; Frylinck, Lorinda; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    Baseline research on the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. This study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min-4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = -0.806; ultimate pH ∼ 5.86) compared with other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20 °C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the µ/m-calpain activity remained constant during the rigor period, while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepsin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during aging is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Is Collaborative, Community-Engaged Scholarship More Rigorous than Traditional Scholarship? On Advocacy, Bias, and Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mark R.; Calderón, José; Kupscznk, Luke Aubry; Squires, Gregory; Su, Celina

    2018-01-01

    Contrary to the charge that advocacy-oriented research cannot meet social science research standards because it is inherently biased, the authors of this article argue that collaborative, community-engaged scholarship (CCES) must meet high standards of rigor if it is to be useful to support equity-oriented, social justice agendas. In fact, they…

  10. Rigorous Line-Based Transformation Model Using the Generalized Point Strategy for the Rectification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High precision geometric rectification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI is the basis of digital mapping and Three-Dimensional (3D modeling. Taking advantage of line features as basic geometric control conditions instead of control points, the Line-Based Transformation Model (LBTM provides a practical and efficient way of image rectification. It is competent to build the mathematical relationship between image space and the corresponding object space accurately, while it reduces the workloads of ground control and feature recognition dramatically. Based on generalization and the analysis of existing LBTMs, a novel rigorous LBTM is proposed in this paper, which can further eliminate the geometric deformation caused by sensor inclination and terrain variation. This improved nonlinear LBTM is constructed based on a generalized point strategy and resolved by least squares overall adjustment. Geo-positioning accuracy experiments with IKONOS, GeoEye-1 and ZiYuan-3 satellite imagery are performed to compare rigorous LBTM with other relevant line-based and point-based transformation models. Both theoretic analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the rigorous LBTM is more accurate and reliable without adding extra ground control. The geo-positioning accuracy of satellite imagery rectified by rigorous LBTM can reach about one pixel with eight control lines and can be further improved by optimizing the horizontal and vertical distribution of control lines.

  11. Useful, Used, and Peer Approved: The Importance of Rigor and Accessibility in Postsecondary Research and Evaluation. WISCAPE Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaade, Elizabeth; McCready, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners have perceived a tension between rigor and accessibility in quantitative research and evaluation in postsecondary education. However, this study indicates that both producers and consumers of these studies value high-quality work and clear findings that can reach multiple audiences. The…

  12. Evaluation of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Witala, H.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle is reviewed. Applying tight constraints on the allowed deviations between calculated predictions and accepted values for relevant nucleon-nucleon observables reveals that energy independent correction factors applied to the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions can not solve the puzzle. Furthermore, using the same constraints, charge-independence breaking in the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions can be ruled out as a possible tool to improve the agreement between three-nucleon calculations and data. The study of the energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle gives clear evidence that the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interaction obtained from phase-shift analyses and used in potential models are correct above about 25 MeV, i.e., the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be modified only at lower energies in order to solve the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle, unless new three-nucleon forces can be found that account for the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle without destroying the beautiful agreement between rigorous three-nucleon calculations and a large body of accurate three-nucleon data. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Witala, H. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    1998-07-20

    The current status of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle is reviewed. Applying tight constraints on the allowed deviations between calculated predictions and accepted values for relevant nucleon-nucleon observables reveals that energy independent correction factors applied to the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions can not solve the puzzle. Furthermore, using the same constraints, charge-independence breaking in the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions can be ruled out as a possible tool to improve the agreement between three-nucleon calculations and data. The study of the energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle gives clear evidence that the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interaction obtained from phase-shift analyses and used in potential models are correct above about 25 MeV, i.e., the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be modified only at lower energies in order to solve the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle, unless new three-nucleon forces can be found that account for the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle without destroying the beautiful agreement between rigorous three-nucleon calculations and a large body of accurate three-nucleon data. (orig.) 18 refs.

  14. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  15. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  16. Multilingual Validation of the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Fred; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Akinyemi, Rufus; Owolabi, Lukman; Obiako, Reginald; Akpa, Onoja; Armstrong, Kevin; Akpalu, Albert; Adamu, Sheila; Obese, Vida; Boa-Antwi, Nana; Appiah, Lambert; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Mensah, Yaw; Adeoye, Abiodun; Tosin, Aridegbe; Adeleye, Osimhiarherhuo; Tabi-Ajayi, Eric; Phillip, Ibinaiye; Sani, Abubakar; Isah, Suleiman; Tabari, Nasir; Mande, Aliyu; Agunloye, Atinuke; Ogbole, Godwin; Akinyemi, Joshua; Laryea, Ruth; Melikam, Sylvia; Uvere, Ezinne; Adekunle, Gregory; Kehinde, Salaam; Azuh, Paschal; Dambatta, Abdul; Ishaq, Naser; Saulson, Raelle; Arnett, Donna; Tiwari, Hemnant; Jenkins, Carolyn; Lackland, Dan; Owolabi, Mayowa

    2016-01-01

    The Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS), a method for verifying stroke-free status in participants of clinical, epidemiological, and genetic studies, has not been validated in low-income settings where populations have limited knowledge of stroke symptoms. We aimed to validate QVSFS in 3 languages, Yoruba, Hausa and Akan, for ascertainment of stroke-free status of control subjects enrolled in an on-going stroke epidemiological study in West Africa. Data were collected using a cross-sectional study design where 384 participants were consecutively recruited from neurology and general medicine clinics of 5 tertiary referral hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana. Ascertainment of stroke status was by neurologists using structured neurological examination, review of case records, and neuroimaging (gold standard). Relative performance of QVSFS without and with pictures of stroke symptoms (pictograms) was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The overall median age of the study participants was 54 years and 48.4% were males. Of 165 stroke cases identified by gold standard, 98% were determined to have had stroke, whereas of 219 without stroke 87% were determined to be stroke-free by QVSFS. Negative predictive value of the QVSFS across the 3 languages was 0.97 (range, 0.93-1.00), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 0.98, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively. Agreement between the questionnaire with and without the pictogram was excellent/strong with Cohen k=0.92. QVSFS is a valid tool for verifying stroke-free status across culturally diverse populations in West Africa. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  18. Trends in the incidence rate, type and treatment of surgically verified endometriosis - a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Liisu; Tikka, Tuulia; But, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Haukka, Jari; Tiitinen, Aila; Härkki, Päivi; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2018-01-01

    To study the trends in incidence rate, type and surgical treatment, and patient characteristics of surgically verified endometriosis during 1987-2012. This is a register-based cohort study. We identified women receiving their first diagnosis of endometriosis in surgery from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR). Quality of the FHDR records was assessed bidirectionally. The age-standardized incidence rates of the first surgically verified endometriosis was assessed by calendar year. The cohort comprises 49 956 women. The quality assessment suggested the FHDR data to be of good quality. The most common diagnosis, ovarian endometriosis (46%), was associated with highest median age 38.5 years (interquartile range 31.0-44.8) and the second most common diagnosis, peritoneal endometriosis (40%), with median age 34.9 years (28.6-41.7). Between 1987 and 2012, a decrease was observed in the median age, from 38.8 (32.3-43.6) to 34.0 (28.9-41.0) years, and in the age-standardized incidence rate from 116 [95% confidence interval (CI) 112-121] to 45 (42-48) per 100 000 women. The proportion of hysterectomy as a first surgical treatment decreased from 38 to 19%, whereas that of laparoscopy increased from 42 to 73% when comparing 1987-1995 with 1996-2012. This nationwide cohort of surgically verified endometriosis showed a decrease in the incidence rate and in the patient age at the time of first diagnosis, even though the proportion of laparoscopy has increased. The number of hysterectomies has decreased. These changes are likely to reflect the evolving diagnostics, increasing awareness of endometriosis, and effective use of medical treatment before surgery. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Analyzing the Facebook Friendship Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSN) during last years acquired a huge and increasing popularity as one of the most important emerging Web phenomena, deeply modifying the behavior of users and contributing to build a solid substrate of connections and relationships among people using the Web. In this preliminary work paper, our purpose is to analyze Facebook, considering a significant sample of data reflecting relationships among subscribed users. Our goal is to extract, from this platform, relevant ...

  20. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  1. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  2. A new uranium automatic analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyuan; Zhang Lan

    1993-01-01

    A new uranium automatic analyzer based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) principle has been developed. It consists of a multichannel peristaltic pump, an injection valve, a photometric detector, a single-chip microprocessor system and electronic circuit. The new designed multifunctional auto-injection valve can automatically change the injection volume of the sample and the channels so that the determination ranges and items can easily be changed. It also can make the instrument vary the FIA operation modes that it has functions of a universal instrument. A chromatographic column with extractant-containing resin was installed in the manifold of the analyzer for the concentration and separation of trace uranium. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) was used as colour reagent. Uranium was determined in the aqueous solution by adding cetyl-pyridium bromide (CPB). The uranium in the solution in the range 0.02-500 mg · L -1 can be directly determined without any pretreatment. A sample throughput rate of 30-90 h -1 and reproducibility of 1-2% were obtained. The analyzer has been satisfactorily applied to the laboratory and the plant

  3. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  4. Building a Laboratory-Scale Biogas Plant and Verifying its Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleman, Tomáš; Fiala, Jozef; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the process of building a laboratory-scale biogas plant and verifying its functionality. The laboratory-scale prototype was constructed in the Department of Safety and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, of the Slovak University of Technology. The Department has already built a solar laboratory to promote and utilise solar energy, and designed SETUR hydro engine. The laboratory is the next step in the Department's activities in the field of renewable energy sources and biomass. The Department is also involved in the European Union project, where the goal is to upgrade all existed renewable energy sources used in the Department.

  5. Verifying Quality of Service of ARCnet Based ATOMOS Communication System for Integrated Ship Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    point) layer. An important characteristic of the communication system is that the functionality and timing must be verifiable in order to satisfy requirements from classification companies like Lloyds and Norsk Veritas. By including Service Categories, Traffic Descriptors and Quality of Service concepts......As part of the ATOMOS project (Funded by EU, DG VII) a reliable communication system with predictable behaviour has been designed. The selected solution is a network based on redundant ARCnet segments extended with an EN50170 compliant fieldbus based layer on top of an ARCnet SAP (service access...

  6. Verifying Quality of Service of ARCnet Based ATOMOS Communication System for Integrated Ship Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    point) layer. An important characteristic of the communication system is that the functionality and timing must be verifiable in order to satisfy requirements from classification companies like Lloyds and Norsk Veritas. By including Service Categories, Traffic Descriptors and Quality of Service concepts......As part of the ATOMOS project (Funded by EU, DG VII) a reliable communication system with predictable behaviour has been designed. The selected solution is a network based on redundant ARCnet segments extended with an EN50170 compliant fieldbus based layer on top of an ARCnet SAP (service access...

  7. National, Regional and Global Certification Bodies for Polio Eradication: A Framework for Verifying Measles Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblina Datta, S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Reef, Susan; William Schluter, W; Adams, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. RETRANS - A tool to verify the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the competent technical standards (e.g. IEC 880) it is necessary to verify each step in the development process of safety critical software. This holds also for the verification of automatically generated source code. To avoid human errors during this verification step and to limit the cost effort a tool should be used which is developed independently from the development of the code generator. For this purpose ISTec has developed the tool RETRANS which demonstrates the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its underlying specification. (author)

  9. On the safe use of verify-and-record systems in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelantag, W.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Verify-and-record (V and R) systems are being used increasingly, not only for verification, but also for computer aided setup and chart printing. The close intercorrelation between V and R system and treatment routine requires new ideas for quality assurance (QA): pure ''machine checking'' as with treatment units is not sufficient anymore. The level of QA obviously depends on the tasks of the V and R system: the most advanced case of the system being used for computer aided setup and for chart printing is discussed -both are indispensable for an efficient use of V and R systems. Seven propositions are defined to make this not only efficient but safe. (author)

  10. Experimental observation of G banding verifying X-ray workers' chromosome translocation detected by FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanming; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: FISH is the most effective way of detecting chromosome aberration and many factors affect its accuracy. G-banding is used to verify the results of early X-ray workers' chromosome translocation examined by FISH. Methods: The chromosome translocations of early X-ray workers have been analysed by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and G-banding, yields of translocation treated with statistics. Results: The chromosome aberrations frequencies by tow methods are closely related. Conclusion: FISH is a feasible way to analyse chromosome aberrations of X-ray workers and reconstruct dose

  11. Construct a procedure to verify radiation protection for apparatus of industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiem Xuan Long; Trinh Dinh Truong; Dinh Chi Hung; Le Ngoc Hieu

    2013-01-01

    Apparatus for industrial gamma radiography include an exposure container, source guide tube, remote control hand crank assembly and other attached equipment. It is used a lot in inspection and evaluation of projects. In Vietnam, there are now more than 50 companies in radiography field and more than 100 apparatus are being used on the site. Therefore, the verification and evaluation is very necessary and important. This project constructs a procedure to verify a radiation protection for apparatus in the industrial gamma radiography for its application in Vietnam. (author)

  12. Verifying the competition between haloperidol and biperiden in serum albumin through a model based on spectrofluorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz da Silva Fragoso, Viviane; Patrícia de Morais e Coura, Carla; Paulino, Erica Tex; Valdez, Ethel Celene Narvaez; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to apply mathematical-computational modeling to study the interactions of haloperidol (HLP) and biperiden (BPD) with human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin in order to verify the competition of these drugs for binding sites in HSA, using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching data. The association constants estimated for HPD-HSA was 2.17(±0.05) × 107 M-1, BPD-HSA was 2.01(±0.03) × 108 M-1 at 37 °C. Results have shown that drugs do not compete for the same binding sites in albumin.

  13. A new (k,n verifiable secret image sharing scheme (VSISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Nag

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new (k,n verifiable secret image sharing scheme (VSISS is proposed in which third order LFSR (linear-feedback shift register-based public key cryptosystem is applied for the cheating prevention and preview before decryption. In the proposed scheme the secret image is first partitioned into several non-overlapping blocks of k pixels. Every k pixel is then used to form m=⌈k/4⌉+1 pixels of one encrypted share. The original secret image can be reconstructed by gathering any k or more encrypted shared images. The experimental results show that the proposed VSISS is an efficient and safe method.

  14. Force10 networks performance in world's first transcontinental 10 gigabit ethernet network verified by Ixia

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Force10 Networks, Inc., today announced that the performance of the Force10 E-Series switch/routers deployed in a transcontinental network has been verified as line-rate 10 GE throughput by Ixia, a leading provider of high-speed, network performance and conformance analysis systems. The network, the world's first transcontinental 10 GE wide area network, consists of a SURFnet OC-192 lambda between Geneva and the StarLight facility in Chicago via Amsterdam and another OC-192 lambda between this same facility in Chicago and Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada provided by CANARIE and ORANO (1/2 page).

  15. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  16. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  17. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  18. The security analyzer, a security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.; Carlson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to characterize a nuclear facility and measure the strengths and weaknesses of the physical protection system. It utilizes the artificial intelligence capabilities available in the prolog programming language to probe a facility's defenses and find potential attack paths that meet designated search criteria. As sensors or barriers become inactive due to maintenance, failure, or inclement weather conditions, the protection system can rapidly be reanalyzed to discover weaknesses that would need to be strengthened by alternative means. Conversely, proposed upgrades and enhancements can be easily entered into the database and their effect measured against a variety of potential adversary attacks. Thus the security analyzer is a tool that aids the protection planner as well as the protection operations staff

  19. Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution

  20. MUSE: An Efficient and Accurate Verifiable Privacy-Preserving Multikeyword Text Search over Encrypted Cloud Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of cloud computing, services outsourcing in clouds has become a popular business model. However, due to the fact that data storage and computing are completely outsourced to the cloud service provider, sensitive data of data owners is exposed, which could bring serious privacy disclosure. In addition, some unexpected events, such as software bugs and hardware failure, could cause incomplete or incorrect results returned from clouds. In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate verifiable privacy-preserving multikeyword text search over encrypted cloud data based on hierarchical agglomerative clustering, which is named MUSE. In order to improve the efficiency of text searching, we proposed a novel index structure, HAC-tree, which is based on a hierarchical agglomerative clustering method and tends to gather the high-relevance documents in clusters. Based on the HAC-tree, a noncandidate pruning depth-first search algorithm is proposed, which can filter the unqualified subtrees and thus accelerate the search process. The secure inner product algorithm is used to encrypted the HAC-tree index and the query vector. Meanwhile, a completeness verification algorithm is given to verify search results. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing works, DMRS and MRSE-HCI, in efficiency and accuracy, respectively.